Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 62.1. Waters of the State, Ports and Harbors
12/10/2018

Article 2.3. Stormwater Management Act.

§ 62.1-44.15:24. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Agreement in lieu of a plan" means a contract between the VESMP authority or the Board acting as a VSMP authority and the owner or permittee that specifies methods that shall be implemented to comply with the requirements of this article for the construction of a single-family detached residential structure; such contract may be executed by the VESMP authority in lieu of a soil erosion control and stormwater management plan or by the Board acting as a VSMP authority in lieu of a stormwater management plan.

"Applicant" means any person submitting a soil erosion control and stormwater management plan to a VESMP authority, or a stormwater management plan to the Board when it is serving as a VSMP authority, for approval in order to obtain authorization to commence a land-disturbing activity.

"CWA" means the federal Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. § 1251 et seq.), formerly referred to as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, P.L. 92-500, as amended by P.L. 95-217, P.L. 95-576, P.L. 96-483, and P.L. 97-117, or any subsequent revisions thereto.

"Department" means the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Erosion impact area" means an area of land that is not associated with a current land-disturbing activity but is subject to persistent soil erosion resulting in the delivery of sediment onto neighboring properties or into state waters. This definition shall not apply to any lot or parcel of land of 10,000 square feet or less used for residential purposes or any shoreline where the erosion results from wave action or other coastal processes.

"Flooding" means a volume of water that is too great to be confined within the banks or walls of the stream, water body, or conveyance system and that overflows onto adjacent lands, thereby causing or threatening damage.

"Land disturbance" or "land-disturbing activity" means a man-made change to the land surface that may result in soil erosion or has the potential to change its runoff characteristics, including construction activity such as the clearing, grading, excavating, or filling of land.

"Land-disturbance approval" means the same as that term is defined in § 62.1-44.3.

"Municipal separate storm sewer" or "MS4" means the same as that term is defined in § 62.1-44.3.

"Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System Management Program" means a management program covering the duration of a permit for a municipal separate storm sewer system that includes a comprehensive planning process that involves public participation and intergovernmental coordination, to reduce the discharge of pollutants to the maximum extent practicable, to protect water quality, and to satisfy the appropriate water quality requirements of the CWA and regulations, and this article and its attendant regulations, using management practices, control techniques, and system, design, and engineering methods, and such other provisions that are appropriate.

"Natural channel design concepts" means the utilization of engineering analysis and fluvial geomorphic processes to create, rehabilitate, restore, or stabilize an open conveyance system for the purpose of creating or recreating a stream that conveys its bankfull storm event within its banks and allows larger flows to access its bankfull bench and its floodplain.

"Nonpoint source pollution" means pollution such as sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and toxics whose sources cannot be pinpointed but rather are washed from the land surface in a diffuse manner by stormwater.

"Owner" means the same as that term is defined in § 62.1-44.3. For a regulated land-disturbing activity that does not require a permit, "owner" also means the owner or owners of the freehold of the premises or lesser estate therein, mortgagee or vendee in possession, assignee of rents, receiver, executor, trustee, lessee, or other person, firm, or corporation in control of a property.

"Peak flow rate" means the maximum instantaneous flow from a prescribed design storm at a particular location.

"Permit" means a Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) permit issued by the Board pursuant to § 62.1-44.15 for stormwater discharges from a land-disturbing activity or MS4.

"Permittee" means the person to whom the permit is issued.

"Runoff volume" means the volume of water that runs off the land development project from a prescribed storm event.

"Rural Tidewater locality" means any locality that is (i) subject to the provisions of the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.) and (ii) eligible to join the Rural Coastal Virginia Community Enhancement Authority established by Chapter 76 (§ 15.2-7600 et seq.) of Title 15.2.

"Soil erosion" means the movement of soil by wind or water into state waters or onto lands in the Commonwealth.

"Soil Erosion Control and Stormwater Management plan" or "plan" means a document describing methods for controlling soil erosion and managing stormwater in accordance with the requirements adopted pursuant to this article.

"Stormwater," for the purposes of this article, means precipitation that is discharged across the land surface or through conveyances to one or more waterways and that may include stormwater runoff, snow melt runoff, and surface runoff and drainage.

"Stormwater management plan" means a document containing material describing methods for complying with the requirements of a VSMP.

"Subdivision" means the same as that term is defined in § 15.2-2201.

"Virginia Erosion and Sediment Control Program" or "VESCP" means a program approved by the Board that is established by a VESCP authority pursuant to Article 2.4 (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.) for the effective control of soil erosion, sediment deposition, and nonagricultural runoff associated with a land-disturbing activity to prevent the unreasonable degradation of properties, stream channels, waters, and other natural resources. The VESCP shall include, where applicable, such items as local ordinances, rules, policies and guidelines, technical materials, and requirements for plan review, inspection, and evaluation consistent with the requirements of Article 2.4 (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.).

"Virginia Erosion and Sediment Control Program authority" or "VESCP authority" means a locality that is approved by the Board to operate a Virginia Erosion and Sediment Control Program in accordance with Article 2.4 (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.). Only a locality for which the Department administered a Virginia Stormwater Management Program as of July 1, 2017, is authorized to choose to operate a VESCP pursuant to Article 2.4 (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.).

"Virginia Erosion and Stormwater Management Program" or "VESMP" means a program established by a VESMP authority for the effective control of soil erosion and sediment deposition and the management of the quality and quantity of runoff resulting from land-disturbing activities to prevent the unreasonable degradation of properties, stream channels, waters, and other natural resources. The program shall include such items as local ordinances, rules, requirements for permits and land-disturbance approvals, policies and guidelines, technical materials, and requirements for plan review, inspection, and enforcement consistent with the requirements of this article.

"Virginia Erosion and Stormwater Management Program authority" or "VESMP authority" means the Board or a locality approved by the Board to operate a Virginia Erosion and Stormwater Management Program. For state agency or federal entity land-disturbing activities and land-disturbing activities subject to approved standards and specifications, the Board shall serve as the VESMP authority.

"Virginia Stormwater Management Program" or "VSMP" means a program established by the Board pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:27.1 on behalf of a locality on or after July 1, 2014, to manage the quality and quantity of runoff resulting from any land-disturbing activity that (i) disturbs one acre or more of land or (ii) disturbs less than one acre of land and is part of a larger common plan of development or sale that results in one acre or more of land disturbance.

"Virginia Stormwater Management Program authority" or "VSMP authority" means the Board when administering a VSMP on behalf of a locality that, pursuant to subdivision B 3 of § 62.1-44.15:27, has chosen not to adopt and administer a VESMP.

"Water quality technical criteria" means standards set forth in regulations adopted pursuant to this article that establish minimum design criteria for measures to control nonpoint source pollution.

"Water quantity technical criteria" means standards set forth in regulations adopted pursuant to this article that establish minimum design criteria for measures to control localized flooding and stream channel erosion.

"Watershed" means a defined land area drained by a river or stream, karst system, or system of connecting rivers or streams such that all surface water within the area flows through a single outlet. In karst areas, the karst feature to which water drains may be considered the single outlet for the watershed.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.2; 1991, c. 84; 1994, cc. 605, 898; 2004, c. 372; 2006, cc. 21, 171; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598; 2016, cc. 68, 758; 2018, cc. 154, 155.

§ 62.1-44.15:24. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Agreement in lieu of a stormwater management plan" means a contract between the VSMP authority and the owner or permittee that specifies methods that shall be implemented to comply with the requirements of a VSMP for the construction of a single-family residence; such contract may be executed by the VSMP authority in lieu of a stormwater management plan.

"Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act land-disturbing activity" means a land-disturbing activity including clearing, grading, or excavation that results in a land disturbance equal to or greater than 2,500 square feet and less than one acre in all areas of jurisdictions designated as subject to the regulations adopted pursuant to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation provisions of this chapter.

"CWA" means the federal Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. § 1251 et seq.), formerly referred to as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, P.L. 92-500, as amended by P.L. 95-217, P.L. 95-576, P.L. 96-483, and P.L. 97-117, or any subsequent revisions thereto.

"Department" means the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Flooding" means a volume of water that is too great to be confined within the banks or walls of the stream, water body, or conveyance system and that overflows onto adjacent lands, thereby causing or threatening damage.

"Land disturbance" or "land-disturbing activity" means a man-made change to the land surface that potentially changes its runoff characteristics including clearing, grading, or excavation, except that the term shall not include those exemptions specified in § 62.1-44.15:34.

"Municipal separate storm sewer" means a conveyance or system of conveyances otherwise known as a municipal separate storm sewer system or "MS4," including roads with drainage systems, municipal streets, catch basins, curbs, gutters, ditches, man-made channels, or storm drains:

1. Owned or operated by a federal, state, city, town, county, district, association, or other public body, created by or pursuant to state law, having jurisdiction or delegated authority for erosion and sediment control and stormwater management, or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the CWA that discharges to surface waters;

2. Designed or used for collecting or conveying stormwater;

3. That is not a combined sewer; and

4. That is not part of a publicly owned treatment works.

"Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System Management Program" means a management program covering the duration of a state permit for a municipal separate storm sewer system that includes a comprehensive planning process that involves public participation and intergovernmental coordination, to reduce the discharge of pollutants to the maximum extent practicable, to protect water quality, and to satisfy the appropriate water quality requirements of the CWA and regulations, and this article and its attendant regulations, using management practices, control techniques, and system, design, and engineering methods, and such other provisions that are appropriate.

"Nonpoint source pollution" means pollution such as sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and toxics whose sources cannot be pinpointed but rather are washed from the land surface in a diffuse manner by stormwater runoff.

"Peak flow rate" means the maximum instantaneous flow from a prescribed design storm at a particular location.

"Permit" or "VSMP authority permit" means an approval to conduct a land-disturbing activity issued by the VSMP authority for the initiation of a land-disturbing activity after evidence of state VSMP general permit coverage has been provided where applicable.

"Permittee" means the person to which the permit or state permit is issued.

"Runoff volume" means the volume of water that runs off the land development project from a prescribed storm event.

"Rural Tidewater locality" means any locality that is (i) subject to the provisions of the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.) and (ii) eligible to join the Rural Coastal Virginia Community Enhancement Authority established by Chapter 76 (§ 15.2-7600 et seq.) of Title 15.2.

"State permit" means an approval to conduct a land-disturbing activity issued by the Board in the form of a state stormwater individual permit or coverage issued under a state general permit or an approval issued by the Board for stormwater discharges from an MS4. Under these permits, the Commonwealth imposes and enforces requirements pursuant to the federal Clean Water Act and regulations and this article and its attendant regulations.

"Stormwater" means precipitation that is discharged across the land surface or through conveyances to one or more waterways and that may include stormwater runoff, snow melt runoff, and surface runoff and drainage.

"Stormwater management plan" means a document containing material describing methods for complying with the requirements of a VSMP.

"Subdivision" means the same as defined in § 15.2-2201.

"Virginia Stormwater Management Program" or "VSMP" means a program approved by the Soil and Water Conservation Board after September 13, 2011, and until June 30, 2013, or the State Water Control Board on and after June 30, 2013, that has been established by a VSMP authority to manage the quality and quantity of runoff resulting from land-disturbing activities and shall include such items as local ordinances, rules, permit requirements, annual standards and specifications, policies and guidelines, technical materials, and requirements for plan review, inspection, enforcement, where authorized in this article, and evaluation consistent with the requirements of this article and associated regulations.

"Virginia Stormwater Management Program authority" or "VSMP authority" means an authority approved by the Board after September 13, 2011, to operate a Virginia Stormwater Management Program or the Department. An authority may include a locality; state entity, including the Department; federal entity; or, for linear projects subject to annual standards and specifications in accordance with subsection B of § 62.1-44.15:31, electric, natural gas, and telephone utility companies, interstate and intrastate natural gas pipeline companies, railroad companies, or authorities created pursuant to § 15.2-5102.

"Water quality volume" means the volume equal to the first one-half inch of runoff multiplied by the impervious surface of the land development project.

"Water quantity technical criteria" means standards set forth in regulations adopted pursuant to this article that establish minimum design criteria for measures to control localized flooding and stream channel erosion.

"Watershed" means a defined land area drained by a river or stream, karst system, or system of connecting rivers or streams such that all surface water within the area flows through a single outlet. In karst areas, the karst feature to which water drains may be considered the single outlet for the watershed.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.2; 1991, c. 84; 1994, cc. 605, 898; 2004, c. 372; 2006, cc. 21, 171; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598; 2018, cc. 154, 155.

§ 62.1-44.15:25. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Further powers and duties of the State Water Control Board.

In addition to other powers and duties conferred upon the Board, it shall permit, regulate, and control stormwater runoff in the Commonwealth. The Board may issue, deny, revoke, terminate, or amend state stormwater individual permits or coverage issued under state general permits; adopt regulations; approve and periodically review Virginia Stormwater Management Programs and management programs developed in conjunction with a state municipal separate storm sewer permit; enforce the provisions of this article; and otherwise act to ensure the general health, safety, and welfare of the citizens of the Commonwealth as well as protect the quality and quantity of state waters from the potential harm of unmanaged stormwater. The Board may:

1. Issue, deny, amend, revoke, terminate, and enforce state permits for the control of stormwater discharges from Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems and land-disturbing activities.

2. Take administrative and legal actions to ensure compliance with the provisions of this article by any person subject to state or VSMP authority permit requirements under this article, and those entities with an approved Virginia Stormwater Management Program and management programs developed in conjunction with a state municipal separate storm sewer system permit, including the proper enforcement and implementation of, and continual compliance with, this article.

3. In accordance with procedures of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.), amend or revoke any state permit issued under this article on the following grounds or for good cause as may be provided by the regulations of the Board:

a. Any person subject to state permit requirements under this article has violated or failed, neglected, or refused to obey any order or regulation of the Board, any order, notice, or requirement of the Department, any condition of a state permit, any provision of this article, or any order of a court, where such violation results in the unreasonable degradation of properties, water quality, stream channels, and other natural resources, or the violation is representative of a pattern of serious or repeated violations, including the disregard for or inability to comply with applicable laws, regulations, permit conditions, orders, rules, or requirements;

b. Any person subject to state permit requirements under this article has failed to disclose fully all relevant material facts or has misrepresented a material fact in applying for a state permit, or in any other report or document required under this law or under the regulations of the Board;

c. The activity for which the state permit was issued causes unreasonable degradation of properties, water quality, stream channels, and other natural resources; or

d. There exists a material change in the basis on which the state permit was issued that requires either a temporary or a permanent reduction or elimination of any discharge or land-disturbing activity controlled by the state permit necessary to prevent unreasonable degradation of properties, water quality, stream channels, and other natural resources.

4. Cause investigations and inspections to ensure compliance with any state or VSMP authority permits, conditions, policies, rules, regulations, rulings, and orders which it may adopt, issue, or establish and to furnish advice, recommendations, or instructions for the purpose of obtaining such compliance.

5. In accordance with procedures of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.), adopt rules governing (i) hearings, (ii) the filing of reports, (iii) the issuance of permits and special orders, and (iv) all other matters relating to procedure, and amend or cancel any rule adopted.

6. Issue special orders to any person subject to state or VSMP authority permit requirements under this article (i) who is permitting or causing the unreasonable degradation of properties, water quality, stream channels, and other natural resources to cease and desist from such activities; (ii) who has failed to construct facilities in accordance with final approved plans and specifications to construct such facilities; (iii) who has violated the terms and provisions of a state or VSMP authority permit issued by the Board or VSMP authority to comply with the provisions of the state or VSMP authority permit, this article, and any decision of the VSMP authority, the Department, or the Board; or (iv) who has violated the terms of an order issued by the court, the VSMP authority, the Department, or the Board to comply with the terms of such order, and also to issue orders to require any person subject to state or VSMP authority permit requirements under this article to comply with the provisions of this article and any decision of the Board.

Such special orders are to be issued in accordance with the procedures of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) and shall become effective not less than 15 days after the date of mailing with confirmation of delivery of the notice to the last known address of any person subject to state or VSMP authority permit requirements under this article, provided that if the Board finds that any such person subject to state or VSMP authority permit requirements under this article is grossly affecting or presents an imminent and substantial danger to (i) the public health, safety, or welfare or the health of animals, fish, or aquatic life; (ii) a public water supply; or (iii) recreational, commercial, industrial, agricultural, or other reasonable uses, it may issue, without advance notice or hearing, an emergency special order directing any person subject to state or VSMP authority permit requirements under this article to cease such pollution or discharge immediately, and shall provide an opportunity for a hearing, after reasonable notice as to the time and place thereof to any person subject to state or VSMP authority permit requirements under this article, to affirm, modify, amend, or cancel such emergency special order. If any person subject to state or VSMP authority permit requirements under this article who has been issued such a special order or an emergency special order is not complying with the terms thereof, the Board may proceed in accordance with § 62.1-44.15:48, and where the order is based on a finding of an imminent and substantial danger, the court shall issue an injunction compelling compliance with the emergency special order pending a hearing by the Board. If an emergency special order requires cessation of a discharge, the recipient of the order may appeal its issuance to the circuit court of the jurisdiction wherein the discharge was alleged to have occurred.

The provisions of this section notwithstanding, the Board may proceed directly under § 62.1-44.15:48 for any past violation or violations of any provision of this article or any regulation duly adopted hereunder.

With the consent of any person subject to state or VSMP authority permit requirements under this article who has violated or failed, neglected, or refused to obey any regulation or order of the Board, any order, notice, or requirement of the Department or VSMP authority, any condition of a state or VSMP authority permit, or any provision of this article, the Board may provide, in an order issued by the Board against such person, for the payment of civil charges for violations in specific sums not to exceed the limit specified in subsection A of § 62.1-44.15:48. Such civil charges shall be collected in lieu of any appropriate civil penalty that could be imposed pursuant to subsection A of § 62.1-44.15:48 and shall not be subject to the provisions of § 2.2-514. Such civil charges shall be paid into the state treasury and deposited by the State Treasurer into the Virginia Stormwater Management Fund established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:29.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.2:1; 2006, c. 171; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:25. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Further powers and duties of the State Water Control Board.

