Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 55.1. Property and Conveyances
10/22/2020

Chapter 13. Manufactured Home Lot Rental Act.

§ 55.1-1300. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Abandoned manufactured home" means a manufactured home occupying a manufactured home lot pursuant to a written agreement under which (i) the tenant has defaulted in rent or (ii) the landlord has the right to terminate the written rental agreement pursuant to § 55.1-1249.

"Guest or invitee" means a person, other than the tenant, who has the permission of the tenant to visit but not to occupy the premises.

"Landlord" means the manufactured home park owner or the lessor or sublessor of a manufactured home park. "Landlord" also means a manufactured home park operator who fails to disclose the name of such owner, lessor, or sublessor as provided in § 55.1-1216.

"Manufactured home" means a structure, transportable in one or more sections, that in the traveling mode is eight body feet or more in width or 40 body feet or more in length, or, when erected on site, is 320 or more square feet, and that is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and electrical systems contained in the structure.

"Manufactured home lot" means a parcel of land within the boundaries of a manufactured home park provided for the placement of a single manufactured home and the exclusive use of its occupants.

"Manufactured home owner" means the owner of a manufactured home.

"Manufactured home park" means a parcel of land under single or common ownership upon which five or more manufactured homes are located on a continual, nonrecreational basis together with any structure, equipment, road, or facility intended for use incidental to the occupancy of the manufactured homes. "Manufactured home park" does not include a premises used solely for storage or display of uninhabited manufactured homes or a premises occupied solely by a landowner and members of his family.

"Manufactured home park operator" means a person employed or contracted by a manufactured home park owner or landlord to manage a manufactured home park.

"Manufactured home park owner" means a person who owns land that accommodates a manufactured home park.

"Owner" means one or more persons, jointly or severally, in whom is vested (i) all or part of the legal title to the property or (ii) all or part of the beneficial ownership and right to present use and enjoyment of the premises. "Owner" includes a mortgagee in possession.

"Reasonable charges in addition to rent" means any routine maintenance and utility charges for which the tenant is liable under the rental agreement.

"Rent" means payments made by the tenant to the landlord for use of a manufactured home lot and other facilities or services provided by the landlord.

"Rental agreement" means any agreement, written or oral, and valid rules and regulations adopted in conformance with § 55.1-1228 embodying the terms and conditions concerning the use and occupancy of a manufactured home lot and premises and other facilities or services provided by the landlord.

"Secured party" means the same as that term is defined in § 8.9A-102.

"Security interest" means the same as that term is defined in § 8.1A-201.

"Tenant" means a person entitled as under a rental agreement to occupy a manufactured home lot to the exclusion of others.

1975, c. 535, § 55-248.41; 1983, c. 386; 1991, c. 500; 1992, c. 709; 2018, c. 408; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1301. Written rental agreement required.

A. Before the tenancy begins, all parties shall sign and date a written rental agreement that includes all terms governing the rental and occupancy of a manufactured home lot. The landlord shall give the tenant a copy of the signed and dated written rental agreement and a copy of this chapter or a clear and simple description of the obligations of landlords and tenants under this chapter within seven days after the tenant signs the written rental agreement. The written rental agreement shall not contain any provisions contrary to the provisions of this chapter and shall not contain a provision prohibiting the tenant from selling his manufactured home. A notice of any change by a landlord in any terms or provisions of the written rental agreement shall constitute a notice to vacate the premises, and such notice shall be given in accordance with the terms of the written rental agreement or as otherwise required by law. The written rental agreement shall not provide that the tenant pay any recurring charges except fixed rent, utility charges, or reasonable incidental charges for services or facilities supplied by the landlord. The landlord shall post a copy of this chapter, including the full text of the sections referenced in § 55.1-1311, in the manufactured home park.

B. In the event that any party has a secured interest in the manufactured home, the written rental agreement or rental application shall include the name and address of such party and the name and address of the dealer from whom the manufactured home was purchased. In addition, the written rental agreement shall require the tenant to notify the landlord within 10 days of any new security interest, change of existing security interest, or settlement of security interest.

1975, c. 535, § 55-248.42; 1986, c. 586; 1991, c. 500; 1992, c. 709; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1302. Term of rental agreement; renewal; security deposits.

