Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 58.1. Taxation
10/1/2020

Article 10. Taxation of Corporations.

§ 58.1-400. Imposition of tax.

A tax at the rate of six percent is hereby annually imposed on the Virginia taxable income for each taxable year of every corporation organized under the laws of the Commonwealth and every foreign corporation having income from Virginia sources.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.03, 58-151.031; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, cc. 310, 563; 1978, cc. 159, 796; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-400.1. Minimum tax on telecommunications companies.

A. A telecommunications company that is incorporated shall be subject to a minimum tax, instead of the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400, at the applicable rate on its gross receipts for the calendar year which ends during the taxable year if the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 is less than the minimum tax imposed by this section. A telecommunications company that is organized as a limited liability company, partnership, corporation that has made an election under subchapter S of the Internal Revenue Code, or other entity treated as a pass-through entity shall be subject to the minimum tax in the manner prescribed by regulation.

The minimum tax shall be imposed at the rate of 0.5 percent of gross receipts.

B. In the case of an income tax return for a period of less than twelve months, the minimum tax shall be based on the gross receipts for the calendar year which ends during the taxable period or, if none, the most recent calendar year which ended before the taxable period. The minimum tax shall be prorated by the number of months in the taxable period.

C. The State Corporation Commission shall certify to the Department for each tax year as defined in § 58.1-2600 the name, address, and gross receipts for each telecommunications company. The Commission shall mail or otherwise deliver a copy of the certification to each affected telecommunications company.

D. The following words and terms, when used in this section, shall have the following meanings:

"Gross receipts" means all revenue from business done within the Commonwealth, including the proportionate part of interstate revenue attributable to the Commonwealth if such inclusion will result in annual gross receipts exceeding $5 million, with the following deductions:

1. Revenue billed on behalf of another such telephone company or person to the extent such revenues are later paid over to or settled with that company or person; and

2. Revenues received from a telecommunications company, or from a telephone utility company providing interstate communications service, for providing to the company any of the following: (i) unbundled network facilities, (ii) completion, origination or interconnection of telephone calls with the taxpayer's network, (iii) transport of telephone calls over taxpayer's network, or (iv) taxpayer's telephone services for resale.

"Telecommunications company" means a telephone company or other person holding a certificate of convenience and necessity granted by the State Corporation Commission authorizing telephone service; or a person authorized by the Federal Communications Commission to provide commercial mobile service as defined in § 332(d)(1) of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, where such service includes cellular mobile radio communications services or broadband personal communications services; or a person holding a certificate issued pursuant to § 214 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, authorizing domestic telephone service and belonging to an affiliated group including a person holding a certificate of convenience and necessity granted by the State Corporation Commission authorizing telephone service; or a telegraph company or other person operating the apparatus necessary to communicate by telegraph. The term "affiliated group" shall have the meaning given in § 58.1-3700.1.

1988, c. 899; 1995, c. 507; 1998, c. 897; 2000, c. 368; 2009, cc. 37, 152.

§ 58.1-400.2. Taxation of electric suppliers, pipeline distribution companies, gas utilities, and gas suppliers.

A. Any electric supplier, pipeline distribution company, gas utility, or gas supplier that is subject to income tax pursuant to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, except those organized as cooperatives and exempt from federal taxation under § 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, shall be subject to the tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-400.

B. Any electric supplier that operates as a cooperative and is exempt from income tax pursuant to § 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, shall be subject to tax at the tax rate set forth in § 58.1-400 on all modified net income derived from nonmember sales. Any gas supplier, pipeline distribution company or gas utility which has a taxable year that begins after January 1, 2001, but before January 1, 2002, shall also be subject to the provisions under subsection E.

C. The following words and terms when used in this section shall have the following meanings:

"Electric supplier" means any corporation, cooperative, partnership or other business entity providing electric service.

"Electricity" is deemed tangible personal property for purposes of the corporate income tax pursuant to this article.

"Gas supplier" means any person licensed by the State Corporation Commission to engage in the business of selling natural gas.

"Gas utility" has the same meaning as provided in § 56-235.8.

"Members" means those customers of a cooperative who receive allocations of patronage capital from a cooperative.

"Modified net income" means all revenue of a cooperative from the sale of electricity within the Commonwealth with the following subtractions:

1. Revenue attributable to sales of electric power to its members.

2. Nonmember share of all ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year in carrying on the sale of electric power to nonmembers. Such nonmember expenses shall be determined by allocating the amount of such expenses between sales of electricity to members and sales of electricity to nonmembers. Such allocation shall be applicable to all tax credits available to an electric supplier.

"Nonmember" means those customers which are not members.

"Ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred" means ordinary and necessary expenses determined according to generally accepted accounting principles.

"Pipeline distribution company" has the same meaning as provided in § 58.1-2600.

D. The Department of Taxation shall promulgate all regulations necessary to implement the intent of this section. This section shall apply to taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2001.

E. 1. Any gas supplier, pipeline distribution company or gas utility which has a taxable year that begins after January 1, 2001, but before January 1, 2002, shall be required to file an income tax return as if a short taxable year has occurred covering the period beginning January 1, 2001, and ending on the last day prior to the beginning of the gas supplier's, pipeline distribution company's or gas utility's taxable year pursuant to § 58.1-440 A.

2. If a return is required to be made under subdivision 1 of this subsection, federal taxable income will be determined using the methodology prescribed in § 443 of the Internal Revenue Code, as if the gas supplier, pipeline distribution company or gas utility was undergoing a change of annual accounting period, and § 58.1-440 B and the regulations thereunder.

1999, c. 971; 2000, cc. 691, 706.

§ 58.1-400.3. Minimum tax on certain electric suppliers.

A. 1. An electric supplier, except for those organized as cooperatives and exempt from federal taxation under § 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, shall be subject to a minimum tax imposed by this section, instead of the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400 if applicable, net of any income tax credits that may be used to offset such tax, if the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 is less than the minimum tax imposed by this subsection. An electric supplier that is organized as a limited liability, partnership, corporation that has made an election under subchapter S of the Internal Revenue Code, or other entity treated as a pass-through entity shall be subject to the minimum tax in the manner prescribed by regulation.

2. The minimum tax imposed by this subsection shall be equal to 1.45 percent of such electric supplier's gross receipts for the calendar year that ends during the taxable year minus the state's portion of the electric utility consumption tax billed to consumers.

B. 1. An electric supplier that is organized as a cooperative and exempt from federal taxation under § 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, shall be subject to a minimum tax, instead of the tax on modified net income imposed by § 58.1-400.2, if the tax imposed by § 58.1-400.2, net of any credits that may be used to offset such tax, is less than the minimum tax imposed by this subsection.

2. The minimum tax imposed by this subsection shall be equal to 1.45 percent of such electric supplier's gross receipts from sales to nonmembers for the calendar year that ends during the taxable year minus the consumption tax collected from nonmembers.

C. In the case of an income tax return for a period of less than 12 months, the minimum tax shall be based on the gross receipts for the calendar year that ends during the taxable period or, if none, the most recent calendar year that ended before the taxable period. The minimum tax shall be prorated by the number of months in the taxable period.

D. The State Corporation Commission shall calculate and certify to the Department for each tax year as defined in § 58.1-2600 the name, address, and minimum tax for each electric supplier. The Commission shall mail or otherwise deliver a copy of the certification to each affected electric supplier.

E. When an electric supplier subject to the tax imposed by this section is one of several affiliated corporations that file a consolidated or combined income tax return, the portion of the affiliated corporations' tax liability that is attributable to the electric supplier shall be computed as follows:

1. Each corporation included in the consolidated or combined return shall recompute its corporate income tax liability, net of any income tax credits, as if it were filing a separate return. The separate income tax liability of the electric supplier shall then be compared to the affiliated corporations' tax liability, net of any income tax credits, indicated on the consolidated or combined return. For purposes of this section, the lesser amount shall be deemed to be the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400 and attributable to the electric supplier.

2. a. If such corporate income tax amount is less than the minimum tax of the electric supplier as calculated pursuant to subsection A, the electric supplier shall be subject to the minimum tax in lieu of the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400.

b. If such corporate income tax amount exceeds the minimum tax of the electric supplier as calculated pursuant to subsection A, the electric supplier shall not owe the minimum tax.

F. The requirements imposed under Article 20 (§ 58.1-500 et seq.) of Chapter 3 of this title regarding the filing of a declaration of estimated income taxes and the payment of such estimated taxes, shall be applicable to electric suppliers regardless of whether such taxpayer expects to be subject to the minimum tax imposed herein or to the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400.