In addition to other powers and duties conferred upon the Board by this chapter, it shall permit, regulate, and control soil erosion and stormwater runoff in the Commonwealth and may otherwise act to protect the quality and quantity of state waters from the potential harm of unmanaged stormwater and soil erosion. It shall be the duty of the Board and it shall have the authority to:

1. Issue special orders pursuant to subdivision (8a) or (8b) of § 62.1-44.15 to any owner subject to requirements under this article, except that for any land-disturbing activity that disturbs an area measuring not less than 10,000 square feet but less than one acre in an area of a locality that is not designated as a Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area pursuant to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.) and that is not part of a larger common plan of development or sale that disturbs one acre or more of land, such special orders may include civil penalties of up to $5,000 per violation, not to exceed $50,000 per order. Such civil penalties shall be paid into the state treasury and deposited by the State Treasurer into the Stormwater Local Assistance Fund established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:29.1.

The provisions of this section notwithstanding, the Board may proceed directly under § 62.1-44.15:48 or Article 5 (§ 62.1-44.20 et seq.) for any past violation or violations of any provision of this article or any regulation duly adopted hereunder.

2. With the consent of any owner subject to requirements under this article, the Board may provide, in an order issued by the Board pursuant to subdivision (8d) of § 62.1-44.15 against such owner, for the payment of civil charges for violations in specific sums. Such sums shall not exceed the limit specified in subdivision A 1 or B 1, as applicable, of § 62.1-44.15:48. Such civil charges shall be collected in lieu of any appropriate civil penalty that could be imposed pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:48 and shall not be subject to the provisions of § 2.2-514. Such civil charges shall be paid into the state treasury and deposited by the State Treasurer into the Stormwater Local Assistance Fund established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:29.1.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.2:1; 2006, c. 171; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:25.1. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Additional local authority.

Any locality serving as a VESMP authority shall have the authority to:

1. Issue orders in accordance with the procedures of subdivision 10 a of § 15.2-2122 to any owner subject to the requirements of this article. Such orders may include civil penalties in specific sums not to exceed the limit specified in subdivision A 2 or B 2, as applicable, of § 62.1-44.15:48, and such civil penalties shall be paid into the treasury of the locality in accordance with subdivision A 2 of § 62.1-44.15:48. The provisions of this section notwithstanding, the locality may proceed directly under § 62.1-44.15:48 for any past violation or violations of any provision of this article or any ordinance duly adopted hereunder.

2. Issue consent orders with the consent of any person who has violated or failed, neglected, or refused to obey any ordinance adopted pursuant to the provisions of this article, any condition of a locality's land-disturbance approval, or any order of a locality serving as a VESMP authority. Such consent order may provide for the payment of civil charges not to exceed the limits specified in subdivision A 2 or B 2, as applicable, of § 62.1-44.15:48. Such civil charges shall be in lieu of any appropriate civil penalty that could be imposed under this article. Any civil charges collected shall be paid to the treasury of the locality in accordance with subdivision A 2 of § 62.1-44.15:48.

2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:26. (For repeal date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) State permits.

A. All state permits issued by the Board under this article shall have fixed terms. The term of a state permit shall be based upon the projected duration of the project, the length of any required monitoring, or other project operations or permit conditions; however, the term shall not exceed five years. The term of a permit issued by the Board shall not be extended by modification beyond the maximum duration and the permit shall expire at the end of the term unless it is administratively continued in accordance with Board regulations.

B. State individual construction permits shall be administered by the Department.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.2:2; 2006, c. 171; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:26.1. Termination of Construction General Permit coverage.

A. A VSMP authority shall recommend that the Department of Environmental Quality terminate coverage under a General Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities (Construction General Permit) within 60 days of receiving a complete notice of termination from the operator of the construction activity.

B. Coverage under a Construction General Permit shall be deemed to be terminated 90 days after the receipt by the VSMP authority of a complete notice of termination from the operator of the construction activity.

C. If a VSMP authority receives a notice of termination of a Construction General Permit that it determines to be incomplete, the VSMP authority shall, within a reasonable time, inform the operator of the construction activity of such incompleteness and provide the operator with a detailed list itemizing the elements of information that are missing from the notice.

2018, c. 630.

§ 62.1-44.15:27. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Establishment of Virginia Stormwater Management Programs.

A. Any locality that operates a regulated MS4 or that notifies the Department of its decision to participate in the establishment of a VSMP shall be required to adopt a VSMP for land-disturbing activities consistent with the provisions of this article according to a schedule set by the Department. Such schedule shall require implementation no later than July 1, 2014. Thereafter, the Department shall provide an annual schedule by which localities can submit applications to implement a VSMP. Localities subject to this subsection are authorized to coordinate plan review and inspections with other entities in accordance with subsection H.

The Department shall operate a VSMP on behalf of any locality that does not operate a regulated MS4 and that does not notify the Department, according to a schedule set by the Department, of its decision to participate in the establishment of a VSMP. A locality that decides not to establish a VSMP shall still comply with the requirements set forth in this article and attendant regulations as required to satisfy the stormwater flow rate capacity and velocity requirements set forth in the Erosion and Sediment Control Law (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.). A locality that is subject to the provisions of the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.) also shall adopt requirements set forth in this article and attendant regulations as required to regulate Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act land-disturbing activities in accordance with § 62.1-44.15:28. To comply with the water quantity technical criteria set forth in this article and attendant regulations, a rural Tidewater locality may adopt a tiered approach to water quantity management for Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act land-disturbing activities pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:27.2.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, any county that operates an MS4 that became a regulated MS4 on or after January 1, 2014 may elect, on a schedule set by the Department, to defer the implementation of the county's VSMP until no later than January 1, 2015. During this deferral period, when such county thus lacks the legal authority to operate a VSMP, the Department shall operate a VSMP on behalf of the county and address post-construction stormwater runoff and the required design criteria for stormwater runoff controls. Any such county electing to defer the establishment of its VSMP shall still comply with the requirements set forth in this article and attendant regulations as required to satisfy the stormwater flow rate capacity and velocity requirements set forth in the Erosion and Sediment Control Law (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.).

B. Any town, including a town that operates a regulated MS4, lying within a county that has adopted a VSMP in accordance with subsection A may decide, but shall not be required, to become subject to the county's VSMP. Any town lying within a county that operates an MS4 that became a regulated MS4 on or after January 1, 2014 may elect to become subject to the county's VSMP according to the deferred schedule established in subsection A. During the county's deferral period, the Department shall operate a VSMP on behalf of the town and address post-construction stormwater runoff and the required design criteria for stormwater runoff controls for the town as provided in subsection A. If a town lies within the boundaries of more than one county, the town shall be considered to be wholly within the county in which the larger portion of the town lies. Towns shall inform the Department of their decision according to a schedule established by the Department. Thereafter, the Department shall provide an annual schedule by which towns can submit applications to adopt a VSMP.

C. In support of VSMP authorities, the Department shall:

1. Provide assistance grants to localities not currently operating a local stormwater management program to help the localities to establish their VSMP.

2. Provide technical assistance and training.

3. Provide qualified services in specified geographic areas to a VSMP to assist localities in the administration of components of their programs. The Department shall actively assist localities in the establishment of their programs and in the selection of a contractor or other entity that may provide support to the locality or regional support to several localities.

D. The Department shall develop a model ordinance for establishing a VSMP consistent with this article and its associated regulations, including the Virginia Stormwater Management Program (VSMP) General Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities.

E. Each locality that administers an approved VSMP shall, by ordinance, establish a VSMP that shall be administered in conjunction with a local MS4 program and a local erosion and sediment control program if required pursuant to the Erosion and Sediment Control Law (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.), and which shall include the following:

1. Consistency with regulations adopted in accordance with provisions of this article;

2. Provisions for long-term responsibility for and maintenance of stormwater management control devices and other techniques specified to manage the quality and quantity of runoff; and

3. Provisions for the integration of the VSMP with local erosion and sediment control, flood insurance, flood plain management, and other programs requiring compliance prior to authorizing construction in order to make the submission and approval of plans, issuance of permits, payment of fees, and coordination of inspection and enforcement activities more convenient and efficient both for the local governments and those responsible for compliance with the programs.

F. The Board may approve a state entity, including the Department, federal entity, or, for linear projects subject to annual standards and specifications, electric, natural gas, and telephone utility companies, interstate and intrastate natural gas pipeline companies, railroad companies, or authorities created pursuant to § 15.2-5102 to operate a Virginia Stormwater Management Program consistent with the requirements of this article and its associated regulations and the VSMP authority's Department-approved annual standards and specifications. For these programs, enforcement shall be administered by the Department and the Board where applicable in accordance with the provisions of this article.

G. The Board shall approve a VSMP when it deems a program consistent with this article and associated regulations, including the Virginia Stormwater Management Program (VSMP) General Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities.

H. A VSMP authority may enter into agreements or contracts with soil and water conservation districts, adjacent localities, or other public or private entities to carry out or assist with the responsibilities of this article. A VSMP authority may enter into contracts with third-party professionals who hold certificates of competence in the appropriate subject areas, as provided in subsection A of § 62.1-44.15:30, to carry out any or all of the responsibilities that this article requires of a VSMP authority, including plan review and inspection but not including enforcement.

I. If a locality establishes a VSMP, it shall issue a consolidated stormwater management and erosion and sediment control permit that is consistent with the provisions of the Erosion and Sediment Control Law (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.). When available in accordance with subsection J, such permit, where applicable, shall also include a copy of or reference to state VSMP permit coverage authorization to discharge.

J. Upon the development of an online reporting system by the Department, but no later than July 1, 2014, a VSMP authority shall then be required to obtain evidence of state VSMP permit coverage where it is required prior to providing approval to begin land disturbance.

K. Any VSMP adopted pursuant to and consistent with this article shall be considered to meet the stormwater management requirements under the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.) and attendant regulations, and effective July 1, 2014, shall not be subject to local program review under the stormwater management provisions of the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act.

L. All VSMP authorities shall comply with the provisions of this article and the stormwater management provisions of the Erosion and Sediment Control Law (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.) and related regulations. The VSMP authority responsible for regulating the land-disturbing activity shall require compliance with the issued permit, permit conditions, and plan specifications. The state shall enforce state permits.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.3; 2004, c. 372; 2006, c. 171; 2009, c. 18; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598; 2017, c. 349; 2018, c. 154.

§ 62.1-44.15:27. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Virginia Programs for Erosion Control and Stormwater Management.

A. Any locality that operates a regulated MS4 or that administers a Virginia Stormwater Management Program (VSMP) as of July 1, 2017, shall be required to adopt and administer a VESMP consistent with the provisions of this article that regulates any land-disturbing activity that (i) disturbs 10,000 square feet or more or (ii) disturbs 2,500 square feet or more in an area of a locality designated as a Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area pursuant to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.). The VESMP shall be adopted according to a process established by the Department.

B. Any locality that does not operate a regulated MS4 and for which the Department administers a VSMP as of July 1, 2017, shall choose one of the following options and shall notify the Department of its choice according to a process established by the Department:

1. Adopt and administer a VESMP consistent with the provisions of this article that regulates any land-disturbing activity that (i) disturbs 10,000 square feet or more or (ii) disturbs 2,500 square feet or more in an area of a locality designated as a Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area pursuant to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.);

2. Adopt and administer a VESMP consistent with the provisions of this article that regulates any land-disturbing activity that (i) disturbs 10,000 square feet or more or (ii) disturbs 2,500 square feet or more in an area of a locality designated as a Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area pursuant to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.), except that the Department shall provide the locality with review of the plan required by § 62.1-44.15:34 and provide a recommendation to the locality on the plan's compliance with the water quality and water quantity technical criteria; or

3. Adopt and administer a VESCP pursuant to Article 2.4 (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.) that regulates any land-disturbing activity that (i) disturbs 10,000 square feet or more or (ii) disturbs 2,500 square feet or more in an area of a locality designated as a Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area pursuant to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.). For such a land-disturbing activity in a Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area, the VESCP authority also shall adopt requirements set forth in this article and attendant regulations as required to regulate those activities in accordance with §§ 62.1-44.15:28 and 62.1-44.15:34.

The Board shall administer a VSMP on behalf of each VESCP authority for any land-disturbing activity that (a) disturbs one acre or more of land or (b) disturbs less than one acre of land and is part of a larger common plan of development or sale that results in one acre or greater of land disturbance.

C. Any town that is required to or elects to adopt and administer a VESMP or VESCP, as applicable, may choose one of the following options and shall notify the Department of its choice according to a process established by the Department:

1. Any town, including a town that operates a regulated MS4, lying within a county may enter into an agreement with the county to become subject to the county's VESMP. If a town lies within the boundaries of more than one county, it may enter into an agreement with any of those counties that operates a VESMP.

2. Any town that chooses not to adopt and administer a VESMP pursuant to subdivision B 3 and that lies within a county may enter into an agreement with the county to become subject to the county's VESMP or VESCP, as applicable. If a town lies within the boundaries of more than one county, it may enter into an agreement with any of those counties.

3. Any town that is subject to the provisions of the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.) may enter into an agreement with a county pursuant to subdivision C 1 or 2 only if the county administers a VESMP for land-disturbing activities that disturb 2,500 square feet or more.

D. Any locality that chooses not to implement a VESMP pursuant to subdivision B 3 may notify the Department at any time that it has chosen to implement a VESMP pursuant to subdivision B 1 or 2. Any locality that chooses to implement a VESMP pursuant to subdivision B 2 may notify the Department at any time that it has chosen to implement a VESMP pursuant to subdivision B 1. A locality may petition the Board at any time for approval to change from fully administering a VESMP pursuant to subdivision B 1 to administering a VESMP in coordination with the Department pursuant to subdivision B 2 due to a significant change in economic conditions or other fiscal emergency in the locality. The provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) shall govern any appeal of the Board's decision.

E. To comply with the water quantity technical criteria set forth in this article and attendant regulations for land-disturbing activities that disturb an area of 2,500 square feet or more but less than one acre, any rural Tidewater locality may adopt a tiered approach to water quantity management pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:27.2.

F. In support of VESMP authorities, the Department shall provide technical assistance and training and general assistance to localities in the establishment and administration of their individual or regional programs.

G. The Department shall develop a model ordinance for establishing a VESMP consistent with this article.

H. Each locality that operates a regulated MS4 or that chooses to administer a VESMP shall, by ordinance, establish a VESMP that shall be administered in conjunction with a local MS4 management program, if applicable, and which shall include the following:

1. Ordinances, policies, and technical materials consistent with regulations adopted in accordance with this article;

2. Requirements for land-disturbance approvals;

3. Requirements for plan review, inspection, and enforcement consistent with the requirements of this article, including provisions requiring periodic inspections of the installation of stormwater management measures. A VESMP authority may require monitoring and reports from the person responsible for meeting the permit conditions to ensure compliance with the permit and to determine whether the measures required in the permit provide effective stormwater management;

4. Provisions charging each applicant a reasonable fee to defray the cost of program administration for a regulated land-disturbing activity that does not require permit coverage. Such fee may be in addition to any fee charged pursuant to the statewide fee schedule established in accordance with subdivision 9 of § 62.1-44.15:28, although payment of fees may be consolidated in order to provide greater convenience and efficiency for those responsible for compliance with the program. A VESMP authority shall hold a public hearing prior to establishing such fees. The fee shall not exceed an amount commensurate with the services rendered, taking into consideration the time, skill, and the VESMP authority's expense involved;

5. Provisions for long-term responsibility for and maintenance of stormwater management control devices and other techniques specified to manage the quality and quantity of runoff; and

6. Provisions for the coordination of the VESMP with flood insurance, flood plain management, and other programs requiring compliance prior to authorizing land disturbance in order to make the submission and approval of plans, issuance of land-disturbance approvals, payment of fees, and coordination of inspection and enforcement activities more convenient and efficient both for the local governments and those responsible for compliance with the programs.

I. The Board shall approve a VESMP when it deems a program consistent with this article and associated regulations.

J. A VESMP authority may enter into agreements or contracts with the Department, soil and water conservation districts, adjacent localities, planning district commissions, or other public or private entities to carry out or assist with plan review and inspections. A VESMP authority may enter into contracts with third-party professionals who hold certifications in the appropriate subject areas, as provided in subsection A of § 62.1-44.15:30, to carry out any or all of the responsibilities that this article requires of a VESMP authority, including plan review and inspection but not including enforcement.

K. A VESMP authority shall be required to obtain evidence of permit coverage from the Department's online reporting system, where such coverage is required, prior to providing land-disturbance approval.

L. The VESMP authority responsible for regulating the land-disturbing activity shall require compliance with its applicable ordinances and the conditions of its land-disturbance approval and plan specifications. The Board shall enforce permits and require compliance with its applicable regulations, including when serving as a VSMP authority in a locality that chose not to adopt a VESMP in accordance with subdivision B 3.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.3; 2004, c. 372; 2006, c. 171; 2009, c. 18; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598; 2016, cc. 68, 758; 2017, c. 349; 2018, c. 154.

§ 62.1-44.15:27.1. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Virginia Stormwater Management Programs administered by the Board.

A. The Board shall administer a Virginia Stormwater Management Program (VSMP) on behalf of any locality that notifies the Department pursuant to subsection B of § 62.1-44.15:27 that it has chosen to not administer a VESMP as provided by subdivision B 3 of § 62.1-44.15:27. In such a locality:

1. The Board shall implement a VSMP in order to manage the quality and quantity of stormwater runoff resulting from any land-disturbing activity that (i) disturbs one acre or more of land or (ii) disturbs less than one acre of land and is part of a larger common plan of development or sale that results in one acre or greater of land disturbance, as required by this article.

2. No person shall conduct a land-disturbing activity until he has obtained land-disturbance approval from the VESCP authority and, if required, submitted to the Department an application that includes a permit registration statement and stormwater management plan, and the Department has issued permit coverage.

B. The Board shall adopt regulations establishing specifications for the VSMP, including permit requirements and requirements for plan review, inspection, and enforcement that reflect the analogous stormwater management requirements for a VESMP set forth in applicable provisions of this article.

2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:27.2. Rural Tidewater localities; water quantity technical criteria; tiered approach.

