Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 18.2. Crimes and Offenses Generally
Chapter 8. Crimes Involving Morals and Decency
11/30/2020

Article 4. Family Offenses; Crimes Against Children, Etc..

§ 18.2-362. Person marrying when spouse is living; penalty; venue.

If any married person, during the life of such person's spouse, marries another person in the Commonwealth, or, if the marriage with such other person takes place outside of the Commonwealth and the persons cohabitate in the Commonwealth, he is guilty of a Class 4 felony. Venue for a violation of this section may be in the county or city where the subsequent marriage occurred or where the parties to the subsequent marriage cohabited.

Code 1950, § 20-41; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 2003, c. 99; 2020, c. 900.

§ 18.2-363. Leaving Commonwealth to evade law against bigamy.

If any persons, resident in the Commonwealth, one of whom has a living spouse, shall, with the intention of returning to reside in the Commonwealth, go into another state or country and there intermarry and return to and reside in the Commonwealth cohabiting as a married couple, such marriage shall be governed by the same law, in all respects, as if it had been solemnized in the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 20-44; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 2020, c. 900.

§ 18.2-364. Exceptions to §§ 18.2-362 and 18.2-363.

Sections 18.2-362 and 18.2-363 shall not extend to a person whose spouse shall have been continuously absent from such person for seven years next before marriage of such person to another, and shall not have been known by such person to be living within that time; nor to a person who can show that the second marriage was contracted in good faith under a reasonable belief that the former consort was dead; nor to a person who shall, at the time of the subsequent marriage, have been divorced from the bond of the former marriage; nor to a person whose former marriage was void.

Code 1950, § 20-42; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 2020, c. 900.

§ 18.2-365. Adultery defined; penalty.

Any person, being married, who voluntarily shall have sexual intercourse with any person not his or her spouse shall be guilty of adultery, punishable as a Class 4 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, §§18.1-187, 18.1-190; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15.

§ 18.2-366. Sexual intercourse by persons forbidden to marry; incest; penalties.

A. Any person who engages in sexual intercourse with any person whom he is forbidden by law to marry is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor except as provided by subsection B.

B. Any person who engages in sexual intercourse with his daughter or granddaughter, son or grandson, or father or mother is guilty of a Class 5 felony. However, if a parent or grandparent engages in sexual intercourse with his child or grandchild, and such child or grandchild is at least 13 years of age but less than 18 years of age at the time of the offense, such parent or grandparent is guilty of a Class 3 felony.

C. For the purposes of this section, parent includes stepparent, grandparent includes step-grandparent, child includes a stepchild, and grandchild includes a step-grandchild.

Code 1950, § 18.1-191; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1981, c. 397; 1993, c. 703; 2014, c. 542; 2020, cc. 122, 900.

§ 18.2-367. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, c. 459.

§ 18.2-368. Placing or leaving spouse for prostitution; penalty.

Any person who, by force, fraud, intimidation, or threats, places or leaves or procures any other person to place or leave his spouse in a bawdy place for the purpose of prostitution or unlawful sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, or anilingus is guilty of pandering, punishable as a Class 4 felony.

Code 1950, § 18.1-207; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 2014, c. 794; 2020, c. 900.

§ 18.2-369. Abuse and neglect of incapacitated adults; penalty.

A. It is unlawful for any responsible person to abuse or neglect any incapacitated adult as defined in this section. Any responsible person who abuses or neglects an incapacitated adult in violation of this section and the abuse or neglect does not result in serious bodily injury or disease to the incapacitated adult is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. Any responsible person who is convicted of a second or subsequent offense under this subsection is guilty of a Class 6 felony.

B. Any responsible person who abuses or neglects an incapacitated adult in violation of this section and the abuse or neglect results in serious bodily injury or disease to the incapacitated adult is guilty of a Class 4 felony. Any responsible person who abuses or neglects an incapacitated adult in violation of this section and the abuse or neglect results in the death of the incapacitated adult is guilty of a Class 3 felony.

C. For purposes of this section:

"Abuse" means (i) knowing and willful conduct that causes physical injury or pain or (ii) knowing and willful use of physical restraint, including confinement, as punishment, for convenience or as a substitute for treatment, except where such conduct or physical restraint, including confinement, is a part of care or treatment and is in furtherance of the health and safety of the incapacitated person.

"Incapacitated adult" means any person 18 years of age or older who is impaired by reason of mental illness, intellectual disability, physical illness or disability, advanced age or other causes to the extent the adult lacks sufficient understanding or capacity to make, communicate or carry out reasonable decisions concerning his well-being.

"Neglect" means the knowing and willful failure by a responsible person to provide treatment, care, goods or services which results in injury to the health or endangers the safety of an incapacitated adult.

"Responsible person" means a person who has responsibility for the care, custody or control of an incapacitated person by operation of law or who has assumed such responsibility voluntarily, by contract or in fact.

