Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 6.2. Financial Institutions and Services
5/22/2019

Chapter 15. Consumer Finance Companies.

§ 6.2-1500. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Consumer finance company" means a person engaged in the business of making loans to individuals for personal, family, household, or other nonbusiness purposes.

"License" means a single license issued under this chapter with respect to a single place of business.

"Licensee" means a consumer finance company to which one or more licenses have been issued.

"Principal" means any person who, directly or indirectly, owns or controls (i) 10 percent or more of the outstanding stock of a stock corporation or (ii) a 10 percent or greater interest in another person.

Code 1950, § 6-275; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-245; 1978, c. 14; 2005, c. 63; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1501. Compliance with chapter; license required; attempts to evade application of chapter.

A. No person shall engage in the business of making loans to individuals for personal, family, household, or other nonbusiness purposes, and charge, contract for, or receive, directly or indirectly, on or in connection with any loan interest, charges, compensation, consideration, or expense that in the aggregate is greater than the interest permitted by § 6.2-303, except as provided in and authorized by this chapter or Chapter 22 (§ 6.2-2200 et seq.) and without first having obtained a license from the Commission.

B. Subject to subdivision C 3 and subsection C of § 6.2-1524, the prohibition in subsection A shall not be construed to prevent any person, other than a licensee, from:

1. Making a loan in accordance with Chapter 18 (§ 6.2-1800 et seq.);

2. Making a mortgage loan pursuant to §§ 6.2-325 and 6.2-326 or §§ 6.2-327 and 6.2-328 in any principal amount; or

3. Extending credit as described in § 6.2-312 in any amount.

C. The provisions of subsection A shall apply to any person who seeks to evade its application by any device, subterfuge, or pretense whatsoever, including:

1. The loan, forbearance, use, or sale of (i) credit, as guarantor, surety, endorser, comaker, or otherwise; (ii) money; (iii) goods; or (iv) things in action;

2. The use of collateral or related sales or purchases of goods or services, or agreements to sell or purchase, whether real or pretended; receiving or charging compensation for goods or services, whether or not sold, delivered, or provided; and

3. The real or pretended negotiation, arrangement, or procurement of a loan through any use or activity of a third person, whether real or fictitious.

Code 1950, §§ 6-279, 6-281; 1956, c. 71; 1966, c. 584, §§ 6.1-249, 6.1-251; 1968, c. 489; 1974, c. 371; 1986, c. 502; 1995, c. 2; 1998, c. 9; 2001, c. 308; 2002, c. 897; 2010, cc. 477, 794.

§ 6.2-1502. Certain persons ineligible as licensees; exception for subsidiaries.

A. No person doing business under the authority of any law of the Commonwealth or of the United States relating to banks, savings institutions, trust companies, building and loan associations, industrial loan associations, or credit unions shall be eligible for licensure under this chapter.

B. Nothing contained in subsection A or any other section of this title shall be construed to prevent a subsidiary of a bank or savings institution from becoming a licensee under this chapter. A licensee that is a subsidiary or affiliate of a bank or savings institution shall be governed by the provisions of this chapter, and all regulations adopted hereunder, as fully as if such licensee were not such a subsidiary or affiliate.

Code 1950, § 6-280; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-250; 1996, c. 16; 2000, c. 192; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1503. Scope of chapter.

This chapter shall not apply to:

1. Any business transacted by any person under the authority of and as permitted by any law of the Commonwealth or of the United States relating to banks, savings institutions, trust companies, building and loan associations, industrial loan associations, or credit unions;

2. Any bona fide pawnbroking business transacted under a pawnbroker's license; or

3. Any person operating in accordance with the specific provisions of any other provision of this title currently in effect or hereafter enacted.

Code 1950, § 6-280; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-250; 1996, c. 16; 2000, c. 192; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1504. Restrictions on name.

No licensee shall use a firm, corporate, or assumed name that contains any of the words "savings," "trust," "trustee," "bank," "banker," "banking," "investment," "thrift," "building," or "industrial."

Code 1950, § 6-283; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-253; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1505. Application for license; application fee.

A. Application for a license to make loans under this chapter shall be in writing, under oath, and in the form prescribed by the Commission.

B. The application shall contain:

1. The name and address of the applicant;

2. If the applicant is a partnership or association, the name and address of each partner or member of the partnership or association;

3. If the applicant is a corporation or limited liability company, the name and address of each senior officer, director, member, registered agent, and principal;

4. If the applicant is a business trust, the name and address of each trustee and beneficiary;

5. The address, with street and number, if any, where the business is to be conducted; and

6. Such other information as may be required by the Commission.

C. The application shall be accompanied by payment of an application fee of $500.

Code 1950, § 6-284; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-254; 1976, c. 658; 1981, c. 452; 1989, c. 239; 2005, c. 63; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1506. Investigation of application.