A. For determining the water quantity technical criteria applicable to a land disturbance equal to or greater than 2,500 square feet but less than one acre, any rural Tidewater locality may elect to use certain tiered water quantity control standards based on the percentage of impervious cover in the watershed as provided in this section. The establishment and conduct of the tiered approach by the locality pursuant to this section shall be subject to review by the Department. The Board shall adopt regulations to carry out provisions of this section.

B. 1. The local governing body shall make, or cause to be made, a watershed map showing the boundaries of the locality. The governing body shall use the most recent version of Virginia's 6th order National Watershed Boundary Dataset to show the boundaries of each watershed located partially or wholly within the locality. The map shall indicate the percentage of impervious cover within each watershed. Data provided by the Virginia Geographic Information Network (VGIN) shall be sufficient for the initial determination of impervious cover percentage at the time of the initial adoption of the map.

2. The watershed map also shall show locations at which the governing body expects or proposes that development should occur and may indicate the projected future percentage of impervious cover based on proposed development. The governing body may designate certain areas within a watershed in which it proposes that denser-than-average development shall occur and may designate environmentally sensitive areas in which the energy balance method for water quantity management, as set forth in the regulations adopted by the Board pursuant to this article, shall apply.

3. After the watershed map has been made, the governing body may then approve and adopt the map by a majority vote of its membership and publish it as the official watershed map of the locality. No official watershed map shall be adopted by the governing body or have any effect until it is approved by an ordinance duly passed by the governing body of the locality after a public hearing, preceded by public notice as required by § 15.2-2204. Within 30 days after adoption of the official watershed map, the governing body shall cause the map to be filed in the office of the clerk of the circuit court.

4. At least once each year, the local governing body shall by majority vote make additions to or modifications of the official watershed map to reflect actual development projects. The governing body shall change the indication on the map of the impervious cover percentage within a watershed where the percentage has changed and shall update the map and supporting datasets with actual development project information, including single-family housing projects and any projects covered by the General Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities and administered by the Department for opt-out localities pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:27. The governing body may incorporate into the official watershed map the most recent VGIN data, including data on state and federal projects that are not reviewed or approved by the locality. The governing body shall keep current its impervious cover percentage for each watershed located within the locality, as reflected in the official watershed map, and shall make the map and such percentages available to the public.

5. The locality shall notify the Department and update the official map within 12 months of the approval of the development plan for any project that exceeds the impervious cover percentage of the watershed in which it is located and causes the percentage for that watershed to rise such that the watershed steps up to the next higher tier pursuant to subsection C.

6. No official watershed map or its adopting or amending ordinances shall take precedence over any duly adopted zoning ordinance, comprehensive plan, or other local land-use ordinance, and in the case of a conflict, the official watershed map or ordinance shall yield to such land-use ordinance.

C. When the locality evaluates any development project in a watershed that is depicted on the official watershed map as having an impervious cover percentage of:

1. Less than five percent, the locality shall apply the regulatory minimum standards and criteria adopted by the Board pursuant to Article 2.4 (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.) and in effect prior to July 1, 2014, for the protection of downstream properties and waterways from sediment deposition, erosion, and damage due to increases in volume, velocity, and peak flow rate of stormwater runoff for the stated frequency storm of 24-hour duration.

2. Five percent or more but less than 7.5 percent, the locality shall require practices designed to detain and release over a 24-hour period the expected rainfall resulting from the one year, 24-hour storm, which practices shall be exempt from any flow rate capacity and velocity requirements for natural or man-made channels.

3. Seven and one-half percent or more, the locality shall apply the energy balance method as set forth in regulations adopted by the Board.

D. The locality shall require that any project whose construction would cause the impervious cover percentage of the watershed in which it is located to rise, such that the watershed steps up to the next higher tier, shall meet the current water quantity technical criteria using the energy balance method or a more stringent alternative.

2018, c. 154.

§ 62.1-44.15:27.3. Acceptance of signed and sealed plan in lieu of local plan review.

A. Any rural Tidewater locality, whether or not it administers a VSMP or VESCP pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:27, may require that a licensed professional retained by the applicant prepare and submit a set of plans and supporting calculations for a land-disturbing activity of 2,500 square feet or more but less than one acre in extent.

B. Such professional shall be licensed to engage in practice in the Commonwealth under Chapter 4 (§ 54.1-400 et seq.) or 22 (§ 54.1-2200 et seq.) of Title 54.1 and shall hold a certificate of competence in the appropriate subject area, as provided in § 62.1-44.15:30.

C. Such plans and supporting calculations shall be appropriately signed and sealed by the professional with a certification that states: "This plan is designed in accordance with applicable state law and regulations."

D. The rural Tidewater locality is authorized to accept such signed and sealed plans in satisfaction of the requirement of this article that, for a land-disturbing activity of 2,500 square feet or more but less than one acre in extent, it retain a local certified plan reviewer or conduct a local plan review. This section shall not excuse any applicable performance bond requirement pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:34 or 62.1-44.15:57.

2018, c. 155.

§ 62.1-44.15:28. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Development of regulations.

A. The Board is authorized to adopt regulations that specify minimum technical criteria and administrative procedures for Virginia Stormwater Management Programs. The regulations shall:

1. Establish standards and procedures for administering a VSMP;

2. Establish minimum design criteria for measures to control nonpoint source pollution and localized flooding, and incorporate the stormwater management regulations adopted pursuant to the Erosion and Sediment Control Law (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.), as they relate to the prevention of stream channel erosion. These criteria shall be periodically modified as required in order to reflect current engineering methods;

3. Require the provision of long-term responsibility for and maintenance of stormwater management control devices and other techniques specified to manage the quality and quantity of runoff;

4. Require as a minimum the inclusion in VSMPs of certain administrative procedures that include, but are not limited to, specifying the time period within which a VSMP authority shall grant land-disturbing activity approval, the conditions and processes under which approval shall be granted, the procedures for communicating disapproval, the conditions under which an approval may be changed, and requirements for inspection of approved projects;

5. Establish by regulations a statewide permit fee schedule to cover all costs associated with the implementation of a VSMP related to land-disturbing activities of one acre or greater. Such fee attributes include the costs associated with plan review, VSMP registration statement review, permit issuance, state-coverage verification, inspections, reporting, and compliance activities associated with the land-disturbing activities as well as program oversight costs. The fee schedule shall also include a provision for a reduced fee for land-disturbing activities between 2,500 square feet and up to one acre in Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.) localities. The fee schedule shall be governed by the following:

a. The revenue generated from the statewide stormwater permit fee shall be collected utilizing, where practicable, an online payment system, and the Department's portion shall be remitted to the State Treasurer for deposit in the Virginia Stormwater Management Fund established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:29. However, whenever the Board has approved a VSMP, no more than 30 percent of the total revenue generated by the statewide stormwater permit fees collected shall be remitted to the State Treasurer for deposit in the Virginia Stormwater Management Fund, with the balance going to the VSMP authority.

b. Fees collected pursuant to this section shall be in addition to any general fund appropriation made to the Department or other supporting revenue from a VSMP; however, the fees shall be set at a level sufficient for the Department and the VSMP to fully carry out their responsibilities under this article and its attendant regulations and local ordinances or standards and specifications where applicable. When establishing a VSMP, the VSMP authority shall assess the statewide fee schedule and shall have the authority to reduce or increase such fees, and to consolidate such fees with other program-related charges, but in no case shall such fee changes affect the amount established in the regulations as available to the Department for program oversight responsibilities pursuant to subdivision 5 a. A VSMP's portion of the fees shall be used solely to carry out the VSMP's responsibilities under this article and its attendant regulations, ordinances, or annual standards and specifications.

c. Until July 1, 2014, the fee for coverage under the General Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities issued by the Board, or where the Board has issued an individual permit or coverage under the General Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities for an entity for which it has approved annual standards and specifications, shall be $750 for each large construction activity with sites or common plans of development equal to or greater than five acres and $450 for each small construction activity with sites or common plans of development equal to or greater than one acre and less than five acres. On and after July 1, 2014, such fees shall only apply where coverage has been issued under the Board's General Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities to a state agency or federal entity for which it has approved annual standards and specifications. After establishment, such fees may be modified in the future through regulatory actions.

d. Until July 1, 2014, the Department is authorized to assess a $125 reinspection fee for each visit to a project site that was necessary to check on the status of project site items noted to be in noncompliance and documented as such on a prior project inspection.

e. In establishing the fee schedule under this subdivision, the Department shall ensure that the VSMP authority portion of the statewide permit fee for coverage under the General Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities for small construction activity involving a single family detached residential structure with a site or area, within or outside a common plan of development or sale, that is equal to or greater than one acre but less than five acres shall be no greater than the VSMP authority portion of the fee for coverage of sites or areas with a land-disturbance acreage of less than one acre within a common plan of development or sale.

f. When any fees are collected pursuant to this section by credit cards, business transaction costs associated with processing such payments may be additionally assessed;

6. Establish statewide standards for stormwater management from land-disturbing activities of one acre or greater, except as specified otherwise within this article, and allow for the consolidation in the permit of a comprehensive approach to addressing stormwater management and erosion and sediment control, consistent with the provisions of the Erosion and Sediment Control Law (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.) and this article. However, such standards shall also apply to land-disturbing activity exceeding an area of 2,500 square feet in all areas of the jurisdictions designated as subject to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area Designation and Management Regulations;

7. Establish a procedure by which a stormwater management plan that is approved for a residential, commercial, or industrial subdivision shall govern the development of the individual parcels, including those parcels developed under subsequent owners;

8. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision A 5, establish a procedure by which neither a registration statement nor payment of the Department's portion of the statewide permit fee established pursuant to that subdivision shall be required for coverage under the General Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities for construction activity involving a single-family detached residential structure, within or outside a common plan of development or sale;

9. Provide for reciprocity with programs in other states for the certification of proprietary best management practices;

10. Require that VSMPs maintain after-development runoff rate of flow and characteristics that replicate, as nearly as practicable, the existing predevelopment runoff characteristics and site hydrology, or improve upon the contributing share of the existing predevelopment runoff characteristics and site hydrology if stream channel erosion or localized flooding is an existing predevelopment condition. Except where more stringent requirements are necessary to address total maximum daily load requirements or to protect exceptional state waters, any land-disturbing activity that provides for stormwater management shall satisfy the conditions of this subsection if the practices are designed to (i) detain the water quality volume and to release it over 48 hours; (ii) detain and release over a 24-hour period the expected rainfall resulting from the one year, 24-hour storm; and (iii) reduce the allowable peak flow rate resulting from the 1.5-year, two-year, and 10-year, 24-hour storms to a level that is less than or equal to the peak flow rate from the site assuming it was in a good forested condition, achieved through multiplication of the forested peak flow rate by a reduction factor that is equal to the runoff volume from the site when it was in a good forested condition divided by the runoff volume from the site in its proposed condition, and shall be exempt from any flow rate capacity and velocity requirements for natural or man-made channels as defined in any regulations promulgated pursuant to this section or any ordinances adopted pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:27 or 62.1-44.15:33;

11. Encourage low-impact development designs, regional and watershed approaches, and nonstructural means for controlling stormwater;

12. Promote the reclamation and reuse of stormwater for uses other than potable water in order to protect state waters and the public health and to minimize the direct discharge of pollutants into state waters;

13. Establish procedures to be followed when a locality that operates a VSMP wishes to transfer administration of the VSMP to the Department;

14. Establish a statewide permit fee schedule for stormwater management related to municipal separate storm sewer system permits;

15. Provide for the evaluation and potential inclusion of emerging or innovative stormwater control technologies that may prove effective in reducing nonpoint source pollution; and

16. Require that all final plan elements, specifications, or calculations whose preparation requires a license under Chapter 4 (§ 54.1-400 et seq.) or 22 (§ 54.1-2200 et seq.) of Title 54.1 be appropriately signed and sealed by a professional who is licensed to engage in practice in the Commonwealth. Nothing in this subdivision shall authorize any person to engage in practice outside his area of professional competence.

B. The Board may integrate and consolidate components of the regulations implementing the Erosion and Sediment Control program and the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area Designation and Management program with the regulations governing the Virginia Stormwater Management Program (VSMP) Permit program or repeal components so that these programs may be implemented in a consolidated manner that provides greater consistency, understanding, and efficiency for those regulated by and administering a VSMP.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.4; 1991, c. 84; 2004, c. 372; 2005, c. 102; 2006, c. 21; 2008, c. 405; 2009, c. 709; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598; 2017, cc. 10, 163.

§ 62.1-44.15:28. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Development of regulations.

The Board is authorized to adopt regulations that establish requirements for the effective control of soil erosion, sediment deposition, and stormwater, including nonagricultural runoff, that shall be met in any VESMP to prevent the unreasonable degradation of properties, stream channels, waters, and other natural resources, and that specify minimum technical criteria and administrative procedures for VESMPs. The regulations shall:

1. Establish standards and procedures for administering a VESMP;

2. Establish minimum standards of effectiveness of the VESMP and criteria and procedures for reviewing and evaluating its effectiveness. The minimum standards of program effectiveness established by the Board shall provide that (i) no soil erosion control and stormwater management plan shall be approved until it is reviewed by a plan reviewer certified pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:30, (ii) each inspection of a land-disturbing activity shall be conducted by an inspector certified pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:30, and (iii) each VESMP shall contain a program administrator, a plan reviewer, and an inspector, each of whom is certified pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:30 and all of whom may be the same person;

3. Be based upon relevant physical and developmental information concerning the watersheds and drainage basins of the Commonwealth, including data relating to land use, soils, hydrology, geology, size of land area being disturbed, proximate water bodies and their characteristics, transportation, and public facilities and services;

4. Include any survey of lands and waters as the Board deems appropriate or as any applicable law requires to identify areas, including multijurisdictional and watershed areas, with critical soil erosion and sediment problems;

5. Contain conservation standards for various types of soils and land uses, which shall include criteria, techniques, and methods for the control of soil erosion and sediment resulting from land-disturbing activities;

6. Establish water quality and water quantity technical criteria. These criteria shall be periodically modified as required in order to reflect current engineering methods;

7. Require the provision of long-term responsibility for and maintenance of stormwater management control devices and other techniques specified to manage the quality and quantity of runoff;

8. Require as a minimum the inclusion in VESMPs of certain administrative procedures that include, but are not limited to, specifying the time period within which a VESMP authority shall grant land-disturbance approval, the conditions and processes under which such approval shall be granted, the procedures for communicating disapproval, the conditions under which an approval may be changed, and requirements for inspection of approved projects;

9. Establish a statewide fee schedule to cover all costs associated with the implementation of a VESMP related to land-disturbing activities where permit coverage is required, and for land-disturbing activities where the Board serves as a VESMP authority or VSMP authority. Such fee attributes include the costs associated with plan review, permit registration statement review, permit issuance, permit coverage verification, inspections, reporting, and compliance activities associated with the land-disturbing activities as well as program oversight costs. The fee schedule shall also include a provision for a reduced fee for a land-disturbing activity that disturbs 2,500 square feet or more but less than one acre in an area of a locality designated as a Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area pursuant to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.). The fee schedule shall be governed by the following:

a. The revenue generated from the statewide fee shall be collected utilizing, where practicable, an online payment system, and the Department's portion shall be remitted to the State Treasurer for deposit in the Virginia Stormwater Management Fund established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:29. However, whenever the Board has approved a VESMP, no more than 30 percent of the total revenue generated by the statewide fees collected shall be remitted to the State Treasurer for deposit in the Virginia Stormwater Management Fund, with the balance going to the VESMP authority;

b. Fees collected pursuant to this section shall be in addition to any general fund appropriation made to the Department or other supporting revenue from a VESMP; however, the fees shall be set at a level sufficient for the Department, the Board, and the VESMP to fully carry out their responsibilities under this article and local ordinances or standards and specifications where applicable. When establishing a VESMP, the VESMP authority shall assess the statewide fees pursuant to the schedule and shall have the authority to reduce or increase such fees, and to consolidate such fees with other program-related charges, but in no case shall such fee changes affect the amount established in the regulations as available to the Department for program oversight responsibilities pursuant to subdivision a. A VESMP's portion of the fees shall be used solely to carry out the VESMP's responsibilities under this article and associated ordinances;

c. In establishing the fee schedule under this subdivision, the Department shall ensure that the VESMP authority portion of the statewide fee for coverage under the General Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities for small construction activity involving a single-family detached residential structure with a site or area, within or outside a common plan of development or sale, that is equal to or greater than one acre but less than five acres shall be no greater than the VESMP authority portion of the fee for coverage of sites or areas with a land-disturbance acreage of less than one acre within a common plan of development or sale;

d. When any fees are collected pursuant to this section by credit cards, business transaction costs associated with processing such payments may be additionally assessed;

e. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this subdivision 9, establish a procedure by which neither a registration statement nor payment of the Department's portion of the statewide fee established pursuant to this subdivision 9 shall be required for coverage under the General Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities for construction activity involving a single-family detached residential structure, within or outside a common plan of development or sale;

10. Establish statewide standards for soil erosion control and stormwater management from land-disturbing activities;

11. Establish a procedure by which a soil erosion control and stormwater management plan or stormwater management plan that is approved for a residential, commercial, or industrial subdivision shall govern the development of the individual parcels, including those parcels developed under subsequent owners;

12. Provide for reciprocity with programs in other states for the certification of proprietary best management practices;

13. Require that VESMPs maintain after-development runoff rate of flow and characteristics that replicate, as nearly as practicable, the existing predevelopment runoff characteristics and site hydrology, or improve upon the contributing share of the existing predevelopment runoff characteristics and site hydrology if stream channel erosion or localized flooding is an existing predevelopment condition.

a. Except where more stringent requirements are necessary to address total maximum daily load requirements or to protect exceptional state waters, any land-disturbing activity that was subject to the water quantity requirements that were in effect pursuant to this article prior to July 1, 2014, shall be deemed to satisfy the conditions of this subsection if the practices are designed to (i) detain the water volume equal to the first one-half inch of runoff multiplied by the impervious surface of the land development project and to release it over 48 hours; (ii) detain and release over a 24-hour period the expected rainfall resulting from the one year, 24-hour storm; and (iii) reduce the allowable peak flow rate resulting from the 1.5-year, two-year, and 10-year, 24-hour storms to a level that is less than or equal to the peak flow rate from the site assuming it was in a good forested condition, achieved through multiplication of the forested peak flow rate by a reduction factor that is equal to the runoff volume from the site when it was in a good forested condition divided by the runoff volume from the site in its proposed condition. Any land-disturbing activity that complies with these requirements shall be exempt from any flow rate capacity and velocity requirements for natural or man-made channels as defined in any regulations promulgated pursuant to this section or any ordinances adopted pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:27 or 62.1-44.15:33;

b. Any stream restoration or relocation project that incorporates natural channel design concepts is not a man-made channel and shall be exempt from any flow rate capacity and velocity requirements for natural or man-made channels as defined in any regulations promulgated pursuant to this article;

14. Encourage low-impact development designs, regional and watershed approaches, and nonstructural means for controlling stormwater;

15. Promote the reclamation and reuse of stormwater for uses other than potable water in order to protect state waters and the public health and to minimize the direct discharge of pollutants into state waters;

16. Establish procedures to be followed when a locality chooses to change the type of program it administers pursuant to subsection D of § 62.1-44.15:27;

17. Establish a statewide permit fee schedule for stormwater management related to MS4 permits;

18. Provide for the evaluation and potential inclusion of emerging or innovative stormwater control technologies that may prove effective in reducing nonpoint source pollution; and

19. Require that all final plan elements, specifications, or calculations whose preparation requires a license under Chapter 4 (§ 54.1-400 et seq.) or 22 (§ 54.1-2200 et seq.) of Title 54.1 be appropriately signed and sealed by a professional who is licensed to engage in practice in the Commonwealth. Nothing in this subdivision shall authorize any person to engage in practice outside his area of professional competence.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.4; 1991, c. 84; 2004, c. 372; 2005, c. 102; 2006, c. 21; 2008, c. 405; 2009, c. 709; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598; 2016, cc. 68, 758; 2017, cc. 10, 163.