A. A landlord shall offer all current and prospective year-round residents a rental agreement with a rental period of not less than one year. Such offer shall contain the same terms and conditions as are offered with shorter term leases, except that rental discounts may be offered by a landlord to residents who enter into a rental agreement for a period of not less than one year.

B. Upon the expiration of a rental agreement, the agreement shall be automatically renewed for a term of one year with the same terms unless the landlord provides written notice to the tenant of any change in the terms of the agreement at least 60 days prior to the expiration date. In the case of an automatic renewal of a rental agreement for a year-round resident, the security deposit initially furnished by the tenant shall not be increased by the landlord, nor shall an additional security deposit be required.

C. Except as limited by subsection B, the provisions of § 55.1-1226 shall govern the terms and conditions of security deposits for rental agreements under this chapter.

1992, c. 709, § 55-248.42:1; 1999, c. 513; 2000, c. 41; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1303. Landlord's obligations.

The landlord shall:

1. Comply with applicable laws governing health, zoning, safety, and other matters pertaining to manufactured home parks;

2. Make all repairs and do whatever is necessary to put and keep the manufactured home park in a fit and habitable condition, including maintaining in a clean and safe condition all facilities and common areas provided by the landlord for use by the tenants of two or more manufactured home lots;

3. Maintain in good and working order and condition all electrical, plumbing, sanitary, heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and other facilities and appliances supplied or required to be supplied by the landlord;

4. Provide and maintain appropriate receptacles as a manufactured home park facility, except when door-to-door garbage and waste pickup is available within the manufactured home park for the collection and storage of garbage and other waste incidental to the occupancy of the manufactured home park, and arrange for the removal of the garbage and other waste; and

5. Provide reasonable access to electric, water, and sewage disposal connections for each manufactured home lot. In the event of a planned disruption by the landlord in electric, water, or sewage disposal services, the landlord shall give written notice to tenants no less than 48 hours prior to the planned disruption in service.

1975, c. 535, § 55-248.43; 1992, c. 709; 2001, c. 44; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1304. Tenant's obligations.

In addition to the provisions of the rental agreement, the tenant shall:

1. Comply with applicable laws affecting manufactured home owners and tenants;

2. Keep and maintain the exterior of the tenant's manufactured home and manufactured home lot as clean and safe as conditions permit;

3. Place all garbage and other waste in the appropriate receptacles, which shall be provided by the tenant when door-to-door garbage and waste pickup is provided;

4. Use in a reasonable and orderly manner all facilities and appliances in the manufactured home park and require any guest or invitee to do so;

5. Conduct himself and require any guest or invitee to conduct himself in a manner that will not disturb the tenant's neighbors' peaceful enjoyment of the premises;

6. Abide by all reasonable rules and regulations imposed by the landlord; and

7. In the absence of express written agreement to the contrary, occupy the tenant's manufactured home only as a dwelling unit.

1975, c. 535, § 55-248.44; 1992, c. 709; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1305. Rent; liability of secured party taking possession of an abandoned manufactured home.

A. A secured party shall have no liability for rent or other charges to a landlord except as provided in this section.

B. In the event that a manufactured home subject to a security interest becomes an abandoned manufactured home, the landlord shall send notice of abandonment to the manufactured home owner, the secured party, and the dealer as provided for in § 55.1-1202 at the addresses shown in the written rental agreement or rental application. The notice of abandonment shall state the amount of rent and the amount and nature of any reasonable charges in addition to rent for which the secured party will be liable. The notice shall include any written rental agreement previously signed by the tenant and the landlord.

C. A secured party that has a security interest in an abandoned manufactured home, and that has a right to possession of the manufactured home under § 8.9A-609 or under the applicable security agreement, is liable to the landlord under the same payment terms as the tenant prior to the secured party's accrual of the right of possession and for any other reasonable charges in addition to rent incurred. Such liability is for the period that begins 15 days from receipt of the notice of abandonment by the secured party and ends upon the earlier to occur of the removal of the abandoned manufactured home from the manufactured home park or disposition of the abandoned manufactured home under §§ 8.9A-610 through 8.9A-624 or under the applicable security agreement.