A. Upon the filing of the application and the payment of the application fee, the Commission shall make such investigation relative to the application and the requirements provided for in § 6.2-1507 as it deems appropriate.

B. The Commission shall grant or deny each application for a license within 60 days from the date the application, together with all required information and the application fee, is filed unless the period is extended by order of the Commission that recites the reasons for the extension.

Code 1950, § 6-285; 1956, c. 71; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-255; 1989, c. 239; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1507. Issuance of license.

A. The Commission shall issue and deliver to the applicant a license to make loans in accordance with the provisions of this chapter at the location in the Commonwealth specified in the application if it finds:

1. That the financial responsibility, experience, character and general fitness of the applicant and its members, senior officers, directors, and principals are such as to command the confidence of the public and to warrant belief that this business will be operated lawfully, honestly, fairly and efficiently within the purpose of this chapter;

2. That the applicant has available, for the operation of the business at the specified location, liquid assets of at least $50,000 if the specified location is in a locality with a population of more than 20,000, or of at least $25,000 if the location is not in a locality with a population of more than 20,000; and

3. That the applicant has complied with all of the prerequisites to obtaining the license prescribed by § 6.2-1505.

If the Commission fails to make the findings required by subdivisions 1, 2, and 3, it shall deny the application for a license.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, if the applicant has an existing license at another location in the Commonwealth, the Commission shall issue and deliver to the applicant a license to make loans in accordance with the provisions of this chapter at the location specified in the application if it finds:

1. That the general fitness of the licensee is such as to command the confidence of the public and to warrant belief that this business will be operated lawfully, honestly, fairly and efficiently within the purpose of this chapter; and

2. That the applicant has complied with all of the prerequisites to obtaining the license prescribed by § 6.2-1505.

If the Commission fails to make the findings required by subdivisions 1 and 2, it shall deny the application for a license.

C. If the Commission denies an application for a license, it shall notify the applicant of the denial. The Commission shall retain the application fee.

Code 1950, § 6-287; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-257; 1982, c. 79, § 6.1-256.1; 1995, c. 2; 2005, c. 63; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1508. Notices to Commission.

A. After receiving approval to conduct business at an additional location pursuant to subsection B of § 6.2-1507 or providing notice of relocation pursuant to § 6.2-1519, a licensee shall give written notice to the Commissioner within 10 days of the commencement of business at the additional location or relocated place of business.

B. Every licensee shall notify the Commissioner, in writing, within 10 days of (i) the closing of any business location, and (ii) the name, address and position of each new senior officer, member, partner, or director. The licensee also shall provide such other information with respect to any such event as the Commissioner may reasonably require.

1982, c. 79, § 6.1-256.1; 1995, c. 2; 2005, c. 63; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1509. Contents, posting, transfer, and duration of license.

A. Each license shall contain:

1. The address at which the business is to be conducted;

2. The full name of the licensee or, if the licensee is a partnership or association, the names of the partners or members; and

3. If the licensee is a corporation, the date and place of incorporation.

B. The licensee shall keep the license conspicuously posted in its place of business.

C. The license shall not be transferable or assignable.

D. Each license shall remain in full force and effect until surrendered, revoked, or suspended as provided by this chapter or by lawful order of the Commission.

Code 1950, §§ 6-288, 6-289; 1966, c. 584, §§ 6.1-258, 6.1-259; 1980, c. 211; 1982, c. 609; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1510. Acquisition of control; application.

A. Except as provided in this section, no person shall acquire, directly or indirectly, 25 percent or more of the voting shares of a corporation, or 25 percent or more of the ownership of any other person, licensed to conduct business under this chapter unless such person first:

1. Files an application with the Commission in such form as the Commissioner may prescribe from time to time;

2. Delivers such other information to the Commissioner as the Commissioner may require concerning the financial responsibility, background, experience, and activities of the applicant, its directors, senior officers, principals, and members, and of any proposed new directors, senior officers, principals, or members of the licensee; and

3. Pays such application fee as the Commission may prescribe.

B. Upon the filing and investigation of an application, the Commission shall permit the applicant to acquire the interest in the licensee if it finds that the applicant, its members if applicable, its directors, senior officers, and principals, and any proposed new directors, members, senior officers, and principals have the financial responsibility, character, reputation, experience, and general fitness to warrant belief that the business will be operated efficiently and fairly, in the public interest, and in accordance with law. The Commission shall grant or deny the application within 60 days from the date a completed application accompanied by the required fee is filed unless the period is extended by order of the Commissioner reciting the reasons for the extension. If the application is denied, the Commission shall notify the applicant of the denial and the reasons for the denial.