"Serious bodily injury or disease" shall include but not be limited to (i) disfigurement, (ii) a fracture, (iii) a severe burn or laceration, (iv) mutilation, (v) maiming, or (vi) life-threatening internal injuries or conditions, whether or not caused by trauma.

D. No responsible person shall be in violation of this section whose conduct was (i) in accordance with the informed consent of the incapacitated person that was given when he was not incapacitated or a person authorized to consent on his behalf; (ii) in accordance with a declaration by the incapacitated person under the Health Care Decisions Act (§ 54.1-2981 et seq.) that was given when he was not incapacitated or with the provisions of a valid medical power of attorney; (iii) in accordance with the wishes of the incapacitated person that were made known when he was not incapacitated or a person authorized to consent on behalf of the incapacitated person and in accord with the tenets and practices of a church or religious denomination; (iv) incident to necessary movement of, placement of or protection from harm to the incapacitated person; or (v) a bona fide, recognized or approved practice to provide medical care.

1992, c. 551; 1994, c. 620; 2000, c. 796; 2001, c. 181; 2004, c. 863; 2007, cc. 562, 653; 2012, cc. 476, 507; 2019, c. 234.

§ 18.2-370. Taking indecent liberties with children; penalties.

A. Any person 18 years of age or over, who, with lascivious intent, knowingly and intentionally commits any of the following acts with any child under the age of 15 years is guilty of a Class 5 felony:

(1) Expose his or her sexual or genital parts to any child to whom such person is not legally married or propose that any such child expose his or her sexual or genital parts to such person; or

(2) [Repealed.]

(3) Propose that any such child feel or fondle his own sexual or genital parts or the sexual or genital parts of such person or propose that such person feel or fondle the sexual or genital parts of any such child; or

(4) Propose to such child the performance of an act of sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, or anilingus or any act constituting an offense under § 18.2-361; or

(5) Entice, allure, persuade, or invite any such child to enter any vehicle, room, house, or other place, for any of the purposes set forth in the preceding subdivisions of this subsection.

B. Any person 18 years of age or over who, with lascivious intent, knowingly and intentionally receives money, property, or any other remuneration for allowing, encouraging, or enticing any person under the age of 18 years to perform in or be a subject of sexually explicit visual material as defined in § 18.2-374.1 or who knowingly encourages such person to perform in or be a subject of sexually explicit material is guilty of a Class 5 felony.

C. Any person who is convicted of a second or subsequent violation of this section is guilty of a Class 4 felony, provided that (i) the offenses were not part of a common act, transaction or scheme; (ii) the accused was at liberty as defined in § 53.1-151 between each conviction; and (iii) it is admitted, or found by the jury or judge before whom the person is tried, that the accused was previously convicted of a violation of this section.

D. Any parent, step-parent, grandparent, or step-grandparent who commits a violation of either this section or clause (v) or (vi) of subsection A of § 18.2-370.1 (i) upon his child, step-child, grandchild, or step-grandchild who is at least 15 but less than 18 years of age is guilty of a Class 5 felony or (ii) upon his child, step-child, grandchild, or step-grandchild less than 15 years of age is guilty of a Class 4 felony.

Code 1950, §§ 18.1-213 through 18.1-215; 1960, c. 358; 1973, c. 131; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1979, c. 348; 1981, c. 397; 1986, c. 503; 2000, c. 333; 2001, cc. 776, 840; 2005, cc. 185, 762; 2013, cc. 423, 470; 2014, c. 794.

§ 18.2-370.01. Indecent liberties by children; penalty.

Any child over the age of thirteen years but under the age of eighteen who, with lascivious intent, knowingly and intentionally exposes his or her sexual or genital parts to any other child under the age of fourteen years who, measured by actual dates of birth, is five or more years the accused's junior, or proposes that any such child expose his or her sexual or genital parts to such person, shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

1998, c. 825.

§ 18.2-370.1. Taking indecent liberties with child by person in custodial or supervisory relationship; penalties.

A. Any person 18 years of age or older who, except as provided in § 18.2-370, maintains a custodial or supervisory relationship over a child under the age of 18 and is not legally married to such child and such child is not emancipated who, with lascivious intent, knowingly and intentionally (i) proposes that any such child feel or fondle the sexual or genital parts of such person or that such person feel or handle the sexual or genital parts of the child; or (ii) proposes to such child the performance of an act of sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, or anilingus or any act constituting an offense under § 18.2-361; or (iii) exposes his or her sexual or genital parts to such child; or (iv) proposes that any such child expose his or her sexual or genital parts to such person; or (v) proposes to the child that the child engage in sexual intercourse, sodomy or fondling of sexual or genital parts with another person; or (vi) sexually abuses the child as defined in subdivision 6 of § 18.2-67.10 is guilty of a Class 6 felony.

B. Any person who is convicted of a second or subsequent violation of this section is guilty of a Class 5 felony, provided that (i) the offenses were not part of a common act, transaction or scheme; (ii) the accused was at liberty as defined in § 53.1-151 between each conviction; and (iii) it is admitted, or found by the jury or judge before whom the person is tried, that the accused was previously convicted of a violation of this section.