D. This section shall not affect the availability of the landlord's lien as provided in § 55.1-1316, nor shall this section impact the priority of the secured party's lien as provided in § 46.2-640.

E. Any rent or reasonable charges in addition to rent owed by the secured party to the landlord pursuant to this section shall be paid to the landlord prior to the removal of the manufactured home from the manufactured home park.

F. If a secured party that has a secured interest in an abandoned manufactured home becomes liable to the landlord pursuant to this section, then the relationship between the secured party and the landlord shall be governed by the rental agreement previously signed by the tenant and the landlord unless otherwise agreed, except that the term of the rental agreement shall convert to a month-to-month tenancy. No waiver is required to convert the rental agreement to a month-to-month tenancy. Either the landlord or the secured party may terminate the month-to-month tenancy upon giving written notice of at least 30 days. The secured party and the landlord are not required to execute a new rental agreement. Nothing in this section shall be construed to be a waiver of any rights by the tenant.

1991, c. 500, § 55-248.44:1; 1992, c. 709; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1306. Demands and charges prohibited; access by tenant's guest or invitee; purchases by manufactured home owner not restricted; exception; conditions of occupancy.

A. A landlord shall not demand or collect:

1. An entrance fee for the privilege of leasing or occupying a manufactured home lot;

2. A commission on the sale of a manufactured home located in the manufactured home park, unless the tenant expressly employs him to perform a service in connection with such sale, but no such employment of the landlord by the tenant shall be a condition or term of the initial sale or rental;

3. A fee for improvements or installations on the interior of a manufactured home, unless the tenant expressly employs him to perform a service in connection with such improvements or installations;

4. A fee, charge, or other thing of value from any provider of cable television service, cable modem service, satellite master antenna television service, direct broadcast satellite television service, subscription television service, or service of any other television programming system in exchange for granting a television service provider mere access to the landlord's tenants or giving the tenants of such landlord mere access to such service. A landlord may enter into a service agreement with a television service provider to provide marketing and other services to the television service provider designed to facilitate the television service provider's delivery of its services. Under such a service agreement, the television service provider may compensate the landlord for the reasonable value of the services provided and for the reasonable value of the landlord's property used by the television service provider.

No landlord shall demand or accept any such payment from any tenants in exchange for such services, unless the landlord is itself the provider of the service, nor shall any landlord discriminate in rental charges between tenants who receive any such service and those who do not. Nothing in this subdivision shall prohibit a landlord from requiring that the provider of such service and the tenant bear the entire cost of the installation, operation, or removal of the facilities incident to such installation, operation, or removal or prohibit a landlord from demanding or accepting reasonable indemnity or security for any damages caused by such installation, operation, or removal; or

5. An exit fee for moving a manufactured home from a manufactured home park.

B. A guest or invitee of the tenant shall have free access to the tenant's manufactured home site without charge or registration.

C. A manufactured home owner shall not be restricted in his choice of vendors from whom he may purchase his (i) manufactured home, except in connection with the initial leasing or renting of a newly constructed lot not previously leased or rented to any other person, or (ii) goods and services. However, nothing in this chapter shall prohibit a landlord from prescribing reasonable requirements governing, as a condition of occupancy, the style, size, or quality of the manufactured home or other structures placed on the manufactured home lot.

1975, c. 535, § 55-248.45; 1987, c. 513; 1989, c. 87; 1992, c. 709; 2008, c. 329; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1307. Charge for utility service.

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 56-245.3, a landlord who purchases from a publicly regulated utility any electricity, gas, or other utility service, including water and sewer services, for resale or pass-through to a tenant may not charge for the resale or pass-through of such service an amount that exceeds the amount permitted under the provisions of § 55.1-1212.

1992, c. 709, § 55-248.45:1; 2006, c. 303; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1308. Termination of tenancy.

A. Either party may terminate a rental agreement with a term of 60 days or more by giving written notice to the other at least 60 days prior to the termination date; however, the rental agreement may require a longer period of notice. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, where a landlord and seller of a manufactured home have in common (i) one or more owners, (ii) immediate family members, or (iii) officers or directors, the rental agreement shall be renewed except for reasons that would justify a termination of the rental agreement or eviction by the landlord as authorized by this chapter. A landlord may not cause the eviction of a tenant by willfully interrupting gas, electricity, water, or any other essential service, or by removal of the manufactured home from the manufactured home lot, or by any other willful self-help measure.

