Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 62.1. Waters of the State, Ports and Harbors
Chapter 3.1. State Water Control Law
12/1/2020

Article 5. Enforcement and Appeal Procedure.

§ 62.1-44.20. Right to entry to obtain information, etc.

Any duly authorized agent of the Board may, at reasonable times and under reasonable circumstances, enter any establishment or upon any property, public or private, for the purpose of obtaining information or conducting surveys or investigations necessary in the enforcement of the provisions of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 62.1-34; 1968, c. 659; 1970, c. 638.

§ 62.1-44.21. Information to be furnished to Board.

The Board may require every owner to furnish when requested such plans, specifications, and other pertinent information as may be necessary to determine the effect of the wastes from his discharge on the quality of state waters, or such other information as may be necessary to accomplish the purposes of this chapter. The Board shall not at any time disclose to any person other than appropriate officials of the Environmental Protection Agency pursuant to the requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500) any secret formulae, secret processes, or secret methods other than effluent data used by any owner or under that owner's direction.

Code 1950, § 62.1-35; 1968, c. 659; 1970, c. 638; 1974, c. 237.

§ 62.1-44.22. (For contingent expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Private rights not affected.

The fact that any owner holds or has held a certificate issued under this chapter shall not constitute a defense in any civil action involving private rights.

Code 1950, § 62.1-36; 1968, c. 659; 1970, c. 638.

§ 62.1-44.22. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Private actions.

The fact that any owner holds or has held a certificate or land-disturbance approval issued under this chapter shall not constitute a defense in any civil action involving private rights.

Compliance with the provisions of this chapter shall be prima facie evidence in any legal or equitable proceeding for damages caused by erosion or sedimentation that all requirements of law have been met and the complaining party must show negligence in order to recover any damages.

Code 1950, § 62.1-36; 1968, c. 659; 1970, c. 638; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.23. (For contingent expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Enforcement by injunction, etc.

Any person violating or failing, neglecting or refusing to obey any rule, regulation, order, water quality standard, pretreatment standard, or requirement of or any provision of any certificate issued by the Board, or by the owner of a publicly owned treatment works issued to an industrial user, or any provisions of this chapter, except as provided by a separate article, may be compelled in a proceeding instituted in any appropriate court by the Board to obey same and to comply therewith by injunction, mandamus or other appropriate remedy.

Code 1950, § 62.1-37; 1952, c. 702; 1968, c. 659; 1970, c. 638; 1977, c. 263; 1988, c. 167; 1990, c. 717; 1994, c. 489; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.23. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Enforcement by injunction, etc.

Any person violating or failing, neglecting or refusing to obey any rule, regulation, order, water quality standard, pretreatment standard, approved standard and specification, or requirement of or any provision of any certificate or land-disturbance approval issued by the Board, or by the owner of a publicly owned treatment works issued to an industrial user, or any provisions of this chapter, except as provided by a separate article, may be compelled in a proceeding instituted in any appropriate court by the Board to obey same and to comply therewith by injunction, mandamus or other appropriate remedy.

Code 1950, § 62.1-37; 1952, c. 702; 1968, c. 659; 1970, c. 638; 1977, c. 263; 1988, c. 167; 1990, c. 717; 1994, c. 489; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.23:1. Intervention of Commonwealth in actions involving surface water withdrawals.

The Board, in representing the public's interest, shall have the authority and standing to intervene as an interested party in any civil action, including actions both within and without the Commonwealth, pertaining to the withdrawal of any of the surface waters of the Commonwealth.

1989, c. 218.

§ 62.1-44.24. Testing validity of regulations; judicial review.

(1) The validity of any regulation may be determined through judicial review in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

(2) [Repealed.]

(3) An appeal may be taken from the decision of the court to the Court of Appeals as provided by law.

1970, c. 638; 1984, c. 703; 1986, c. 615.

§ 62.1-44.25. (For contingent expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Right to hearing.

Any owner under §§ 62.1-44.16, 62.1-44.17, and 62.1-44.19 aggrieved by any action of the Board taken without a formal hearing, or by inaction of the Board, may demand in writing a formal hearing of such owner's grievance, provided a petition requesting such hearing is filed with the Board. In cases involving actions of the Board, such petition must be filed within thirty days after notice of such action is mailed to such owner by certified mail.

1970, c. 638.

§ 62.1-44.25. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Right to hearing.

Any owner under Article 2.3 (§ 62.1-44.15:24 et seq.), Article 2.5 (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.), or § 62.1-44.16, 62.1-44.17, or 62.1-44.19 aggrieved by any action of the Board taken without a formal hearing, or by inaction of the Board, may demand in writing a formal hearing of such owner's grievance, provided a petition requesting such hearing is filed with the Board. In cases involving actions of the Board, such petition must be filed within 30 days after notice of such action is mailed to such owner by certified mail.

1970, c. 638; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.26. Hearings.