1982, c. 521; 1986, c. 503; 1991, c. 517; 2001, c. 840; 2005, c. 185; 2014, c. 794.

§ 18.2-370.2. (Effective until July 1, 2021) Sex offenses prohibiting proximity to children; penalty.

A. "Offense prohibiting proximity to children"means a violation or an attempt to commit a violation of (i) subsection A of § 18.2-47, clause (ii) or (iii) of § 18.2-48, subsection B of § 18.2-361, or subsection B of § 18.2-366, where the victim of one of the foregoing offenses was a minor, or (ii) subsection A (iii) of § 18.2-61, §§ 18.2-63, 18.2-64.1, subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.1, subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.2, or subdivision A 1 or A 4 (a) of § 18.2-67.3, or §§ 18.2-370, 18.2-370.1, clause (ii) of § 18.2-371, §§ 18.2-374.1, 18.2-374.1:1 or § 18.2-379. As of July 1, 2006, "offense prohibiting proximity to children" includes a violation of § 18.2-472.1, when the offense requiring registration was one of the foregoing offenses.

B. Every adult who is convicted of an offense prohibiting proximity to children when the offense occurred on or after July 1, 2000, shall as part of his sentence be forever prohibited from loitering within 100 feet of the premises of any place he knows or has reason to know is a primary, secondary or high school. In addition, every adult who is convicted of an offense prohibiting proximity to children when the offense occurred on or after July 1, 2006, shall as part of his sentence be forever prohibited from loitering within 100 feet of the premises of any place he knows or has reason to know is a child day program as defined in § 63.2-100.

C. Every adult who is convicted of an offense prohibiting proximity to children, when the offense occurred on or after July 1, 2008, shall as part of his sentence be forever prohibited from going, for the purpose of having any contact whatsoever with children who are not in his custody, within 100 feet of the premises of any place owned or operated by a locality that he knows or should know is a playground, athletic field or facility, or gymnasium.

D. Any person convicted of an offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof, similar to any offense set forth in subsection A shall be forever prohibited from loitering within 100 feet of the premises of any place he knows or has reason to know is a primary, secondary, or high school or any place he knows or has reason to know is a child day program as defined in § 63.2-100. In addition, he shall be forever prohibited from going, for the purpose of having any contact whatsoever with children who are not in his custody, within 100 feet of the premises of any place owned or operated by a locality that he knows or has reason to know is a playground, athletic field or facility, or gymnasium.

E. A violation of this section is punishable as a Class 6 felony.

2000, c. 770; 2006, cc. 857, 914; 2008, c. 579; 2017, c. 507.

§ 18.2-370.2. (Effective July 1, 2021) Sex offenses prohibiting proximity to children; penalty.

A. "Offense prohibiting proximity to children" means a violation or an attempt to commit a violation of (i) subsection A of § 18.2-47, clause (ii) or (iii) of § 18.2-48, subsection B of § 18.2-361, or subsection B of § 18.2-366, where the victim of one of the foregoing offenses was a minor, or (ii) clause (iii) of subsection A of § 18.2-61, § 18.2-63 or 18.2-64.1, subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.1, subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.2, subdivision A 1 or A 4 (a) of § 18.2-67.3, § 18.2-370 or 18.2-370.1, clause (ii) of § 18.2-371, or § 18.2-374.1, 18.2-374.1:1 or 18.2-379. As of July 1, 2006, "offense prohibiting proximity to children" includes a violation of § 18.2-472.1 when the offense requiring registration was one of the foregoing offenses.

B. Every adult who is convicted of an offense prohibiting proximity to children when the offense occurred on or after July 1, 2000, shall as part of his sentence be forever prohibited from loitering within 100 feet of the premises of any place he knows or has reason to know is a primary, secondary or high school. In addition, every adult who is convicted of an offense prohibiting proximity to children when the offense occurred on or after July 1, 2006, shall as part of his sentence be forever prohibited from loitering within 100 feet of the premises of any place he knows or has reason to know is a child day program as defined in § 22.1-289.02.

C. Every adult who is convicted of an offense prohibiting proximity to children, when the offense occurred on or after July 1, 2008, shall as part of his sentence be forever prohibited from going, for the purpose of having any contact whatsoever with children who are not in his custody, within 100 feet of the premises of any place owned or operated by a locality that he knows or should know is a playground, athletic field or facility, or gymnasium.

D. Any person convicted of an offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof, similar to any offense set forth in subsection A shall be forever prohibited from loitering within 100 feet of the premises of any place he knows or has reason to know is a primary, secondary, or high school or any place he knows or has reason to know is a child day program as defined in § 22.1-289.02. In addition, he shall be forever prohibited from going, for the purpose of having any contact whatsoever with children who are not in his custody, within 100 feet of the premises of any place owned or operated by a locality that he knows or has reason to know is a playground, athletic field or facility, or gymnasium.