For purposes of determining the applicability of the exceptions under which the addition to the tax for the underpayment of any installment of estimated taxes shall not be imposed, it shall be irrelevant whether the tax shown on the return for the preceding taxable year is the corporate income tax or the minimum tax.

G. To the extent that a taxpayer is subject to the minimum tax imposed under this section, there shall be allowed a credit against the separate, combined, or consolidated corporate income tax for the total amount of minimum tax paid by the electric supplier in all previous years that is in excess of the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 on the electric supplier for such years.

H. 1. To the extent an electric supplier or its parent company has remitted estimated income tax payments in excess of its corporate income tax liability for the taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2001, but before January 1, 2004, such overpayments shall only be utilized to offset any corporate income tax liabilities incurred pursuant to § 58.1-400 for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004, and shall not be claimed as a refund of overpaid taxes, except as provided in subdivision 2 of this subsection. For the purposes of this subsection, estimated income tax payments shall include any overpayments from a prior taxable year carried forward as an estimated payment to be credited towards a future tax liability.

2. If an electric supplier has had a corporate income tax liability of greater than $0 for each taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2001, but before January 1, 2003, then such electric supplier may claim a refund of any estimated income tax payments in excess of their taxable year 2003 corporate income tax liability.

I. Every electric supplier which owes the minimum tax imposed by this section shall remit such tax payment to the Department of Taxation.

J. Notwithstanding any of the foregoing provisions, an electric supplier may not adjust capped rates pursuant to § 56-582 of the Code of Virginia on any portion of the minimum tax due to the Commonwealth.

K. The following words and terms, for purposes of this section, shall have the following meanings:

"Consumption tax" means the state's portion of the electric utility consumption tax billed pursuant to Chapter 29 (§ 58.1-2900 et seq.) of this title, for which the electric supplier is defined as the "service provider" pursuant to § 58.1-2901 less any amounts billed on behalf of utilities owned and operated by municipalities.

"Electric supplier" means an incumbent electric utility in the Commonwealth that, prior to July 1, 1999, supplied electric energy to retail customers located in an exclusive service territory established by the State Corporation Commission.

"Gross receipts" has the same meaning as defined in § 58.1-2600 less receipts from sales to federal, state and local governments for their own use.

"Nonmember" has the same meaning as defined in § 58.1-400.2.

2004, c. 716; 2009, cc. 37, 152.

§ 58.1-400.4. Minimum tax on home service contract providers.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Collected provider fees" means provider fees collected on home service contracts issued to a resident of the Commonwealth.

"Home service contract" means the same as that term is defined in § 59.1-434.1.

"Provider" means the same as that term is defined in § 59.1-434.1.

"Provider fee" means the consideration paid for a home service contract issued to a resident of the Commonwealth.

B. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2018, a provider shall be subject to a minimum tax instead of the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400, if applicable, net any income tax credits that may be used to offset such tax, if the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 is less than the minimum tax imposed by this subsection. The minimum tax imposed by this subsection shall be equal to 2.25 percent of such provider's collected provider fees.

C. In the case of an income tax return for a period of less than 12 months, the minimum tax shall be based on the collected provider fees for the calendar year that ends during the taxable period or, if none, the most recent calendar year that ended before the taxable period. The minimum tax shall be prorated by the number of months in the taxable period.

D. For purposes of the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400, a provider's collected provider fees shall be considered sales in the Commonwealth when determining such provider's sales factor pursuant to § 58.1-414.

E. When a provider that is subject to the tax imposed by this section is one of several affiliated corporations that file a consolidated or combined income tax return, the portion of the affiliated corporations' tax liability that is attributable to the provider shall be computed as follows:

1. Each corporation included in the consolidated or combined return shall recompute its corporate income tax liability, net of any income tax credits, as if it were filing a separate return. The separate income tax liability of the provider shall then be compared to the affiliated corporation's tax liability, net of any income tax credits, indicated on the consolidated or combined return. For purposes of this section, the lesser amount shall be deemed to be the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400 and attributable to the provider.

2. If such corporate income tax amount is less than the minimum tax of the provider as calculated pursuant to subsection B, the provider shall be subject to the minimum tax in lieu of the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400.

3. If such corporate income tax amount exceeds the minimum tax of the provider as calculated pursuant to subsection B, the provider shall not owe the minimum tax.

F. The requirements imposed under Article 20 (§ 58.1-500 et seq.) of Chapter 3 regarding the filing of a declaration of estimated income taxes and the payment of such estimated taxes shall be applicable to a provider regardless of whether such taxpayer expects to be subject to the minimum tax imposed herein or to the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400.

For purposes of determining the applicability of the exceptions under which the addition to the tax for the underpayment of any installment of estimated taxes shall not be imposed, it shall be irrelevant whether the tax shown on the return for the preceding taxable year is the corporate income tax or the minimum tax.

G. Every provider that owes the minimum tax imposed by this section shall remit such tax payment to the Department of Taxation.

H. The minimum tax imposed by this section on providers is in lieu of all other state and local license fees or license taxes on providers and home service contracts.

I. The minimum tax imposed by this section shall:

1. Apply to (i) any entity that immediately prior to January 1, 2018, was licensed as a provider under former Article 2 (§ 38.2-2617 et seq.) of Chapter 26 of Title 38.2 and that continues to act as a provider on and after January 1, 2018, and (ii) any entity that registers to sell home service contracts under Chapter 33.1 (§ 59.1-434.1 et seq.) of Title 59.1 on or after January 1, 2018; and

2. Not apply to any entity that was exempt from the provisions of former Article 2 (§ 38.2-2617 et seq.) of Chapter 26 of Title 38.2 immediately prior to January 1, 2018.

J. Notwithstanding § 58.1-3 or any other provision of law, the Department of Taxation and the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services may exchange information regarding providers for purposes of enforcing the provisions of Chapter 33.1 (§ 59.1-434.1 et seq.) of Title 59.1.

2017, c. 727.

§ 58.1-401. Exemptions and exclusions.

No tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-400, 58.1-400.1 or 58.1-400.2 is imposed on:

1. A public service corporation to the extent such corporation is subject to the license tax on gross receipts contained in Chapter 26 (§ 58.1-2600 et seq.) of this title;

2. Insurance companies to the extent such company is subject to the license tax on gross premiums under Chapter 25 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.) of this title and reciprocal or interinsurance exchanges which pay a premium tax to the Commonwealth as provided by law;

3. State and national banks, banking associations and trust companies to the extent such companies are subject to the bank franchise tax on net capital;

3a. Credit unions organized and conducted as such under the laws of the Commonwealth or under the laws of the United States;

4. Electing small business corporations (S corporations);

5. Religious, educational, benevolent and other corporations not organized or conducted for pecuniary profit which by reason of their purposes or activities are exempt from income tax under the laws of the United States, except those organizations which have unrelated business income or other taxable income under such laws, except as provided in § 58.1-400.2;

6. Telephone companies chartered in the Commonwealth which are exclusively a local mutual association and are not designated to accumulate profits for the benefit of, or to pay dividends to, the stockholders or members thereof;

7. A corporation that has contracted with a commercial printer for printing and that is not otherwise taxable shall not become taxable by reason of: (i) the ownership or leasing by that corporation of tangible personal property located at the Virginia premises of the commercial printer and used solely in connection with the printing contract with such person; (ii) the sale by that corporation at another location of property of any kind printed at and shipped or distributed from the Virginia premises of the commercial printer; (iii) the activities in connection with the printing contract with such person of any kind performed by or on behalf of that corporation at the Virginia premises of the commercial printer; and (iv) the activities in connection with the printing contract with such person performed by the commercial printer for or on behalf of that corporation;

8. Foreign sales corporations (FSC) and any income attributable to an FSC under the rules relating to the taxation of an FSC in Part III, Subpart C of the Internal Revenue Code (§ 921 et seq.) and the regulations thereunder; and

9. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, domestic international sales corporations (DISC) under the rules relating to the taxation of a DISC in Part IV, Subpart A of the Internal Revenue Code (§ 991 et seq.) and the regulations thereunder.

Code 1950, § 58-151.03; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 310; 1978, cc. 159, 796; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 1985, c. 221; 1987, c. 484; 1988, cc. 581, 899; 1995, cc. 422, 472; 1999, c. 971; 2014, cc. 26, 186.

§ 58.1-402. Virginia taxable income.