A. (For expiration date -- see notes) The formal hearings held under this chapter shall be conducted pursuant to § 2.2-4009 or 2.2-4020 and may be conducted by the Board itself at a regular or special meeting of the Board, or by at least one member of the Board designated by the chairman to conduct such hearings on behalf of the Board at any other time and place authorized by the Board.

A. (For effective date -- see notes) The formal hearings held by the Board under this chapter shall be conducted pursuant to § 2.2-4009 or 2.2-4020 and may be conducted by the Board itself at a regular or special meeting of the Board, or by at least one member of the Board designated by the chairman to conduct such hearings on behalf of the Board at any other time and place authorized by the Board.

B. A verbatim record of the proceedings of such hearings shall be taken and filed with the Board. Depositions may be taken and read as in actions at law.

C. The Board shall have power to issue subpoenas and subpoenas duces tecum, and at the request of any party shall issue such subpoenas. The failure of a witness without legal excuse to appear or to testify or to produce documents shall be acted upon by the Board in the manner prescribed in § 2.2-4022. Witnesses who are subpoenaed shall receive the same fees and mileage as in civil actions.

1970, c. 638; 1977, c. 291; 1993, c. 897; 2008, cc. 276, 557; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.27. Rules of evidence in hearings.

In all hearings under this chapter:

(1) All relevant and material evidence shall be received, except that (a) the rules relating to privileged communications and privileged topics shall be observed; (b) hearsay evidence shall be received only if the declarant is not readily available as a witness; and (c) secondary evidence of the contents of a document shall be received only if the original is not readily available. In deciding whether a witness or document is readily available, the Board or hearing officer shall balance the importance of the evidence against the difficulty of obtaining it, and the more important the evidence is the more effort should be made to produce the eyewitness or the original document.

(2) All reports of inspectors and subordinates of the Board and other records and documents in the possession of the Board bearing on the case shall be introduced by the Board at the hearing.

(3) Subject to the provisions of subdivision (1) of this section every party shall have the right to cross-examine adverse witnesses and any inspector or subordinate of the Board whose report is in evidence and to submit rebuttal evidence.

(4) The decision of the Board shall be based only on evidence received at the hearing and matters of which a court of record could take judicial notice.

1970, c. 638.

§ 62.1-44.28. Decisions of the Board in hearings pursuant to §§ 62.1-44.15 and 62.1-44.25.

To be valid and operative, the decision by the Board rendered pursuant to hearings under subdivisions (8a), (8b), and (8c) of §§ 62.1-44.15 and 62.1-44.25 must be reduced to writing and contain the explicit findings of fact and conclusions of law upon which the decision of the Board is based and certified copies thereof must be mailed by certified mail to the parties affected by it.

1970, c. 638.

§ 62.1-44.29. (For contingent expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Judicial review.

Any owner aggrieved by or any person who has participated, in person or by submittal of written comments, in the public comment process related to a final decision of the Board under § 62.1-44.15 (5), 62.1-44.15 (8a), (8b), and (8c), 62.1-44.15:20, 62.1-44.15:21, 62.1-44.15:22, 62.1-44.15:23, 62.1-44.16, 62.1-44.17, 62.1-44.19, or 62.1-44.25, whether such decision is affirmative or negative, is entitled to judicial review thereof in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) if such person meets the standard for obtaining judicial review of a case or controversy pursuant to Article III of the United States Constitution. A person shall be deemed to meet such standard if (i) such person has suffered an actual or imminent injury which is an invasion of a legally protected interest and which is concrete and particularized; (ii) such injury is fairly traceable to the decision of the Board and not the result of the independent action of some third party not before the court; and (iii) such injury will likely be redressed by a favorable decision by the court.

1970, c. 638; 1986, c. 615; 1996, c. 1032; 2000, cc. 1032, 1054; 2007, c. 659.

§ 62.1-44.29. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Judicial review.

Any owner aggrieved by or any person who has participated, in person or by submittal of written comments, in the public comment process related to a final decision of the Board under subdivision (5), (8a), (8b), (8c), or (19) of § 62.1-44.15 or § 62.1-44.15:20, 62.1-44.15:21, 62.1-44.15:22, 62.1-44.15:23, 62.1-44.16, 62.1-44.17, 62.1-44.19, or 62.1-44.25, whether such decision is affirmative or negative, is entitled to judicial review thereof in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) if such person meets the standard for obtaining judicial review of a case or controversy pursuant to Article III of the United States Constitution. A person shall be deemed to meet such standard if (i) such person has suffered an actual or imminent injury which is an invasion of a legally protected interest and which is concrete and particularized; (ii) such injury is fairly traceable to the decision of the Board and not the result of the independent action of some third party not before the court; and (iii) such injury will likely be redressed by a favorable decision by the court.

1970, c. 638; 1986, c. 615; 1996, c. 1032; 2000, cc. 1032, 1054; 2007, c. 659; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.30. Appeal to Court of Appeals.

From the final decision of the circuit court an appeal may be taken to the Court of Appeals as provided in § 17.1-405.

1970, c. 638; 1984, c. 703.