§ 62.1-44.15:28.1. Pollutant removal by dredging.

Upon approval by the Chesapeake Bay Program as a creditable practice for pollutant removal, the Board shall establish a procedure for the approval of dredging operations in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed as a method of meeting pollutant reduction and loading requirements. The dredging operation and disposal of dredged material shall be conducted in compliance with all applicable local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Any locality imposing a fee relating to stormwater pursuant to § 15.2-2114 may make funds available for stormwater maintenance dredging, including at the point of discharge, where stormwater has contributed to the deposition of sediment in state waters.

2015, c. 753.

§ 62.1-44.15:29. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Virginia Stormwater Management Fund established.

There is hereby created in the state treasury a special nonreverting fund to be known as the Virginia Stormwater Management Fund, hereafter referred to as "the Fund." The Fund shall be established on the books of the Comptroller. All moneys collected by the Department pursuant to §§ 62.1-44.15:28, 62.1-44.15:38, and 62.1-44.15:71 and all civil penalties collected pursuant to § 62.1-44.19:22 shall be paid into the state treasury and credited to the Fund. Interest earned on moneys in the Fund shall remain in the Fund and be credited to it. Any moneys remaining in the Fund, including interest thereon, at the end of each fiscal year shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund. Moneys in the Fund shall be used solely for the purposes of carrying out the Department's responsibilities under this article. Expenditures and disbursements from the Fund shall be made by the State Treasurer on warrants issued by the Comptroller upon written request signed by the Director.

An accounting of moneys received by and distributed from the Fund shall be kept by the State Comptroller.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.4:1; 2012, cc. 748, 785, 808, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:29. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Virginia Stormwater Management Fund.

There is hereby created in the state treasury a special nonreverting fund to be known as the Virginia Stormwater Management Fund, hereafter referred to as "the Fund." The Fund shall be established on the books of the Comptroller. All moneys collected by the Department pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:28 shall be paid into the state treasury and credited to the Fund. Interest earned on moneys in the Fund shall remain in the Fund and be credited to it. Any moneys remaining in the Fund, including interest thereon, at the end of each fiscal year shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund. Moneys in the Fund shall be used solely for the purposes of carrying out the Department's responsibilities under this article. Expenditures and disbursements from the Fund shall be made by the State Treasurer on warrants issued by the Comptroller upon written request signed by the Director.

An accounting of moneys received by and distributed from the Fund shall be kept by the State Comptroller.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.4:1; 2012, cc. 748, 785, 808, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:29.1. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Stormwater Local Assistance Fund.

A. The State Comptroller shall continue in the state treasury the Stormwater Local Assistance Fund (the Fund) established by Chapter 806 of the Acts of Assembly of 2013, which shall be administered by the Department. All civil penalties and civil charges collected by the Board pursuant to §§ 62.1-44.15:25, 62.1-44.15:48, 62.1-44.15:63, and 62.1-44.15:74, subdivision (19) of § 62.1-44.15, and § 62.1-44.19:22 shall be paid into the state treasury and credited to the Fund, together with such other funds as may be made available to the Fund, which shall also receive bond proceeds from bonds authorized by the General Assembly, sums appropriated to it by the General Assembly, and other grants, gifts, and moneys as may be made available to it from any other source, public or private. Interest earned on moneys in the Fund shall remain in the Fund and be credited to it. Any moneys remaining in the Fund, including interest thereon, at the end of each fiscal year shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund.

B. The purpose of the Fund is to provide matching grants to local governments for the planning, design, and implementation of stormwater best management practices that address cost efficiency and commitments related to reducing water quality pollutant loads. Moneys in the Fund shall be used to meet (i) obligations related to the Chesapeake Bay total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements, (ii) requirements for local impaired stream TMDLs, (iii) water quality measures of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Implementation Plan, and (iv) water quality requirements related to the permitting of small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The grants shall be used solely for stormwater capital projects, including (a) new stormwater best management practices, (b) stormwater best management practice retrofitting or maintenance, (c) stream restoration, (d) low-impact development projects, (e) buffer restoration, (f) pond retrofitting, and (g) wetlands restoration. Such grants shall be made in accordance with eligibility determinations made by the Department pursuant to criteria established by the Board.

C. Moneys in the Fund shall be used solely for the purpose set forth herein and disbursements from it shall be made by the State Treasurer on warrants issued by the Comptroller upon written request signed by the Director.

2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:30. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Education and training programs.

A. The Board shall issue certificates of competence concerning the content and application of specified subject areas of this article and accompanying regulations, including program administration, plan review, and project inspection, to personnel of VSMP authorities and to any other persons who have completed training programs or in other ways demonstrated adequate knowledge to the satisfaction of the Board. As part of education and training programs authorized pursuant to subsection E of § 62.1-44.15:52, the Department shall develop or certify expanded components to address program administration, plan review, and project inspection elements of this article and attendant regulations. Reasonable fees to cover the costs of these additional components may be charged.

B. Effective July 1, 2014, personnel of VSMP authorities reviewing plans or conducting inspections pursuant to this chapter shall hold a certificate of competence as provided in subsection A. Professionals registered in the Commonwealth pursuant to Article 1 (§ 54.1-400 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of Title 54.1 shall be deemed to have met the provisions of this section for the purposes of renewals.

2012, cc. 785, 819, § 10.1-603.4:2; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:30. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Training and certification.

A. The Board shall issue separate or combined certifications concerning specified subject areas of this article, including program administration, plan review, and project inspection, to persons who have demonstrated adequate knowledge to the satisfaction of the Board. The Board also shall issue a Responsible Land Disturber certificate to personnel and contractors who have demonstrated adequate knowledge to the satisfaction of the Board.

B. The Department shall administer education and training programs for specified subject areas of this article and is authorized to charge persons attending such programs reasonable fees to cover the costs of administering the programs.

C. Personnel of VSMP or VESMP authorities who are administering programs, reviewing plans, or conducting inspections pursuant to this article shall hold a certification in the appropriate subject area as provided in subsection A. This requirement shall not apply to third-party individuals who prepare and submit plans to a VESMP or VSMP authority.

D. The Department shall establish procedures and requirements for issuance and periodic renewal of certifications.

E. Professionals registered in the Commonwealth pursuant to Article 1 (§ 54.1-400 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of Title 54.1 shall be deemed to have met the provisions of this section for the purposes of renewals of such certifications.

2012, cc. 785, 819, § 10.1-603.4:2; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:31. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Standards and specifications for state agencies, federal entities, and other specified entities.

A. As an alternative to submitting soil erosion control and stormwater management plans for its land-disturbing activities pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:34, the Virginia Department of Transportation shall, and any other state agency or federal entity may, submit standards and specifications for its conduct of land-disturbing activities for Department of Environmental Quality approval. Approved standards and specifications shall be consistent with this article. The Department of Environmental Quality shall have 60 days after receipt in which to act on any standards and specifications submitted or resubmitted to it for approval.

B. As an alternative to submitting soil erosion control and stormwater management plans pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:34, electric, natural gas, and telephone utility companies, interstate and intrastate natural gas pipeline companies, railroad companies, and authorities created pursuant to § 15.2-5102 may submit standards and specifications for Department approval that describe how land-disturbing activities shall be conducted. Such standards and specifications may be submitted for the following types of projects:

1. Construction, installation, or maintenance of electric transmission and distribution lines, oil or gas transmission and distribution pipelines, communication utility lines, and water and sewer lines; and

2. Construction of the tracks, rights-of-way, bridges, communication facilities, and other related structures and facilities of a railroad company.

The Department shall have 60 days after receipt in which to act on any standards and specifications submitted or resubmitted to it for approval. A linear project not included in subdivision 1 or 2, or for which the owner chooses not to submit standards and specifications, shall comply with the requirements of the VESMP or the VESCP and VSMP, as appropriate, in any locality within which the project is located.

C. As an alternative to submitting soil erosion control and stormwater management plans pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:34, any person engaging in more than one jurisdiction in the creation and operation of a wetland mitigation or stream restoration bank that has been approved and is operated in accordance with applicable federal and state guidance, laws, or regulations for the establishment, use, and operation of (i) a wetlands mitigation or stream restoration bank, pursuant to a mitigation banking instrument signed by the Department, the Marine Resources Commission, or the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, or (ii) a stream restoration project for purposes of reducing nutrients or sediment entering state waters may submit standards and specifications for Department approval that describe how land-disturbing activities shall be conducted. The Department shall have 60 days after receipt in which to act on standards and specifications submitted to it or resubmitted to it for approval.

D. All standards and specifications submitted to the Department shall be periodically updated according to a schedule to be established by the Department and shall be consistent with the requirements of this article. Approval of standards and specifications by the Department does not relieve the owner or operator of the duty to comply with any other applicable local ordinances or regulations. Standards and specifications shall include:

1. Technical criteria to meet the requirements of this article and regulations developed under this article;

2. Provisions for the long-term responsibility and maintenance of any stormwater management control devices and other techniques specified to manage the quantity and quality of runoff;

3. Provisions for administration of the standards and specifications program, project-specific plan design, plan review and plan approval, and construction inspection and compliance;

4. Provisions for ensuring that personnel and contractors assisting the owner in carrying out the land-disturbing activity obtain training or qualifications for soil erosion control and stormwater management as set forth in regulations adopted pursuant to this article;

5. Provisions for ensuring that personnel implementing approved standards and specifications pursuant to this section obtain certifications or qualifications comparable to those required for VESMP personnel pursuant to subsection C of § 62.1-44.15:30;

6. Implementation of a project tracking system that ensures notification to the Department of all land-disturbing activities covered under this article; and

7. Requirements for documenting onsite changes as they occur to ensure compliance with the requirements of this article.

E. The Department shall perform random site inspections or inspections in response to a complaint to ensure compliance with this article and regulations adopted thereunder.

F. The Department shall assess an administrative charge to cover the costs of services rendered associated with its responsibilities pursuant to this section, including standards and specifications review and approval, project inspections, and compliance. The Board may take enforcement actions in accordance with this article and related regulations.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.5; 2004, c. 372; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2016, cc. 68, 758; 2018, c. 627.

§ 62.1-44.15:31. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Annual standards and specifications for state agencies, federal entities, and other specified entities.

A. State entities, including the Department of Transportation, and for linear projects set out in subsection B, electric, natural gas, and telephone utility companies, interstate and intrastate natural gas pipeline companies, and railroad companies shall, and federal entities and authorities created pursuant to § 15.2-5102 may, annually submit a single set of standards and specifications for Department approval that describes how land-disturbing activities shall be conducted. Such standards and specifications shall be consistent with the requirements of this article and associated regulations, including the regulations governing the General Virginia Stormwater Management Program (VSMP) Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities and the Erosion and Sediment Control Law (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.) and associated regulations. Each project constructed in accordance with the requirements of this article, its attendant regulations, and where required standards and specifications shall obtain coverage issued under the state general permit prior to land disturbance. The standards and specifications shall include:

1. Technical criteria to meet the requirements of this article and regulations developed under this article;

2. Provisions for the long-term responsibility and maintenance of stormwater management control devices and other techniques specified to manage the quantity and quality of runoff;

3. Provisions for erosion and sediment control and stormwater management program administration, plan design, review and approval, and construction inspection and enforcement;

4. Provisions for ensuring that responsible personnel and contractors obtain certifications or qualifications for erosion and sediment control and stormwater management comparable to those required for local government;

5. Implementation of a project tracking and notification system to the Department of all land-disturbing activities covered under this article; and

6. Requirements for documenting onsite changes as they occur to ensure compliance with the requirements of the article.

B. Linear projects subject to annual standards and specifications include:

1. Construction, installation, or maintenance of electric transmission, natural gas, and telephone utility lines and pipelines, and water and sewer lines; and

2. Construction of the tracks, rights-of-way, bridges, communication facilities, and other related structures and facilities of a railroad company.

Linear projects not included in subdivisions 1 and 2 shall comply with the requirements of the local or state VSMP in the locality within which the project is located.

C. The Department shall perform random site inspections or inspections in response to a complaint to assure compliance with this article, the Erosion and Sediment Control Law (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.), and regulations adopted thereunder. The Department may take enforcement actions in accordance with this article and related regulations.

D. The Department shall assess an administrative charge to cover the costs of services rendered associated with its responsibilities pursuant to this section.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.5; 2004, c. 372; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:32. (For repeal date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Duties of the Department.

A. The Department shall provide technical assistance, training, research, and coordination in stormwater management technology to VSMP authorities consistent with the purposes of this article.

B. The Department is authorized to review the stormwater management plan for any project with real or potential interjurisdictional impacts upon the request of one or all of the involved localities to determine that the plan is consistent with the provisions of this article. Any such review shall be completed and a report submitted to each locality involved within 90 days of such request being accepted. The Department may charge a fee of the requesting locality to cover its costs for providing such services.

C. The Department shall be responsible for the implementation of this article.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.6; 2004, c. 372; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:33. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Authorization for more stringent ordinances.

A. Localities that are VSMP authorities are authorized to adopt more stringent stormwater management ordinances than those necessary to ensure compliance with the Board's minimum regulations, provided that the more stringent ordinances are based upon factual findings of local or regional comprehensive watershed management studies or findings developed through the implementation of a MS4 permit or a locally adopted watershed management study and are determined by the locality to be necessary to prevent any further degradation to water resources, to address TMDL requirements, to protect exceptional state waters, or to address specific existing water pollution including nutrient and sediment loadings, stream channel erosion, depleted groundwater resources, or excessive localized flooding within the watershed and that prior to adopting more stringent ordinances a public hearing is held after giving due notice.

B. Localities that are VSMP authorities shall submit a letter report to the Department when more stringent stormwater management ordinances or more stringent requirements authorized by such ordinances, such as may be set forth in design manuals, policies, or guidance documents developed by the localities, are determined to be necessary pursuant to this section within 30 days after adoption thereof. Any such letter report shall include a summary explanation as to why the more stringent ordinance or requirement has been determined to be necessary pursuant to this section. Upon the request of an affected landowner or his agent submitted to the Department with a copy to be sent to the locality, within 90 days after adoption of any such ordinance or derivative requirement, localities shall submit the ordinance or requirement and all other supporting materials to the Department for a determination of whether the requirements of this section have been met and whether any determination made by the locality pursuant to this section is supported by the evidence. The Department shall issue a written determination setting forth its rationale within 90 days of submission. Such a determination, or a failure by the Department to make such a determination within the 90-day period, may be appealed to the Board.

C. Localities shall not prohibit or otherwise limit the use of any best management practice (BMP) approved for use by the Director or the Board except as follows:

1. When the Director or the Board approves the use of any BMP in accordance with its stated conditions, the locality serving as a VSMP authority shall have authority to preclude the onsite use of the approved BMP, or to require more stringent conditions upon its use, for a specific land-disturbing project based on a review of the stormwater management plan and project site conditions. Such limitations shall be based on site-specific concerns. Any project or site-specific determination purportedly authorized pursuant to this subsection may be appealed to the Department and the Department shall issue a written determination regarding compliance with this section to the requesting party within 90 days of submission. Any such determination, or a failure by the Department to make any such determination within the 90-day period, may be appealed to the Board.

2. When a locality is seeking to uniformly preclude jurisdiction-wide or otherwise limit geographically the use of a BMP approved by the Director or Board, or to apply more stringent conditions to the use of a BMP approved by the Director or Board, upon the request of an affected landowner or his agent submitted to the Department, with a copy submitted to the locality, within 90 days after adoption, such authorizing ordinances, design manuals, policies, or guidance documents developed by the locality that set forth the BMP use policy shall be provided to the Department in such manner as may be prescribed by the Department that includes a written justification and explanation as to why such more stringent limitation or conditions are determined to be necessary. The Department shall review all supporting materials provided by the locality to determine whether the requirements of this section have been met and that any determination made by the locality pursuant to this section is reasonable under the circumstances. The Department shall issue its determination to the locality in writing within 90 days of submission. Such a determination, or a failure by the Department to make such a determination within the 90-day period, may be appealed to the Board.

D. Based on a determination made in accordance with subsection B or C, any ordinance or other requirement enacted or established by a locality that is found to not comply with this section shall be null and void, replaced with state minimum standards, and remanded to the locality for revision to ensure compliance with this section. Any such ordinance or other requirement that has been proposed but neither enacted nor established shall be remanded to the locality for revision to ensure compliance with this section.