A. For purposes of this article, Virginia taxable income for a taxable year means the federal taxable income and any other income taxable to the corporation under federal law for such year of a corporation adjusted as provided in subsections B, C, D, E, and G.

For a regulated investment company and a real estate investment trust, such term means the "investment company taxable income" and "real estate investment trust taxable income," respectively, to which shall be added in each case any amount of capital gains and any other income taxable to the corporation under federal law which shall be further adjusted as provided in subsections B, C, D, E, and G.

B. There shall be added to the extent excluded from federal taxable income:

1. Interest, less related expenses to the extent not deducted in determining federal taxable income, on obligations of any state other than Virginia, or of a political subdivision of any such other state unless created by compact or agreement to which the Commonwealth is a party;

2. Interest or dividends, less related expenses to the extent not deducted in determining federal taxable income, on obligations or securities of any authority, commission or instrumentality of the United States, which the laws of the United States exempt from federal income tax but not from state income taxes;

3. [Repealed.]

4. The amount of any net income taxes and other taxes, including franchise and excise taxes, which are based on, measured by, or computed with reference to net income, imposed by the Commonwealth or any other taxing jurisdiction, to the extent deducted in determining federal taxable income;

5. Unrelated business taxable income as defined by § 512 of the Internal Revenue Code;

6. [Repealed.]

7. The amount required to be included in income for the purpose of computing the partial tax on an accumulation distribution pursuant to § 667 of the Internal Revenue Code;

8. a. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004, the amount of any intangible expenses and costs directly or indirectly paid, accrued, or incurred to, or in connection directly or indirectly with one or more direct or indirect transactions with one or more related members to the extent such expenses and costs were deductible or deducted in computing federal taxable income for Virginia purposes. This addition shall not be required for any portion of the intangible expenses and costs if one of the following applies:

(1) The corresponding item of income received by the related member is subject to a tax based on or measured by net income or capital imposed by Virginia, another state, or a foreign government that has entered into a comprehensive tax treaty with the United States government;

(2) The related member derives at least one-third of its gross revenues from the licensing of intangible property to parties who are not related members, and the transaction giving rise to the expenses and costs between the corporation and the related member was made at rates and terms comparable to the rates and terms of agreements that the related member has entered into with parties who are not related members for the licensing of intangible property; or

(3) The corporation can establish to the satisfaction of the Tax Commissioner that the intangible expenses and costs meet both of the following: (i) the related member during the same taxable year directly or indirectly paid, accrued or incurred such portion to a person who is not a related member, and (ii) the transaction giving rise to the intangible expenses and costs between the corporation and the related member did not have as a principal purpose the avoidance of any portion of the tax due under this chapter.

b. A corporation required to add to its federal taxable income intangible expenses and costs pursuant to subdivision a may petition the Tax Commissioner, after filing the related income tax return for the taxable year and remitting to the Tax Commissioner all taxes, penalties, and interest due under this article for such taxable year including tax upon any amount of intangible expenses and costs required to be added to federal taxable income pursuant to subdivision a, to consider evidence relating to the transaction or transactions between the corporation and a related member or members that resulted in the corporation's taxable income being increased, as required under subdivision a, for such intangible expenses and costs.

If the corporation can demonstrate to the Tax Commissioner's sole satisfaction, by clear and convincing evidence, that the transaction or transactions between the corporation and a related member or members resulting in such increase in taxable income pursuant to subdivision a had a valid business purpose other than the avoidance or reduction of the tax due under this chapter, the Tax Commissioner shall permit the corporation to file an amended return. For purposes of such amended return, the requirements of subdivision a shall not apply to any transaction for which the Tax Commissioner is satisfied (and has identified) that the transaction had a valid business purpose other than the avoidance or reduction of the tax due under this chapter. Such amended return shall be filed by the corporation within one year of the written permission granted by the Tax Commissioner and any refund of the tax imposed under this article shall include interest at a rate equal to the rate of interest established under § 58.1-15 and such interest shall accrue as provided under § 58.1-1833. However, upon the filing of such amended return, any related member of the corporation that subtracted from taxable income amounts received pursuant to subdivision C 21 shall be subject to the tax imposed under this article on that portion of such amounts for which the corporation has filed an amended return pursuant to this subdivision. In addition, for such transactions identified by the Tax Commissioner herein by which he has been satisfied by clear and convincing evidence, the Tax Commissioner may permit the corporation in filing income tax returns for subsequent taxable years to deduct the related intangible expenses and costs without making the adjustment under subdivision a.

The Tax Commissioner may charge a fee for all direct and indirect costs relating to the review of any petition pursuant to this subdivision, to include costs necessary to secure outside experts in evaluating the petition. The Tax Commissioner may condition the review of any petition pursuant to this subdivision upon payment of such fee.

No suit for the purpose of contesting any action of the Tax Commissioner under this subdivision shall be maintained in any court of this Commonwealth.

c. Nothing in subdivision B 8 shall be construed to limit or negate the Department's authority under § 58.1-446;

9. a. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004, the amount of any interest expenses and costs directly or indirectly paid, accrued, or incurred to, or in connection directly or indirectly with one or more direct or indirect transactions with one or more related members to the extent such expenses and costs were deductible or deducted in computing federal taxable income for Virginia purposes. This addition shall not be required for any portion of the interest expenses and costs, if:

(1) The related member has substantial business operations relating to interest-generating activities, in which the related member pays expenses for at least five full-time employees who maintain, manage, defend or are otherwise responsible for operations or administration relating to the interest-generating activities; and

(2) The interest expenses and costs are not directly or indirectly for, related to or in connection with the direct or indirect acquisition, maintenance, management, sale, exchange, or disposition of intangible property; and

(3) The transaction giving rise to the expenses and costs between the corporation and the related member has a valid business purpose other than the avoidance or reduction of taxation and payments between the parties are made at arm's length rates and terms; and

(4) One of the following applies:

(i) The corresponding item of income received by the related member is subject to a tax based on or measured by net income or capital imposed by Virginia, another state, or a foreign government that has entered into a comprehensive tax treaty with the United States government;

(ii) Payments arise pursuant to a pre-existing contract entered into when the parties were not related members provided the payments continue to be made at arm's length rates and terms;

(iii) The related member engages in transactions with parties other than related members that generate revenue in excess of $2 million annually; or

(iv) The transaction giving rise to the interest payments between the corporation and a related member was done at arm's length rates and terms and meets any of the following: (a) the related member uses funds that are borrowed from a party other than a related member or that are paid, incurred or passed-through to a person who is not a related member; (b) the debt is part of a regular and systematic funds management or portfolio investment activity conducted by the related member, whereby the funds of two or more related members are aggregated for the purpose of achieving economies of scale, the internal financing of the active business operations of members, or the benefit of centralized management of funds; (c) financing the expansion of the business operations; or (d) restructuring the debt of related members, or the pass-through of acquisition-related indebtedness to related members.

b. A corporation required to add to its federal taxable income interest expenses and costs pursuant to subdivision a may petition the Tax Commissioner, after filing the related income tax return for the taxable year and remitting to the Tax Commissioner all taxes, penalties, and interest due under this article for such taxable year including tax upon any amount of interest expenses and costs required to be added to federal taxable income pursuant to subdivision a, to consider evidence relating to the transaction or transactions between the corporation and a related member or members that resulted in the corporation's taxable income being increased, as required under subdivision a, for such interest expenses and costs.

If the corporation can demonstrate to the Tax Commissioner's sole satisfaction, by clear and convincing evidence, that the transaction or transactions between the corporation and a related member or members resulting in such increase in taxable income pursuant to subdivision a had a valid business purpose other than the avoidance or reduction of the tax due under this chapter and that the related payments between the parties were made at arm's length rates and terms, the Tax Commissioner shall permit the corporation to file an amended return. For purposes of such amended return, the requirements of subdivision a shall not apply to any transaction for which the Tax Commissioner is satisfied (and has identified) that the transaction had a valid business purpose other than the avoidance or reduction of the tax due under this chapter and that the related payments between the parties were made at arm's length rates and terms. Such amended return shall be filed by the corporation within one year of the written permission granted by the Tax Commissioner and any refund of the tax imposed under this article shall include interest at a rate equal to the rate of interest established under § 58.1-15 and such interest shall accrue as provided under § 58.1-1833. However, upon the filing of such amended return, any related member of the corporation that subtracted from taxable income amounts received pursuant to subdivision C 21 shall be subject to the tax imposed under this article on that portion of such amounts for which the corporation has filed an amended return pursuant to this subdivision. In addition, for such transactions identified by the Tax Commissioner herein by which he has been satisfied by clear and convincing evidence, the Tax Commissioner may permit the corporation in filing income tax returns for subsequent taxable years to deduct the related interest expenses and costs without making the adjustment under subdivision a.