E. A violation of this section is punishable as a Class 6 felony.

2000, c. 770; 2006, cc. 857, 914; 2008, c. 579; 2017, c. 507; 2020, cc. 860, 861.

§ 18.2-370.3. (Effective until July 1, 2021) Sex offenses prohibiting residing in proximity to children; penalty.

A. Every adult who is convicted of an offense occurring on or after July 1, 2006, where the offender is more than three years older than the victim, of one of the following qualifying offenses: (i) clause (iii) of subsection A of § 18.2-61, (ii) subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.1, (iii) subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.2, or (iv) any similar offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof, shall be forever prohibited from residing within 500 feet of the premises of any place he knows or has reason to know is a child day center as defined in § 63.2-100, or a primary, secondary, or high school. A violation of this section is a Class 6 felony. The provisions of this section shall only apply if the qualifying offense was done in the commission of, or as a part of the same course of conduct as, or as part of a common scheme or plan as a violation of (a) subsection A of § 18.2-47 or § 18.2-48, (b) § 18.2-89, 18.2-90, or 18.2-91, (c) § 18.2-51.2, or (d) any similar offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof.

B. An adult who is convicted of an offense as specified in subsection A and has established a lawful residence shall not be in violation of this section if a child day center or a primary, secondary, or high school is established within 500 feet of his residence subsequent to his conviction.

C. Every adult who is convicted of an offense occurring on or after July 1, 2008, where the offender is more than three years older than the victim, of one of the following qualifying offenses: (i) clause (iii) of subsection A of § 18.2-61, (ii) subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.1, (iii) subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.2, or (iv) any similar offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof, shall be forever prohibited from residing within 500 feet of the boundary line of any place he knows is a public park when such park (a) is owned and operated by a county, city, or town, (b) shares a boundary line with a primary, secondary, or high school, and (c) is regularly used for school activities. A violation of this section is a Class 6 felony. The provisions of this section shall only apply if the qualifying offense was done in the commission of, or as a part of the same course of conduct as, or as part of a common scheme or plan as a violation of (1) subsection A of § 18.2-47 or § 18.2-48; (2) § 18.2-89, 18.2-90, or 18.2-91; (3) § 18.2-51.2; or (4) any similar offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof.

D. An adult who is convicted of an offense as specified in subsection C and has established a lawful residence shall not be in violation of this section if a public park that (i) is owned and operated by a county, city, or town, (ii) shares a boundary line with a primary, secondary, or high school, and (iii) is regularly used for school activities, is established within 500 feet of his residence subsequent to his conviction.

E. The prohibitions in this section predicated upon an offense similar to any offense set forth in this section under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof, shall apply only to residences established on and after July 1, 2017.

2006, cc. 857, 914; 2008, c. 726; 2017, c. 507.

§ 18.2-370.3. (Effective July 1, 2021) Sex offenses prohibiting residing in proximity to children; penalty.

A. Every adult who is convicted of an offense occurring on or after July 1, 2006, where the offender is more than three years older than the victim, of one of the following qualifying offenses: (i) clause (iii) of subsection A of § 18.2-61, (ii) subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.1, (iii) subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.2, or (iv) any similar offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof, shall be forever prohibited from residing within 500 feet of the premises of any place he knows or has reason to know is a child day center as defined in § 22.1-289.02, or a primary, secondary, or high school. A violation of this section is a Class 6 felony. The provisions of this section shall only apply if the qualifying offense was done in the commission of, or as a part of the same course of conduct as, or as part of a common scheme or plan as a violation of (a) subsection A of § 18.2-47 or § 18.2-48; (b) § 18.2-89, 18.2-90, or 18.2-91; (c) § 18.2-51.2; or (d) any similar offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof.

B. An adult who is convicted of an offense as specified in subsection A and has established a lawful residence shall not be in violation of this section if a child day center or a primary, secondary, or high school is established within 500 feet of his residence subsequent to his conviction.

C. Every adult who is convicted of an offense occurring on or after July 1, 2008, where the offender is more than three years older than the victim, of one of the following qualifying offenses: (i) clause (iii) of subsection A of § 18.2-61, (ii) subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.1, (iii) subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.2, or (iv) any similar offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof, shall be forever prohibited from residing within 500 feet of the boundary line of any place he knows is a public park when such park (a) is owned and operated by a county, city, or town, (b) shares a boundary line with a primary, secondary, or high school, and (c) is regularly used for school activities. A violation of this section is a Class 6 felony. The provisions of this section shall only apply if the qualifying offense was done in the commission of, or as a part of the same course of conduct as, or as part of a common scheme or plan as a violation of (1) subsection A of § 18.2-47 or § 18.2-48; (2) § 18.2-89, 18.2-90, or 18.2-91; (3) § 18.2-51.2; or (4) any similar offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof.