E. Any provisions of a local stormwater management program in existence before January 1, 2013, that contains more stringent provisions than this article shall be exempt from the requirements of this section. However, such provisions shall be reported to the Board at the time of the locality's VSMP approval package.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.7; 1991, c. 84; 2004, c. 372; 2011, cc. 341, 353; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 591, 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598.

§ 62.1-44.15:33. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Authorization for more stringent ordinances.

A. Localities that are serving as VESMP authorities are authorized to adopt more stringent soil erosion control or stormwater management ordinances than those necessary to ensure compliance with the Board's minimum regulations, provided that the more stringent ordinances are based upon factual findings of local or regional comprehensive watershed management studies or findings developed through the implementation of an MS4 permit or a locally adopted watershed management study and are determined by the locality to be necessary to prevent any further degradation to water resources, to address total maximum daily load requirements, to protect exceptional state waters, or to address specific existing water pollution including nutrient and sediment loadings, stream channel erosion, depleted groundwater resources, or excessive localized flooding within the watershed and that prior to adopting more stringent ordinances a public hearing is held after giving due notice. This process shall not be required when a VESMP authority chooses to reduce the threshold for regulating land-disturbing activities to a smaller area of disturbed land pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:34. However, this section shall not be construed to authorize a VESMP authority to impose a more stringent timeframe for land-disturbance review and approval than those provided in this article.

B. Localities that are serving as VESMP authorities shall submit a letter report to the Department when more stringent stormwater management ordinances or more stringent requirements authorized by such stormwater management ordinances, such as may be set forth in design manuals, policies, or guidance documents developed by the localities, are determined to be necessary pursuant to this section within 30 days after adoption thereof. Any such letter report shall include a summary explanation as to why the more stringent ordinance or requirement has been determined to be necessary pursuant to this section. Upon the request of an affected landowner or his agent submitted to the Department with a copy to be sent to the locality, within 90 days after adoption of any such ordinance or derivative requirement, localities shall submit the ordinance or requirement and all other supporting materials to the Department for a determination of whether the requirements of this section have been met and whether any determination made by the locality pursuant to this section is supported by the evidence. The Department shall issue a written determination setting forth its rationale within 90 days of submission. Such a determination, or a failure by the Department to make such a determination within the 90-day period, may be appealed to the Board.

C. Localities shall not prohibit or otherwise limit the use of any best management practice (BMP) approved for use by the Director or the Board except as follows:

1. When the Director or the Board approves the use of any BMP in accordance with its stated conditions, the locality serving as a VESMP authority shall have authority to preclude the onsite use of the approved BMP, or to require more stringent conditions upon its use, for a specific land-disturbing project based on a review of the stormwater management plan and project site conditions. Such limitations shall be based on site-specific concerns. Any project or site-specific determination purportedly authorized pursuant to this subsection may be appealed to the Department and the Department shall issue a written determination regarding compliance with this section to the requesting party within 90 days of submission. Any such determination, or a failure by the Department to make any such determination within the 90-day period, may be appealed to the Board.

2. When a locality is seeking to uniformly preclude jurisdiction-wide or otherwise limit geographically the use of a BMP approved by the Director or Board, or to apply more stringent conditions to the use of a BMP approved by the Director or Board, upon the request of an affected landowner or his agent submitted to the Department, with a copy submitted to the locality, within 90 days after adoption, such authorizing ordinances, design manuals, policies, or guidance documents developed by the locality that set forth the BMP use policy shall be provided to the Department in such manner as may be prescribed by the Department that includes a written justification and explanation as to why such more stringent limitation or conditions are determined to be necessary. The Department shall review all supporting materials provided by the locality to determine whether the requirements of this section have been met and that any determination made by the locality pursuant to this section is reasonable under the circumstances. The Department shall issue its determination to the locality in writing within 90 days of submission. Such a determination, or a failure by the Department to make such a determination within the 90-day period, may be appealed to the Board.

D. Based on a determination made in accordance with subsection B or C, any ordinance or other requirement enacted or established by a locality that is found to not comply with this section shall be null and void, replaced with state minimum standards, and remanded to the locality for revision to ensure compliance with this section. Any such ordinance or other requirement that has been proposed but neither enacted nor established shall be remanded to the locality for revision to ensure compliance with this section.

E. Any provisions of a local erosion and sediment control or stormwater management program in existence before January 1, 2016, that contains more stringent provisions than this article shall be exempt from the requirements of this section if the locality chooses to retain such provisions when it becomes a VESMP authority. However, such provisions shall be reported to the Board at the time of submission of the locality's VESMP approval package.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.7; 1991, c. 84; 2004, c. 372; 2011, cc. 341, 353; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 591, 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:34. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Regulated activities; submission and approval of a permit application; security for performance; exemptions.

A. A person shall not conduct any land-disturbing activity until he has submitted a permit application to the VSMP authority that includes a state VSMP permit registration statement, if such statement is required, and, after July 1, 2014, a stormwater management plan or an executed agreement in lieu of a stormwater management plan, and has obtained VSMP authority approval to begin land disturbance. A locality that is not a VSMP authority shall provide a general notice to applicants of the state permit coverage requirement and report all approvals pursuant to the Erosion and Sediment Control Law (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.) to begin land disturbance of one acre or greater to the Department at least monthly. Upon the development of an online reporting system by the Department, but no later than July 1, 2014, a VSMP authority shall be required to obtain evidence of state VSMP permit coverage where it is required prior to providing approval to begin land disturbance. The VSMP authority shall act on any permit application within 60 days after it has been determined by the VSMP authority to be a complete application. The VSMP authority may either issue project approval or denial and shall provide written rationale for the denial. The VSMP authority shall act on any permit application that has been previously disapproved within 45 days after the application has been revised, resubmitted for approval, and deemed complete. Prior to issuance of any approval, the VSMP authority may also require an applicant, excluding state and federal entities, to submit a reasonable performance bond with surety, cash escrow, letter of credit, any combination thereof, or such other legal arrangement acceptable to the VSMP authority, to ensure that measures could be taken by the VSMP authority at the applicant's expense should he fail, after proper notice, within the time specified to initiate or maintain appropriate actions that may be required of him by the permit conditions as a result of his land-disturbing activity. If the VSMP authority takes such action upon such failure by the applicant, the VSMP authority may collect from the applicant the difference should the amount of the reasonable cost of such action exceed the amount of the security held. Within 60 days of the completion of the requirements of the permit conditions, such bond, cash escrow, letter of credit, or other legal arrangement, or the unexpended or unobligated portion thereof, shall be refunded to the applicant or terminated. These requirements are in addition to all other provisions of law relating to the issuance of permits and are not intended to otherwise affect the requirements for such permits.

B. A Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act Land-Disturbing Activity shall be subject to coverage under the Virginia Stormwater Management Program (VSMP) General Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities until July 1, 2014, at which time it shall no longer be considered a small construction activity but shall be then regulated under the requirements of this article.

C. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this article, the following activities are exempt, unless otherwise required by federal law:

1. Permitted surface or deep mining operations and projects, or oil and gas operations and projects conducted under the provisions of Title 45.1;

2. Clearing of lands specifically for agricultural purposes and the management, tilling, planting, or harvesting of agricultural, horticultural, or forest crops, livestock feedlot operations, or as additionally set forth by the Board in regulations, including engineering operations as follows: construction of terraces, terrace outlets, check dams, desilting basins, dikes, ponds, ditches, strip cropping, lister furrowing, contour cultivating, contour furrowing, land drainage, and land irrigation; however, this exception shall not apply to harvesting of forest crops unless the area on which harvesting occurs is reforested artificially or naturally in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 11 (§ 10.1-1100 et seq.) or is converted to bona fide agricultural or improved pasture use as described in subsection B of § 10.1-1163;

3. Single-family residences separately built and disturbing less than one acre and not part of a larger common plan of development or sale, including additions or modifications to existing single-family detached residential structures. However, localities subject to the provisions of the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.) may regulate these single-family residences where land disturbance exceeds 2,500 square feet;

4. Land-disturbing activities that disturb less than one acre of land area except for land-disturbing activity exceeding an area of 2,500 square feet in all areas of the jurisdictions designated as subject to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area Designation and Management Regulations adopted pursuant to the provisions of the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.) or activities that are part of a larger common plan of development or sale that is one acre or greater of disturbance; however, the governing body of any locality that administers a VSMP may reduce this exception to a smaller area of disturbed land or qualify the conditions under which this exception shall apply;

5. Discharges to a sanitary sewer or a combined sewer system;

6. Activities under a state or federal reclamation program to return an abandoned property to an agricultural or open land use;

7. Routine maintenance that is performed to maintain the original line and grade, hydraulic capacity, or original construction of the project. The paving of an existing road with a compacted or impervious surface and reestablishment of existing associated ditches and shoulders shall be deemed routine maintenance if performed in accordance with this subsection; and

8. Conducting land-disturbing activities in response to a public emergency where the related work requires immediate authorization to avoid imminent endangerment to human health or the environment. In such situations, the VSMP authority shall be advised of the disturbance within seven days of commencing the land-disturbing activity, and compliance with the administrative requirements of subsection A is required within 30 days of commencing the land-disturbing activity.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.8; 1994, cc. 605, 898; 2004, c. 372; 2011, c. 400; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598.

§ 62.1-44.15:34. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Regulated activities; submission and approval of a permit application; security for performance; exemptions.

A. A person shall not conduct any land-disturbing activity until (i) he has submitted to the appropriate VESMP authority an application that includes a permit registration statement, if required, a soil erosion control and stormwater management plan or an executed agreement in lieu of a plan, if required, and (ii) the VESMP authority has issued its land-disturbance approval. In addition, as a prerequisite to engaging in an approved land-disturbing activity, the name of the individual who will be assisting the owner in carrying out the activity and holds a Responsible Land Disturber certificate pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:30 shall be submitted to the VESMP authority. Any VESMP authority may waive the Responsible Land Disturber certificate requirement for an agreement in lieu of a plan for construction of a single-family detached residential structure; however, if a violation occurs during the land-disturbing activity for the single-family detached residential structure, then the owner shall correct the violation and provide the name of the individual holding a Responsible Land Disturber certificate as provided by § 62.1-14:30. Failure to provide the name of an individual holding a Responsible Land Disturber certificate prior to engaging in land-disturbing activities may result in revocation of the land-disturbance approval and shall subject the owner to the penalties provided in this article.

1. A VESMP authority that is implementing its program pursuant to subsection A of § 62.1-44.15:27 or subdivision B 1 of § 62.1-44.15:27 shall determine the completeness of any application within 15 days after receipt, and shall act on any application within 60 days after it has been determined by the VESMP authority to be complete. The VESMP authority shall issue either land-disturbance approval or denial and provide written rationale for any denial. Prior to issuing a land-disturbance approval, a VESMP authority shall be required to obtain evidence of permit coverage when such coverage is required. The VESMP authority also shall determine whether any resubmittal of a previously disapproved application is complete within 15 days after receipt and shall act on the resubmitted application within 45 days after receipt.

2. A VESMP authority implementing its program in coordination with the Department pursuant to subdivision B 2 of § 62.1-44.15:27 shall determine the completeness of any application within 15 days after receipt, and shall act on any application within 60 days after it has been determined by the VESMP authority to be complete. The VESMP authority shall forward a soil erosion control and stormwater management plan to the Department for review within five days of receipt. If the plan is incomplete, the Department shall return the plan to the locality immediately and the application process shall start over. If the plan is complete, the Department shall review it for compliance with the water quality and water quantity technical criteria and provide its recommendation to the VESMP authority. The VESMP authority shall either (i) issue the land-disturbance approval or (ii) issue a denial and provide a written rationale for the denial. In no case shall a locality have more than 60 days for its decision on an application after it has been determined to be complete. Prior to issuing a land-disturbance approval, a VESMP authority shall be required to obtain evidence of permit coverage when such coverage is required.

The VESMP authority also shall forward to the Department any resubmittal of a previously disapproved application within five days after receipt, and the VESMP authority shall determine whether the plan is complete within 15 days of its receipt of the plan. The Department shall review the plan for compliance with the water quality and water quantity technical criteria and provide its recommendation to the VESMP authority, and the VESMP authority shall act on the resubmitted application within 45 days after receipt.

3. When a state agency or federal entity submits a soil erosion control and stormwater management plan for a project, land disturbance shall not commence until the Board has reviewed and approved the plan and has issued permit coverage when it is required.

a. The Board shall not approve a soil erosion control and stormwater management plan submitted by a state agency or federal entity for a project involving a land-disturbing activity (i) in any locality that has not adopted a local program with more stringent ordinances than those of the state program or (ii) in multiple jurisdictions with separate local programs, unless the plan is consistent with the requirements of the state program.

b. The Board shall not approve a soil erosion control and stormwater management plan submitted by a state agency or federal entity for a project involving a land-disturbing activity in one locality with a local program with more stringent ordinances than those of the state program, unless the plan is consistent with the requirements of the local program.

c. If onsite changes occur, the state agency or federal entity shall submit an amended soil erosion control and stormwater management plan to the Department.

d. The state agency or federal entity responsible for the land-disturbing activity shall ensure compliance with the approved plan. As necessary, the Board shall provide project oversight and enforcement.

4. Prior to issuance of any land-disturbance approval, the VESMP authority may also require an applicant, excluding state agencies and federal entities, to submit a reasonable performance bond with surety, cash escrow, letter of credit, any combination thereof, or such other legal arrangement acceptable to the VESMP authority, to ensure that measures could be taken by the VESMP authority at the applicant's expense should he fail, after proper notice, within the time specified to comply with the conditions imposed by the VESMP authority as a result of his land-disturbing activity. If the VESMP authority takes such action upon such failure by the applicant, the VESMP authority may collect from the applicant the difference should the amount of the reasonable cost of such action exceed the amount of the security held. Within 60 days of the completion of the VESMP authority's conditions, such bond, cash escrow, letter of credit, or other legal arrangement, or the unexpended or unobligated portion thereof, shall be refunded to the applicant or terminated.

B. The VESMP authority may require changes to an approved soil erosion control and stormwater management plan in the following cases:

1. Where inspection has revealed that the plan is inadequate to satisfy applicable regulations or ordinances; or

2. Where the owner finds that because of changed circumstances or for other reasons the plan cannot be effectively carried out, and proposed amendments to the plan, consistent with the requirements of this article, are agreed to by the VESMP authority and the owner.

C. In order to prevent further erosion, a VESMP authority may require approval of a soil erosion control and stormwater management plan for any land identified as an erosion impact area by the VESMP authority.

D. A VESMP authority may enter into an agreement with an adjacent VESMP authority regarding the administration of multijurisdictional projects, specifying who shall be responsible for all or part of the administrative procedures. Should adjacent VESMP authorities fail to reach such an agreement, each shall be responsible for administering the area of the multijurisdictional project that lies within its jurisdiction.

E. The following requirements shall apply to land-disturbing activities in the Commonwealth:

1. Any land-disturbing activity that (i) disturbs one acre or more of land or (ii) disturbs less than one acre of land and is part of a larger common plan of development or sale that results in one acre or greater of land disturbance may, in accordance with regulations adopted by the Board, be required to obtain permit coverage.

2. For a land-disturbing activity occurring in an area not designated as a Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area subject to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.):

a. Soil erosion control requirements and water quantity technical criteria adopted pursuant to this article shall apply to any activity that disturbs 10,000 square feet or more, although the locality may reduce this regulatory threshold to a smaller area of disturbed land. A plan addressing these requirements shall be submitted to the VESMP authority in accordance with subsection A. This subdivision shall also apply to additions or modifications to existing single-family detached residential structures.

b. Soil erosion control requirements and water quantity and water quality technical criteria shall apply to any activity that (i) disturbs one acre or more of land or (ii) disturbs less than one acre of land and is part of a larger common plan of development or sale that results in one acre or greater of land disturbance, although the locality may reduce this regulatory threshold to a smaller area of disturbed land. A plan addressing these requirements shall be submitted to the VESMP authority in accordance with subsection A.

3. For a land-disturbing activity occurring in an area designated as a Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area subject to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.):

a. Soil erosion control and water quantity and water quality technical criteria shall apply to any land-disturbing activity that disturbs 2,500 square feet or more of land, other than a single-family detached residential structure. However, the governing body of any affected locality may reduce this regulatory threshold to a smaller area of disturbed land. A plan addressing these requirements shall be submitted to the VESMP authority in accordance with subsection A.

b. For land-disturbing activities for single-family detached residential structures, soil erosion control and water quantity technical criteria shall apply to any land-disturbing activity that disturbs 2,500 square feet or more of land, and the locality also may require compliance with the water quality technical criteria. A plan addressing these requirements shall be submitted to the VESMP authority in accordance with subsection A.

F. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this article, the following activities are not required to comply with the requirements of this article unless otherwise required by federal law:

1. Minor land-disturbing activities, including home gardens and individual home landscaping, repairs, and maintenance work;

2. Installation, maintenance, or repair of any individual service connection;

3. Installation, maintenance, or repair of any underground utility line when such activity occurs on an existing hard surfaced road, street, or sidewalk, provided the land-disturbing activity is confined to the area of the road, street, or sidewalk that is hard surfaced;

4. Installation, maintenance, or repair of any septic tank line or drainage field unless included in an overall plan for land-disturbing activity relating to construction of the building to be served by the septic tank system;

5. Permitted surface or deep mining operations and projects, or oil and gas operations and projects conducted pursuant to Title 45.1;

6. Clearing of lands specifically for bona fide agricultural purposes; the management, tilling, planting, or harvesting of agricultural, horticultural, or forest crops; livestock feedlot operations; agricultural engineering operations, including construction of terraces, terrace outlets, check dams, desilting basins, dikes, ponds, ditches, strip cropping, lister furrowing, contour cultivating, contour furrowing, land drainage, and land irrigation; or as additionally set forth by the Board in regulations. However, this exception shall not apply to harvesting of forest crops unless the area on which harvesting occurs is reforested artificially or naturally in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 11 (§ 10.1-1100 et seq.) or is converted to bona fide agricultural or improved pasture use as described in subsection B of § 10.1-1163;

7. Installation of fence and sign posts or telephone and electric poles and other kinds of posts or poles;

8. Shoreline erosion control projects on tidal waters when all of the land-disturbing activities are within the regulatory authority of and approved by local wetlands boards, the Marine Resources Commission, or the United States Army Corps of Engineers; however, any associated land that is disturbed outside of this exempted area shall remain subject to this article and the regulations adopted pursuant thereto;

9. Repair or rebuilding of the tracks, rights-of-way, bridges, communication facilities, and other related structures and facilities of a railroad company;

10. Land-disturbing activities in response to a public emergency where the related work requires immediate authorization to avoid imminent endangerment to human health or the environment. In such situations, the VESMP authority shall be advised of the disturbance within seven days of commencing the land-disturbing activity, and compliance with the administrative requirements of subsection A is required within 30 days of commencing the land-disturbing activity; and

11. Discharges to a sanitary sewer or a combined sewer system that are not from a land-disturbing activity.

G. Notwithstanding any other provision of this article, the following activities are required to comply with the soil erosion control requirements but are not required to comply with the water quantity and water quality technical criteria, unless otherwise required by federal law:

1. Activities under a state or federal reclamation program to return an abandoned property to an agricultural or open land use;

2. Routine maintenance that is performed to maintain the original line and grade, hydraulic capacity, or original construction of the project. The paving of an existing road with a compacted or impervious surface and reestablishment of existing associated ditches and shoulders shall be deemed routine maintenance if performed in accordance with this subsection; and

3. Discharges from a land-disturbing activity to a sanitary sewer or a combined sewer system.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.8; 1994, cc. 605, 898; 2004, c. 372; 2011, c. 400; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:35. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Nutrient credit use and additional offsite options for construction activities.

A. As used in this section:

"Nutrient credit" or "credit" means a nutrient credit certified pursuant to Article 4.02 (§ 62.1-44.19:12 et seq.).

"Tributary," within the Chesapeake Bay watershed, has the same meaning as in § 62.1-44.19:13. For areas outside of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, "tributary" includes the following watersheds: Albemarle Sound, Coastal; Atlantic Ocean, Coastal; Big Sandy; Chowan; Clinch-Powell; New Holston (Upper Tennessee); New River; Roanoke; and Yadkin.

"Virginia Stormwater Management Program Authority" or "VSMP authority" has the same meaning as in § 62.1-44.15:24 and includes, until July 1, 2014, any locality that has adopted a local stormwater management program.

B. A VSMP authority is authorized to allow compliance with stormwater nonpoint nutrient runoff water quality criteria established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:28, in whole or in part, through the use of the applicant's acquisition of nutrient credits in the same tributary.

C. No applicant shall use nutrient credits to address water quantity control requirements. No applicant shall use nutrient credits or other offsite options in contravention of local water quality-based limitations (i) determined pursuant to subsection B of § 62.1-44.19:14, (ii) adopted pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:33 or other applicable authority, (iii) deemed necessary to protect public water supplies from demonstrated adverse nutrient impacts, or (iv) as otherwise may be established or approved by the Board. Where such a limitation exists, offsite options may be used provided that such options do not preclude or impair compliance with the local limitation.

D. A VSMP authority shall allow offsite options in accordance with subsection I when:

1. Less than five acres of land will be disturbed;

2. The postconstruction phosphorous control requirement is less than 10 pounds per year; or

3. The state permit applicant demonstrates to the satisfaction of the VSMP authority that (i) alternative site designs have been considered that may accommodate onsite best management practices, (ii) onsite best management practices have been considered in alternative site designs to the maximum extent practicable, (iii) appropriate onsite best management practices will be implemented, and (iv) full compliance with postdevelopment nonpoint nutrient runoff compliance requirements cannot practicably be met onsite. For purposes of this subdivision, if an applicant demonstrates onsite control of at least 75 percent of the required phosphorous nutrient reductions, the applicant shall be deemed to have met the requirements of clauses (i) through (iv).

E. Documentation of the applicant's acquisition of nutrient credits shall be provided to the VSMP authority and the Department in a certification from the credit provider documenting the number of phosphorus nutrient credits acquired and the associated ratio of nitrogen nutrient credits at the credit-generating entity. Until the effective date of regulations establishing application fees in accordance with § 62.1-44.19:20, the credit provider shall pay the Department a water quality enhancement fee equal to six percent of the amount paid by the applicant for the credits. Such fee shall be deposited into the Virginia Stormwater Management Fund established by § 62.1-44.15:29.

F. Nutrient credits used pursuant to subsection B shall be generated in the same or adjacent eight-digit hydrologic unit code as defined by the United States Geological Survey as the permitted site except as otherwise limited in subsection C. Nutrient credits outside the same or adjacent eight-digit hydrologic unit code may only be used if it is determined by the VSMP authority that no credits are available within the same or adjacent eight-digit hydrologic unit code when the VSMP authority accepts the final site design. In such cases, and subject to other limitations imposed in this section, credits available within the same tributary may be used. In no case shall credits from another tributary be used.

G. For that portion of a site's compliance with stormwater nonpoint nutrient runoff water quality criteria being obtained through nutrient credits, the applicant shall (i) comply with a 1:1 ratio of the nutrient credits to the site's remaining postdevelopment nonpoint nutrient runoff compliance requirement being met by credit use and (ii) use credits certified as perpetual credits pursuant to Article 4.02 (§ 62.1-44.19:12 et seq.).

H. No VSMP authority may grant an exception to, or waiver of, postdevelopment nonpoint nutrient runoff compliance requirements unless offsite options have been considered and found not available.

I. The VSMP authority shall require that nutrient credits and other offsite options approved by the Department or applicable state board, including locality pollutant loading pro rata share programs established pursuant to § 15.2-2243, achieve the necessary nutrient reductions prior to the commencement of the applicant's land-disturbing activity. A pollutant loading pro rata share program established by a locality pursuant to § 15.2-2243 and approved by the Department or applicable state board prior to January 1, 2011, including those that may achieve nutrient reductions after the commencement of the land-disturbing activity, may continue to operate in the approved manner for a transition period ending July 1, 2014. The applicant shall have the right to select between the use of nutrient credits or other offsite options, except during the transition period in those localities to which the transition period applies. The locality may use funds collected for nutrient reductions pursuant to a locality pollutant loading pro rata share program under § 15.2-2243 for nutrient reductions in the same tributary within the same locality as the land-disturbing activity or for the acquisition of nutrient credits. In the case of a phased project, the applicant may acquire or achieve the offsite nutrient reductions prior to the commencement of each phase of the land-disturbing activity in an amount sufficient for each such phase.

J. Nutrient reductions obtained through nutrient credits shall be credited toward compliance with any nutrient allocation assigned to a municipal separate storm sewer system in a Virginia Stormwater Management Program Permit or Total Maximum Daily Load applicable to the location where the activity for which the nutrient credits are used takes place. If the activity for which the nutrient credits are used does not discharge to a municipal separate storm sewer system, the nutrient reductions shall be credited toward compliance with the applicable nutrient allocation.

K. A VSMP authority shall allow the full or partial substitution of perpetual nutrient credits for existing onsite nutrient controls when (i) the nutrient credits will compensate for 10 or fewer pounds of the annual phosphorous requirement associated with the original land-disturbing activity or (ii) existing onsite controls are not functioning as anticipated after reasonable attempts to comply with applicable maintenance agreements or requirements and the use of nutrient credits will account for the deficiency. Upon determination by the VSMP authority that the conditions established by clause (i) or (ii) have been met, the party responsible for maintenance shall be released from maintenance obligations related to the onsite phosphorous controls for which the nutrient credits are substituted.

L. To the extent available, with the consent of the applicant, the VSMP authority, the Board or the Department may include the use of nutrient credits or other offsite measures in resolving enforcement actions to compensate for (i) nutrient control deficiencies occurring during the period of noncompliance and (ii) permanent nutrient control deficiencies.

M. This section shall not be construed as limiting the authority established under § 15.2-2243; however, under any pollutant loading pro rata share program established thereunder, the subdivider or developer shall be given appropriate credit for nutrient reductions achieved through nutrient credits or other offsite options.

N. In order to properly account for allowed nonpoint nutrient offsite reductions, an applicant shall report to the Department, in accordance with Department procedures, information regarding all offsite reductions that have been authorized to meet stormwater postdevelopment nonpoint nutrient runoff compliance requirements.

O. An applicant or a permittee found to be in noncompliance with the requirements of this section shall be subject to the enforcement and penalty provisions of this article.

2009, c. 364, § 10.1-603.8:1; 2010, c. 686; 2011, c. 523; 2012, cc. 748, 785, 808, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2015, c. 164.

§ 62.1-44.15:35. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Nutrient credit use and additional offsite options for construction activities.

A. As used in this section:

"Nutrient credit" or "credit" means a type of offsite option that is a nutrient credit certified pursuant to Article 4.02 (§ 62.1-44.19:12 et seq.).

"Offsite option" means an alternative available, away from the real property where land disturbance is occurring, to address water quality or water quantity technical criteria established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:28.

"Tributary," within the Chesapeake Bay watershed, has the same meaning as in § 62.1-44.19:13. For areas outside of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, "tributary" includes the following watersheds: Albemarle Sound, Coastal; Atlantic Ocean, Coastal; Big Sandy; Chowan; Clinch-Powell; New Holston (Upper Tennessee); New River; Roanoke; and Yadkin.

B. No offsite option shall be used in contravention of local water quality-based limitations (i) determined pursuant to subsection B of § 62.1-44.19:14, (ii) adopted pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:33 or other applicable authority, (iii) deemed necessary to protect public water supplies from demonstrated adverse nutrient impacts, or (iv) as otherwise may be established or approved by the Board. Where such a limitation exists, offsite options may be used provided that such options do not preclude or impair compliance with the local limitation.

C. Unless prohibited by subsection B, a VESMP authority or a VSMP authority:

1. May allow the use of offsite options for compliance with water quality and water quantity technical criteria established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:28, in whole or in part; and

2. Shall allow the use of nutrient credits for compliance with the water quality technical criteria when:

a. Less than five acres of land will be disturbed;

b. The phosphorous water quality reduction requirement is less than 10 pounds per year; or

c. It is demonstrated to the satisfaction of the VESMP or VSMP authority that (i) alternative site designs have been considered that may accommodate onsite best management practices, (ii) onsite best management practices have been considered in alternative site designs to the maximum extent practicable, (iii) appropriate onsite best management practices will be implemented, and (iv) compliance with water quality technical criteria cannot practicably be met onsite. The requirements of clauses (i) through (iv) shall be deemed to have been met if it is demonstrated that onsite control of at least 75 percent of the required phosphorous water quality reduction will be achieved.

D. No VSMP or VESMP authority may grant an exception to, or waiver of, post-development nonpoint nutrient runoff compliance requirements unless offsite options have been considered and found not available.

E. The VSMP or VESMP authority shall require that offsite options approved by the Department or applicable state board achieve the necessary phosphorous water quality reductions prior to the commencement of the land-disturbing activity. A pollutant loading pro rata share program established by a locality pursuant to § 15.2-2243 and approved by the Department or applicable state board prior to January 1, 2011, including those that may achieve nutrient reductions after the commencement of the land-disturbing activity, may continue to operate in the approved manner for a transition period ending July 1, 2014. In the case of a phased project, the land disturber may acquire or achieve the offsite nutrient reductions prior to the commencement of each phase of the land-disturbing activity in an amount sufficient for each such phase. The land disturber shall have the right to select between the use of nutrient credits or other offsite options, except during the transition period in those localities to which the transition period applies.

F. With the consent of the land disturber, in resolving enforcement actions, the VESMP authority or the Board may include the use of offsite options to compensate for (i) nutrient control deficiencies occurring during the period of noncompliance and (ii) permanent nutrient control deficiencies.

G. This section shall not be construed as limiting the authority established under § 15.2-2243; however, under any pollutant loading pro rata share program established thereunder, the subdivider or developer shall be given appropriate credit for nutrient reductions achieved through offsite options. The locality may use funds collected for nutrient reductions pursuant to a locality pollutant loading pro rata share program for nutrient reductions in the same tributary within the same locality as the land-disturbing activity, or for the acquisition of nutrient credits.

H. Nutrient credits shall not be used to address water quantity technical criteria. Nutrient credits shall be generated in the same or adjacent fourth order subbasin, as defined by the hydrologic unit boundaries of the National Watershed Boundary Dataset, as the land-disturbing activity. If no credits are available within these subbasins when the VESMP or VSMP authority accepts the final site design, credits available within the same tributary may be used. The following requirements apply to the use of nutrient credits:

1. Documentation of the acquisition of nutrient credits shall be provided to the VESMP authority and the Department or the VSMP authority in a certification from the credit provider documenting the number of phosphorus nutrient credits acquired and the associated ratio of nitrogen nutrient credits at the credit-generating entity.

2. Until the effective date of regulations establishing application fees in accordance with § 62.1-44.19:20, the credit provider shall pay the Department a water quality enhancement fee equal to six percent of the amount paid for the credits. Such fee shall be deposited into the Virginia Stormwater Management Fund established by § 62.1-44.15:29.

3. For that portion of a site's compliance with water quality technical criteria being obtained through nutrient credits, the land disturber shall (i) comply with a 1:1 ratio of the nutrient credits to the site's remaining post-development nonpoint nutrient runoff compliance requirement being met by credit use and (ii) use credits certified as perpetual credits pursuant to Article 4.02 (§ 62.1-44.19:12 et seq.).

4. A VESMP or VSMP authority shall allow the full or partial substitution of perpetual nutrient credits for existing onsite nutrient controls when (i) the nutrient credits will compensate for 10 or fewer pounds of the annual phosphorous requirement associated with the original land-disturbing activity or (ii) existing onsite controls are not functioning as anticipated after reasonable attempts to comply with applicable maintenance agreements or requirements and the use of nutrient credits will account for the deficiency. Upon determination by the VESMP or VSMP authority that the conditions established by clause (i) or (ii) have been met, the party responsible for maintenance shall be released from maintenance obligations related to the onsite phosphorous controls for which the nutrient credits are substituted.

I. The use of nutrient credits to meet post-construction nutrient control requirements shall be accounted for in the implementation of total maximum daily loads and MS4 permits as specified in subdivisions 1, 2, and 3. In order to ensure that the nutrient reduction benefits of nutrient credits used to meet post-construction nutrient control requirements are attributed to the location of the land-disturbing activity where the credit is used, the following account method shall be used:

1. Chesapeake Bay TMDL.

a. Where nutrient credits are used to meet nutrient reduction requirements applicable to redevelopment projects, a 1:1 credit shall be applied toward MS4 compliance with the Chesapeake Bay TMDL waste load allocation or related MS4 permit requirement applicable to the MS4 service area, including the site of the land-disturbing activity, such that the nutrient reductions of redevelopment projects are counted as part of the MS4 nutrient reductions to the same extent as when land-disturbing activities use onsite measures to comply.

b. Where nutrient credits are used to meet post-construction requirements applicable to new development projects, the nutrient reduction benefits represented by such credits shall be attributed to the location of the land-disturbing activity where the credit is used to the same extent as when land-disturbing activities use onsite measures to comply.

c. A 1: 1 credit shall be applied toward compliance by a locality that operates a regulated MS4 with its Chesapeake Bay TMDL waste load allocation or related MS4 permit requirement to the extent that nutrient credits are obtained by the MS4 jurisdiction from a nutrient credit-generating entity as defined in § 62.1-44.19:13 independent of or in excess of those required to meet the post-construction requirements.

2. Local nutrient-related TMDLs adopted prior to the land-disturbing activity.

a. Where nutrient credits are used to meet nutrient reduction requirements applicable to redevelopment projects, a 1:1 credit shall be applied toward MS4 compliance with any local TMDL waste load allocation or related MS4 permit requirement applicable to the MS4 service area, including the site of the land-disturbing activity, such that the nutrient reductions of redevelopment projects are counted as part of the MS4 nutrient reductions to the same extent as when land-disturbing activities use onsite measures to comply, provided the nutrient credits are generated upstream of where the land-disturbing activity discharges to the water body segment that is subject to the TMDL.

b. Where nutrient credits are used to meet post-construction requirements applicable to new development projects, the nutrient reduction benefits represented by such credits shall be attributed to the location of the land-disturbing activity where the credit is used to the same extent as when land-disturbing activities use onsite measures to comply, provided the nutrient credits are generated upstream of where the land-disturbing activity discharges to the water body segment that is subject to the TMDL.

c. A 1: 1 credit shall be applied toward MS4 compliance with any local TMDL waste load allocation or related MS4 permit requirement to the extent that nutrient credits are obtained by the MS4 jurisdiction from a nutrient credit-generating entity as defined in § 62.1-44.19:13 independent of or in excess of those required to meet the post-construction requirements. However, such credits shall be generated upstream of where the land-disturbing activity discharges to the water body segment that is subject to the TMDL.

3. Future local nutrient-related TMDLs.

This subdivision applies only to areas where there has been a documented prior use of nutrient credits to meet nutrient control requirements in an MS4 service area that flows to or is upstream of a water body segment for which a nutrient-related TMDL is being developed. For a TMDL waste load allocation applicable to the MS4, the Board shall develop the TMDL waste load allocation with the nutrient reduction benefits represented by the nutrient credit use being attributed to the MS4, except when the Board determines during the TMDL development process that reasonable assurance of implementation cannot be provided for nonpoint source load allocations due to the nutrient reduction benefits being attributed in this manner. The Board shall have no obligation to account for nutrient reduction benefits in this manner if the MS4 does not provide the Board with adequate documentation of (i) the location of the land-disturbing activities, (ii) the number of nutrient credits, and (iii) the generation of the nutrient credits upstream of the site at which the land-disturbing activity discharges to the water body segment addressed by the TMDL. Such attribution shall not be interpreted as amending the requirement that the TMDL be established at a level necessary to meet the applicable water quality standard.

2009, c. 364, § 10.1-603.8:1; 2010, c. 686; 2011, c. 523; 2012, cc. 748, 785, 808, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2015, c. 164; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:36. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2013, cc. 756 and 793, cl. 4.