The Tax Commissioner may charge a fee for all direct and indirect costs relating to the review of any petition pursuant to this subdivision, to include costs necessary to secure outside experts in evaluating the petition. The Tax Commissioner may condition the review of any petition pursuant to this subdivision upon payment of such fee.

No suit for the purpose of contesting any action of the Tax Commissioner under this subdivision shall be maintained in any court of this Commonwealth.

c. Nothing in subdivision B 9 shall be construed to limit or negate the Department's authority under § 58.1-446.

d. For purposes of subdivision B 9:

"Arm's-length rates and terms" means that (i) two or more related members enter into a written agreement for the transaction, (ii) such agreement is of a duration and contains payment terms substantially similar to those that the related member would be able to obtain from an unrelated entity, (iii) the interest is at or below the applicable federal rate compounded annually for debt instruments under § 1274(d) of the Internal Revenue Code that was in effect at the time of the agreement, and (iv) the borrower or payor adheres to the payment terms of the agreement governing the transaction or any amendments thereto.

"Valid business purpose" means one or more business purposes that alone or in combination constitute the motivation for some business activity or transaction, which activity or transaction improves, apart from tax effects, the economic position of the taxpayer, as further defined by regulation.

10. a. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2009, the amount of dividends deductible under §§ 561 and 857 of the Internal Revenue Code by a Captive Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT). For purposes of this subdivision, a REIT is a Captive REIT if:

(1) It is not regularly traded on an established securities market;

(2) More than 50 percent of the voting power or value of beneficial interests or shares of which, at any time during the last half of the taxable year, is owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by a single entity that is (i) a corporation or an association taxable as a corporation under the Internal Revenue Code; and (ii) not exempt from federal income tax pursuant to § 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code; and

(3) More than 25 percent of its income consists of rents from real property as defined in § 856(d) of the Internal Revenue Code.

b. For purposes of applying the ownership test of subdivision 10 a (2), the following entities shall not be considered a corporation or an association taxable as a corporation:

(1) Any REIT that is not treated as a Captive REIT;

(2) Any REIT subsidiary under § 856 of the Internal Revenue Code other than a qualified REIT subsidiary of a Captive REIT;

(3) Any Listed Australian Property Trust, or an entity organized as a trust, provided that a Listed Australian Property Trust owns or controls, directly or indirectly, 75 percent or more of the voting or value of the beneficial interests or shares of such trust; and

(4) Any Qualified Foreign Entity.

c. For purposes of subdivision B 10, the constructive ownership rules prescribed under § 318(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, as modified by § 856(d)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code, shall apply in determining the ownership of stock, assets, or net profits of any person.

d. For purposes of subdivision B 10:

"Listed Australian Property Trust" means an Australian unit trust registered as a Management Investment Scheme, pursuant to the Australian Corporations Act, in which the principal class of units is listed on a recognized stock exchange in Australia and is regularly traded on an established securities market.

"Qualified Foreign Entity" means a corporation, trust, association or partnership organized outside the laws of the United States and that satisfies all of the following criteria:

(1) At least 75 percent of the entity's total asset value at the close of its taxable year is represented by real estate assets, as defined in § 856(c)(5)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code, thereby including shares or certificates of beneficial interest in any REIT, cash and cash equivalents, and U.S. Government securities;

(2) The entity is not subject to a tax on amounts distributed to its beneficial owners, or is exempt from entity level tax;

(3) The entity distributes, on an annual basis, at least 85 percent of its taxable income, as computed in the jurisdiction in which it is organized, to the holders of its shares or certificates of beneficial interest;

(4) The shares or certificates of beneficial interest of such entity are regularly traded on an established securities market or, if not so traded, not more than 10 percent of the voting power or value in such entity is held directly, indirectly, or constructively by a single entity or individual; and

(5) The entity is organized in a country that has a tax treaty with the United States.

e. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2016, for purposes of subdivision B 10, any voting power or value of the beneficial interests or shares in a REIT that is held in a segregated asset account of a life insurance corporation as described in § 817 of the Internal Revenue Code shall not be taken into consideration when determining if such REIT is a Captive REIT.

11. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2016, to the extent that tax credit is allowed for the same donation pursuant to § 58.1-439.12:12, any amount claimed as a federal income tax deduction for such donation under § 170 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended or renumbered.

C. There shall be subtracted to the extent included in and not otherwise subtracted from federal taxable income:

1. Income derived from obligations, or on the sale or exchange of obligations, of the United States and on obligations or securities of any authority, commission or instrumentality of the United States to the extent exempt from state income taxes under the laws of the United States including, but not limited to, stocks, bonds, treasury bills, and treasury notes, but not including interest on refunds of federal taxes, interest on equipment purchase contracts, or interest on other normal business transactions.

2. Income derived from obligations, or on the sale or exchange of obligations of this Commonwealth or of any political subdivision or instrumentality of this Commonwealth.

3. Dividends upon stock in any domestic international sales corporation, as defined by § 992 of the Internal Revenue Code, 50 percent or more of the income of which was assessable for the preceding year, or the last year in which such corporation has income, under the provisions of the income tax laws of the Commonwealth.

4. The amount of any refund or credit for overpayment of income taxes imposed by this Commonwealth or any other taxing jurisdiction.

5. Any amount included therein by the operation of the provisions of § 78 of the Internal Revenue Code (foreign dividend gross-up).

6. The amount of wages or salaries eligible for the federal Targeted Jobs Credit which was not deducted for federal purposes on account of the provisions of § 280C(a) of the Internal Revenue Code.

7. Any amount included therein by the operation of § 951 of the Internal Revenue Code (subpart F income) or, for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2018, § 951A of the Internal Revenue Code (Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income).

8. Any amount included therein which is foreign source income as defined in § 58.1-302.

9. [Repealed.]

10. The amount of any dividends received from corporations in which the taxpaying corporation owns 50 percent or more of the voting stock.

11. [Repealed.]

12, 13. [Expired.]

14. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1995, the amount for "qualified research expenses" or "basic research expenses" eligible for deduction for federal purposes, but which were not deducted, on account of the provisions of § 280C(c) of the Internal Revenue Code.

15. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2000, the total amount actually contributed in funds to the Virginia Public School Construction Grants Program and Fund established in Chapter 11.1 (§ 22.1-175.1 et seq.) of Title 22.1.

16. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2000, but before January 1, 2015, the gain derived from the sale or exchange of real property or the sale or exchange of an easement to real property which results in the real property or the easement thereto being devoted to open-space use, as that term is defined in § 58.1-3230, for a period of time not less than 30 years. To the extent a subtraction is taken in accordance with this subdivision, no tax credit under this chapter for donating land for its preservation shall be allowed for three years following the year in which the subtraction is taken.

17. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2001, any amount included therein with respect to § 58.1-440.1.

18. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1999, income received as a result of (i) the "Master Settlement Agreement," as defined in § 3.2-3100; and (ii) the National Tobacco Grower Settlement Trust dated July 19, 1999, by (a) tobacco farming businesses; (b) any business holding a tobacco marketing quota, or tobacco farm acreage allotment, under the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938; or (c) any business having the right to grow tobacco pursuant to such a quota allotment.

19, 20. [Repealed.]

21. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004, any amount of intangible expenses and costs or interest expenses and costs added to the federal taxable income of a corporation pursuant to subdivision B 8 or B 9 shall be subtracted from the federal taxable income of the related member that received such amount if such related member is subject to Virginia income tax on the same amount.

22. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2009, any gain recognized from the sale of launch services to space flight participants, as defined in 49 U.S.C. § 70102, or launch services intended to provide individuals the training or experience of a launch, without performing an actual launch. To qualify for a deduction under this subdivision, launch services must be performed in Virginia or originate from an airport or spaceport in Virginia.

23. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2009, any gain recognized as a result of resupply services contracts for delivering payload, as defined in 49 U.S.C. § 70102, entered into with the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or other space flight entity, as defined in § 8.01-227.8, and launched from an airport or spaceport in Virginia.

24. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2011, any income taxed as a long-term capital gain for federal income tax purposes, or any income taxed as investment services partnership interest income (otherwise known as investment partnership carried interest income) for federal income tax purposes. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, such income must be attributable to an investment in a "qualified business," as defined in § 58.1-339.4, or in any other technology business approved by the Secretary of Administration, provided the business has its principal office or facility in the Commonwealth and less than $3 million in annual revenues in the fiscal year prior to the investment. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, the investment must be made between the dates of April 1, 2010, and June 30, 2020. No taxpayer who has claimed a tax credit for an investment in a "qualified business" under § 58.1-339.4 shall be eligible for the subtraction under this subdivision for an investment in the same business.

25. a. Income, including investment services partnership interest income (otherwise known as investment partnership carried interest income), attributable to an investment in a Virginia venture capital account. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, the investment shall be made on or after January 1, 2018, but before December 31, 2023. No subtraction shall be allowed under this subdivision for an investment in a company that is owned or operated by an affiliate of the taxpayer. No subtraction shall be allowed under this subdivision for a taxpayer who has claimed a subtraction under subdivision C 24 for the same investment.

b. As used in this subdivision 25:

"Qualified portfolio company" means a company that (i) has its principal place of business in the Commonwealth; (ii) has a primary purpose of production, sale, research, or development of a product or service other than the management or investment of capital; and (iii) provides equity in the company to the Virginia venture capital account in exchange for a capital investment. "Qualified portfolio company" does not include a company that is an individual or sole proprietorship.

"Virginia venture capital account" means an investment fund that has been certified by the Department as a Virginia venture capital account. In order to be certified as a Virginia venture capital account, the operator of the investment fund shall register the investment fund with the Department prior to December 31, 2023, (i) indicating that it intends to invest at least 50 percent of the capital committed to its fund in qualified portfolio companies and (ii) providing documentation that it employs at least one investor who has at least four years of professional experience in venture capital investment or substantially equivalent experience. "Substantially equivalent experience" includes, but is not limited to, an undergraduate degree from an accredited college or university in economics, finance, or a similar field of study. The Department may require an investment fund to provide documentation of the investor's training, education, or experience as deemed necessary by the Department to determine substantial equivalency. If the Department determines that the investment fund employs at least one investor with the experience set forth herein, the Department shall certify the investment fund as a Virginia venture capital account at such time as the investment fund actually invests at least 50 percent of the capital committed to its fund in qualified portfolio companies.

26. a. Income attributable to an investment in a Virginia real estate investment trust. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, the investment shall be made on or after January 1, 2019, but before December 31, 2024. No subtraction shall be allowed for an investment in a trust that is managed by an affiliate of the taxpayer. No subtraction shall be allowed under this subdivision for a taxpayer who has claimed a subtraction under subdivision C 24 or 25 for the same investment.

b. As used in this subdivision 26:

"Distressed" means satisfying the criteria applicable to a locality described in subdivision E 2 of § 2.2-115.

"Double distressed" means satisfying the criteria applicable to a locality described in subdivision E 3 of § 2.2-115.

"Virginia real estate investment trust" means a real estate investment trust, as defined in 26 U.S.C. § 856, that has been certified by the Department as a Virginia real estate investment trust. In order to be certified as a Virginia real estate investment trust, the trustee shall register the trust with the Department prior to December 31, 2024, indicating that it intends to invest at least 90 percent of trust funds in Virginia and at least 40 percent of trust funds in real estate in localities that are distressed or double distressed. If the Department determines that the trust satisfies the preceding criteria, the Department shall certify the trust as a Virginia real estate investment trust at such time as the trust actually invests at least 90 percent of trust funds in Virginia and at least 40 percent of trust funds in real estate in localities that are distressed or double distressed.

27. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, any gain recognized from the taking of real property by condemnation proceedings.

D. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2006, there shall be subtracted from federal taxable income contract payments to a producer of quota tobacco or a tobacco quota holder as provided under the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-357) as follows:

1. If the payment is received in installment payments, then the recognized gain, including any gain recognized in taxable year 2005, may be subtracted in the taxable year immediately following the year in which the installment payment is received.

2. If the payment is received in a single payment, then 10 percent of the recognized gain may be subtracted in the taxable year immediately following the year in which the single payment is received. The taxpayer may then deduct an equal amount in each of the nine succeeding taxable years.

E. Adjustments to federal taxable income shall be made to reflect the transitional modifications provided in § 58.1-315.

F. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the income from any disposition of real property which is held by the taxpayer for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the taxpayer's trade or business, as defined in § 453(l)(1)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code, of property made on or after January 1, 2009, may, at the election of the taxpayer, be recognized under the installment method described under § 453 of the Internal Revenue Code, provided that (i) the election relating to the dealer disposition of the property has been made on or before the due date prescribed by law (including extensions) for filing the taxpayer's return of the tax imposed under this chapter for the taxable year in which the disposition occurs, and (ii) the dealer disposition is in accordance with restrictions or conditions established by the Department, which shall be set forth in guidelines developed by the Department. Along with such restrictions or conditions, the guidelines shall also address the recapture of such income under certain circumstances. The development of the guidelines shall be exempt from the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

G. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2018, there shall be deducted to the extent included in and not otherwise subtracted from federal taxable income 20 percent of business interest disallowed as a deduction pursuant to § 163(j) of the Internal Revenue Code. For purposes of this subsection, "business interest" means the same as that term is defined under § 163(j) of the Internal Revenue Code.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.013, 58-151.032; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, cc. 310, 827; 1973, cc. 198, 345, 458; 1974, cc. 320, 682; 1975, cc. 46, 50; 1976, cc. 528, 694, 781; 1977, cc. 297, 612; 1978, cc. 67, 158, 783, 785; 1979, cc. 226, 371, 596; 1981, cc. 402, 414; 1982, c. 633; 1983, cc. 452, 472; 1984, cc. 153, 162, 636, 672, 674, 675, 729; 1985, cc. 221, 465; 1987, c. 484; 1989, cc. 39, 639; 1992, c. 678; 1994, c. 590; 1997, c. 106; 1998, c. 874; 1999, cc. 339, 971; 2000, cc. 419, 1021, 1039; 2003, cc. 3, 58, 209; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2006, c. 214; 2008, cc. 149, 211; 2009, cc. 426, 508, 558; 2010, cc. 802, 830; 2011, c. 851; 2012, cc. 96, 256; 2015, cc. 248, 335, 336; 2016, cc. 304, 342, 391; 2017, c. 762; 2018, c. 821; 2019, cc. 17, 18, 270; 2020, c. 738.

§ 58.1-403. Additional modifications to determine Virginia taxable income for certain corporations.

In addition to the modifications set forth in § 58.1-402 for determining Virginia taxable income for corporations generally, the adjustments set forth in subdivision 1 shall be made to the federal taxable income for savings institutions and as set forth in subdivisions 2 and 3 for railway companies, as set forth in subdivisions 6 and 7 for telecommunications companies, and as set forth in subdivisions 8 and 9 for gas suppliers, pipeline distribution companies and gas utilities.

1. There shall be added the deduction allowed for bad debts. The percentage which would have been used in determining the bad debt deduction under the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-514), shall then be applied to federal taxable income as adjusted under the provisions of § 58.1-402 and the amount so determined subtracted therefrom.

2. There shall be added to federal taxable income any amount which was deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carryover from any taxable year beginning on or before December 31, 1978.

3. Where such railway company would have been allowed to deduct an amount as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1978, but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning prior to January 1, 1979, there shall be added to federal taxable income any amount which was actually deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover and there shall be subtracted from federal taxable income the amount which could have been deducted as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover in arriving at taxable income but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back for federal purposes.

4., 5. [Repealed.]

6. There shall be added to federal taxable income any amount which was deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carryover from any taxable year beginning on or before December 31, 1988.

7. Where such telecommunications company would have been allowed to deduct an amount as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1988, but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning prior to January 1, 1989, there shall be added to federal taxable income any amount which was actually deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover and there shall be subtracted from federal taxable income the amount which could have been deducted as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss in arriving at taxable income but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back for federal purposes.

8. There shall be added to federal taxable income any amount that was deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carryover from any taxable year beginning on or before December 31, 2000.

9. Where such gas supplier, pipeline distribution company or gas utility would have been allowed to deduct an amount as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2000, but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning prior to January 1, 2001, there shall be added to federal taxable income any amount that was actually deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover and there shall be subtracted from federal taxable income the amount that could have been deducted as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss in arriving at taxable income but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back for federal purposes.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.032:1, 58-151.032:2; 1972, c. 310; 1973, c. 198; 1978, c. 784; 1979, c. 226; 1981, c. 402; 1982, c. 633; 1984, cc. 672, 675; 1985, c. 221; 1987, c. 614; 1988, c. 899; 1996, c. 77; 2000, cc. 691, 706.