D. An adult who is convicted of an offense as specified in subsection C and has established a lawful residence shall not be in violation of this section if a public park that (i) is owned and operated by a county, city, or town, (ii) shares a boundary line with a primary, secondary, or high school, and (iii) is regularly used for school activities, is established within 500 feet of his residence subsequent to his conviction.

E. The prohibitions in this section predicated upon an offense similar to any offense set forth in this section under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof, shall apply only to residences established on and after July 1, 2017.

2006, cc. 857, 914; 2008, c. 726; 2017, c. 507; 2020, cc. 860, 861.

§ 18.2-370.4. Sex offenses prohibiting working on school property; penalty.

A. Every adult who has been convicted of an offense occurring on or after July 1, 2006, where the offender is more than three years older than the victim, of one of the following qualifying offenses: (i) clause (iii) of subsection A of § 18.2-61, (ii) subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.1, (iii) subdivision A 1 of § 18.2-67.2, or (iv) any similar offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof, shall be forever prohibited from working or engaging in any volunteer activity on property he knows or has reason to know is a public or private elementary or secondary school or child day center property. A violation of this section is punishable as a Class 6 felony. The provisions of this section shall only apply if the qualifying offense was done in the commission of, or as a part of the same course of conduct of, or as part of a common scheme or plan as a violation of (a) subsection A of § 18.2-47 or 18.2-48; (b) § 18.2-89, 18.2-90, or 18.2-91; (c) § 18.2-51.2; or (d) any similar offense under the laws of any foreign country or any political subdivision thereof, or the United States or any political subdivision thereof.

B. An employer of a person who violates this section, or any person who procures volunteer activity by a person who violates this section, and the school or child day center where the violation of this section occurred, are immune from civil liability unless they had actual knowledge that such person had been convicted of an offense listed in subsection A.

2006, cc. 853, 857, 914; 2017, c. 507.

§ 18.2-370.5. Offenses prohibiting entry onto school or other property; penalty.

A. Every adult who is convicted of a Tier III offense, as defined in § 9.1-902, shall be prohibited from entering or being present (i) during school hours, and during school-related or school-sponsored activities upon any property he knows or has reason to know is a public or private elementary or secondary school or child day center property; (ii) on any school bus as defined in § 46.2-100; or (iii) upon any property, public or private, during hours when such property is solely being used by a public or private elementary or secondary school for a school-related or school-sponsored activity.

B. The provisions of clauses (i) and (iii) of subsection A shall not apply to such adult if (i) he is a lawfully registered and qualified voter, and is coming upon such property solely for purposes of casting his vote; (ii) he is a student enrolled at the school; or (iii) he has obtained a court order pursuant to subsection C allowing him to enter and be present upon such property, has obtained the permission of the school board or of the owner of the private school or child day center or their designee for entry within all or part of the scope of the lifted ban, and is in compliance with such school board's, school's or center's terms and conditions and those of the court order.

C. Every adult who is prohibited from entering upon school or child day center property pursuant to subsection A may after notice to the attorney for the Commonwealth and either (i) the proprietor of the child day center, (ii) the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the chairman of the school board of the school division in which the school is located, or (iii) the chief administrator of the school if such school is not a public school, petition the circuit court in the county or city where the school or child day center is located for permission to enter such property. The court shall direct that the petitioner shall cause notice of the time and place of the hearing on his petition to be published once a week for two successive weeks in a newspaper meeting the requirements of § 8.01-324. The newspaper notice shall contain a provision stating that written comments regarding the petition may be submitted to the clerk of court at least five days prior to the hearing. For good cause shown, the court may issue an order permitting the petitioner to enter and be present on such property, subject to whatever restrictions of area, reasons for being present, or time limits the court deems appropriate.

D. A violation of this section is punishable as a Class 6 felony.

2007, cc. 284, 370; 2008, c. 781; 2010, c. 402; 2011, cc. 648, 796, 855; 2015, c. 688; 2020, c. 829.

§ 18.2-370.6. Penetration of mouth of child with lascivious intent; penalty.

Any person 18 years of age or older who, with lascivious intent, kisses a child under the age of 13 on the mouth while knowingly and intentionally penetrating the mouth of such child with his tongue is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

2008, c. 772.

§ 18.2-371. Causing or encouraging acts rendering children delinquent, abused, etc.; penalty; abandoned infant.

Any person 18 years of age or older, including the parent of any child, who (i) willfully contributes to, encourages, or causes any act, omission, or condition that renders a child delinquent, in need of services, in need of supervision, or abused or neglected as defined in § 16.1-228 or (ii) engages in consensual sexual intercourse or anal intercourse with or performs cunnilingus, fellatio, or anilingus upon or by a child 15 or older not his spouse, child, or grandchild is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. This section shall not be construed as repealing, modifying, or in any way affecting §§ 18.2-18, 18.2-19, 18.2-61, 18.2-63, and 18.2-347.

