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Code of Virginia
Title 58.1. Taxation
Chapter 39. Enforcement, Collection, Refunds, Remedies and Review of Local Taxes
5/15/2021

Chapter 39. Enforcement, Collection, Refunds, Remedies and Review of Local Taxes.

Article 1. Enforcement by the Commissioner of Revenue.

§ 58.1-3900. Filing of returns.

Any person having taxable personal property, machinery and tools or merchants' capital on January 1 of any year shall file a return thereof with the commissioner of the revenue for his county or city in accordance with § 58.1-3518. Such returns shall be filed by May 1 of each year, except as otherwise provided by ordinance adopted under § 58.1-3916.

1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3901. Apartment house, office building, shopping center, trailer camp, trailer court, self-service storage facility, marina, airport, and other owners or operators to file lists of tenants.

A. Every person owning or operating any apartment house or any office building or shopping center or any trailer camp or trailer court or marina or privately owned or operated airport in the Commonwealth shall, on or before February 1 of each year, upon request of the commissioner of the revenue of the county or city in which any such apartment house, office building, shopping center, trailer camp, trailer court, marina, or airport is located, file with such commissioner of the revenue a list giving the name and address of every tenant of such apartment house, office building, shopping center, trailer camp, or trailer court, and the name and address of every person renting space in a marina for waterborne craft and at a privately owned or operated airport for airborne craft as of January 1 preceding. The governing body of any county adjoining a county having a population of more than 1,000 per square mile may require like information from any such person leasing houses for rent, and violation of any such ordinance requiring the same may be punished as hereinafter provided.

B. Every property owners' association established pursuant to the Property Owners' Association Act (§ 55.1-1800 et seq.), condominium unit owners' association established pursuant to the Virginia Condominium Act (§ 55.1-1900 et seq.), and proprietary lessees' association established pursuant to the Virginia Real Estate Cooperative Act (§ 55.1-2100 et seq.) shall, upon the written request of the commissioner of the revenue, provide a list of the owners of the properties administered by such association, to the extent that the association maintains such a list, to the commissioner for use in administering local property taxes.

C. Every person owning or operating any self-service storage facility, as defined in § 55.1-2900, that makes the outdoor common area of such facility available for storage of tangible personal property (including without limitation motor vehicles, trailers, and watercraft) on a rental or leased basis in the Commonwealth shall, on or before February 1 of each year, upon the written request of the commissioner of the revenue of the county or city in which such self-service storage facility is located, file with such commissioner of the revenue a list giving the name and address of every person renting or leasing space within the outdoor common area of such self-service storage facility as of January 1 preceding.

D. Any person failing to comply with this section shall be guilty of a Class 4 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 58-863; 1950, p. 35; 1952, c. 527; 1968, c. 628; 1984, c. 675; 1990, c. 152; 2009, cc. 501, 672.

§ 58.1-3902. Certain operators of marinas or boat storage places to file lists of owners of boats.

Every person or state or local agency operating in the Commonwealth a marina or boat storage place which accommodates more than four boats shall, on or before February 1 of each year, upon the request of the commissioner of the revenue of the county or city in which such marina or boat storage place is located, file with such commissioner of the revenue a list giving the name and address of the owner and operator, if such is available, and the name and number of each boat physically located and normally kept at his marina or boat storage place as of the preceding January 1. The list shall be divided into the following three categories: (i) watercraft which are eighteen feet and over; (ii) watercraft which are under eighteen feet and motorized; and (iii) watercraft which are under eighteen feet and nonmotorized. Violators of this section are guilty of a Class 4 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 58-863.1; 1968, c. 258; 1984, c. 675; 1999, c. 358; 2013, c. 804.

§ 58.1-3903. Omitted local taxes or levies.

If the commissioner of the revenue of any county or city or the tax-assessing officer of any town ascertains that any local tax has not been assessed for any tax year of the three preceding tax years or that the same has been assessed at less than the law required for any one or more of such years, or that the taxes for any cause have not been realized, the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing officer shall list and assess the same with taxes at the rate or rates prescribed for that year, adding thereto penalty and interest at the rate provided under §§ 58.1-3916 and 58.1-3918. Interest may be computed upon the taxes and penalty from the first day following the due date in the year in which such taxes should have been paid and shall accrue thereon from such date until payment; provided, if such assessment was necessitated through no fault of the taxpayer, such penalty and interest shall accrue after thirty days from such date of assessment until payment.

Code 1950, § 58-1164; 1984, c. 675; 1991, c. 8.

§ 58.1-3903.1. Waiver of time limitation on assessment of local taxes.

Before the expiration of the time prescribed for the assessment of any local tax, if both the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official and the taxpayer have consented in writing to the tax assessment after such time, the tax may be assessed at any time prior to the expiration of the period agreed upon. The period so agreed upon may be extended by subsequent agreements in writing made before the expiration of the period previously agreed upon.

Whenever such an extension is agreed upon, it shall likewise extend the period relating to the collection of local taxes pursuant to § 58.1-3940 and applications for correction pursuant to § 58.1-3980.

1995, c. 445.

§ 58.1-3904. Omitted lands.

When the commissioner ascertains that there is any land in his county or city which has not before been entered on his land book or, after being entered, has from any cause been omitted for one or more years, he shall make an entry thereof in the name of the owner. Any person owning or claiming any tract or part of land which has not been entered on the land book or which, if so entered, has for any cause been omitted therefrom, may have the part he owns entered on the land book, specifying the part of the land so entered by having the same surveyed and laid off if necessary and a plat and description thereof returned to and recorded by the clerk of the circuit court of the county or city in which the land is situated. The commissioner of the revenue in whose county or city the land is situated shall proceed to the best of his judgment, having reference to the assessed value of contiguous lands similarly situated, to assess the fair market value of such land, and shall place such land on the land book and assess taxes at the rate imposed by law for each year the land was not entered in the land book. However, no assessment of taxes shall be made hereunder for any year except the then current year or any tax year of the three tax years last past.

Code 1950, § 58-1165; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3905. Forms for assessment of omitted taxes.

The Department of Taxation shall prescribe and furnish to local officers the necessary forms for the assessment of the omitted taxes mentioned in this chapter which they are authorized to assess. Omitted taxes, except on real estate, shall not be assessed on the current assessment books.

Code 1950, § 58-1166; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3906. Liability of corporate officer or employee, or member or employee of partnership or limited liability company, for failure to pay certain local taxes.

A. Any corporate, partnership or limited liability company officer who willfully fails to pay, collect, or truthfully account for and pay over any local admission, transient occupancy, food and beverage, or daily rental property tax administered by the commissioner of revenue or other authorized officer, or willfully attempts in any manner to evade or defeat any such tax or the payment thereof, shall, in addition to other penalties provided by law, be liable for a penalty of the amount of the tax evaded or not paid, collected, or accounted for and paid over, to be assessed and collected in the same manner as such taxes are assessed and collected.

B. The term "corporate, partnership or limited liability company officer" as used in this section means an officer or employee of a corporation, or a member, or employee of a partnership or member, manager or employee of a limited liability company who, as such officer, employee, member or manager, is under a duty to perform on behalf of the corporation, partnership or limited liability company the act in respect of which the violation occurs and who (i) had actual knowledge of the failure or attempt as set forth herein and (ii) had authority to prevent such failure or attempt.

1991, c. 481; 1999, c. 541.

§ 58.1-3907. Willful failure to collect and account for tax; penalty.