C. The provisions of this section shall not apply to (i) the acquisition of an interest in a licensee, directly or indirectly, including an acquisition by merger or consolidation, by or with a person licensed by this chapter, (ii) the acquisition of an interest in a licensee, directly or indirectly, including an acquisition by merger or consolidation, by or with a person affiliated through common ownership with the licensee, or (iii) the acquisition of an interest in a licensee by a person by bequest, descent, survivorship or operation of law. The person acquiring an interest in a licensee in a transaction that is exempt from filing an application by this subsection shall send written notice to the Commissioner of such acquisition within 30 days of its closing.

2005, c. 63, § 6.1-258.1; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1511. Revocation of license.

The Commission, upon 10 days' written notice to the licensee stating the contemplated action and in general the grounds therefor, and upon reasonable opportunity to be heard, may revoke any license issued hereunder if it finds that:

1. The licensee has failed to pay the annual fee assessed pursuant to § 6.2-1532 or to comply with any order of the Commission lawfully made pursuant to and within the authority of this chapter;

2. The licensee, either knowingly or without the exercise of due care to prevent the same, has violated any provision of this chapter or any regulation lawfully made by the Commission under § 6.2-1535; or

3. Any fact or condition exists that clearly would have warranted the Commission to refuse originally to issue the license.

Code 1950, § 6-290; 1956, c. 71; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-260; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1512. Suspension of license.

If the Commission finds that probable cause for revocation of any license exists and that enforcement of the law requires immediate suspension of the license pending investigation, it may, upon three days' written notice and a hearing, by the Commission or by the Commissioner, enter an order suspending the license for a period not exceeding 30 days.

Code 1950, § 6-291; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-261; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1513. Record and notice of revocation or suspension.

Whenever the Commission revokes or suspends a license issued pursuant to this chapter, it shall:

1. Enter an order to that effect, which order shall set forth its findings;

2. Compile a record containing (i) a summary of the evidence, (ii) the findings with respect thereto, (iii) the order, and (iv) the reasons supporting the revocation or suspension; and

3. Serve a copy of the order upon the licensee.

Code 1950, § 6-292; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-262; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1514. Surrender of license.

Any licensee may surrender any license by delivering it to the Commission with written notice of its surrender. The surrender shall not affect the licensee's civil or criminal liability for acts previously committed.

Code 1950, § 6-293; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-263; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1515. Effect of license revocation, suspension, or surrender.

The revocation, suspension, or surrender of any license shall not impair or affect the obligation of any preexisting lawful contract between the licensee and any borrower.

Code 1950, § 6-294; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-264; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1516. Reinstatement of license.

The Commission may reinstate any suspended license, or issue a new license to a person any license of whom has been revoked, if no fact or condition then exists that clearly would have warranted the Commission to refuse originally to issue a license under this chapter.

Code 1950, § 6-295; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-265; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1517. Place of business generally.

A. Not more than one place of business shall be maintained under the same license.

B. The Commission may issue more than one license to the same licensee upon compliance, as to each additional license, with all applicable provisions of this chapter governing issuance of a single license.

C. No licensee shall conduct the business of making loans provided for by this chapter under any other name or at any place of business within the Commonwealth other than as designated in the license.

Code 1950, §§ 6-296, 6-298; 1966, c. 584, §§ 6.1-266, 6.1-268; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1518. Notice of conduct of other business in same place of business; fee.

A. A licensee shall not conduct the business of making loans under this chapter within any office, suite, room, or other place of business in which any other business is solicited or engaged in, or in association or conjunction with any other business, unless the licensee has first given 30 days' written notice to the Commission. Every notice shall be accompanied by a fee of $300.

B. Upon receipt of such notice and fee, the Commission may require the licensee to provide information relating to the other business, including how and by whom it will be conducted. The Commission shall have the authority to investigate the conduct of such other businesses in the licensee's place of business.

C. The provisions of this section shall not affect (i) any regulations adopted by the Commission prior to July 1, 2000, governing the conduct of other businesses in the place of business designated in a license or (ii) the authority of the Commission to adopt such regulations as the Commission deems necessary.

D. If the Commission finds that the other business (i) is of such a nature or is being conducted in such a manner as to conceal or facilitate a violation or evasion of the provisions of this chapter or regulations adopted pursuant to it; (ii) is contrary to the public interest; or (iii) is otherwise being conducted in an unlawful manner, the Commission may, after notice to the licensee and an opportunity for a hearing, prohibit or limit the conduct of such other business in the place of business designated in the license.

E. Any authority granted under this section shall remain in full force and effect until surrendered, or until revoked or suspended by the Commission as provided in this chapter or by lawful order of the Commission.

Code 1950, § 6-297; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-267; 1981, c. 452, § 6.1-267.1; 1982, c. 609; 2000, c. 192; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1519. Changing place of business.