If the prosecution under this section is based solely on the accused parent having left the child at a hospital or emergency medical services agency, it shall be an affirmative defense to prosecution of a parent under this section that such parent safely delivered the child to a hospital that provides 24-hour emergency services or to an attended emergency medical services agency that employs emergency medical services personnel, within the first 14 days of the child's life. In order for the affirmative defense to apply, the child shall be delivered in a manner reasonably calculated to ensure the child's safety.

Code 1950, § 18.1-14; 1960, c. 358; 1975, cc. 14, 15; 1981, cc. 397, 568; 1990, c. 797; 1991, c. 295; 1993, c. 411; 2003, cc. 816, 822; 2006, c. 935; 2008, cc. 174, 206; 2014, c. 794; 2015, cc. 502, 503.

§ 18.2-371.1. Abuse and neglect of children; penalty; abandoned infant.

A. Any parent, guardian, or other person responsible for the care of a child under the age of 18 who by willful act or willful omission or refusal to provide any necessary care for the child's health causes or permits serious injury to the life or health of such child is guilty of a Class 4 felony. For purposes of this subsection, "serious injury" includes but is not limited to (i) disfigurement, (ii) a fracture, (iii) a severe burn or laceration, (iv) mutilation, (v) maiming, (vi) forced ingestion of dangerous substances, and (vii) life-threatening internal injuries. For purposes of this subsection, "willful act or willful omission" includes operating or engaging in the conduct of a child welfare agency as defined in § 63.2-100 without first obtaining a license such person knows is required by Subtitle IV (§ 63.2-1700 et seq.) of Title 63.2 or after such license has been revoked or has expired and not been renewed.

B. 1. Any parent, guardian, or other person responsible for the care of a child under the age of 18 whose willful act or omission in the care of such child was so gross, wanton, and culpable as to show a reckless disregard for human life is guilty of a Class 6 felony.

2. If a prosecution under this subsection is based solely on the accused parent having left the child at a hospital or emergency medical services agency, it shall be an affirmative defense to prosecution of a parent under this subsection that such parent safely delivered the child to a hospital that provides 24-hour emergency services or to an attended emergency medical services agency that employs emergency medical services personnel, within the first 14 days of the child's life. In order for the affirmative defense to apply, the child shall be delivered in a manner reasonably calculated to ensure the child's safety.

C. Any parent, guardian, or other person having care, custody, or control of a minor child who in good faith is under treatment solely by spiritual means through prayer in accordance with the tenets and practices of a recognized church or religious denomination shall not, for that reason alone, be considered in violation of this section.

1981, c. 568; 1988, c. 228; 1990, c. 638; 1993, c. 628; 2003, cc. 816, 822; 2006, c. 935; 2015, cc. 502, 503; 2016, c. 705.

§ 18.2-371.2. Prohibiting purchase or possession of tobacco products, nicotine vapor products, alternative nicotine products, and hemp products intended for smoking by a person under 21 years of age or sale of tobacco products, nicotine vapor products, alternative nicotine products, and hemp products intended for smoking to persons under 21 years of age.

A. No person shall sell to, distribute to, purchase for, or knowingly permit the purchase by any person less than 21 years of age, knowing or having reason to believe that such person is less than 21 years of age, any tobacco product, nicotine vapor product, alternative nicotine product, or hemp product intended for smoking.

Tobacco products, nicotine vapor products, alternative nicotine products, and hemp products intended for smoking may be sold from a vending machine only if the machine is (i) posted with a notice, in a conspicuous manner and place, indicating that the purchase or possession of such products by persons under 21 years of age is unlawful and (ii) located in a place that is not open to the general public and is not generally accessible to persons under 21 years of age. An establishment that prohibits the presence of persons under 21 years of age unless accompanied by a person 21 years of age or older is not open to the general public.

B. No person less than 21 years of age shall attempt to purchase, purchase, or possess any tobacco product, nicotine vapor product, alternative nicotine product, or hemp product intended for smoking. The provisions of this subsection shall not be applicable to the possession of tobacco products, nicotine vapor products, alternative nicotine products, or hemp products intended for smoking by a person less than 21 years of age (i) making a delivery of tobacco products, nicotine vapor products, alternative nicotine products, or hemp products intended for smoking in pursuance of his employment or (ii) as part of a scientific study being conducted by an organization for the purpose of medical research to further efforts in cigarette and tobacco use prevention and cessation and tobacco product regulation, provided that such medical research has been approved by an institutional review board pursuant to applicable federal regulations or by a research review committee pursuant to Chapter 5.1 (§ 32.1-162.16 et seq.) of Title 32.1. This subsection shall not apply to purchase, attempt to purchase, or possession by a law-enforcement officer or his agent when the same is necessary in the performance of his duties.