A. Any corporate or partnership officer as defined in § 58.1-3906, or any other person required to collect, account for and pay over any local admission, transient occupancy, food and beverage, daily rental property or cigarette taxes administered by the commissioner of the revenue or other authorized officer, who willfully fails to collect or truthfully account for and pay over such tax, and any such officer or person who willfully evades or attempts to evade any such tax or the payment thereof, shall, in addition to any other penalties provided by law, be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

B. Any person who willfully utilizes a device or software to falsify the electronic records of cash registers or other point-of-sale systems or otherwise manipulates transaction records that affect any local tax liability shall, in addition to any other penalties provided by law, be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

C. In addition to the criminal penalty provided in subsection B and any other civil or criminal penalty provided in this title, any person violating subsection B shall pay a civil penalty of $20,000, to be assessed by the commissioner of the revenue and collected by the treasurer as other local taxes are collected and deposited into the treasury of the political subdivision of the Commonwealth served by the treasurer.

D. Any criminal case brought pursuant to this section may be prosecuted by either the attorney for the Commonwealth or other attorney charged with the responsibility for prosecution of a violation of local ordinances.

1995, c. 557; 1996, c. 528; 2014, cc. 723, 785.

§ 58.1-3908. Reserved.

Reserved.

Article 2. Collection by Treasurers, Etc.

§ 58.1-3910. Treasurer to collect and pay over taxes.

A. Each county and city treasurer shall receive the local taxes and other amounts payable into the treasury of the political subdivision of the Commonwealth served by the treasurer, and shall account for and pay over the same in the manner provided by law. Taxpayers shall make checks payable to "Treasurer (or title of other officer or employee who performs the duties of a treasurer) of (name of political subdivision)" or "(name of political subdivision)". This section shall not apply to any city insofar as local revenues are concerned when the charter of such city provides otherwise.

B. In any county, the county treasurer and the treasurer of any town located partially or totally within such county may enter into a reciprocal agreement with the approval of the respective governing bodies that provides for the town treasurer to collect real and personal property taxes owed to the county and for the county treasurer to collect real and personal property taxes owed to the town. A treasurer collecting any taxes pursuant to an agreement entered into under this subsection shall account for and pay over such amounts to the locality owed such taxes in the same manner as provided by law. As used in this subsection, with regard to towns, the term "treasurer" shall mean the town officer or employee vested with authority by the charter, statute, or the governing body to collect local taxes.

Code 1950, § 58-958; 1984, c. 675; 2002, c. 139; 2011, cc. 431, 475.

§ 58.1-3910.1. Collection of town taxes by county.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Loudoun County Board of Supervisors may authorize the treasurer of Loudoun County to enter into an agreement with any town located partially or wholly within Loudoun County for the county treasurer to collect and enforce delinquent or non-delinquent real or personal property taxes owed to such town. The county treasurer collecting town taxes pursuant to an agreement made under this section shall account for and pay over to the town the amounts collected, as provided by law. Any such agreement shall establish the terms for such collection and enforcement, including payment of reasonable compensation by the town for the services of the county treasurer and the order in which the county treasurer will credit partial payments between taxes owed to the county and those owed to the town.

2018, cc. 74, 342.

§ 58.1-3911. Notice of taxes due.

The treasurer shall publicize at least ten days before the due date of local taxes in such manner as may be necessary to give general notice in his county or city of the fact that taxes are due and payable.

Code 1950, § 58-962; 1962, c. 508; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3912. Local tax officials to mail certain tax documents to taxpayers; penalties; electronic transmission.

A. The treasurer of every city and county shall, as soon as reasonably possible in each year, but not later than 14 days prior to the due date of the taxes, send or cause to be sent by United States mail to each taxpayer assessed with taxes and levies for that year a bill or bills setting forth the amounts due. The treasurer may elect not to send a bill amounting to $20 or less as shown by an assessment book in such treasurer's office. The treasurer may employ the services of a mailing service or other vendor for fulfilling the requirements of this section. The failure of any such treasurer to comply with this section shall be a Class 4 misdemeanor. Such treasurer shall be deemed in compliance with this section as to any taxes due on real estate if, upon certification by the obligee of any note or other evidence of debt secured by a mortgage or deed of trust on such real estate that an agreement has been made with the obligor in writing within the mortgage or deed of trust instrument that such arrangements be made, he mails the bill for such taxes to the obligee thereof. Upon nonpayment of taxes by either the obligee or obligor, a past-due tax bill will be sent to the taxpayer. No governing body shall publish the name of a taxpayer in connection with a tax debt for which a bill was not sent, without first sending a notice of deficiency to his last known address at least two weeks before such publication.

B. The governing body of any county, city or town may attach to or mail with all real estate and tangible personal property tax bills, prepared for taxpayers in such locality, information indicating how the tax rate charged upon such property and revenue derived therefrom is apportioned among the various services and governmental functions provided by the locality.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A of this section, in any county which has adopted the urban county executive form of government, and in any county contiguous thereto which has adopted the county executive form of government, tangible personal property tax bills shall be mailed not later than 30 days prior to the due date of such taxes.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A of this section, any county and town, the governing bodies of which mutually agree, shall be allowed to send, to each taxpayer assessed with taxes, by United States mail no later than 14 days prior to the due date of the taxes, a single real property tax bill and a single tangible personal property tax bill.

E. Beginning with tax year 2006, in addition to all other information currently appearing on tangible personal property tax bills, each such bill required to be sent pursuant to subsection A shall state on its face (i) whether the vehicle is a qualifying vehicle as defined in § 58.1-3523; (ii) a statement indicating the reduced tangible personal property tax rates applied to qualifying vehicles resulting from the Commonwealth's reimbursements for tangible personal property tax relief pursuant to § 58.1-3524, and the locality's tangible personal property tax rate for its general class of tangible personal property, provided that such statement shall not be required for tax bills in any county, city, or town that will not receive any reimbursement pursuant to subsection B of § 58.1-3524; (iii) the vehicle's registration number pursuant to § 46.2-604; (iv) the amount of tangible personal property tax levied on the vehicle; and (v) if the locality prorates personal property tax pursuant to § 58.1-3516, the number of months for which a bill is being sent.

F. 1. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A or the provisions of § 58.1-3330, 58.1-3518, or 58.1-3518.1, the treasurer, commissioner of the revenue, or other local tax official, consistent with guidelines promulgated by the Department of Taxation implementing the provisions of subdivision 2 of § 58.1-1820, may convey, with the written consent of the taxpayer, any tax bill or other tax document by electronic means chosen by the taxpayer, including without limitation facsimile transmission or electronic mail (email), in lieu of posting such bill by first-class mail. The treasurer, commissioner of the revenue, or other local tax official conveying a bill or other tax document by means authorized in this subdivision shall maintain a copy (in written form or electronic media) of the bill or document reflecting the date of transmission until such time as the bill has been satisfied or otherwise removed from the books of the treasurer, commissioner of the revenue, or other local tax official by operation of law. Transmission of a bill or tax document pursuant to this subsection shall have the same force and effect for all purposes arising under this subtitle as mailing to the taxpayer by first-class mail on the date of transmission.

2. The treasurer, commissioner of the revenue, or other local taxing official also may convey, with the consent of the taxpayer, any tax bill or other document by permitting the taxpayer to access his information online from a database on the locality's or official's website.

3. Consent of the taxpayer under this subsection may be obtained from the taxpayer electronically, subject to reasonable verification of the taxpayer's identity.

G. Any solid waste disposal fee imposed by a county may be attached to, mailed with, or stated on the appropriate real estate tax bill.

Code 1950, § 58-960; 1954, c. 205; 1956, c. 701; 1968, c. 206; 1980, c. 276; 1982, c. 74; 1984, c. 675; 1985, cc. 406, 543; 1991, c. 187; 1994, c. 207; 1996, c. 323; 1998, Sp. Sess. I, c. 2; 1999, c. 358; 2001, c. 801; 2002, c. 64; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 1; 2005, c. 922; 2013, c. 299; 2016, c. 768.