A. A licensee may change its place of business to a different location in the Commonwealth if the new location is:

1. Within the original locality; or

2. From the original locality to a location in a contiguous locality.

B. A licensee shall notify the Commission of a change in the place of business within 10 days of such relocation. Upon receipt of the notification, the Commission shall issue and deliver to the licensee an amended license covering the new location if it finds that the change in the place of business meets one of the criteria listed in subsection A. Each notice of change of location under this section shall be accompanied by a fee of $250.

1982, c. 78, § 6.1-269.1; 1988, c. 147; 2000, c. 192; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1520. Rate of interest; late charges; processing fees.

A. A licensee may charge and receive interest on loans of:

1. Not more than $2,500, at a single annual rate not to exceed 36 percent; and

2. More than $2,500, at such single annual rate as shall be stated in the loan contract.

The annual rate of interest shall be charged only upon principal balances outstanding from time to time. Interest shall not be charged on an add-on basis and shall not be compounded or paid, deducted or received in advance. For the purpose of calculating interest under this section, a year may be any period of time consisting of 360 or 365 days.

B. A licensee may impose a late charge for failure to make timely payment of any installment due on a debt, which late charge shall not exceed five percent of the amount of such installment payment. The late charge shall be specified in the loan contract between the lender and the borrower. For purposes of this section, "timely payment" means a payment made by the date fixed for payment or within a period of seven calendar days after such fixed date.

C. A licensee may charge and receive a processing fee, charged on the principal amount of the loan, for processing the loan contract. The processing fee shall be stated in the loan contract. Such processing fee shall be deemed to constitute interest charged on the principal amount of the loan for purposes of determining whether the interest charged on a loan of not more than $2,500 exceeds the 36 percent annual interest rate limitation imposed by subdivision A 1.

1995, c. 2, § 6.1-272.1; 2001, c. 308; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1521. Post-judgment charges.

If judgment is obtained against any party on any loan made under the provisions of this chapter, neither the judgment nor the loan shall carry, from the date of the judgment, any charges against any party to the loan other than court costs, attorney fees, and interest on the amount of the judgment at the rate fixed by § 6.2-302.

Code 1950, § 6-603; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-273; 1975, c. 270; 1987, c. 196; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1522. Other limitations on interest.

A. Any loan made under the provisions of this chapter that is properly scheduled in a bankruptcy proceeding shall bear interest against any party to the loan from 90 days after the date of adjudication, whether there is an ultimate discharge or an extension, if any interest is allowable at all, at six percent per year. This limitation shall not apply (i) to a comaker not currently in bankruptcy when the bankrupt is not entitled to a discharge, or (ii) if the particular obligation is not dischargeable under the provisions of Title 11 of the United States Code.

B. After 90 days from the date of the death of the borrower, no other charges than interest at six percent per year shall be computed or collected from any party to the loan upon the unpaid principal balance of the loan.

C. For the period beginning six months after the date of maturity, as originally scheduled or as deferred in the event of deferment, of any loan contract under the provisions of this chapter, no further charges than interest at six percent per year shall be computed or collected from any party to the loan upon the unpaid balance of the loan.

Code 1950, §§ 6-304, 6-305, 6-306; 1966, c. 584, §§ 6.1-274, 6.1-275, 6.1-276; 1968, c. 489; 1987, c. 410; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1523. Additional charges prohibited; exceptions.

In addition to the interest, late charges, and processing fee permitted under § 6.2-1520, no further or other amount whatsoever for any examination service, brokerage, commission, fine, notarial fee, or other thing or otherwise shall be directly or indirectly charged, contracted for, collected, or received, except:

1. Insurance premiums actually paid out by the licensee to any insurance company or agent duly authorized to do business in the Commonwealth for insurance for the protection and benefit of the borrower written in connection with any loan;

2. The actual cost of recordation fees or, on loans over $100, the amount of the lawful premiums, no greater than such fees, actually paid for insurance against the risk of not recording any instrument securing the loan; and

3. A handling fee not to exceed $15 for each check returned to the licensee because the drawer had no account or insufficient funds in the payor bank.

Code 1950, § 6-308; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-278; 1978, c. 625; 1981, cc. 37, 38; 1984, c. 296; 1986, c. 502; 1990, c. 751; 1995, c. 2; 2001, c. 308; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1524. Required and prohibited activities and conduct.

A. Each licensee shall maintain at all times the minimum assets prescribed by this chapter for each license, either (i) in liquid form available for the operation of the business at the location specified in each license or (ii) actually used, whether pledged or not, in the conduct of the business at the location specified in each license.