C. No person shall sell a tobacco product, nicotine vapor product, alternative nicotine product, or hemp product intended for smoking to any individual who does not demonstrate, by producing a driver's license or similar photo identification issued by a government agency, that the individual is at least 21 years of age. Such identification is not required from an individual whom the person has reason to believe is at least 21 years of age or who the person knows is at least 21 years of age. Proof that the person demanded, was shown, and reasonably relied upon a photo identification stating that the individual was at least 21 years of age shall be a defense to any action brought under this subsection. In determining whether a person had reason to believe an individual is at least 21 years of age, the trier of fact may consider, but is not limited to, proof of the general appearance, facial characteristics, behavior, and manner of the individual.

This subsection shall not apply to mail order or Internet sales, provided that the person offering the tobacco product, nicotine vapor product, alternative nicotine product, or hemp product intended for smoking for sale through mail order or the Internet (i) prior to the sale of the tobacco product, nicotine vapor product, alternative nicotine product, or hemp product intended for smoking verifies that the purchaser is at least 21 years of age through a commercially available database that is regularly used by businesses or governmental entities for the purpose of age and identity verification and (ii) uses a method of mailing, shipping, or delivery that requires the signature of a person at least 21 years of age before the tobacco product, nicotine vapor product, alternative nicotine product, or hemp product intended for smoking will be released to the purchaser.

D. The provisions of subsections B and C shall not apply to the sale, giving, or furnishing of any tobacco product, nicotine vapor product, alternative nicotine product, or hemp product intended for smoking to any active duty military personnel who are 18 years of age or older. An identification card issued by the Armed Forces of the United States shall be accepted as proof of age for this purpose.

E. A violation of subsection A or C by an individual or by a separate retail establishment that involves a nicotine vapor product, alternative nicotine product, hemp product intended for smoking, or tobacco product other than a bidi is punishable by a civil penalty not to exceed $100 for a first violation, a civil penalty not to exceed $200 for a second violation, and a civil penalty not to exceed $500 for a third or subsequent violation.

A violation of subsection A or C by an individual or by a separate retail establishment that involves the sale, distribution, or purchase of a bidi is punishable by a civil penalty in the amount of $500 for a first violation, a civil penalty in the amount of $1,000 for a second violation, and a civil penalty in the amount of $2,500 for a third or subsequent violation. Where a defendant retail establishment offers proof that it has trained its employees concerning the requirements of this section, the court shall suspend all of the penalties imposed hereunder. However, where the court finds that a retail establishment has failed to so train its employees, the court may impose a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000 in lieu of any penalties imposed hereunder for a violation of subsection A or C involving a nicotine vapor product, alternative nicotine product, hemp product intended for smoking, or tobacco product other than a bidi.

A violation of subsection B is punishable by a civil penalty not to exceed $100 for a first violation and a civil penalty not to exceed $250 for a second or subsequent violation. A court may, as an alternative to the civil penalty, and upon motion of the defendant, prescribe the performance of up to 20 hours of community service for a first violation of subsection B and up to 40 hours of community service for a second or subsequent violation. If the defendant fails or refuses to complete the community service as prescribed, the court may impose the civil penalty. Upon a violation of subsection B, the judge may enter an order pursuant to subdivision A 9 of § 16.1-278.8.

Any attorney for the Commonwealth of the county or city in which an alleged violation occurred may bring an action to recover the civil penalty, which shall be paid into the state treasury. Any law-enforcement officer may issue a summons for a violation of subsection A, B, or C.

F. 1. Cigarettes and hemp products intended for smoking shall be sold only in sealed packages provided by the manufacturer, with the required health warning. The proprietor of every retail establishment that offers for sale any tobacco product, nicotine vapor product, alternative nicotine product, or hemp product intended for smoking shall post in a conspicuous manner and place a sign or signs indicating that the sale of tobacco products, nicotine vapor products, alternative nicotine products, or hemp products intended for smoking to any person under 21 years of age is prohibited by law. Any attorney for the county, city, or town in which an alleged violation of this subsection occurred may enforce this subsection by civil action to recover a civil penalty not to exceed $50. The civil penalty shall be paid into the local treasury. No filing fee or other fee or cost shall be charged to the county, city, or town which instituted the action.

2. For the purpose of compliance with regulations of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration published at 61 Federal Register 1492, the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services may promulgate regulations which allow the Department to undertake the activities necessary to comply with such regulations.

3. Any attorney for the county, city, or town in which an alleged violation of this subsection occurred may enforce this subsection by civil action to recover a civil penalty not to exceed $100. The civil penalty shall be paid into the local treasury. No filing fee or other fee or cost shall be charged to the county, city, or town which instituted the action.

G. Nothing in this section shall be construed to create a private cause of action.

H. Agents of the Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority designated pursuant to § 4.1-105 may issue a summons for any violation of this section.

I. As used in this section:

"Alternative nicotine product" means any noncombustible product containing nicotine that is intended for human consumption, whether chewed, absorbed, dissolved, or ingested by any other means. "Alternative nicotine product" does not include any nicotine vapor product, tobacco product, or product regulated as a drug or device by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under Chapter V (21 U.S.C. § 351 et seq.) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

"Bidi" means a product containing tobacco that is wrapped in temburni leaf (diospyros melanoxylon) or tendu leaf (diospyros exculpra), or any other product that is offered to, or purchased by, consumers as a bidi or beedie.