§ 62.1-44.15:37. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Monitoring, reports, investigations, inspections, and stop work orders.

A. The VSMP authority (i) shall provide for periodic inspections of the installation of stormwater management measures, (ii) may require monitoring and reports from the person responsible for meeting the permit conditions to ensure compliance with the permit and to determine whether the measures required in the permit provide effective stormwater management, and (iii) shall conduct such investigations and perform such other actions as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this article. If the VSMP authority, where authorized to enforce this article, or the Department determines that there is a failure to comply with the permit conditions, notice shall be served upon the permittee or person responsible for carrying out the permit conditions by mailing with confirmation of delivery to the address specified in the permit application, or by delivery at the site of the development activities to the agent or employee supervising such activities. The notice shall specify the measures needed to comply with the permit conditions and shall specify the time within which such measures shall be completed. Upon failure to comply within the time specified, a stop work order may be issued in accordance with subsection B by the VSMP authority, where authorized to enforce this article, or by the Board, or the permit may be revoked by the VSMP authority, or the state permit may be revoked by the Board. The Board or the VSMP authority, where authorized to enforce this article, may pursue enforcement in accordance with § 62.1-44.15:48.

B. If a permittee fails to comply with a notice issued in accordance with subsection A within the time specified, the VSMP authority, where authorized to enforce this article, or the Department may issue an order requiring the owner, permittee, person responsible for carrying out an approved plan, or person conducting the land-disturbing activities without an approved plan or required permit to cease all land-disturbing activities until the violation of the permit has ceased, or an approved plan and required permits are obtained, and specified corrective measures have been completed.

Such orders shall be issued (i) in accordance with local procedures if issued by a locality serving as a VSMP authority or (ii) after a hearing held in accordance with the requirements of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) if issued by the Department. Such orders shall become effective upon service on the person by mailing, with confirmation of delivery, sent to his address specified in the land records of the locality, or by personal delivery by an agent of the VSMP authority or Department. However, if the VSMP authority or the Department finds that any such violation is grossly affecting or presents an imminent and substantial danger of causing harmful erosion of lands or sediment deposition in waters within the watersheds of the Commonwealth or otherwise substantially impacting water quality, it may issue, without advance notice or hearing, an emergency order directing such person to cease immediately all land-disturbing activities on the site and shall provide an opportunity for a hearing, after reasonable notice as to the time and place thereof, to such person, to affirm, modify, amend, or cancel such emergency order.

If a person who has been issued an order is not complying with the terms thereof, the VSMP authority or the Department may institute a proceeding in accordance with § 62.1-44.15:42.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.11; 2004, c. 372; 2012, cc. 785, 819. 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:37. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Notices to comply and stop work orders.

A. When the VESMP authority or the Board determines that there is a failure to comply with the permit conditions or conditions of land-disturbance approval, or to obtain an approved plan, permit, or land-disturbance approval prior to commencing land-disturbing activities, the VESMP authority or the Board may serve a notice to comply upon the owner, permittee, or person conducting land-disturbing activities without an approved plan, permit, or approval. Such notice to comply shall be served by delivery by facsimile, email, or other technology; by mailing with confirmation of delivery to the address specified in the permit or land-disturbance application, if available, or in the land records of the locality; or by delivery at the site to a person previously identified to the VESMP authority by the permittee or owner. The notice to comply shall specify the measures needed to comply with the permit or land-disturbance approval conditions, or shall identify the plan approval or permit or land-disturbance approval needed to comply with this article, and shall specify a reasonable time within which such measures shall be completed. In any instance in which a required permit or land-disturbance approval has not been obtained, the VESMP authority or the Board may require immediate compliance. In any other case, the VESMP authority or the Board may establish the time for compliance by taking into account the risk of damage to natural resources and other relevant factors. Notwithstanding any other provision in this subsection, a VESMP authority or the Board may count any days of noncompliance as days of violation should the VESMP authority or the Board take an enforcement action. The issuance of a notice to comply by the Board shall not be considered a case decision as defined in § 2.2-4001.

B. Upon failure to comply within the time specified in a notice to comply issued in accordance with subsection A, a locality serving as the VESMP authority or the Board may issue a stop work order requiring the owner, permittee, or person conducting the land-disturbing activities without an approved plan or required permit or land-disturbance approval to cease all land-disturbing activities until the violation has ceased, or an approved plan and required permits and approvals are obtained, and specified corrective measures have been completed. The VESMP authority or the Board shall lift the order immediately upon completion and approval of corrective action or upon obtaining an approved plan or any required permits or approvals.

C. When such an order is issued by the Board, it shall be issued in accordance with the procedures of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Such orders shall become effective upon service on the person in the manner set forth in subsection A. However, where the alleged noncompliance is causing or presents an imminent and substantial danger of causing harmful erosion of lands or sediment deposition in waters within the watersheds of the Commonwealth or otherwise substantially impacting water quality, the locality serving as the VESMP authority or the Board may issue, without advance notice or procedures, an emergency order directing such person to cease immediately all land-disturbing activities on the site and shall provide an opportunity for a hearing, after reasonable notice as to the time and place thereof, to such person, to affirm, modify, amend, or cancel such emergency order.

D. The owner, permittee, or person conducting a land-disturbing activity may appeal the issuance of any order to the circuit court of the jurisdiction wherein the violation was alleged to occur or other appropriate court.

E. An aggrieved owner of property sustaining pecuniary damage from soil erosion or sediment deposition resulting from a violation of an approved plan or required land-disturbance approval, or from the conduct of a land-disturbing activity commenced without an approved plan or required land-disturbance approval, may give written notice of an alleged violation to the locality serving as the VESMP authority and to the Board.

1. If the VESMP authority has not responded to the alleged violation in a manner that causes the violation to cease and abates the damage to the aggrieved owner's property within 30 days following receipt of the notice from the aggrieved owner, the aggrieved owner may request that the Board conduct an investigation and, if necessary, require the violator to stop the alleged violation and abate the damage to the property of the aggrieved owner.

2. Upon receipt of the request, the Board shall conduct an investigation of the aggrieved owner's complaint. If the Board's investigation of the complaint indicates that (i) there is a violation and the VESMP authority has not responded to the violation as required by the VESMP and (ii) the VESMP authority has not responded to the alleged violation in a manner that causes the violation to cease and abates the damage to the aggrieved owner's property within 30 days from receipt of the notice from the aggrieved owner, then the Board shall give written notice to the VESMP authority that the Board intends to issue an order pursuant to subdivision 3.

3. If the VESMP authority has not instituted action to stop the violation and abate the damage to the aggrieved owner's property within 10 days following receipt of the notice from the Board, the Board is authorized to issue an order requiring the owner, person responsible for carrying out an approved plan, or person conducting the land-disturbing activity without an approved plan or required land-disturbance approval to cease all land-disturbing activities until the violation of the plan has ceased or an approved plan and required land-disturbance approval are obtained, as appropriate, and specified corrective measures have been completed. The Board also may immediately initiate a program review of the VESMP.

4. Such orders are to be issued in accordance with the procedures of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) and they shall become effective upon service on the person by mailing, with confirmation of delivery, sent to his address specified in the land records of the locality, or by personal delivery by an agent of the Board. Any subsequent identical mail or notice that is sent by the Board may be sent by regular mail. However, if the Board finds that any such violation is grossly affecting or presents an imminent and substantial danger of causing harmful erosion of lands or sediment deposition in waters within the watersheds of the Commonwealth, it may issue, without advance notice or hearing, an emergency order directing such person to cease all land-disturbing activities on the site immediately and shall provide an opportunity for a hearing, after reasonable notice as to the time and place thereof, to such person, to affirm, modify, amend, or cancel such emergency order.

5. If a person who has been issued an order or an emergency order is not complying with the terms thereof, the Board may institute a proceeding in the appropriate circuit court for an injunction, mandamus, or other appropriate remedy compelling the person to comply with such order. Any person violating or failing, neglecting, or refusing to obey any injunction, mandamus, or other remedy obtained pursuant to this section shall be subject, in the discretion of the court, to a civil penalty in accordance with the provisions of § 62.1-44.15:48. Any civil penalties assessed by a court shall be paid into the state treasury and deposited by the State Treasurer into the Stormwater Local Assistance Fund established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:29.1.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.11; 2004, c. 372; 2012, cc. 785, 819. 2013, cc. 756, 793, 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:37.1. Inspections; land-disturbing activities of natural gas pipelines; stop work instructions.

A. The Department is authorized to conduct inspections of the land-disturbing activities of interstate and intrastate natural gas pipeline companies that have approved annual standards and specifications pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:31 as such land-disturbing activities relate to construction of any natural gas transmission pipeline greater than 36 inches inside diameter to determine (i) compliance with such annual standards and specifications, (ii) compliance with any site-specific plans, and (iii) if there have been or are likely to be adverse impacts to water quality as a result of such land-disturbing activities. When the Department determines that there has been a substantial adverse impact to water quality or that an imminent and substantial adverse impact to water quality is likely to occur as a result of such land-disturbing activities, the Department may issue a stop work instruction, without advance notice or hearing, requiring that all or part of such land-disturbing activities on the part of the site that caused the substantial adverse impacts to water quality or are likely to cause imminent and substantial adverse impacts to water quality be stopped until corrective measures specified in the stop work instruction have been completed and approved by the Department.

Such stop work instruction shall become effective upon service on the company by email or other technology agreed to in writing by the Department and the company, by mailing with confirmation of delivery to the address specified in the annual standards and specifications, if available, or by delivery at the site to a person previously identified to the Department by the company. Upon request by the company, the Director or his designee shall review such stop work instruction within 48 hours of issuance.

B. Within 10 business days of issuance of a stop work instruction, the Department shall promptly provide to such company an opportunity for an informal fact-finding proceeding concerning the stop work instruction and any review by the Director or his designee. Reasonable notice as to the time and place of the informal fact-finding proceeding shall be provided to such company. Within 10 business days of the informal fact-finding proceeding, the Department shall affirm, modify, amend, or cancel such stop work instruction. Upon written documentation from the company of the completion and approval by the Department in writing of the corrective measures specified in the stop work instruction, the instruction shall be immediately lifted.

C. The company may appeal such stop work instruction or preliminary decision rendered by the Director or his designee to the circuit court of the jurisdiction wherein the land-disturbing activities subject to the stop work instruction occurred, or to another appropriate court, in accordance with the requirements of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Any person violating or failing, neglecting, or refusing to obey a stop work instruction issued by the Department may be compelled in a proceeding instituted in the circuit court of the jurisdiction wherein the violation was alleged to have occurred or other appropriate court to obey same and to comply therewith by injunction, mandamus, or other appropriate remedy. Nothing in this section shall prevent the Board or the Department from taking any other action authorized by this chapter.

2018, c. 298.

§ 62.1-44.15:38. (For repeal date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Department to review VSMPs.

A. The Department shall develop and implement a review and evaluation schedule so that the effectiveness of each VSMP authority, Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System Management Program, and other MS4 permit requirements is evaluated no less than every five years. The review shall include an assessment of the extent to which the program has reduced nonpoint source pollution and mitigated the detrimental effects of localized flooding. Such reviews shall be coordinated with those being implemented in accordance with the Erosion and Sediment Control Law (§ 62.1-44.15:51 et seq.) and associated regulations and, where applicable, the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.) and associated regulations.

B. Following completion of a compliance review of a VSMP, the Department shall provide results and compliance recommendations to the Board in the form of a corrective action agreement if deficiencies are found; otherwise, the Board may find the program compliant. If, after such a review and evaluation, a VSMP is found to have a program that does not comply with the provisions of this article or regulations adopted thereunder, the Board shall establish a schedule for the VSMP authority to come into compliance. The Board shall provide a copy of its decision to the VSMP authority that specifies the deficiencies, actions needed to be taken, and the approved compliance schedule. If the VSMP has not implemented the necessary compliance actions identified by the Board within 30 days following receipt of the corrective action agreement, or such additional period as is granted to complete the implementation of the corrective action, then the Board shall have the authority to (i) issue a special order to any VSMP imposing a civil penalty not to exceed $5,000 per day with the maximum amount not to exceed $20,000 per violation for noncompliance with the requirements of this article and its regulations, to be paid into the state treasury and deposited in the Virginia Stormwater Management Fund established by § 62.1-44.15:29 or (ii) revoke its approval of the VSMP. The Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) shall govern the activities and proceedings of the Board under this article and the judicial review thereof.

If the Board revokes its approval of a VSMP, the Board shall find the VSMP authority provisional and shall have the Department assist with the administration of the program until the VSMP authority is deemed compliant with the requirements of this article and associated regulations. Assisting with administration includes the ability to review and comment on plans to the VSMP authority, to conduct inspections with the VSMP authority, and to conduct enforcement in accordance with this article and associated regulations.

In lieu of issuing a special order or revoking the program, the Board may take legal action against a VSMP pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:48 to ensure compliance.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.12; 2004, c. 372; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:39. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Right of entry.

The Department, the VSMP authority, where authorized to enforce this article, any duly authorized agent of the Department or VSMP authority, or any locality that is the operator of a regulated municipal separate storm sewer system may, at reasonable times and under reasonable circumstances, enter any establishment or upon any property, public or private, for the purpose of obtaining information or conducting surveys or investigations necessary in the enforcement of the provisions of this article. For operators of municipal separate storm sewer systems, this authority shall apply only to those properties from which a discharge enters their municipal separate storm sewer systems.

In accordance with a performance bond with surety, cash escrow, letter of credit, any combination thereof, or such other legal arrangement, a VSMP authority may also enter any establishment or upon any property, public or private, for the purpose of initiating or maintaining appropriate actions that are required by the permit conditions associated with a land-disturbing activity when a permittee, after proper notice, has failed to take acceptable action within the time specified.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.12:1; 2011, c. 453; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:39. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Right of entry.

In addition to the Board's authority set forth in § 62.1-44.20, a locality serving as a VESMP authority or any duly authorized agent thereof may, at reasonable times and under reasonable circumstances, enter any establishment or upon any property, public or private, for the purpose of obtaining information or conducting surveys or investigations necessary in the enforcement of the provisions of this article. For localities that operate regulated municipal separate storm sewer systems, this authority shall apply only to those properties from which a discharge enters their municipal separate storm sewer systems.

In accordance with a performance bond with surety, cash escrow, letter of credit, any combination thereof, or such other legal arrangement, a VESMP authority may also enter any establishment or upon any property, public or private, for the purpose of initiating or maintaining appropriate actions that are required by conditions imposed by the VESMP authority on a land-disturbing activity when an owner, after proper notice, has failed to take acceptable action within the time specified.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.12:1; 2011, c. 453; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:40. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Information to be furnished.

The Board, the Department, or the VSMP authority, where authorized to enforce this article, may require every permit applicant, every permittee, or any person subject to state permit requirements under this article to furnish when requested such application materials, plans, specifications, and other pertinent information as may be necessary to determine the effect of his discharge on the quality of state waters, or such other information as may be necessary to accomplish the purposes of this article. Any personal information shall not be disclosed except to an appropriate official of the Board, Department, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or VSMP authority or as may be authorized pursuant to the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.). However, disclosure of records of the Department, the Board, or the VSMP authority relating to (i) active federal environmental enforcement actions that are considered confidential under federal law, (ii) enforcement strategies, including proposed sanctions for enforcement actions, and (iii) any secret formulae, secret processes, or secret methods other than effluent data used by any permittee or under that permittee's direction is prohibited. Upon request, such enforcement records shall be disclosed after a proposed sanction resulting from the investigation has been determined by the Department, the Board, or the VSMP authority. This section shall not be construed to prohibit the disclosure of records related to inspection reports, notices of violation, and documents detailing the nature of any land-disturbing activity that may have occurred, or similar documents.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.12:2; 2005, c. 102; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:40. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Information to be furnished.

The Board, the Department, or a locality serving as a VESMP authority may require every owner, including every applicant for a permit or land-disturbance approval, to furnish when requested such application materials, plans, specifications, and other pertinent information as may be necessary to determine the effect of his discharge on the quality of state waters, or such other information as may be necessary to accomplish the purposes of this article. The Board or Department also may require any locality that is a VESMP authority to furnish when requested any information as may be required to accomplish the purposes of this article. Any personal information shall not be disclosed except to an appropriate official of the Board, Department, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or VESMP authority or as may be authorized pursuant to the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.). However, disclosure of records of the Department, the Board, or the VESMP authority relating to (i) active federal environmental enforcement actions that are considered confidential under federal law, (ii) enforcement strategies, including proposed sanctions for enforcement actions, and (iii) any secret formulae, secret processes, or secret methods other than effluent data used by any owner or under that owner's direction is prohibited. Upon request, such enforcement records shall be disclosed after a proposed sanction resulting from the investigation has been determined by the Board or the locality serving as a VESMP authority. This section shall not be construed to prohibit the disclosure of records related to inspection reports, notices of violation, and documents detailing the nature of any land-disturbing activity that may have occurred, or similar documents.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.12:2; 2005, c. 102; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:41. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Private rights; liability.

A. Whenever a common interest community cedes responsibility for the maintenance, repair, and replacement of a stormwater management facility on its real property to the Commonwealth or political subdivision thereof, such common interest community shall be immune from civil liability in relation to such stormwater management facility. In order for the immunity established by this subsection to apply, (i) the common interest community must cede such responsibility by contract or other instrument executed by both parties and (ii) the Commonwealth or the governing body of the political subdivision shall have accepted the responsibility ceded by the common interest community in writing or by resolution. As used in this section, maintenance, repair, and replacement shall include, without limitation, cleaning of the facility, maintenance of adjacent grounds that are part of the facility, maintenance and replacement of fencing where the facility is fenced, and posting of signage indicating the identity of the governmental entity that maintains the facility. Acceptance or approval of an easement, subdivision plat, site plan, or other plan of development shall not constitute the acceptance by the Commonwealth or the governing body of the political subdivision required to satisfy clause (ii). The immunity granted by this section shall not apply to actions or omissions by the common interest community constituting intentional or willful misconduct or gross negligence. For the purposes of this section, "common interest community" means the same as that term is defined in § 55-528.