B. A licensee or other person subject to this chapter shall not advertise, display, distribute or broadcast, or cause or permit to be advertised, displayed, distributed or broadcast, in any manner whatsoever, any false, misleading, or deceptive statement or representation with regard to the rates, terms, or conditions for loans made under this chapter. The Commission may require that charges or rates of charge, if stated by a licensee, be stated fully and clearly in such manner as it deems necessary to prevent misunderstanding by prospective borrowers. The Commission may permit or require licensees to refer in their advertising to the fact that their business is under state supervision, subject to conditions imposed by it to prevent false, misleading, or deceptive impression as to the scope or degree of protection provided by this chapter.

C. A licensee shall not take a lien upon real estate as security for any loan made under the provisions of this chapter, except a lien arising upon rendition of a judgment. Any lien taken in violation of this subsection shall be void.

D. A licensee shall, at the time any loan is made, deliver to the borrower, or if there are two or more borrowers to one of them, a statement disclosing (i) the names and addresses of the licensee and of the principal debtor on the loan contract, and (ii) a statement in compliance with Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Regulation Z (12 C.F.R. Part 1026).

E. A licensee shall give the borrower a receipt for all cash payments. The Commission may specify the form and content of such receipts in keeping with the intent and purpose of this chapter.

F. A licensee shall permit payment to be made in advance in whole, or in part equal to one or more full installments. The licensee may apply the payment first to any amounts that are due and unpaid at the time of such payment.

G. A licensee shall, upon repayment of the loan in full, (i) mark plainly every obligation and security other than a security agreement executed by the borrower with the word "Paid" or "Canceled," (ii) mark satisfied any judgment, (iii) restore any pledge, (iv) cancel and return any note and any assignment given by the borrower to the licensee, and (v) release any security agreement or other form of security instrument that no longer secures an outstanding loan between the borrower and the licensee.

H. In the event of collection by foreclosure sale or otherwise, a licensee shall pay and return to the borrower, or to another person entitled thereto, any surplus arising after the payment of the expenses of collection, sale or foreclosure and satisfaction of the debt.

I. A licensee shall not take any confession of judgment or any power of attorney running to himself or to any third person to confess judgment or to appear for the borrower in a judicial proceeding. Any such confession of judgment or power of attorney to confess judgment shall be void.

J. A licensee shall not take any note, promise to pay, or instrument of security in which blanks are left to be filled in after execution, or that does not give the amount of the loan, a clear description of the installment payments required, and the rate of interest charged. A licensee may also include the disclosures required by Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Regulation Z (12 C.F.R. Part 1026) in the note, promise to pay, or instrument of security.

K. Every loan contract shall be in writing, be signed by the borrower, and provide for repayment of the amount loaned in substantially equal monthly installments of principal and interest. Nothing contained in this chapter shall prevent (i) a loan being considered a new loan because the proceeds of the loan are used to pay an existing loan contract or (ii) a licensee from entering into a loan contract providing for an odd first payment period of up to 45 days and an odd first payment greater than other monthly payments because of such odd first payment period.

Code 1950, §§ 6-309, 6-310, 6-311, 6-312, 6-313, 6-315; 1956, c. 71; 1966, c. 584, §§ 6.1-279, 6.1-280, 6.1-281, 6.1-282, 6.1-283, 6.1-284.1, 6.1-285; 1968, c. 489; 1974, c. 371; 1983, c. 500; 1987, c. 683, § 6.1-284.1; 1995, c. 2; 1997, c. 113; 2001, c. 308; 2010, c. 794; 2016, c. 501.

§ 6.2-1525. Wage purchases.

The payment of any amount in money, credit, goods or things in action, as consideration for any sale or assignment of, or order for, the payment of wages, salary, commission, or other compensation for services, whether earned or to be earned, shall for the purposes of this chapter be deemed a loan of money secured by the sale, assignment or order. The amount by which the compensation so sold, assigned or ordered paid exceeds the amount of consideration actually paid (i) shall be deemed for the purpose of this chapter to be interest upon the loan from the date of the payment to the date the compensation is payable and (ii) shall not, in any case, be more than is sufficient to yield, to the person making the loan, interest on his investment at the annual rate of 10 percent. Such transaction shall in all other respects be governed by and subject to the provisions of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 6-317; 1956, c. 71; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-288; 1968, c. 489; 1974, c. 371; 1995, c. 2; 2001, c. 308; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1526. Wage assignments.

A. A valid assignment or order for the payment of future salary, wages, commissions, or other compensation for services may be given as security for a loan made by any licensee, notwithstanding the provisions of any other law to the contrary.

B. No assignment of, or order for payment of, any salary, wages, commissions, or other compensation for services, earned or to be earned, given to secure any loan made by any licensee shall be valid unless:

1. The amount of the loan is paid to the borrower simultaneously with its execution; and

2. The assignment or order is in writing, signed in person by the borrower, and not by an attorney, or if the borrower is married unless it is signed in person by both husband and wife, and not by an attorney. Written assent of a spouse shall not be required when husband and wife have been living separate and apart for a period of at least five months prior to the giving of the assignment or order. The provisions of this section are in addition to, and not in derogation of, the general statutes pertaining to the subject.