§ 58.1-3913. When treasurer to receive taxes and levies without penalty; how payments credited.

Each treasurer shall commence to receive local levies as soon as he receives copies of the commissioner's books and continue to receive the same without penalty up to and including December 5 of each year, or such other date set by the governing body. Unless otherwise provided by ordinance of the governing body, any payment of local levies received shall be credited first against the most delinquent local account, the collection of which is not subject to a defense of an applicable statute of limitations.

Code 1950, § 58-961; 1956, c. 69; 1979, c. 259; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3914. Delivery of receipts to taxpayers when taxes collected.

The treasurer shall deliver on request a receipt to each taxpayer from whom he has collected taxes or levies, showing plainly the date of payment and the tax ticket description of each parcel for which payment was made. The treasurer may request that the taxpayer return a form to be marked as a receipt, and may, except in the year the real estate is transferred, charge a reasonable sum, not to exceed two dollars, to cover the cost of preparing any additional receipt. If any officer knowingly fails to deliver such a receipt on the request of the taxpayer, he shall be deemed guilty of a Class 4 misdemeanor. If such failure is for fraudulent purposes, he shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 58-959; 1975, c. 22; 1983, c. 610; 1984, c. 675; 1995, c. 239; 1996, c. 324.

§ 58.1-3915. Penalty for failure to pay taxes by December 5.

Except as otherwise provided by ordinance under § 58.1-3916, any person failing to pay any county, town and city levies on or before December 5 shall incur a penalty thereon of five percent, which shall be added to the amount of taxes or levies due from such taxpayer, and which, when collected by the treasurer, shall be accounted for in his settlements. No penalty shall be imposed for failure to pay any tax if such failure was not the fault of the taxpayer.

Code 1950, § 58-963; 1954, c. 277; 1973, c. 410; 1975, c. 234; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3916. Counties, cities and towns may provide dates for filing returns, set penalties, interest, etc.

Notwithstanding provisions contained in §§ 58.1-3518, 58.1-3900, 58.1-3913, 58.1-3915, and 58.1-3918, the governing body of any county, city, or town may provide by ordinance the time for filing local license applications and annual returns of taxable tangible personal property, machinery and tools, and merchants' capital. The governing body may also by ordinance establish due dates for the payment of local taxes; may provide that payment be made in a single installment or in two equal installments; may offer options, which may include coupon books and payroll deductions, which allow the taxpayer to determine whether to pay the tangible personal property tax through monthly, bimonthly, quarterly, or semiannual installments or in a lump sum, provided such taxes are paid in full by the final due date; may provide by ordinance penalties for failure to file such applications and returns and for nonpayment in time; may provide for payment of interest on delinquent taxes; and may provide for the recovery of reasonable attorney's or collection agency's fees actually contracted for, not to exceed 20 percent of the delinquent taxes and other charges so collected. A locality that provides for payment of interest on delinquent taxes shall provide for interest at the same rate on overpayments due to erroneously assessed taxes to be paid to the taxpayer, provided that no interest shall be required to be paid on such refund if (i) the amount of the refund is $10 or less or (ii) the refund is the result of proration pursuant to § 58.1-3516. A court that finds that an overpayment of local taxes has been made in an action brought pursuant to § 58.1-3984 shall award interest at the appropriate rate, notwithstanding the failure of the locality to conform its ordinance to the requirements of this section.

Notwithstanding any contrary provision of law, the local governing body shall allow an automatic extension on real property taxes imposed upon a primary residence and personal property taxes imposed upon a qualifying vehicle, as defined in § 58.1-3523, owed by members of the armed services of the United States deployed outside of the United States. Such extension shall end and the taxes shall be due 90 days following the completion of such member's deployment. For purposes of this section, "the armed services of the United States" includes active duty service with the regular Armed Forces of the United States or the National Guard or other reserve component.

No tax assessment or tax bill shall be deemed delinquent and subject to the collection procedures prescribed herein during the pendency of any administrative appeal under § 58.1-3980, so long as the appeal is filed within 90 days of the date of the assessment, and for 30 days after the date of the final determination of the appeal, provided that nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to preclude the assessment or refund, following the final determination of such appeal, of such interest as otherwise may be provided by general law as to that portion of a tax bill that has remained unpaid or was overpaid during the pendency of such appeal and is determined in such appeal to be properly due and owing.

Interest may commence not earlier than the first day following the day such taxes are due by ordinance to be filed, at a rate not to exceed 10 percent per year. The governing body may impose interest at a rate not to exceed the rate of interest established pursuant to § 6621 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, or 10 percent annually, whichever is greater, for the second and subsequent years of delinquency. No penalty for failure to pay a tax or installment shall exceed (i) 10 percent of the tax past due on such property; (ii) in the case of delinquent tangible personal property tax more than 30 days past due on property classified pursuant to subdivision A 15, A 16, or A 20 of § 58.1-3506, which remains unpaid after 10 days' written notice sent by United States mail to the taxpayer of the intention to impose a penalty pursuant hereto, the penalty shall not exceed an amount equal to the difference between the tax due and owing with respect to such property and the tax that would have been due and owing if the property in question had been classified as general tangible personal property pursuant to § 58.1-3503; (iii) in the case of delinquent tangible personal property tax more than 30 days past due, 25 percent of the tax past due on such tangible personal property; (iv) in the case of delinquent remittance of excise taxes on meals, lodging, or admissions collected from consumers, 10 percent for the first month the taxes are past due, and five percent for each month thereafter, up to a maximum of 25 percent of the taxes collected but not remitted; or (v) $10, whichever is greater, provided, however, that the penalty shall in no case exceed the amount of the tax assessable. No penalty for failure to file a return shall be greater than 10 percent of the tax assessable on such return or $10, whichever is greater; provided, however, that the penalty shall in no case exceed the amount of the tax assessable. The assessment of such penalty shall not be deemed a defense to any criminal prosecution for failing to make return of taxable property as may be required by law or ordinance. Penalty for failure to file an application or return may be assessed on the day after such return or application is due; penalty for failure to pay any tax may be assessed on the day after the first installment is due. Any such penalty when so assessed shall become a part of the tax.

No penalty for failure to pay any tax shall be imposed for any assessment made later than two weeks prior to the day on which the taxes are due, if such assessment is made thereafter through the fault of a local official, and if such assessment is paid within two weeks after the notice thereof is mailed.

In the event a transfer of real property ownership occurs after January 1 of a tax year and a real estate tax bill has been mailed pursuant to §§ 58.1-3281 and 58.1-3912, the treasurer or other appropriate local official designated by ordinance of the local governing body in jurisdictions not having a treasurer, upon ascertaining that a property transfer has occurred, may invalidate a bill sent to the prior owner and reissue the bill to the new owner as permitted by § 58.1-3912, and no penalty for failure to pay any tax for any such assessment shall be imposed if the tax is paid within two weeks after the notice thereof is mailed.

Penalty and interest for failure to file a return or to pay a tax shall not be imposed if such failure was not the fault of the taxpayer, or was the fault of the commissioner of revenue or the treasurer, as the case may be. The failure to file a return or to pay a tax due to the death of the taxpayer or a medically determinable physical or mental impairment on the date the return or tax is due shall be presumptive proof of lack of fault on the taxpayer's part, provided the return is filed or the taxes are paid within 30 days of the due date; however, if there is a committee, legal guardian, conservator or other fiduciary handling the individual's affairs, such return shall be filed or such taxes paid within 120 days after the fiduciary qualifies or begins to act on behalf of the taxpayer. Interest on such taxes shall accrue until paid in full. Any such fiduciary shall, on behalf of the taxpayer, by the due date, file any required returns and pay any taxes that come due after the 120-day period. The treasurer shall make determinations of fault relating exclusively to failure to pay a tax, and the commissioner of the revenue shall make determinations of fault relating exclusively to failure to file a return. In jurisdictions not having a treasurer or commissioner of the revenue, the governing body may delegate to the appropriate local tax officials the responsibility to make the determination of fault.