"Hemp product" means the same as that term is defined in § 3.2-4112.

"Nicotine vapor product" means any noncombustible product containing nicotine that employs a heating element, power source, electronic circuit, or other electronic, chemical, or mechanical means, regardless of shape or size, that can be used to produce vapor from nicotine in a solution or other form. "Nicotine vapor product" includes any electronic cigarette, electronic cigar, electronic cigarillo, electronic pipe, or similar product or device and any cartridge or other container of nicotine in a solution or other form that is intended to be used with or in an electronic cigarette, electronic cigar, electronic cigarillo, electronic pipe, or similar product or device. "Nicotine vapor product" does not include any product regulated by the FDA under Chapter V (21 U.S.C. § 351 et seq.) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

"Tobacco product" means any product made of tobacco and includes cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, bidis, and wrappings. "Tobacco product" does not include any nicotine vapor product, alternative nicotine product, or product that is regulated by the FDA under Chapter V (21 U.S.C. § 351 et seq.) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

"Wrappings" includes papers made or sold for covering or rolling tobacco or other materials for smoking in a manner similar to a cigarette or cigar.

1986, c. 406; 1991, c. 558; 1993, c. 631; 1994, c. 305; 1995, c. 675; 1996, cc. 509, 517; 1997, cc. 812, 882; 1998, c. 363; 1999, c. 1020; 2000, c. 883; 2003, cc. 114, 615; 2014, cc. 357, 394; 2015, cc. 38, 730, 739, 756; 2019, cc. 90, 102; 2020, cc. 406, 524.

§ 18.2-371.3. Tattooing or body piercing of minors.

No person shall tattoo or perform body piercing for hire or consideration on a person less than eighteen years of age, knowing or having reason to believe such person is less than eighteen years of age except (i) in the presence of the person's parent or guardian, or (ii) when done by or under the supervision of a medical doctor, registered nurse or other medical services personnel licensed pursuant to Title 54.1 in the performance of their duties.

In addition, no person shall tattoo or perform body piercing on any client unless he complies with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines for "Universal Blood and Body Fluid Precautions" and provides the client with the following disclosure:

1. Tattooing and body piercing are invasive procedures in which the skin is penetrated by a foreign object.

2. If proper sterilization and antiseptic procedures are not followed by tattoo artists and body piercers, there is a risk of transmission of bloodborne pathogens and other infections, including, but not limited to, human immunodeficiency viruses and hepatitis B or C viruses.

3. Tattooing and body piercing may cause allergic reactions in persons sensitive to dyes or the metals used in ornamentation.

4. Tattooing and body piercing may involve discomfort or pain for which appropriate anesthesia cannot be legally made available by the person performing the tattoo or body piercing unless such person holds the appropriate license from a Virginia health regulatory board.

A person who violates this section is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

For the purposes of this section:

"Body-piercing" means the act of penetrating the skin to make a hole, mark, or scar, generally permanent in nature. "Body piercing" does not include the use of a mechanized, presterilized ear-piercing system that penetrates the outer perimeter or lobe of the ear or both.

"Tattoo" means to place any design, letter, scroll, figure, symbol or any other mark upon or under the skin of any person with ink or any other substance resulting in the permanent coloration of the skin, including permanent make-up or permanent jewelry, by the aid of needles or any other instrument designed to touch or puncture the skin.

1997, c. 586; 2000, c. 842; 2001, c. 270; 2006, c. 692.

§ 18.2-371.4. Prohibiting the sale of novelty lighters to juveniles.

A. "Novelty lighter" means a mechanical or electrical device containing a combustible fuel typically used for lighting cigarettes, cigars, or pipes that is (i) designed to resemble a cartoon character, toy, gun, watch, musical instrument, vehicle, animal, food, or beverage, or (ii) a fanciful article that plays musical notes, has flashing lights, or has other entertaining features that are appealing to or intended for use by juveniles. A novelty lighter may operate on any fuel, including butane, isobutene, or liquid fuel.

B. "Novelty lighter" does not include (i) a lighter without fuel and that is incapable of being fueled, (ii) a lighter lacking a device necessary to produce combustion or a flame, (iii) a mechanical or electrical device primarily used to ignite fuel for fireplaces or for charcoal or gas grills, (iv) a lighter manufactured prior to 1980, or (v) a standard disposable lighter that is printed or decorated with logos, labels, decals, or artwork, or heat shrinkable sleeves.

C. Novelty lighters that are available for purchase at a retail establishment shall be located in a place that is not open to the general public.

D. Any individual who sells a novelty lighter to a person he knows or has reason to know is a juvenile is subject to a civil penalty of no more than $100.

E. This section may be enforced by the State Fire Marshal's Office, local fire marshals appointed pursuant to § 27-34.2 or 27-34.2:1, or law-enforcement officers.

2009, c. 668.