B. If the termination is due to a change in the use of all or any part of a manufactured home park by the landlord, including conversion to hotel, motel, or other commercial use, planned unit development, rehabilitation, or demolition, a 180-day written notice is required to terminate a rental agreement. Such termination notice requirement shall not be waived; however, a period of less than 180 days may be agreed upon by both the landlord and tenant in a written agreement separate from the rental agreement executed after such notice is given. The notice required by this section may be sent concurrently with the notice of intent to sell required by § 55.1-1308.2.

1975, c. 535, § 55-248.46; 1991, c. 185; 1992, c. 709; 2001, c. 47; 2005, c. 416; 2019, c. 712; 2020, c. 751.

§ 55.1-1308.1. Sale of manufactured home park to developer; relocation expenses.

If the termination of a rental agreement is due to the sale of the manufactured home park to a buyer that is going to redevelop the park and change its use, the landlord shall provide to each manufactured home owner in the park $2,500 in relocation expenses within the 180-day notice period provided for in subsection B of § 55.1-1308 for the purpose of removing the manufactured home from the park. For manufactured home parks located in Planning District 8, the landlord shall provide to each manufactured home owner in the park $3,500 in relocation expenses within the 180-day notice period provided for in subsection B of § 55.1-1308 for the purpose of removing the manufactured home from the park. Such relocation expenses shall be subject to a written agreement between the landlord and the manufactured home owner to remove the manufactured home from the park. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a landlord shall not be subject to any other requirement under a zoning ordinance or conditional use or other permit under Title 15.2 to pay additional funds or provide additional financial assistance to a manufactured home owner if a rental agreement is terminated due to the sale of the manufactured home park to a buyer that is going to redevelop the park and change its use.

2020, c. 391.

§ 55.1-1308.2. Notice of intent to sell.

A. A manufactured home park owner who offers or lists the park for sale to a third party shall provide written notice containing the date on which the notice is sent and the price for which the park is to be offered or listed for sale. Such notice shall be sent to the Department of Housing and Community Development, which shall make the information available on its website within five business days of receipt. Such written notice shall also be given to each tenant of the manufactured home park, in accordance with § 55.1-1202, at least 90 days prior to accepting an offer. A manufactured home park owner shall consider any offers to purchase received during such 90-day notice period. For purposes of this section, "third party" does not include a member of the manufactured park owner's family by blood or marriage or a person or entity that owns a portion of the park at the time of the offer or listing of such manufactured home park. Nothing shall be construed to require any subsequent notice by the manufactured home park owner after the written notice provided in this section.

B. If a manufactured home park owner receives an offer to purchase the park, acceptance of that offer shall be contingent upon the park owner sending written notice of the proposed sale and the purchase price in the real estate purchase contract at least 60 days before the closing date on such purchase contract to the Department of Housing and Community Development, which shall place the information on its website within five business days of receipt. Such written notice shall also be given to each tenant of the manufactured home park. During the 60-day notice period, the park owner shall consider additional offers to purchase the park made by an entity that provides documentation that it represents at least 25 percent of the tenants with a valid lease in the manufactured home park at the time any such offer is made, but shall not be obligated to consider additional offers after the expiration of the 60-day notice period. Nothing shall be construed to require any subsequent notice by the manufactured home park owner after provision of the written notice required by this section.

2020, c. 751, § 55.1-1308.1.

§ 55.1-1309. Waiver of landlord's right to terminate.

Unless the landlord accepts the rent with reservation, and gives a written notice to the tenant of such acceptance within five business days of receipt of the rent, acceptance of periodic rent payments with knowledge in fact of a material noncompliance by the tenant shall constitute a waiver of the landlord's right to terminate the rental agreement. Except as provided in § 55.1-1250, if the landlord has given the tenant written notice that the rent payments have been accepted with reservation, the landlord may accept full payment of all rent payments and still be entitled to receive an order of possession terminating the rental agreement.