§ 58.1-404. Reserved.

Reserved.

§ 58.1-405. Corporations transacting or conducting entire business within this Commonwealth.

Except as provided in § 58.1-405.1, if the entire business of the corporation is transacted or conducted within the Commonwealth, the tax imposed by this chapter shall be upon the entire Virginia taxable income of such corporation for each taxable year; however, if such corporation is certified by the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority as an eligible company pursuant to § 58.1-405.1, it may elect to (i) apportion its income between qualified localities, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, and other localities in the Commonwealth, provided that it shall not apportion any of its income to a state other than Virginia and (ii) utilize any modification for which it may be eligible pursuant to the provisions of § 58.1-408, 58.1-417, 58.1-418, 58.1-419, 58.1-420, 58.1-422, 58.1-422.1, or 58.1-422.2, as applicable. The entire business of the corporation shall be deemed to have been transacted or conducted within the Commonwealth if such corporation is not subject in any other state to a net income tax, a franchise tax measured by net income, or a franchise tax for the privilege of doing business.

Code 1950, § 58-151.033; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-405.1. Eligibility of companies for apportionment modification; certification by the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority.

A. For purposes of this section:

"Authority" means the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority.

"Eligible company" means a corporation or pass-through entity, as defined in § 58.1-390.1, that does not have any existing property or payroll in Virginia as of January 1, 2018, and on or after January 1, 2018, but before January 1, 2025, (i) either (a) spends at least $5 million on new capital investment in a qualified locality or qualified localities and creates at least 10 new jobs in a qualified locality or qualified localities or (b) creates at least 50 new jobs in a qualified locality or qualified localities; (ii) is a traded-sector company; and (iii) is certified by the Authority as generating a positive fiscal impact pursuant to subsection B.

"New capital investment" means real property acquired in a qualified locality or qualified localities on or after January 1, 2018, but before January 1, 2025, and any improvements to real property in a qualified locality or qualified localities on or after January 1, 2018, but before January 1, 2025.

"New job" means a permanent, full-time position of indefinite duration that pays at least 150 percent of the minimum wage, as defined in the Virginia Minimum Wage Act (§ 40.1-28.8 et seq.), and that requires a minimum of (i) 35 hours of an employee's time a week for the entire normal year of the eligible company's operations, which normal year shall consist of at least 48 weeks, or (ii) 1,680 hours per year.

"Qualified development site" means real property that is in a locality adjacent to a qualified locality and, before January 1, 2018, either (i) was owned or partly owned by a qualified locality or an industrial development authority of which a qualified locality is a member or (ii) was owned or partly owned by a locality or industrial development authority, was leased to a private party, and was subject to a revenue-sharing agreement providing that a portion of the revenues from the lease would be distributed to a qualified locality. "Qualified development site" does not include real property that is not owned by the Commonwealth or a political subdivision thereof.

"Qualified locality" means (i) the County of Alleghany, Bland, Buchanan, Carroll, Craig, Dickenson, Giles, Grayson, Lee, Page, Russell, Scott, Smyth, Tazewell, Washington, Wise, or Wythe or the City of Bristol, Galax, or Norton; (ii) the County of Amelia, Appomattox, Buckingham, Charlotte, Cumberland, Halifax, Henry, Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, Nottoway, Patrick, Pittsylvania, or Prince Edward or the City of Danville or Martinsville; (iii) the County of Accomack, Caroline, Essex, Gloucester, King and Queen, King William, Lancaster, Mathews, Middlesex, Northampton, Northumberland, Richmond, or Westmoreland; or (iv) the County of Brunswick or Dinwiddie or the City of Petersburg. "Qualified locality" includes a qualified development site.

"Traded-sector company" means a company that directly or indirectly derives more than 50 percent of its revenue from out-of-state sources.

B. 1. The Authority shall determine whether a company will generate a positive fiscal impact based on the following factors: (i) job creation; (ii) private capital investment; and (iii) anticipated additional state and local tax revenue. The Authority also shall consider the additional revenue the Commonwealth likely would expend in and for the localities if the economy in the localities continues to erode. In making its determination, the Authority shall consult with the Department regarding the revenue impact of certifying such company. The Authority shall certify a company only if it determines such company will generate a positive fiscal impact.

2. The Authority shall deny certification to any company if it determines such taxpayer has engaged in a merger, acquisition, similar business combination, name change, change in business form, or other transaction the primary purpose of which is to obtain status as an eligible company.

3. The Authority shall make an annual re-certification according to subdivision B 1, and no company shall remain an eligible company for any taxable year that the Authority does not grant re-certification.

C. Any eligible company may elect to apportion its income pursuant to the provisions of § 58.1-408, 58.1-417, 58.1-418, 58.1-419, 58.1-420, 58.1-422, 58.1-422.1, or 58.1-422.2, as applicable. However, if the entire business of an eligible company is transacted or conducted within the Commonwealth, it shall not apportion its income pursuant to this subsection but may elect to apportion its income pursuant to the provisions of § 58.1-405.

2018, cc. 801, 802; 2019, cc. 262, 263.

§ 58.1-406. Allocation and apportionment of income.

Any corporation having income from business activity which is taxable both within and without the Commonwealth shall allocate and apportion its Virginia taxable income as provided in §§ 58.1-407 through 58.1-420.

Code 1950, § 58-151.035; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1976, c. 436; 1979, c. 371; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-407. How dividends allocated.

Dividends received to the extent included in Virginia taxable income are allocable to the state of commercial domicile of the taxpaying corporation.

Code 1950, § 58-151.037; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-408. What income apportioned and how.

A. The Virginia taxable income of any corporation, except those subject to the provisions of § 58.1-417, 58.1-418, 58.1-419, 58.1-420, 58.1-422, 58.1-422.1, 58.1-422.2, or 58.1-422.3, excluding income allocable under § 58.1-407, shall be apportioned to the Commonwealth by multiplying such income by a fraction, the numerator of which is the property factor plus the payroll factor, plus twice the sales factor, and the denominator of which is four; however, where the sales factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors and where the sales factor exists but the payroll factor or the property factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors plus one.

B. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, may subtract from the numerator of the corresponding factor the value of its (i) property acquired in any qualified locality or qualified localities, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, on or after January 1, 2018, but before January 1, 2025; (ii) payroll attributable to jobs created on or after January 1, 2018, but before January 1, 2025, in any qualified locality or qualified localities; and (iii) sales in the Commonwealth during the taxable year. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (a) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (b) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

Code 1950, § 58-151.041; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 1999, cc. 158, 186; 2009, c. 821; 2012, cc. 86, 666; 2015, cc. 92, 237; 2018, cc. 801, 802, 807.

§ 58.1-409. Property factor.

The property factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of the corporation's real and tangible personal property owned and used or rented and used in the Commonwealth during the taxable year and the denominator of which is the average value of all the corporation's real and tangible personal property owned and used or rented and used during the taxable year and located everywhere, to the extent that such property is used to produce Virginia taxable income and is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and income therefrom is includable in federal taxable income.

Code 1950, § 58-151.042; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1978, c. 184; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-410. Valuation of property owned or rented.

Property owned by the corporation shall be valued at its original cost plus the cost of additions and improvements. Property rented by the corporation shall be valued at eight times the annual rental rate paid by the corporation. The value of movable tangible personal property used both within and without the Commonwealth shall be included in the numerator to the extent of its utilization in the Commonwealth. The extent of such utilization shall be determined by multiplying the total value of such property by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of days of physical location of the property in the Commonwealth during the taxable period and the denominator of which is the number of days of physical location of the property everywhere during the taxable period. The number of days of physical location of the property may be determined on a statistical basis or by such other reasonable method acceptable to the Department.

Code 1950, § 58-151.043; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-411. Average value of property.

The average value of property shall be determined by averaging the value at the beginning and ending of the taxable year, but the Department may require the averaging of monthly values during the taxable year if reasonably required to reflect properly the average value of the corporation's property.

Code 1950, § 58-151.044; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-412. Payroll factor.

The payroll factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the total amount paid or accrued in the Commonwealth during the tax period by the corporation for compensation, and the denominator of which is the total compensation paid or accrued everywhere during the taxable year, to the extent that such payroll is used to produce Virginia taxable income and is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and income therefrom is includable in federal taxable income.

Code 1950, § 58-151.045; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-413. When compensation deemed paid or accrued in this Commonwealth.