The governing body may further provide by resolution for reasonable extensions of time, not to exceed 90 days, for the payment of real estate and personal property taxes and for filing returns on tangible personal property, machinery and tools, and merchants' capital, and the business, professional, and occupational license tax, whenever good cause exists. The official granting such extension shall keep a record of every such extension. If any taxpayer who has been granted an extension of time for filing his return fails to file his return within the extended time, his case shall be treated the same as if no extension had been granted.

This section shall be the sole authority for local ordinances setting due dates of local taxes and penalty and interest thereon, and shall supersede the provisions of any charter or special act.

Code 1950, § 58-847; 1954, c. 253; 1968, c. 291; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 193; 1973, cc. 321, 325; 1974, c. 309; 1976, cc. 518, 527, 675; 1978, c. 395; 1980, c. 663; 1982, cc. 87, 618; 1984, cc. 181, 675; 1986, cc. 206, 353; 1987, cc. 570, 582, 595; 1989, c. 238; 1990, cc. 667, 696, 702; 1991, cc. 471, 484, 493, 509; 1993, c. 91; 1994, c. 932; 1995, c. 395; 1997, cc. 481, 496, 911; 1998, cc. 375, 542, 649; 1999, c. 631; 2000, cc. 433, 507; 2005, c. 501; 2006, cc. 200, 231, 459; 2007, cc. 88, 609; 2008, c. 591.

§ 58.1-3916.01. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 1, cl. 6, effective January 1, 2006.

§ 58.1-3916.02. Certain counties, cities and towns may provide billing alternatives.

Notwithstanding the provisions contained in §§ 58.1-3518, 58.1-3900, 58.1-3913, 58.1-3915, 58.1-3916, and 58.1-3918, the governing body of Prince William County may provide by ordinance for alternative due dates for the payment of real estate taxes for real estate owned and occupied as the sole dwelling of anyone at least 65 years of age or anyone found to be permanently or totally disabled as defined in § 58.1-3217. In addition, the governing body may limit the use of such alternative due dates to persons qualifying under Prince William County's real estate tax exemption, tax deferral, or combination program of exemptions and deferrals adopted under the authority of Article 2 (§ 58.1-3210 et seq.) of Chapter 32 of this title.

Such ordinance may provide for monthly, bimonthly, quarterly, or semiannual installments, and may further provide that late payment penalties and interest shall accrue if each installment is not timely made. Should Prince William County adopt monthly, bimonthly, or quarterly due dates, said due dates may extend into the subsequent tax year, but shall not exceed more than 180 days from the first day of the subsequent tax year.

2004, c. 548.

§ 58.1-3916.1. Criminal penalties for failure to file returns; false statements.

Any ordinance ordained pursuant to this article requiring the filing of a return for tax purposes may prescribe criminal penalties for willful failure or refusal to file such return at the time or times required therein or for making false statements with intent to defraud in such returns. Such penalties shall not exceed those prescribed by general law for (i) a Class 3 misdemeanor if the amount of the tax lawfully assessed in connection with the return is $1,000 or less, or (ii) a Class 1 misdemeanor if the amount of the tax lawfully assessed in connection with the return is more than $1,000.

Code 1950, § 58-847.1; 1984, c. 328; 1986, c. 351.

§ 58.1-3917. Assessment of public service corporations in such cases.

A. In any locality which requires payment of real estate taxes in installments, the assessment by the State Corporation Commission or the Department of the properties of public service corporations for the preceding year shall be taken as the assessment of such properties for levying taxes and collecting installments thereon, until the regular annual assessment of such properties by the Commission or the Department for the current year is completed as otherwise provided by law; and, upon the payment of the final installment of such taxes to any county, city or town by any such public service corporation, the total of such taxes for the current year shall be adjusted between such county, city or town and such public service corporation on the basis of the assessment by the Commission or the Department for the current year.

B. The State Corporation Commission or the Department may, upon the application of any such public service corporation or any such city or town filed on or before the fifteenth day of January in any year, amend its assessment for the preceding year by increasing or decreasing the same, by reason of any improvements or additions thereto, or proper deductions therefrom, or other changes affecting the assessment of the properties of such corporation within the preceding year, such increases, decreases and changes to be subject to adjustment by the Commission or the Department until the regular annual assessment of the properties of the corporation is completed by the Commission or the Department.

Code 1950, §§ 58-848, 58-849; 1974, c. 293; 1983, c. 570; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3918. Interest on taxes not paid by following day.

Interest at the rate of ten percent per annum from the first day following the day such taxes are due shall be collected upon the principal and penalties of all taxes then remaining unpaid, which penalty and interest shall be collected and accounted for by the officers charged with the duty of collecting such taxes, along with the principal sum thereof. Interest at the same rate shall also be applied and paid to the taxpayer on overpayments due to erroneously assessed taxes to be paid to the taxpayer, provided that no interest shall be required to be paid on such refund if (i) the amount of the refund is ten dollars or less or (ii) the refund is the result of proration pursuant to § 58.1-3516. But this section shall not apply to local taxes in any county, city or town when the penalty or interest on such taxes is regulated by ordinance under § 58.1-3916.

Code 1950, § 58-964; 1954, c. 277; 1973, c. 410; 1980, c. 663; 1982, c. 87; 1984, c. 675; 1999, c. 631; 2000, c. 507.

§ 58.1-3919. Collection of taxes or other charges not paid when due; distress for same.

The treasurer, after the due date of any tax or other charge collected by such treasurer, shall call upon each person chargeable with such tax or other charge who has not paid the same prior to that time, or upon the agent, if any, of such person resident within the county, city or town for payment thereof; and upon failure or refusal of such person or agent to pay the same he shall proceed to collect by distress or otherwise. Should it come to the knowledge of the treasurer that any person owing taxes or other charges is moving or contemplates moving from the county, city or town prior to the due date of such taxes or other charges, he shall have power to collect the same by distress or otherwise at any time after such bills shall have come into his hands. Notwithstanding § 58.1-3954, the treasurer or his deputy, in person or by counsel, may institute and prosecute all proceedings to enforce the payment of any tax or other charge in courts not of record.

Code 1950, § 58-965; 1984, c. 675; 1986, c. 634; 1996, c. 323; 1998, c. 648.

§ 58.1-3919.1. Use of private collectors by treasurers for the collection of delinquent local taxes.

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 58.1-3934, the treasurer in any county, city, or town, with the approval of the local governing body, may employ, upon such terms as may be agreed upon, the services of private collection agents to assist with the collection of any local taxes or other amounts due to the locality that remain delinquent for a period of three months or more and for which the appropriate statute of limitations has not yet run. Compensation for such services shall either be provided by the local governing body directly to such collection agents or by means of an expense in the treasurer's budget or shall be withheld by the agent from the amount collected. The treasurer shall be given credit for taxes and other amounts due collected for any compensation rightfully withheld by such collection agents.

Prior to referring a delinquent account to a collection agent pursuant to this section, the treasurer shall have provided written notification of such delinquency by first-class mail to the taxpayer at such address as is contained in the tax records of the city or county or, if the treasurer has reason to believe the taxpayer's address as contained in such records is no longer current, at such other address, if any, as the treasurer may obtain from sources available to him pursuant to general law, including without limitation the Virginia Employment Commission, the Department of Motor Vehicles, or the Department of Taxation.