2001, c. 47, § 55-248.46:1; 2019, c. 712; 2020, c. 751.

§ 55.1-1310. Sale or lease of manufactured home by manufactured home owner.

No landlord shall unreasonably refuse or restrict the sale or rental of a manufactured home located in his manufactured home park by a tenant. No landlord shall prohibit the manufactured home owner from placing a "for sale" sign on or in the owner's home except that the size, placement, and character of all signs are subject to the rules and regulations of the manufactured home park. Prior to selling or leasing the manufactured home, the tenant shall give notice to the landlord, including the name of the prospective vendee or lessee if the prospective vendee or lessee intends to occupy the manufactured home in that manufactured home park. The landlord shall have the burden of proving that his refusal or restriction regarding the sale or rental of a manufactured home was reasonable. The refusal or restriction of the sale or rental of a manufactured home exclusively or predominantly based on the age of the home shall be considered unreasonable. Any refusal or restriction based on race, color, religion, national origin, status as a veteran, familial status, marital status, elderliness, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity, sex, or pregnancy, childbirth or related medical conditions shall be conclusively presumed to be unreasonable.

1975, c. 535, § 55-248.47; 1986, c. 586; 1992, c. 709; 2019, c. 712; 2020, cc. 1137, 1140.

§ 55.1-1311. Other provisions of law applicable.

Section 55.1-1202, subsection A of § 55.1-1204, §§ 55.1-1207, 55.1-1208, 55.1-1216, 55.1-1224, 55.1-1226, 55.1-1228, 55.1-1234 through 55.1-1249, 55.1-1251, 55.1-1252, and 55.1-1259 shall, insofar as they are not inconsistent with this chapter, apply, mutatis mutandis, to the rental and occupancy of a manufactured home lot.

1975, c. 535, § 55-248.48; 1992, c. 709; 2000, c. 760; 2001, c. 47; 2019, c. 712; 2020, c. 751.

§ 55.1-1312. Authority of local governments over manufactured home parks.

The governing body of any locality may adopt ordinances to enforce the obligations imposed on landlords by § 55.1-1303.

1984, c. 460, § 55-248.49; 1999, c. 77; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1313. Notice of uncorrected violations.

If a landlord does not remedy a violation of an ordinance that pertains to the health and safety of tenants in a manufactured home park within seven days of receiving notice from the locality of such violation, the locality shall notify tenants of the manufactured home park who are affected by the violation. Such notification may consist of posting the notice of violation in a conspicuous place in the manufactured home park or mailing copies of the notice to affected tenants.

2017, c. 734, § 55-248.49:1; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1314. Retaliatory conduct prohibited.

A. Except as provided in this section, or as otherwise provided by law, a landlord shall not retaliate by selectively increasing rent or decreasing services or by bringing or threatening to bring an action for possession after the landlord has knowledge that (i) the tenant has complained to a governmental agency charged with responsibility for enforcement of a building or housing code of a violation applicable to the premises materially affecting health or safety, (ii) the tenant has made a complaint to or filed an action against the landlord for a violation of any provision of this chapter, (iii) the tenant has organized or become a member of a tenant's organization, or (iv) the tenant has testified in a court proceeding against the landlord.

B. The landlord shall be deemed to have knowledge of a fact if he has actual knowledge of it, he has received a notice or notification of it, or, from all the facts and circumstances known to him at the time in question, he has reason to know that it exists.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections A and B, a landlord may terminate the rental agreement pursuant to subsection A of § 55.1-1308 and bring an action for possession if:

1. Violation of the applicable building and housing code was caused by lack of reasonable care by the tenant, a member of the tenant's household, or a guest or invitee of the tenant;

2. The tenant is in default in rent; or

3. The tenant is in default of a provision of the rental agreement materially affecting the health and safety of the tenant or others.

1986, c. 586, § 55-248.50; 1991, c. 185; 1992, c. 709; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1315. Eviction of tenant.