Compensation is paid or accrued in the Commonwealth if:

1. The employee's service is performed entirely within the Commonwealth;

2. The employee's service is performed both within and without the Commonwealth, but the service performed without the Commonwealth is incidental to the employee's service within the Commonwealth; or

3. Some of the service is performed in the Commonwealth; and

a. The base of operations or, if there is no base of operations, the place from which the service is directed or controlled is in the Commonwealth; or

b. The base of operations or the place from which the service is directed or controlled is not in any state in which some part of the service is performed, but the employee's residence is in the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 58-151.046; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-414. Sales factor.

The sales factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the total sales of the corporation in the Commonwealth during the taxable year, and the denominator of which is the total sales of the corporation everywhere during the taxable year, to the extent that such sales are used to produce Virginia taxable income and are effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and income therefrom is includable in federal taxable income.

Code 1950, § 58-151.047; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-415. When sales of tangible personal property deemed in the Commonwealth.

Sales of tangible personal property are in the Commonwealth if such property is received in the Commonwealth by the purchaser. In the case of delivery by common carrier or other means of transportation, the place at which such property is ultimately received after all transportation has been completed shall be considered as the place at which such property is received by the purchaser. Direct delivery in the Commonwealth, other than for purposes of transportation, to a person or firm designated by a purchaser, constitutes delivery to the purchaser in the Commonwealth, and direct delivery outside the Commonwealth to a person or firm designated by the purchaser does not constitute delivery to the purchaser in the Commonwealth, regardless of where title passes, or other conditions of sale.

Code 1950, § 58-151.048; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-416. When certain other sales deemed in the Commonwealth.

A. Sales, other than sales of tangible personal property, are in the Commonwealth if:

1. The income-producing activity is performed in the Commonwealth; or

2. The income-producing activity is performed both in and outside the Commonwealth and a greater proportion of the income-producing activity is performed in the Commonwealth than in any other state, based on costs of performance.

B. For debt buyers, as defined in § 58.1-422.3, sales, other than sales of tangible personal property, are in the Commonwealth if they consist of money recovered on debt that a debt buyer collected from a person who is a resident of the Commonwealth or an entity that has its commercial domicile in the Commonwealth. Such rule shall apply regardless of the location of a debt buyer's business.

C. The taxes under this article on the sales described under subsection B are imposed to the maximum extent permitted under the Constitutions of Virginia and the United States and federal law. For the collection of such taxes on such sales, it is the intent of the General Assembly that the Tax Commissioner and the Department assert the taxpayer's nexus with the Commonwealth to the maximum extent permitted under the Constitutions of Virginia and the United States and federal law.

D. If necessary information is not available to the taxpayer to determine whether a sale other than a sale of tangible personal property is in the Commonwealth pursuant to the provisions of subsections B and C, the taxpayer may estimate the dollar value or portion of such sale in the Commonwealth, provided that the taxpayer can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Tax Commissioner that (i) the estimate has been undertaken in good faith, (ii) the estimate is a reasonable approximation of the dollar value or portion of such sale in the Commonwealth, and (iii) in using an estimate the taxpayer did not have as a principal purpose the avoidance of any tax due under this article. The Department may implement procedures for obtaining its approval to use an estimate. The Department shall adopt remedies and corrective procedures for cases in which the Department has determined that the sourcing rules for sales other than sales of tangible personal property have been abused by the taxpayer, which may include reliance on the location of income-producing activity and direct costs of performance as described in subsection A.

Code 1950, § 58-151.049; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 2018, c. 807.

§ 58.1-417. Motor carriers; apportionment.

A. Motor carriers of property or passengers shall apportion their net apportionable income to this Commonwealth by the use of the ratio of vehicle miles in this Commonwealth to total vehicle miles of the corporation everywhere. For the purposes of this section the words "vehicle miles" in the case of motor carriers of property shall mean miles traveled by vehicles (whether owned or operated by the corporation) hauling property for a charge or traveling on a scheduled route. In the case of motor carriers of passengers the same shall mean miles traveled by vehicles (whether owned or operated by the corporation) carrying passengers for a fare or traveling on a scheduled route.

B. The provisions of subsection A shall not be applicable to a carrier:

1. Which neither owns nor rents real or tangible personal property within this Commonwealth, except vehicles, which has made no pick-ups or deliveries within this Commonwealth, and which has traveled less than 50,000 vehicle miles in this Commonwealth in the taxable year; or

2. Which neither owns nor rents any real or tangible personal property within this Commonwealth, except vehicles, and which makes no more than twelve round trips into this Commonwealth during a taxable year.

The mileage traveled under 50,000 miles or the mileage traveled in such round trips, however, may not represent more than 5 percent of the total miles annually traveled in all states by such carrier.

C. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, may subtract its vehicle miles traveled in any qualified locality or qualified localities, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subsection A. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

Code 1950, § 58-151.050; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 658; 1984, c. 675; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-418. Financial corporations; apportionment.

A. The Virginia taxable income of a financial corporation, as defined herein, excluding income allocable under § 58.1-407, shall be apportioned within and without this Commonwealth in the ratio that the business within this Commonwealth is to the total business of the corporation. Business within this Commonwealth shall be based on cost of performance in the Commonwealth over cost of performance everywhere.

B. "Financial corporation" means any corporation not exempted from the imposition of tax under the provisions of § 58.1-401, which derives more than seventy percent of its gross income from the classes of income enumerated in subdivisions 1 through 4 below, without reference to the state wherein such income is earned, including but not limited to small loan companies, sales finance companies, brokerage companies and investment companies:

1. Fees, commissions, other compensation for financial services rendered;

2. Gross profits from trading in stocks, bonds, or other securities;

3. Interest; and

4. Dividends received to the extent included in Virginia taxable income.

C. In computing the amounts referred to in subdivisions 1 through 4 of subsection B of this section, any amount received by a member of an affiliated group, determined under § 1504(a) of the Internal Revenue Code but without reference to whether any such corporation is an includable corporation under § 1504(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, from another member of such group shall be included only to the extent such amount exceeds expenses of the recipient directly related thereto.

D. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, may subtract the value of its business within any qualified locality or qualified localities, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subsection A. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

Code 1950, § 58-151.050:1; 1976, c. 436; 1979, c. 32; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-419. Construction corporations; apportionment.

A. Construction companies which have elected to report income on the completed contract basis shall apportion income within and without this Commonwealth in the ratio that the business within the Commonwealth is to the total business of the corporation.

B. All other construction corporations not reporting under the completed contract method shall determine Virginia taxable income by reference to §§ 58.1-406 through 58.1-416.

C. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, may subtract the value of its business within any qualified locality or qualified localities, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subsection A. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

Code 1950, § 58-151.050:2; 1976, c. 436; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-420. Railway companies; apportionment.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 58.1-408, railway companies shall determine their net apportionable income to the Commonwealth by multiplying the Virginia taxable income of such company, excluding the classes of income allocable under § 58.1-407, by the use of the ratio of revenue car miles in the Commonwealth to total revenue car miles of the company everywhere. For the purposes of this section, "revenue car mile" in the case of railway carriers of property or passengers means the movement of a unit of loaded car equipment a distance of one mile. The loaded car miles shall be determined in accordance with the Uniform System of Accounts for Railroad Companies of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

B. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, may subtract its revenue car miles traveled in any qualified locality or qualified localities, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subsection A. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.021, 58-151.050:3; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1978, c. 784; 1979, c. 371; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-421. Alternative method of allocation.

If any corporation believes that the method of allocation or apportionment hereinbefore prescribed as administered by the Department has operated or will so operate as to subject it to taxation on a greater portion of its Virginia taxable income than is reasonably attributable to business or sources within this Commonwealth, it shall be entitled to file with the Department a statement of its objections and of such alternative method of allocation or apportionment as it believes to be proper under the circumstances with such detail and proof and within such time as the Department may reasonably prescribe. If the Department concludes that the method of allocation or apportionment theretofore employed is in fact inapplicable or inequitable, it shall redetermine the taxable income by such other method of allocation or apportionment as seems best calculated to assign to the Commonwealth for taxation the portion of the income reasonably attributable to business and sources within the Commonwealth, not exceeding, however, the amount which would be arrived at by application of the statutory rules for allocation or apportionment.

Code 1950, § 58-151.051; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-422. Manufacturing companies; apportionment.