1987, c. 537; 1992, cc. 625, 683; 2006, c. 372; 2011, c. 383; 2019, c. 271.

§ 58.1-3920. Prepayment of taxes.

Any person desiring to pay any local taxes for any year prior to the time the treasurer receives copies of the commissioner's books may pay the same to the treasurer and the treasurer shall give his receipt therefor; but if such taxes are of a kind requiring a return to be filed with the commissioner of the revenue in order that the correct amount of taxes may be computed, such person shall file such return with the commissioner of the revenue before he pays such taxes to the treasurer. The treasurer shall accept and credit against the tax on the property a pro rata partial payment of taxes on property sold at a trustee's sale conducted under Chapter 3 (§ 55.1-300 et seq.) of Title 55.1. In all cases covered by this section the procedure as between the commissioner of the revenue and the treasurer shall be as prescribed by the Department of Taxation and the Auditor of Public Accounts, acting jointly. But nothing in this section in conflict with the provisions of the charter of any city or town in relation to local taxes shall be construed as repealing such provisions.

Code 1950, § 58-966; 1956, c. 69; 1981, c. 134; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3920.1. Interest on funds received in prepayment of local taxes.

The governing body of any county, city or town may provide, by ordinance, for a program permitting the voluntary prepayment of designated local taxes at any time before such taxes have been assessed or, if assessed, before such taxes are due and payable. The program may provide for the payment of interest at a rate established by ordinance. The governing body may further provide that, upon payment in full of any and all taxes due from such taxpayer, the accrued interest or any remaining portion thereof may be paid to the taxpayer or held in prepayment of tax obligations to be assessed at a later date, at the taxpayer's election.

1989, c. 34.

§ 58.1-3921. Treasurer to make out lists of uncollectable taxes and delinquents.

The treasurer, after ascertaining which of the taxes and levies assessed at any time in his county or city have not been collected, shall, within 60 days of the end of the fiscal year, make out lists as follows:

1. A list of real estate on the commissioner's land book improperly placed thereon or not ascertainable, with the amount of taxes charged thereon.

2. A list of other real estate which is delinquent for the nonpayment of the taxes thereon. This list shall not include any taxes listed under subdivision 4 or 5.

3. A list of such of the taxes assessed on tangible personal property, machinery and tools and merchants' capital, and other subjects of local taxation, other than real estate, as he was unable to collect which are delinquent. This list shall not include any taxes listed under subdivision 4, 5, or 6.

4. A list of the uncollected taxes amounting to less than $20 each for which no bills were sent under § 58.1-3912.

5. A list of uncollected balances of previously billed taxes amounting to less than $20 each as to which the treasurer has determined that the costs of collecting such balances would exceed the amount recoverable, provided that the treasurer shall not include on such list any balance with respect to which he has reason to believe that the taxpayer has purposely paid less than the amount due and owing.

6. A list of uncollected balances of previously billed tangible personal property taxes on vehicles, trailers, semitrailers, watercraft, and manufactured homes that (i) were owned by taxpayers, now deceased, upon whose estates no qualification has been made, or (ii) were transferred to bona fide purchasers for value pursuant to § 29.1-733.20, 46.2-632, 46.2-633, or 46.2-634 without knowledge, on the part of the persons so transferring, of the unpaid taxes.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, no tax or levy which has been discharged or otherwise rendered legally uncollectable as to a taxpayer liable upon it in a proceeding under the United States Bankruptcy Code (Title 11 of the United States Code) shall be considered delinquent with respect to that taxpayer on and after the date such obligation is discharged or otherwise rendered legally uncollectable, and the treasurer shall not include any such discharged or uncollectable obligation in any list required to be prepared pursuant to this section. Any such discharged or uncollectable obligation shall be stricken from the books of the treasurer as of the date the obligation is discharged or otherwise rendered uncollectable, and the treasurer thereafter shall have no further duty to collect such tax or levy.

The governing body of any town may, by ordinance, adopt the procedures set forth in this section and § 58.1-3924. If such ordinance is adopted, the town treasurer shall submit such lists to the governing body as provided in § 58.1-3924.

Code 1950, § 58-978; 1956, c. 69; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 12; 1977, c. 507; 1979, c. 240; 1984, c. 675; 1995, c. 239; 1997, c. 496; 1999, c. 192; 2000, c. 453; 2007, c. 867; 2017, c. 440.

§ 58.1-3922. Delinquent lists to speak as of June 30 of each year; when real estate and personal property delinquent.

The lists mentioned in § 58.1-3921 shall conform to the facts as they existed on June 30 of the year they are submitted to the governing body. Delinquent real estate taxes shall be listed in the name of the owner on the date of assessment.

For purposes of this title, local taxes shall be delinquent if not paid when due. For purposes of compiling the lists required by § 58.1-3921, any locality which requires the payment of such taxes in installments, taxes shall be considered delinquent if all taxes on it are not paid by the date the last installment is due.

Code 1950, § 58-979; 1974, c. 80; 1979, c. 240; 1984, c. 675; 1997, c. 496.

§ 58.1-3923. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2002, c. 64.

§ 58.1-3924. Delinquent lists involving local taxes submitted to local governing bodies; publication of lists.

Upon the request of the governing body of a county, city or town, the treasurer shall furnish a copy of any of the six lists mentioned in § 58.1-3921.

The treasurer may, or shall at the direction of the governing body, certify to the commissioner of the revenue a copy of the list of real estate on the commissioner's land book improperly placed thereon or not ascertainable. The commissioner of the revenue shall correct his land book accordingly. The treasurer shall be given credit for the entire amount of the taxes included in the list and may destroy the tax tickets made out by him for such taxes. The treasurer shall be given credit for all taxes shown on the list mentioned in subdivisions 4, 5, and 6 of § 58.1-3921 and for obligations discharged in bankruptcy as described in § 58.1-3921.

The governing body, or the treasurer, may cause the lists mentioned in subdivisions 2 and 3 of § 58.1-3921, whether or not they are based on information as it exists at the end of the fiscal year, or such parts thereof as deemed advisable by the treasurer, to be published in a newspaper of general circulation in the county, city, or town or to be made available on any Internet site maintained by or for such county, city, or town.

The costs, if any, of publishing such lists shall be paid for by funds allocated for that purpose by the local governing body, and may be charged ratably to the delinquent taxpayers listed.

Code 1950, § 58-983; 1972, c. 592; 1973, c. 467; 1976, c. 428; 1977, c. 507; 1984, c. 675; 1988, c. 699; 1995, c. 239; 1997, c. 496; 2002, c. 64; 2008, c. 550; 2017, c. 409.

§ 58.1-3925. Reserved.

Reserved.

§ 58.1-3926. When statement to beneficiary prior to delinquency required.

The beneficiary in any deed of trust or mortgage, or other person interested in the lands or lots conveyed thereby, may give to the treasurer of any county or city notice in writing that he is the beneficiary under a lien, clearly designating in such notice the lands affected by such lien and the names of the grantor in such deed or mortgage, at any time during the period for the collection of taxes for any year. If such notice is given, the treasurer, at least ten days before the date of his report of delinquent taxes for the current collection year, shall make and mail to the person giving such notice a statement showing whether the taxes on the lands or lots specified in such notice have been paid, and stating the amount thereof, including penalties.

Code 1950, § 58-982; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3927. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1998, c. 648.

§ 58.1-3928. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1997, c. 496.

§ 58.1-3929. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1985, c. 131.

§ 58.1-3930. How liens to be recorded; release of liens.