C. Under the assignment or order, an amount equal to not more than 10 percent of the borrower's salary, wages, commissions, or other compensation for services shall be collectible from the employer of the borrower by the licensee at the time of each payment to the borrower of the salary, wages, commission, or other compensation for services, from the time that a copy of the assignment, verified by the oath of the licensee or his agent, together with a similarly verified statement of the amount unpaid upon the loan and a printed copy of this section, is served upon the employer.

Code 1950, §§ 6-318, 6-319; 1966, c. 584, §§ 6.1-289, 6.1-290; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1527. Liens on household furniture.

No chattel mortgage or other lien on household furniture then in the possession and use of the borrower given to secure any loan made by a licensee shall be valid unless it is in writing, signed in person by the borrower, and not by an attorney, or if the borrower is married unless it is signed in person by both husband and wife, and not by an attorney. Written assent of a spouse shall not be required when a husband and wife have been living separate and apart for a period of at least five months prior to the giving of the mortgage or lien.

Code 1950, § 6-318; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-289; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1528. Exemptions unimpaired.

A. Nothing in this chapter shall have the effect of impairing any rights on the part of anyone as to exemptions under the poor debtors law or under any other applicable exemption law now in effect or hereafter enacted.

B. The provisions of subdivision B 2 of § 6.2-1526 and § 6.2-1527 are in addition to, and not in derogation of, the general statutes pertaining to the subject.

Code 1950, § 6-318; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-289; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1529. Collection of loans made outside Commonwealth.

No loan made outside the Commonwealth for which greater rates of interest, consideration or charges than are permitted by the law applicable to such loan in the state in which the loan was made, have been charged, contracted for, or received shall be collected in the Commonwealth. Every person in any way participating in an effort to enforce the collection of such loan in the Commonwealth shall be subject to the provisions of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 6-320; 1956, c. 71; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-291; 1968, c. 489; 1974, c. 371; 1995, c. 2; 2001, c. 308; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1530. Investigations; immunities.

A. For the purpose of discovering violations of this chapter or securing information lawfully required under it, the Commission may at any time investigate the loans, books and records of any person who:

1. Is engaged, or appears to the Commission to be engaged, in a business for which the person is required to be licensed and supervised under this chapter;

2. Advertises for, solicits, or holds itself out as willing to make loans subject to the provisions of this chapter; or

3. The Commission has reason to believe is violating any provision of this chapter, whether such person shall act or claim to act under or without the authority of this chapter, or as principal, agent, broker, or otherwise.

B. In furtherance of the investigation the Commission shall:

1. Have and be given free access to the offices, places of business, books, papers, accounts, records, files, safes, and vaults of all such persons; and

2. Have authority to require attendance of witnesses and to examine under oath any person whose testimony may be required relative to any such loans or business or to the subject matter of the investigation, examination or hearing.

C. Before making an investigation as provided for in this section as to any person who is neither licensed nor an applicant for a license under this chapter, an order shall be entered by the Commission. The order shall specifically direct the investigation to be made, command submission by the person whose business is to be investigated, and set forth all other details the Commission finds necessary. The Commission shall not enter such an order except upon (i) at least one affidavit, which may be given by an employee of the Commission or by any other person, (ii) documentary data, (iii) admissions of the person to be investigated, or (iv) any combination of the foregoing, satisfactorily establishing, prima facie, facts sufficient to warrant the investigation provided for by subsection A. If the person involved consents to the investigation, the foregoing requirements may be dispensed with and the investigation may be made upon direction of the Commission or the Commissioner.

D. No criminal prosecution or action for the imposition of any penalty or forfeiture provided for by this chapter may be maintained against a person not a licensee or an applicant for a license under this chapter who is investigated following entry of an order as provided in subsection C. This subsection shall not:

1. Prevent prosecution for the violation of any other criminal law or of any other law providing for penalty or forfeiture; and

2. Provide immunity from prosecution for any officer, agent, or employee of the person whose business is investigated.

E. If the Commission compels a person not a licensee or an applicant for a license under this chapter to give verbal testimony, the person so compelled to testify shall not be subject to criminal prosecution or the imposition of any penalty or forfeiture in connection with the subject matter as to which such testimony is compelled.

F. The immunities provided pursuant to subsections D and E shall not impair (i) any civil right of action, not involving penalty or forfeiture, of any person and (ii) the authority of the Attorney General to institute and prosecute a proceeding for injunctive relief as provided for in § 6.2-1537. Any facts discovered and disclosures made in the course of any investigation following entry of an order as provided in subsection C or verbal testimony compelled as provided in subsection E shall be available in any proceeding involving any civil right of action or for obtaining an injunction under this chapter against the person so investigated or so compelled to testify.