A landlord may evict a tenant only for:

1. Nonpayment of rent;

2. Violation of the applicable building and housing code caused by a lack of reasonable care by the tenant, a member of the tenant's household, or a guest or invitee of the tenant;

3. Violation of a federal, state, or local law or ordinance that is detrimental to the health, safety, and welfare of other tenants in the manufactured home park;

4. Violation of any rule or provisions of the rental agreement materially affecting the health, safety, and welfare of the tenant or others; or

5. Two or more violations of any rule or provision of the rental agreement occurring within a six-month period.

1992, c. 709, § 55-248.50:1; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1316. Right to sell or rent manufactured home upon eviction.

A. A tenant who has been evicted from a manufactured home park shall have 90 days after judgment has been entered in which to sell the manufactured home or remove the manufactured home from the manufactured home park. Such tenant shall be responsible for paying the rental amount and for regular maintenance of the manufactured home lot during the period between the date of eviction and the sale of the manufactured home or the removal of the manufactured home from the manufactured home park. Such right to keep the manufactured home in the manufactured home park shall be conditioned upon the payment of all rent accrued prior to the date of judgment and prospective monthly rent as it becomes due. During such term, a secured party shall be liable for such charges as provided in § 55.1-1305. The manufactured home park owner shall have a lien on the manufactured home to the extent that such rental payments are not made. Any sale of the manufactured home shall be subject to the rights of any secured party having a security interest in the home, and the lien granted to the manufactured home park owner under this section shall be subject to any such security interest.

B. A tenant who has been evicted from a manufactured home park shall have 90 days from after the judgment has been entered by a court of competent jurisdiction in which to rent the manufactured home to a subtenant, contingent on the subtenant making a rental application to the manufactured home park owner within such 90-day period and approval by the manufactured home park owner of such rental application from the subtenant. The tenant of the lot shall be responsible for paying the lot rent amount to the park owner and for regular maintenance of the manufactured home lot during the period between the date of eviction and any rental of the manufactured home to a subtenant. Such right to keep the manufactured home on the lot in the manufactured home park shall be conditioned upon the payment of all rent accrued prior to the date of judgment and prospective monthly rent as it becomes due. During such term, a secured party shall be liable for such charges as provided in § 55.1-1305.

1992, c. 709, § 55-248.50:2; 2019, c. 712; 2020, c. 751.

§ 55.1-1317. Transfer of deposits upon purchase.

The manufactured home park owner shall transfer any security deposits and any accrued interest on the deposits in his possession to the new manufactured home park owner at the time of the transfer of the rental property. If the current manufactured home park owner has entered into a written property management agreement with a managing agent in accordance with the provisions of subsection E of § 54.1-2135, the current manufactured home park owner shall give written notice to the managing agent requesting payment of such security deposits to the current manufactured home park owner prior to settlement with the new manufactured home park owner. Upon receipt of the written notice, the managing agent shall transfer the security deposits to the current manufactured home park owner and provide written notice to each tenant that his security deposit has been transferred to the new manufactured home park owner in accordance with this section.

1984, c. 281, § 55-507; 2017, cc. 63, 402; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1318. Penalties for violation of chapter.

If the landlord acts in willful violation of § 55.1-1303, 55.1-1306, 55.1-1310, or 55.1-1314 or if the landlord fails to provide a written, dated rental agreement, the tenant is entitled to recover from the landlord an amount equal to the greater of either the tenant's monthly rental payment at the time of the violation or actual damages and reasonable attorney fees.

1986, c. 586, § 55-248.51; 2019, c. 712.

§ 55.1-1319. Injunctive relief.

The attorney for any locality may file an action for injunctive relief for violations of this chapter.

1987, c. 111, § 55-248.52; 2019, c. 712.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

The Virginia General Assembly is offering access to the Code of Virginia on the Internet as a service to the public. We are unable to assist users of this service with legal questions nor respond to requests for legal advice or the application of the law to specific facts. Therefore, to understand and protect your legal rights, you should consult an attorney.

The Code of Virginia online database excludes material copyrighted by the publisher, Michie, a division of Matthew Bender. Copyrighted material includes annotations and revisors' notes, which may be found in the print version of the Code of Virginia. Annotated print copies of the Code of Virginia are available in most Virginia public library systems, from LexisNexis (1-800-446-3410), and from West, a Thomson-Reuters business (1-800-344-5008).