Liens of delinquent real estate taxes and all liens described under § 58.1-3745 shall be recorded in the office of the treasurer in a book or an approved visible card system to be kept for the purpose and indexed in the names of the persons against whom the taxes on real estate are assessed, or in a computer system approved by the Auditor of Public Accounts. Any officer collecting any such taxes unless otherwise specifically provided by law, shall forthwith transmit such payment to the treasurer, who shall give his receipt therefor and record the payment, thereby releasing the lien. Where such list is kept in a visible card index file, the treasurer may, at the time of entry of the records of payment, remove from the file the cards on which such payments have been noted; and such cards may, on certification by the Auditor of Public Accounts that the same are no longer needed for audit, be destroyed.

Code 1950, § 58-985; 1962, c. 137; 1977, c. 268; 1980, c. 263; 1983, c. 90; 1984, c. 675; 1985, c. 131; 2001, c. 462; 2013, cc. 305, 618.

§ 58.1-3931. Reserved.

Reserved.

§ 58.1-3932. Card system record and index of delinquent real estate in City of Norfolk.

The City of Norfolk is authorized to keep its record of delinquent real estate and all liens described under § 58.1-3745 in the Treasurer's office, using a card system record and index, or such other method approved by the Auditor of Public Accounts.

Code 1950, § 58-986.1; 1984, c. 675; 2001, c. 462; 2013, cc. 305, 618.

§ 58.1-3933. Subsequent collection by treasurer of delinquent taxes on subjects other than real estate.

After delinquent taxes appear in the lists required by § 58.1-3921, the governing body may require the treasurer to continue to collect the delinquent taxes on subjects other than real estate until the expiration of the applicable statute of limitations.

Code 1950, § 58-990; 1973, c. 467; 1984, c. 675; 1997, c. 496.

§ 58.1-3934. Collection of delinquent local taxes or other charges by sheriff or person employed for purpose.

A. The governing body may appoint or hire, with the approval of the treasurer and upon such terms as may be agreed upon, one or more attorneys to collect any local taxes or other charges which may have been delinquent for six months or more. Any attorney so appointed or hired shall be entitled to exercise, for the purpose of collecting the taxes or other charges referred to him, the powers conferred by law upon the treasurer, shall promptly report and pay over to the treasurer all collections made and, at the conclusion of his term of appointment or employment, shall provide the treasurer with a list of those taxes or other charges referred to the attorney for collection that remain unpaid.

B. In the alternative to the procedure set forth in subsection A, the governing body may place local taxes or other charges which have been delinquent for six months or more in the hands of the sheriff of the county or city for collection, or employ a local delinquent tax collector to make such collections, upon such terms as may be agreed. Such sheriff or local delinquent tax collector shall be entitled to exercise for the purpose of collecting taxes or other charges referred to him the powers conferred by law upon the treasurer. The treasurer shall be entitled to credit for all delinquent taxes or other charges that are referred to the sheriff or such collector for collection.

All collections made by any such sheriff or delinquent tax collector shall be reported by him to such governing body, and the moneys so collected shall be paid over to the treasurer, who shall be held accountable therefor; such sheriff or delinquent tax collector shall, at the end of his term of employment, return to the governing body a list of such delinquent taxes or other charges so turned over to him as may then remain unpaid.

Such governing body shall then have power to employ other delinquent tax collectors to collect the taxes or other charges so returned unpaid, for such time and on such terms as may be agreed upon, such collectors to have the same powers as are hereinbefore conferred upon delinquent tax collectors, and be charged with similar duties, or to make such other disposition thereof as such governing body may deem proper.

Prior to referring a delinquent account to an attorney, sheriff, or other delinquent tax collector pursuant to this section, the treasurer shall have provided written notification of such delinquency by first-class mail to the taxpayer at such address as is contained in the tax records of the city or county or, if the treasurer has reason to believe the taxpayer's address as contained in such records is no longer current, at such other address, if any, as the treasurer may obtain from sources available to him pursuant to general law, including without limitation the Virginia Employment Commission, the Department of Motor Vehicles, or the Department of Taxation.

Code 1950, § 58-991; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 155; 1979, c. 240; 1984, c. 675; 1992, cc. 625, 683; 1997, c. 496; 1998, c. 648; 2002, c. 64; 2006, c. 372.

§ 58.1-3935. Treasurers not liable for taxes returned delinquent and not afterwards received by them.

Nothing in any of the foregoing sections shall be construed as holding a county or city treasurer personally liable for any delinquent taxes which have been returned delinquent within the time and in the manner prescribed by law and which have not been paid to or through such treasurer up to the time that any settlement is made by such treasurer.

Code 1950, § 58-999; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3936. Omission of taxes from delinquent list.

If any county or city treasurer shall knowingly omit from any delinquent list required by this title to be prepared by him any taxes which are in fact delinquent and which should be included in such delinquent list, such county or city treasurer shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor; and such county or city treasurer shall moreover be deemed guilty of malfeasance in office.

Code 1950, § 58-1000; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3937. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1998, c. 648.

§ 58.1-3938. List of delinquent town real estate taxes filed with county treasurer in certain towns.

In any town where the treasurer or other collector of town taxes does not maintain an office open during normal office hours Monday through Friday, a list of delinquent town taxes upon real estate for the preceding tax year as of December 31 of such year shall be filed by the treasurer or other collector of town taxes in the office of the treasurer of the county wherein the town is located on or before January 31 of each year.

Code 1950, § 58-1000.2; 1975, c. 259; 1984, c. 675; 1985, c. 131; 2011, c. 851.

§ 58.1-3939. Reserved.

Reserved.

§ 58.1-3939.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1998, c. 648.

Article 3. Collection by Distress, Suit, Lien, Etc.

§ 58.1-3940. Limitation on collection of local taxes.

A. Except as otherwise specifically provided, collection of local taxes shall only be enforceable for five years following December 31 of the year for which such taxes were assessed.

B. Real property taxes shall be enforceable by sale under Article 4 (§ 58.1-3965 et seq.) of the property on which such taxes were assessed and by other means permitted under this chapter for 20 years after December 31 of the year for which such taxes were assessed, provided that whenever taxes or portions of taxes that would otherwise be due have been deferred pursuant to an ordinance enacted in conformity with Article 2 (§ 58.1-3210 et seq.) or Article 2.1 (§ 58.1-3219 et seq.) of Chapter 32 of this title, the statute of limitations provided by this subsection shall be tolled with respect to taxes deferred during the pendency of such deferral.

C. The limitation periods provided in subsections A and B of this section shall not apply to taxes or other charges that have been reduced to judgment or a judgment lien resulting from a suit to collect taxes or other charges, which may be collected by any means provided in this chapter or any means provided by general law for the collection of judgments so long as the judgment or judgment lien remains enforceable pursuant to general law.

D. The statutes of limitations established by this section shall be tolled, with respect to any tax obligation or tax lien not discharged or otherwise relieved or rendered unenforceable pursuant to applicable law, for any period during which all or substantially all of the assets or estate of the taxpayer are subject to the control or custody of any court or receiver, including without limitation any United States Bankruptcy Court.

Code 1950, §§ 58-967, 58-1019, 58-1021; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 6; 1984, c. 675; 1994, c. 209; 1996, c. 323; 1998, c. 648; 2002, c. 64; 2003, c. 214.

§ 58.1-3941. What may be distrained for taxes.

Any goods or chattels, money and bank notes in the county, city or town belonging to the person or estate assessed with taxes, levies or other charges collected by the treasurer may be distrained therefor by the treasurer, sheriff, constable or collector. Property subject to levy or distress for taxes shall be liable to levy or distress in the hands of any person for taxes, penalties and interest thereon, except that any highway vehicle as defined herein purchased by a bona fide purchaser for value shall not be liable to levy or distress for such taxes unless the purchaser knew at the time of purchase that the taxes had been specifically assessed against such vehicle.