Code 1950, §§ 6-323, 6-324, 6-325, 6-326; 1956, c. 71; 1966, c. 584, §§ 6.1-294, 6.1-295, 6.1-296, 6.1-297; 1968, c. 489; 1974, c. 371; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1531. Examination.

The Commission shall, as often as it deems to be in the public interest, examine the affairs, business, office, and records of each licensee that pertain to any business licensed under this chapter. Such examination shall be conducted at least once in every three-year period. The licensee shall furnish promptly by mail or otherwise such facts and statements in connection with its business transacted in the Commonwealth that the Commission may request from time to time.

Code 1950, § 6-327; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-298; 1976, c. 658; 1998, c. 44; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1532. Fees for examination, supervision and regulation.

To defray the costs of examination, supervision and regulation of licensed consumer finance companies, every licensee shall pay an annual fee to be calculated in accordance with a schedule set by the Commission. The schedule shall bear a reasonable relationship to the total assets, including loans under this chapter and other loans, of various licensees and their affiliates doing business in authorized consumer finance company offices, to the actual cost of their respective examinations, and to other factors relating to their supervision and regulation. Fees shall be assessed pursuant to this section on or before May 1 of every calendar year. All such fees shall be paid by the licensees to the State Treasurer on or before June 1 following each assessment.

1982, c. 609, § 6.1-299.1; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1533. Books, accounts, and records; pledge or deposit of notes and securities.

A. Each licensee shall maintain in its authorized consumer finance company office, or at such other place within or outside the Commonwealth as the Commission may approve, such books, accounts, and records as the Commission may reasonably require to determine whether the licensee is complying with the provisions of this chapter and with regulations adopted in furtherance thereof. Such books, accounts, and records shall be maintained in paper form or, with the Commission's approval, in any electronic format available for examination on the basis of computer printed reproduction, video display, or other medium. Any books, accounts, and records not maintained in paper form shall be convertible into clearly legible paper documents within a reasonable time. Every licensee shall preserve the books, accounts, and records for at least three years after making the final entry on any loan recorded therein.

B. If any note or security taken under this chapter shall be pledged as collateral or deposited within or outside the Commonwealth, the licensee shall notify promptly the Commission in writing of the identity and location of the person holding such paper. Prior approval of the Commission shall not be required. Any pledged or deposited paper shall be subject to examination by the Commission in accordance with subsection C as fully as if maintained in an approved location.

C. All books, accounts, and records shall be subject to examination by the Commission. If such books, accounts, and records are examined outside the Commonwealth, all reasonable costs associated with such examination shall be paid by the licensee.

Code 1950, § 6-329; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-300; 1998, c. 44; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1534. Annual reports.

Each licensee shall annually, on or before April 1, file a report with the Commission giving such relevant information as may reasonably be required concerning its business and operations during the preceding calendar year as to each authorized consumer finance company office. Reports shall be made under oath and shall be in the form prescribed by the Commission.

Code 1950, § 6-330; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-301; 1968, c. 489; 2000, c. 55; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1535. Regulations and orders.

The Commission shall adopt such regulations as it deems appropriate to effect the purposes of this chapter. Before adopting any such regulation, the Commission shall give reasonable notice of its content and shall afford interested parties an opportunity to be heard, in accordance with the Commission's Rules. A copy of each regulation and order adopting it shall be mailed to all licensees at least 10 days before the effective date thereof.

Code 1950, § 6-331; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-302; 1993, c. 366; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1536. Disclosures in connection with sale of securities.

A. The Commission may adopt regulations prescribing required disclosures in connection with the offer or sale of any "security," as that term is defined in § 13.1-501 of the Virginia Securities Act (§ 13.1-501 et seq.), issued by any licensee organized under the laws of the Commonwealth.

B. The disclosures prescribed by subsection A shall be printed in bold, 10-point type and shall contain substantially the following language: "This security or these securities are being offered in Virginia pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of the Virginia Securities Act. The State Corporation Commission does not pass upon the adequacy or accuracy of the security or this offering circular or upon the merits of this security or this offering. These securities are not insured or guaranteed by any state or federal agency."

Code 1950, § 6-331; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-302; 1993, c. 366; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1537. Authority of Attorney General; impoundment of property and receivership.

A. Whenever the Attorney General has reasonable cause to believe that (i) any person, not licensed under this chapter, is violating, has violated, is threatening to violate or intends to violate any provision of this chapter or any order or regulation lawfully made pursuant to the authority of this chapter and (ii) the facts justify it, the Attorney General shall institute and prosecute a lawsuit for monetary or injunctive relief or both in the Circuit Court of the City of Richmond, in the name of the Commonwealth. The court may grant monetary relief or may enjoin and restrain or both any such person from engaging in or continuing any such violation or from doing any act or acts in furtherance thereof. In any such suit a decree or order may be entered awarding such monetary relief or preliminary or final injunctive relief as may be deemed proper.