B. Except as provided in subsection A, the fact that any permittee holds or has held a permit or state permit issued under this article shall not constitute a defense in any civil action involving private rights.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.12:3; 2010, c. 853; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:41. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Liability of common interest communities.

Whenever a common interest community cedes responsibility for the maintenance, repair, and replacement of a stormwater management facility on its real property to the Commonwealth or political subdivision thereof, such common interest community shall be immune from civil liability in relation to such stormwater management facility. In order for the immunity established by this subsection to apply, (i) the common interest community must cede such responsibility by contract or other instrument executed by both parties and (ii) the Commonwealth or the governing body of the political subdivision shall have accepted the responsibility ceded by the common interest community in writing or by resolution. As used in this section, maintenance, repair, and replacement shall include, without limitation, cleaning of the facility, maintenance of adjacent grounds that are part of the facility, maintenance and replacement of fencing where the facility is fenced, and posting of signage indicating the identity of the governmental entity that maintains the facility. Acceptance or approval of an easement, subdivision plat, site plan, or other plan of development shall not constitute the acceptance by the Commonwealth or the governing body of the political subdivision required to satisfy clause (ii). The immunity granted by this section shall not apply to actions or omissions by the common interest community constituting intentional or willful misconduct or gross negligence. For the purposes of this section, "common interest community" means the same as that term is defined in § 55-528.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.12:3; 2010, c. 853; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:42. (For repeal date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Enforcement by injunction, etc.

A. It is unlawful for any person to fail to comply with any stop work order, emergency order issued in accordance with § 62.1-44.15:37, or a special order or emergency special order issued in accordance with § 62.1-44.15:25 that has become final under the provisions of this article. Any person violating or failing, neglecting, or refusing to obey any rule, regulation, ordinance, approved standard and specification, order, or permit condition issued by the Board, Department, or VSMP authority as authorized to do such, or any provisions of this article, may be compelled in a proceeding instituted in any appropriate court by the Board, Department, or VSMP authority where authorized to enforce this article to obey same and to comply therewith by injunction, mandamus, or other appropriate remedy.

B. Any person violating or failing, neglecting, or refusing to obey any injunction, mandamus, or other remedy obtained pursuant to this section shall be subject, in the discretion of the court, to a civil penalty in accordance with the provisions of § 62.1-44.15:48.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.12:4; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:43. (For repeal date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Testing validity of regulations; judicial review.

A. The validity of any regulation adopted by the Board pursuant to this article may be determined through judicial review in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

B. An appeal may be taken from the decision of the court to the Court of Appeals as provided by law.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.12:5; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:44. (For repeal date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Right to hearing.

Any permit applicant, permittee, or person subject to state permit requirements under this article aggrieved by any action of the Department or Board taken without a formal hearing, or by inaction of the Department or Board, may demand in writing a formal hearing by the Board, provided a petition requesting such hearing is filed with the Board within 30 days after notice of such action.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.12:6; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598.

§ 62.1-44.15:45. (For repeal date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Hearings.

When holding hearings under this article, the Board shall do so in a manner consistent with § 62.1-44.26. A locality holding hearings under this article shall do so in a manner consistent with local hearing procedures.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.12:7; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598.

§ 62.1-44.15:46. (For expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Appeals.

Any permittee or party aggrieved by a state permit or enforcement decision of the Department or Board under this article, or any person who has participated, in person or by submittal of written comments, in the public comment process related to a final decision of the Department or Board under this article, whether such decision is affirmative or negative, is entitled to judicial review thereof in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) if such person meets the standard for obtaining judicial review of a case or controversy pursuant to Article III of the Constitution of the United States. A person shall be deemed to meet such standard if (i) such person has suffered an actual or imminent injury that is an invasion of a legally protected interest and that is concrete and particularized; (ii) such injury is fairly traceable to the decision of the Department or the Board and not the result of the independent action of some third party not before the court; and (iii) such injury will likely be redressed by a favorable decision by the court.

The provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) shall not apply to decisions rendered by localities. Appeals of decisions rendered by localities shall be conducted in accordance with local appeal procedures and shall include an opportunity for judicial review in the circuit court of the locality in which the land disturbance occurs or is proposed to occur. Unless otherwise provided by law, the circuit court shall conduct such review in accordance with the standards established in § 2.2-4027, and the decisions of the circuit court shall be subject to review by the Court of Appeals, as in other cases under this article.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.13; 2004, c. 372; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598.

§ 62.1-44.15:46. (For effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Appeals.

Any permittee or party aggrieved by (i) a permit or permit enforcement decision of the Board under this article or (ii) a decision of the Board under this article concerning a land-disturbing activity in a locality subject to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.), or any person who has participated, in person or by submittal of written comments, in the public comment process related to such decision of the Board under this article, whether such decision is affirmative or negative, is entitled to judicial review thereof in accordance with § 62.1-44.29. Appeals of other final decisions of the Board under this article shall be subject to judicial review in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

A final decision by a locality, when serving as a VESMP authority, shall be subject to judicial review, provided that an appeal is filed in the appropriate court within 30 days from the date of any written decision adversely affecting the rights, duties, or privileges of the person engaging in or proposing to engage in a land-disturbing activity.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.13; 2004, c. 372; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2014, cc. 303, 598; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:47. (For repeal date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Appeal to Court of Appeals.

From the final decision of the circuit court an appeal may be taken to the Court of Appeals as provided in § 17.1-405.

2004, c. 372, § 10.1-603.13:1; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:48. (For contingent expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Penalties, injunctions, and other legal actions.

A. Any person who violates any provision of this article or of any regulation, ordinance, or standard and specification adopted or approved hereunder, including those adopted pursuant to the conditions of an MS4 permit, or who fails, neglects, or refuses to comply with any order of a VSMP authority authorized to enforce this article, the Department, the Board, or a court, issued as herein provided, shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $32,500 for each violation within the discretion of the court. Each day of violation of each requirement shall constitute a separate offense. The Board shall adopt a regulation establishing a schedule of civil penalties to be utilized by the VSMP authority in enforcing the provisions of this article. The Board, Department, or VSMP authority may issue a summons for collection of the civil penalty and the action may be prosecuted in the appropriate court. Any civil penalties assessed by a court as a result of a summons issued by a locality as an approved VSMP authority shall be paid into the treasury of the locality wherein the land lies, except where the violator is the locality itself, or its agent. When the penalties are assessed by the court as a result of a summons issued by the Board or Department, or where the violator is the locality itself, or its agent, the court shall direct the penalty to be paid into the state treasury and deposited by the State Treasurer into the Virginia Stormwater Management Fund established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:29. Such civil penalties paid into the treasury of the locality in which the violation occurred are to be used for the purpose of minimizing, preventing, managing, or mitigating pollution of the waters of the locality and abating environmental pollution therein in such manner as the court may, by order, direct.

B. Any person who willfully or negligently violates any provision of this article, any regulation or order of the Board, any order of a VSMP authority authorized to enforce this article or the Department, any ordinance of any locality approved as a VSMP authority, any condition of a permit or state permit, or any order of a court shall be guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by confinement in jail for not more than 12 months and a fine of not less than $2,500 nor more than $32,500, either or both. Any person who knowingly violates any provision of this article, any regulation or order of the Board, any order of the VSMP authority or the Department, any ordinance of any locality approved as a VSMP authority, any condition of a permit or state permit, or any order of a court issued as herein provided, or who knowingly makes any false statement in any form required to be submitted under this article or knowingly renders inaccurate any monitoring device or method required to be maintained under this article, shall be guilty of a felony punishable by a term of imprisonment of not less than one year nor more than three years, or in the discretion of the jury or the court trying the case without a jury, confinement in jail for not more than 12 months and a fine of not less than $5,000 nor more than $50,000 for each violation. Any defendant that is not an individual shall, upon conviction of a violation under this subsection, be sentenced to pay a fine of not less than $10,000. Each day of violation of each requirement shall constitute a separate offense.

C. Any person who knowingly violates any provision of this article, and who knows at that time that he thereby places another person in imminent danger of death or serious bodily harm, shall, upon conviction, be guilty of a felony punishable by a term of imprisonment of not less than two years nor more than 15 years and a fine of not more than $250,000, either or both. A defendant that is not an individual shall, upon conviction of a violation under this subsection, be sentenced to pay a fine not exceeding the greater of $1 million or an amount that is three times the economic benefit realized by the defendant as a result of the offense. The maximum penalty shall be doubled with respect to both fine and imprisonment for any subsequent conviction of the same person under this subsection.

D. Violation of any provision of this article may also include the following sanctions:

1. The Board, Department, or the VSMP authority, where authorized to enforce this article, may apply to the appropriate court in any jurisdiction wherein the land lies to enjoin a violation or a threatened violation of the provisions of this article or of the local ordinance without the necessity of showing that an adequate remedy at law does not exist.

2. With the consent of any person who has violated or failed, neglected, or refused to obey any ordinance, any condition of a permit or state permit, any regulation or order of the Board, any order of the VSMP authority or the Department, or any provision of this article, the Board, Department, or VSMP authority may provide, in an order issued against such person, for the payment of civil charges for violations in specific sums, not to exceed the limit specified in this section. Such civil charges shall be instead of any appropriate civil penalty that could be imposed under this section. Any civil charges collected shall be paid to the locality or state treasury pursuant to subsection A.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.14; 2004, c. 372; 2006, c. 171; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:48. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Penalties, injunctions, and other legal actions.

A. For a land-disturbing activity that disturbs 2,500 square feet or more of land in an area of a locality that is designated as a Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area pursuant to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.), or that disturbs one acre or more of land or is part of a larger common plan of development or sale that disturbs one acre or more of land anywhere else in the Commonwealth:

1. Any person who violates any applicable provision of this article or of any regulation, permit, or standard and specification adopted or approved by the Board hereunder, or who fails, neglects, or refuses to comply with any order of the Board, or a court, issued as herein provided, shall be subject to a civil penalty pursuant to § 62.1-44.32. The court shall direct that any penalty be paid into the state treasury and deposited by the State Treasurer into the Stormwater Local Assistance Fund established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:29.1.

2. Any person who violates any applicable provision of this article, or any ordinance adopted pursuant to this article, including those adopted pursuant to the conditions of an MS4 permit, or any condition of a local land-disturbance approval, or who fails, neglects, or refuses to comply with any order of a locality serving as a VESMP authority or a court, issued as herein provided, shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $32,500 for each violation within the discretion of the court. Each day of violation of each requirement shall constitute a separate offense. Such civil penalties shall be paid into the treasury of the locality in which the violation occurred and are to be used solely for stormwater management capital projects, including (i) new stormwater best management practices; (ii) stormwater best management practice maintenance, inspection, or retrofitting; (iii) stream restoration; (iv) low-impact development projects; (v) buffer restoration; (vi) pond retrofitting; and (vii) wetlands restoration.

Where the violator is the locality itself, or its agent, the court shall direct the penalty to be paid into the state treasury and deposited by the State Treasurer into the Stormwater Local Assistance Fund established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:29.1.

B. For a land-disturbing activity that disturbs an area measuring not less than 10,000 square feet but less than one acre in an area that is not designated as a Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area pursuant to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act (§ 62.1-44.15:67 et seq.) and is not part of a larger common plan of development or sale that disturbs one acre or more of land:

1. Any person who violates any applicable provision of this article or of any regulation or order of the Board issued pursuant to this article, or any condition of a land-disturbance approval issued by the Board, or fails to obtain a required land-disturbance approval, shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $5,000 for each violation with a limit of $50,000 within the discretion of the court in a civil action initiated by the Board. Each day during which the violation is found to have existed shall constitute a separate offense. In no event shall a series of specified violations arising from the same operative set of facts result in civil penalties that exceed a total of $50,000. The court shall direct the penalty to be paid into the state treasury and deposited by the State Treasurer into the Stormwater Local Assistance Fund established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:29.1.

2. Any locality serving as a VESMP authority shall adopt an ordinance providing that a violation of any ordinance or provision of its program adopted pursuant to this article, or any condition of a land-disturbance approval, shall be subject to a civil penalty. Such ordinance shall provide that any person who violates any applicable provision of this article or any ordinance or order of a locality issued pursuant to this article, or any condition of a land-disturbance approval issued by the locality, or fails to obtain a required land-disturbance approval, shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $5,000 for each violation with a limit of $50,000 within the discretion of the court in a civil action initiated by the locality. Each day during which the violation is found to have existed shall constitute a separate offense. In no event shall a series of specified violations arising from the same operative set of facts result in civil penalties that exceed a total of $50,000. Any civil penalties assessed by a court shall be paid into the treasury of the locality wherein the land lies and used pursuant to subdivision A 2, except that where the violator is the locality itself, or its agent, the court shall direct the penalty to be paid into the state treasury and deposited by the State Treasurer into the Stormwater Local Assistance Fund established pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:29.1.

C. The violation of any provision of this article may also result in the following sanctions:

1. The Board may seek an injunction, mandamus, or other appropriate remedy pursuant to § 62.1-44.23. A locality serving as a VESMP authority may apply to the appropriate court in any jurisdiction wherein the land lies to enjoin a violation or a threatened violation of the provisions of a local ordinance or order or the conditions of a local land-disturbance approval. Any person violating or failing, neglecting, or refusing to obey any injunction, mandamus, or other remedy obtained pursuant to this article shall be subject, in the discretion of the court, to a civil penalty that shall be assessed and used in accordance with the provisions of subsection A or B, as applicable.

2. The Board or a locality serving as a VESMP authority may use the criminal provisions provided in § 62.1-44.32.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.14; 2004, c. 372; 2006, c. 171; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:49. (For contingent expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Enforcement authority of MS4 localities.

A. Localities shall adopt a stormwater ordinance pursuant to the conditions of a MS4 permit that is consistent with this article and its associated regulations and that contains provisions including the Virginia Stormwater Management Program (VSMP) General Permit for Discharges of Stormwater from Construction Activities and shall include additional provisions as required to comply with a state MS4 permit. Such locality may utilize the civil penalty provisions in subsection A of § 62.1-44.15:48, the injunctive authority as provided for in subdivision D 1 of § 62.1-44.15:48, and the civil charges as authorized in subdivision D 2 of § 62.1-44.15:48, to enforce the ordinance. At the request of another MS4, the locality may apply the penalties provided for in this section to direct or indirect discharges to any MS4 located within its jurisdiction.

B. Any person who willfully and knowingly violates any provision of such an ordinance is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

C. The local ordinance authorized by this section shall remain in full force and effect until the locality has been approved as a VSMP authority.

2008, c. 13, § 10.1-603.14 :1; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:49.1. MS4 industrial and high-risk programs.

A. Any locality that owns or operates a municipal separate storm sewer system that is subject to a discharge permit issued pursuant to this chapter shall have the authority to adopt and administer an industrial and high-risk runoff program for industrial and commercial facilities as part of its municipal separate storm sewer system management program.

B. The Board shall not delegate to the locality the Board's authority or responsibilities under the federal Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. § 1251 et seq.) as to such industrial and commercial facilities.

C. Unless it is required to do so by the adoption on or after January 1, 2018, of a federal regulation or an amendment to the federal Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. § 1251 et seq.), the Board shall not impose upon the locality, by permit issuance or reissuance, any municipal separate storm sewer system permit condition requiring that (i) an industrial or commercial facility also subject to a permit issued by the Board under this chapter be included in the locality's industrial and high-risk runoff program, (ii) any state discharge monitoring reports or other required reports submitted by such a facility to the Department also be reviewed or enforced by the locality, or (iii) the locality impose additional monitoring requirements on a facility that exceed or conflict with the requirements of any permit issued by the Board under this chapter. The limitation contained in this subsection shall not be cause for the Board or the locality to initiate a major or minor modification of any municipal separate storm sewer system permit that is in effect as of January 1, 2018, during the term of that permit.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the Board may, through a municipal separate storm sewer system permit that is issued to the locality, require a locality to refer any industrial or commercial facility to the Board or the Department if the locality becomes aware of a violation of any industrial stormwater management requirement contained in an individual or general Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued to the facility pursuant to this chapter.

2018, c. 152.

§ 62.1-44.15:49. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Enforcement authority of MS4 localities.

Each locality subject to an MS4 permit shall adopt an ordinance to implement a municipal separate storm sewer system management program that is consistent with this chapter and that contains provisions as required to comply with an MS4 permit. Such locality may utilize the civil penalty provisions in subdivision A 2 of § 62.1-44.15:48, the injunctive authority as provided for in subsection C of § 62.1-44.15:48, the civil charges as authorized in § 62.1-44.15:25.1, and the criminal provisions in § 62.1-44.32, to enforce the ordinance. At the request of another MS4, the locality may apply the penalties provided for in this section to direct or indirect discharges to any MS4 located within its jurisdiction.

2008, c. 13, § 10.1-603.14 :1; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

§ 62.1-44.15:50. (For contingent expiration date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Cooperation with federal and state agencies.

A VSMP authority and the Department are authorized to cooperate and enter into agreements with any federal or state agency in connection with the requirements for land-disturbing activities for stormwater management.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.15; 2004, c. 372; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793.

§ 62.1-44.15:50. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2016, cc. 68 and 758, as amended by Acts 2017, c. 345) Cooperation with federal and state agencies.

A VESMP authority and the Department are authorized to cooperate and enter into agreements with any federal or state agency in connection with the requirements for land-disturbing activities.

1989, cc. 467, 499, § 10.1-603.15; 2004, c. 372; 2012, cc. 785, 819; 2013, cc. 756, 793; 2016, cc. 68, 758.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

The Virginia General Assembly is offering access to the Code of Virginia on the Internet as a service to the public. We are unable to assist users of this service with legal questions nor respond to requests for legal advice or the application of the law to specific facts. Therefore, to understand and protect your legal rights, you should consult an attorney.

The Code of Virginia online database excludes material copyrighted by the publisher, Michie, a division of Matthew Bender. Copyrighted material includes annotations and revisors' notes, which may be found in the print version of the Code of Virginia. Annotated print copies of the Code of Virginia are available in most Virginia public library systems, from LexisNexis (1-800-446-3410), and from West, a Thomson-Reuters business (1-800-344-5008).