Property on which taxes were specifically assessed, whether assessed per item or in bulk shall be subject to distress after it passes into the hands of a bona fide purchaser for value.

As used in this section, "highway vehicle" means any vehicle operated, or intended to be operated, on a highway. The term shall not include: (i) farm machinery, including farm machinery designed for off-road use but capable of movement on roads at low speeds; (ii) a vehicle operated on rails; (iii) machinery designed principally for off-road use; (iv) self-propelled equipment manufactured for a specific off-road purpose, which is used on a job site and the movement of which on any highway is incidental to the purpose for which it was designed and manufactured; or (v) a vehicle operated on the highway and exempt from registration requirements pursuant to §§ 46.2-663 through 46.2-667 and 46.2-669 through 46.2-683.

Code 1950, § 58-1001; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 155; 1983, c. 498; 1984, c. 675; 1996, c. 323; 1997, cc. 496, 731; 2005, c. 59.

§ 58.1-3942. Security interests no bar to distress.

A. No security interest in goods or chattels shall prevent the same from being distrained and sold for taxes or levies assessed thereon, no matter in whose possession they may be found.

B. Prior to such sale for distress, the treasurer, sheriff, constable or collector, or other party conducting the sale shall give notice to any secured party of record as his name and address shall appear on the records of the Department of Motor Vehicles, the Department of Wildlife Resources, the State Corporation Commission, or in the office of the clerk of any circuit court where the debtor has resided to the knowledge of the party to whom the tax is owing during a one-year period prior to the sale. Notice shall also be given to any secured party of whom the party to whom the tax is owing shall have knowledge.

C. A security interest perfected prior to any distraint for taxes shall have priority over all taxes, except those specifically assessed either per item or in bulk against the goods and chattels so assessed. Taxes specifically assessed either per item or in bulk against goods and chattels shall constitute a lien against the property so assessed and shall have priority over all security interests. For purposes of this section, a merchant's capital tax shall be deemed to be specifically assessed against all inventory in the merchant's possession at the time of distraint, or at the time such inventory is repossessed by the holder of a security interest therein. For purposes of this section, taxes specifically assessed in bulk means an assessment against the specific class of property distrained.

D. The title conveyed to the purchaser of goods and chattels at a sale for taxes specifically assessed either per item or in bulk against such goods and chattels distrained shall be free of all claims of any creditor, including the claims of any secured party of record, provided that notice was given to such creditor as required by subsection B. The person conducting the sale shall apply the proceeds of the sale first to unpaid taxes, penalty, and accrued interest, and then to the claims of secured parties of record, in the order of their priority, before delivering any sum remaining to the person or estate assessed with taxes.

E. Notwithstanding any provision of this section to the contrary, no highway vehicle as defined in § 58.1-3941 purchased by a bona fide purchaser for value from the person or estate assessed with taxes shall be liable to levy or distress for such taxes unless the purchaser knew at the time of purchase that the taxes had been specifically assessed against such vehicle.

F. The purchaser of a motor vehicle sold under this section shall receive a sales receipt and an affidavit of the treasurer, sheriff, constable or collector, or other party conducting the sale affirming that he has complied with the provisions of this section, and shall be entitled to apply to and receive from the Department of Motor Vehicles a certificate of title and registration card for the vehicle.

Code 1950, § 58-1009; 1966, c. 559; 1981, c. 153; 1983, c. 498; 1984, c. 675; 1990, c. 553; 1996, c. 732; 1997, c. 731; 1999, c. 299; 2001, c. 801; 2005, c. 59; 2012, c. 623; 2020, c. 958.

§ 58.1-3943. Distraint on property of tenant or of owner of tract who has sold part thereof.

When rent is payable in a share of a crop, the share of the crop belonging to a landlord who owes taxes, but only that share, shall be liable to levy. When taxes are assessed wholly to one person on a tract or lot, part of which has become the freehold of another by a title recorded before the commencement of the year for which such taxes are assessed, the property belonging to the former shall not be distrained for more than a due proportion of the taxes.

Code 1950, § 58-1006; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3944. Tenant paying taxes or levies to have credit out of rents.

A tenant from whom payment is obtained, by distress or otherwise, of taxes or other charges due from a person under whom he holds, shall have credit for the same against such person out of the rents he may owe him, except when the tenant is bound to pay such taxes or other charges by an express contract with such person.

Code 1950, § 58-1013; 1984, c. 675; 2002, c. 64.

§ 58.1-3945. Where land lies partly in one county and partly in another.

When taxes or levies are assessed on a tract of land lying partly in one county or city and partly in another county or city the treasurer of the county or city in which the taxes or levies are so assessed may distrain on the part of the land lying in the other county or city in the same manner as if such part was in his own county or city.

Code 1950, § 58-1007; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3946. When owner a nonresident of county, city or town where land lies.

When property subject to taxation is located in a county, city or town different from that in which the owner of such property resides, or when a person assessed with any taxes, levies and other charges before paying the same removes from the county, city or town in which the assessment was made, the treasurer shall have the same remedies for the collection of all such taxes, levies and other charges in all respects as if the person owing the same resided in the officer's own county, city or town; or the treasurer may transfer to the treasurer of the county, city or town in which such person resides the tickets for taxation and levies and the statements for other charges against such person or property and the last-named officer shall proceed to collect the same and pay the proceeds to the former officer.

Code 1950, § 58-1008; 1984, c. 675; 2002, c. 64.

§ 58.1-3947. Lease of real estate for collection of taxes.

Any real estate in the county, city or town belonging to the person or estate assessed with taxes due on such real estate may be rented or leased by the treasurer, sheriff, constable or collector, privately or at public outcry, after due publication, in the discretion of such treasurer, sheriff, constable or collector, either at the front door of the courthouse or on the premises or at some public place in the community where the premises are situated, after giving not less than fifteen days' notice by printed or written notices posted at the front door of the courthouse and at three or more places in the neighborhood of the real estate to be leased. Such leasing shall be for a term not exceeding one year and for cash sufficient to pay the taxes due on the real estate so rented and the costs and charges of advertising and leasing. When a lease is effected, the treasurer, collector, sheriff or constable leasing such real estate shall put the lessee in possession thereof and for such purpose shall have like powers as those exercised by a sheriff acting under a writ of possession or writ of eviction.

Code 1950, § 58-1003; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 155; 1984, c. 675; 2019, cc. 180, 700.

§ 58.1-3948. Notice to tenant prior to such leasing.

When real estate is advertised for leasing for the taxes and there is any tenant in possession of the property so advertised, then the treasurer, sheriff, constable, collector or other collecting officer making the lease shall serve upon such tenant, at least fifteen days prior to the day of leasing, a copy of the notice of leasing. This service shall be in conformity with §§ 8.01-285 through 8.01-295.

Code 1950, § 58-1004; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 155; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3949. Reserved.

Reserved.

§ 58.1-3952. Collection out of estate in hands of or debts due by third party.

A. The treasurer or other tax collector of any county, city or town may apply in writing to any person indebted to or having in his hands estate of a taxpayer or other debtor for payment of taxes, or other charges collected by the treasurer, more than thirty days delinquent out of such debt or estate. Payment by such person of such taxes, penalties and interest, or other charges either in whole or in part, shall entitle him to a credit against such debt or estate. The taxes, penalties and interest, or other charges shall constitute a lien on the debt or estate due the taxpayer or other debtor from the time the application is received. For each application served the person applied to shall be entitled to a fee of twenty dollars which shall constitute a charge or credit against the debt to or estate of the taxpayer or other debtor. The treasurer or collector shall send a copy of the application to the taxpayer or other debtor, with a notice informing him of the remedies provided in this chapter.