B. In addition to all other means provided by law for the enforcement of an award of monetary relief, a temporary restraining order, temporary injunction, or final injunction, the court may impound, and appoint a receiver for, (i) the property and business of the defendant, including books, papers, documents, and records pertaining thereto, (ii) so much thereof as the court deems reasonably necessary to prevent further violation of this chapter through or by means of the use of such property and business, or (iii) so much thereof as is necessary to identify borrowers who have been damaged and the amount of their damages, and to refund the amount of any such damages to the borrowers pursuant to subsection C. The receiver, when appointed and qualified, shall have such powers and duties as to custody, collection, administration, payment of debts and liquidation of the property and business as from time to time are conferred upon him by the court.

C. The Attorney General may seek and the circuit court may order or decree such other relief allowed by law, including restitution to the extent available to borrowers under § 6.2-1541.

D. In any action brought by the Attorney General by virtue of the authority granted in this section, the Attorney General shall be entitled to seek attorney fees and costs.

E. Nothing in this section shall be construed to preclude any person who suffers a loss as a result of a violation of § 6.2-1501 from maintaining an action to recover damages or restitution under § 6.2-1541.

F. No individual shall be entitled to refuse to testify in a suit brought under this section because the person's testimony would tend to incriminate such person or subject the individual to penalty or forfeiture. If called to testify by the Commonwealth or by the court trying the case, the individual may not thereafter be prosecuted for any crime or subjected to any penalty or forfeiture growing out of the transaction concerning which the individual testifies.

Code 1950, §§ 6-322, 6-333; 1966, c. 584, §§ 6.1-303, 6.1-304; 1988, c. 186; 1992, c. 9; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1538. Copies of orders or licenses.

On application of any person, and payment of the costs, the Commission shall furnish such person with a certified copy of any order entered or license issued by it. Such copy shall be prima facie evidence in any court or proceeding of the fact of the entry of the order or of the issuance of the license.

Code 1950, § 6-334; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-305; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1539. Review by Commission.

In addition to any other remedy he may have any licensee or any other person considering himself aggrieved by any action of the Commissioner under this chapter pursuant to authority conferred upon him or delegated to him by the Commission may, within 30 days of the action complained of, file a petition as a matter of right with the Commission to review the action. The proceeding on review shall be de novo and the record and summary of the evidence before, and findings of, the Commissioner shall be admissible as evidence before the Commission.

Code 1950, § 6-335; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-306; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1540. Criminal penalties.

Any person, including the members, officers, directors, agents, and employees of an entity, who violates or participates in the violation of any provision of § 6.2-1501 is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 6-337; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-308; 1986, c. 502; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1541. Unlawful contracts void; recovery of amounts paid.

A. A loan contract shall be void if any act has been done in the making or collection thereof that violates § 6.2-1501.

B. The lender on any loan for which a person has taken any action in its making or collection in violation of § 6.2-1501 shall not collect, receive, or retain any principal, interest, or charges whatsoever with respect to the loan, and any principal or interest paid on the loan shall be recoverable by the person by or for whom payment was made.

Code 1950, § 6-337; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-308; 1986, c. 502; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1542. Duty to refund unauthorized or excess charges; liability to borrower for penalty.

A. If any amount not authorized by this chapter or in excess of the charges permitted by this chapter is charged and received by a licensee, such unauthorized or excess charge actually received by a licensee shall be refunded to the borrower or credited to the borrower's account.

B. Except for excess charges charged and received as the result of a bona fide error of computation that was not made pursuant to a regular course of dealing, the licensee shall be liable to the borrower for a penalty of twice the amount of any unauthorized or excess charge actually received by the licensee and for any court costs and reasonable attorney fees incurred by the borrower.

Code 1950, § 6-338; 1956, c. 71; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-309; 1976, c. 658; 1986, c. 502; 2010, c. 794.

§ 6.2-1543. Civil penalties.

The Commission may impose a civil penalty not exceeding $10,000 upon any licensee who it determines, in proceedings conducted in accordance with the Commission's Rules, has violated any provision of this chapter or of any regulation or order of the Commission, either knowingly or without the exercise of due care to prevent the violation. In any proceeding under this section, a licensee shall not be penalized for any act or omission done in reasonable reliance on any regulation, order, letter, or other written directive or request of the Commission.

Code 1950, § 6-338; 1956, c. 71; 1966, c. 584, § 6.1-309; 1976, c. 658; 1986, c. 502; 2010, c. 794.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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