A. For taxable years beginning on or after July 1, 2011, the Virginia taxable income of a manufacturing company, excluding income allocable under § 58.1-407, may be apportioned within and without the Commonwealth as provided in § 58.1-408 or as follows:

1. From July 1, 2011, until July 1, 2013, by multiplying such income by a fraction, the numerator of which is the property factor plus the payroll factor plus triple the sales factor and the denominator of which is five, except when the sales factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors, and when the sales factor exists but the payroll factor or property factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors plus two;

2. From July 1, 2013, until July 1, 2014, by multiplying such income by a fraction, the numerator of which is the property factor plus the payroll factor plus quadruple the sales factor and the denominator of which is six, except when the sales factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors, and when the sales factor exists but the payroll factor or property factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors plus three; and

3. From July 1, 2014, and thereafter, by multiplying such income by the sales factor.

B. If the taxpayer makes one or more of the elections described in subdivision A 1, A 2, or A 3, the taxpayer may not revoke the election for a period of three taxable years.

In addition, the taxpayer shall certify to the Department that the average weekly wage of its full-time employees is greater than the lower of the state or local average weekly wages for the taxpayer's industry.

C. If the average annual number of full-time employees of a manufacturing company for the first three taxable years (in which the manufacturing company used the alternative apportionment set forth in this section) is less than 90 percent of the base year employment, or the average wage of its full-time employees as certified by the taxpayer is not greater than the lower of the state or local average weekly wage, then the Department of Taxation shall assess the manufacturing company with additional taxes pursuant to this article computed as the difference between (i) the taxes that would have been due under the apportionment formula provided under § 58.1-408 for such three taxable years, minus (ii) the taxes due under the alternative apportionment provided under this section for such three taxable years. Interest shall accrue and shall be assessed on such additional taxes at the rate prescribed under § 58.1-15, with such interest accruing from the original due date for filing of the income tax return to the date of payment of such additional taxes.

Such additional taxes and interest are hereby imposed on manufacturing companies using the alternative apportionment set forth in this section.

D. As used in this section, unless the context requires another meaning:

"Base year employment" means the average number of full-time employees employed by the manufacturing company in the Commonwealth in the taxable year that ended immediately prior to the first taxable year in which the manufacturing company used the alternative apportionment set forth in this section.

"Full-time employee" means an employee of a manufacturing company who is employed for an indefinite duration in the Commonwealth for which the standard fringe benefits are paid by the manufacturing company, for which employment requires a minimum of either (i) 35 hours of an employee's time per week for the entire normal year of such manufacturing company's operations, which "normal year" shall consist of at least 48 weeks, or (ii) 1,680 hours per year.

"Manufacturing company" means a domestic or foreign corporation primarily engaged in activities that, in accordance with the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS), United States Manual, United States Office of Management and Budget, 1997 Edition, would be included in Sector 11, 31, 32, or 33.

E. The General Assembly of Virginia finds that job creation is essential to the continued fiscal health of the Commonwealth. In this modern economy, states often compete for quality manufacturing jobs. Accordingly, the provisions of this section relating to manufacturing companies that increase their employment in Virginia are integral to the purpose of the election allowed pursuant to this section. If any provision of this section is for any reason held to be invalid or unconstitutional by the decision of a court of competent jurisdiction, that provision shall not be deemed severable.

F. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, that elects to apportion its income pursuant to subsection A may subtract the value of its sales in the Commonwealth during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subdivision A 3. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

2009, c. 821; 2012, c. 427; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-422.1. Retail companies; apportionment.

A. For taxable years beginning on or after July 1, 2012, the Virginia taxable income of a retail company, excluding income allocable under § 58.1-407, shall be apportioned within and without the Commonwealth as follows:

1. From July 1, 2012, until July 1, 2014, by multiplying such income by a fraction, the numerator of which is the property factor plus the payroll factor plus triple the sales factor and the denominator of which is five, except that when the sales factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors, and when the sales factor exists but the payroll factor or property factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors plus two;

2. From July 1, 2014, until July 1, 2015, by multiplying such income by a fraction, the numerator of which is the property factor plus the payroll factor plus quadruple the sales factor and the denominator of which is six, except that when the sales factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors, and when the sales factor exists but the payroll factor or property factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors plus three; and

3. From July 1, 2015, and thereafter, by multiplying such income by the sales factor.

B. As used in this section, "retail company" means a domestic or foreign corporation primarily engaged in activities that, in accordance with the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), United States Manual, United States Office of Management and Budget, 1997 Edition, would be included in Sectors 44-45.

C. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, may subtract the value of its sales in the Commonwealth during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subdivision A 3. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

2012, cc. 86, 666; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-422.2. Apportionment; taxpayers with enterprise data center operations.

A. For taxable years beginning on or after July 1, 2016, the Virginia taxable income of taxpayers with enterprise data center operations, excluding income allocable under § 58.1-407, shall be apportioned within and without the Commonwealth as follows:

1. From July 1, 2016, until July 1, 2017, by multiplying such income by a fraction, the numerator of which is the property factor plus the payroll factor plus quadruple the sales factor and the denominator of which is six, except that when the sales factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors, and when the sales factor exists but the payroll factor or property factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors plus three; and

2. From July 1, 2017, and thereafter, by multiplying such income by the sales factor.

B. As used in this section:

"Enterprise data center operations" means operations that (i) physically house information technology equipment such as servers, switches, routers, data storage devices, or related equipment; (ii) manage and process digital data and information to provide application services or management for data processing, such as web hosting, Internet, intranet, telecommunication, and information technology; (iii) are developed and owned by the taxpayer; and (iv) are operated by the taxpayer or any of its affiliates substantially for their own use.

C. The provisions of this section requiring an apportionment formula for taxpayers with enterprise data center operations shall apply only to taxpayers that have entered into a memorandum of understanding with the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority on or after July 1, 2015, to make a new capital investment of at least $150 million in an enterprise data center in the Commonwealth on or after such date. The apportionment formula under this section shall apply to such taxpayers beginning with the taxable year for which the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority provides a written certification to the taxpayer that the new capital investment has been completed.

D. The General Assembly of Virginia finds that capital investment in data centers is essential to the continued fiscal health of the Commonwealth. In this modern economy, states often compete for quality data centers. Accordingly, the provisions of subsection C relating to capital investment in enterprise data centers are integral to the purpose of this section. If any provision of this section is for any reason held to be invalid or unconstitutional by the decision of a court of competent jurisdiction, that provision shall not be deemed severable.

E. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, that apportions its income pursuant to this section may subtract the value of its sales in the Commonwealth during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subdivision A 2. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

2015, cc. 92, 237; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-422.3. Debt buyers; apportionment.

A. As used in this section, "debt buyer" means an entity and its affiliated entities that purchase nonperforming loans from unaffiliated commercial entities that (i) are in default for at least 120 days or (ii) are in bankruptcy proceedings. "Debt buyer" does not include an entity that provides debt collection services for unaffiliated entities.

B. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, the Virginia taxable income of a debt buyer, excluding income allocable under § 58.1-407, shall be apportioned within and without the Commonwealth by multiplying such income by the sales factor. For debt buyers, only money recovered on debt that a debt buyer collected from a person who is a resident of the Commonwealth or an entity that has its commercial domicile in the Commonwealth shall be apportioned to the Commonwealth for income tax purposes.

2018, c. 807.

§ 58.1-423. Income tax paid by commercial spaceflight entities.

A. Beginning July 1, 2011, and for fiscal years 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016, the portion of the Virginia income tax net revenue generated by qualified corporations or limited liability companies that is attributable to the sale of commercial human spaceflights or commercial spaceflight training (regardless of point of sale, or where space flight takes place), or is incidental to the sale of commercial human spaceflights, shall be transferred to the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, established pursuant to Article 2 (§ 2.2-2201 et seq.) of Chapter 22 of Title 2.2. The Tax Commissioner shall make a written certification to the Comptroller within 15 days of the close of each calendar quarter providing an estimate of the portion of the Virginia income tax net revenue generated during the calendar quarter by the qualified corporations or limited liability companies that is attributable to the sale of commercial human spaceflights or commercial spaceflight training or is incidental to the sale of commercial human spaceflights. Not later than 30 days after the close of each quarter, the Comptroller shall transfer to the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority an amount from the general fund that is equal to the estimate provided by the Tax Commissioner.

B. For purposes of this section, a qualified corporation or limited liability company is a corporation or limited liability company that engages in commercial human spaceflights or commercial spaceflight training.

2011, c. 563; 2012, cc. 779, 817; 2015, c. 260.

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