If the person applied to does not pay so much as ought to be recovered out of the debt or estate, the treasurer or collector shall procure a summons directing such person to appear before the appropriate court, where proper payment may be enforced. Any person so summoned shall have the same rights of removal and appeal as are provided by law for the enforcement of demands between individuals. For purposes of this section, the term "person" shall include but shall not be limited to individuals, corporations, partnerships, institutions, and other such entities, as well as the Commonwealth and its agencies and political subdivisions. However, in no event shall the Commonwealth, its agencies, or its political subdivisions incur any liability for the failure to pay the treasurer's or other tax collector's application under this section.

B. Unless otherwise exempted, the wages and salaries of all employees of this Commonwealth, other than state officers, shall be subject to this section. Whenever the salary or wages of such employees as above mentioned shall be so attached, the application shall be mailed to the debtor and to the officer or supervisor who is head of the department, agency, or institution where the employee is employed, or other officer through whom the debtor's salary or wages is paid, provided that process shall not be served upon the State Treasurer or the State Comptroller except as to employees of their respective departments, and upon such service the officer or supervisor shall, on or before the return day of the application, transmit to the treasurer or other tax collector issuing the application a certificate showing the amount due from the Commonwealth to such debtor, up to the return day of the application, which amount the officer or supervisor shall hold subject to further instruction from the treasurer or other tax collector. However, in no case shall the officer or supervisor hold more than the sum of taxes, penalties and interest, and other charges stated in the application. Such certificate shall be evidence of all facts therein stated, unless a court of appropriate jurisdiction directs that the deposition of the officer or supervisor, or such other officer through whom the debtor's salary or wages be paid, be taken, in which event the deposition of the officer or supervisor shall be taken in his office and returned to the clerk of the court in which the summons is, just as other depositions are returned, and in no such case shall the officer or supervisor be required to leave his office to testify. In all proceedings under this section, the amount found to be due the debtor by the Commonwealth shall be paid as directed by the court.

Code 1950, § 58-1010; 1960, c. 573; 1983, c. 481; 1984, c. 675; 1991, c. 445; 1994, c. 153; 1997, c. 496; 2002, c. 64.

§ 58.1-3953. Additional proceedings for the collection of taxes; jurisdiction and venue.

The payment of any county, city or town taxes, may, in addition to the other remedies provided in this chapter, be enforced by action at law, suit in equity or by attachment in the same manner, to the same extent and with the same rights of appeal as now exist or may hereafter be provided by law for the enforcement of demands between individuals. The venue for any such proceeding under this section shall be as specified in subdivision 13 a of § 8.01-261.

Code 1950, § 58-1014; 1954, c. 333; 1977, c. 624; 1981, c. 421; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3954. Procedure in such suits.

Such proceedings shall be instituted and conducted in the name of the county, city, or town in which such taxes are assessed, at the direction of the governing body of the county, city or town, by such attorney as the governing body may employ or retain for the purpose.

Code 1950, § 58-1016; 1954, c. 333; 1984, c. 675; 1993, c. 27.

§ 58.1-3955. Judgment or decree; effect thereof; enforcement.

In any proceeding under § 58.1-3953 the court shall have the power to determine the proper taxes, penalties and interest with which upon a correct assessment the taxpayer is chargeable for any year or years not barred by the statute of limitations at the time the proceedings were instituted, and order payment thereof. If any taxes of which collection is sought have been erroneously charged, the court may order exoneration thereof. Payment of such judgment or decree shall be enforced against the taxpayer in the same manner that it could be enforced in a proceeding between individuals.

Code 1950, § 58-1017; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3956. Collection in foreign jurisdiction.

When after the rendition of such a judgment or decree against a defendant it seems to the attorney for the county, city or town having charge thereof that there may not be found within the Commonwealth sufficient property of the defendant out of which the same may be enforced, but that the same could be enforced in some other jurisdiction, it shall be his duty to institute in some appropriate court, state or federal, in such foreign jurisdiction, any appropriate proceedings to enforce therein the payment of such judgment.

Code 1950, § 58-1018; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3957. Payments to attorneys or others for collection.

A. Whenever the services of any attorney employed to collect taxes which are a lien on real estate result in the collection of any such tax, such attorney may be compensated for his services whether or not any suit is instituted for the collection of the tax or the sale of the real estate.

B. No payment or compensation on any taxpayer account shall be made to any attorney, collection agency, or other person employed to collect delinquent taxes on amounts received from the Department of Taxation and collected through the Setoff Debt Collection Act; however, this limitation shall not apply to contracts or agreements entered into prior to July 1, 1990.

Code 1950, § 58-1020; 1973, c. 467; 1984, c. 675; 1990, c. 935.

§ 58.1-3958. Payment of administrative costs, etc.

The governing body of any county, city or town may impose, upon each person chargeable with delinquent taxes or other delinquent charges, fees to cover the administrative costs and reasonable attorney's or collection agency's fees actually contracted for. The attorney's or collection agency's fees shall not exceed 20 percent of the taxes or other charges so collected. The administrative costs shall be in addition to all penalties and interest, and shall not exceed $30 for taxes or other charges collected subsequent to 30 or more days after notice of delinquent taxes or charges pursuant to § 58.1-3919 but prior to the taking of any judgment with respect to such delinquent taxes or charges, and $35 for taxes or other charges collected subsequent to judgment. If the collection activity is to collect on a nuisance abatement lien, the fee for administrative costs shall be $150 or 25 percent of the cost, whichever is less; however, in no event shall the fee be less than $25.

No tax assessment or tax bill shall be deemed delinquent and subject to the collection procedures prescribed herein during the pendency of any administrative appeal under § 58.1-3980, so long as the appeal is filed within 90 days of the date of the assessment, and for 30 days after the date of the final determination of the appeal, provided that nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to preclude the assessment or refund, following the final determination of such appeal, of such interest as otherwise may be provided by general law as to that portion of a tax bill that has remained unpaid or was overpaid during the pendency of such appeal and is determined in such appeal to be properly due and owing.

Code 1950, § 58-1020.1; 1982, c. 620; 1984, c. 675; 1991, c. 271; 1994, c. 932; 1995, c. 395; 1997, c. 496; 1998, c. 648; 1999, c. 389; 2000, cc. 389, 453; 2003, c. 170.

§ 58.1-3959. Petition to ascertain delinquent taxes; exoneration from lien.

Any person interested in real estate may file a petition in the circuit court of the county or city wherein the assessment of taxes was made, for the purpose of having ascertained any and all delinquent taxes due upon such real estate or any delinquent taxes imposed under the authority of § 58.1-3712, 58.1-3713, 58.1-3713.4, or 58.1-3741. A copy of the petition shall be served upon the county or city attorney, or if there is none, on the attorney for the Commonwealth at least ten days before the date upon which the petition specifies the court shall be asked to hear the petition. The court may refer the question to a commissioner in chancery for report thereon. The court shall enter final judgment determining what, if any, taxes are due upon the real estate, including any taxes covered by the lien described in § 58.1-3745, mentioned in the petition. Upon the payment of any amount so ascertained by the court, and the costs of the proceeding, the land shall be held free and clear of any such tax lien. No writ tax shall be charged. The clerk shall be entitled to a fee of one dollar which, together with other costs, including such fee as the court may deem proper to allow the commissioner in chancery, shall be paid by the petitioner.

Code 1950, § 58-1025; 1984, c. 675; 2001, c. 462; 2013, cc. 305, 618.

§ 58.1-3960. Validation of certain tax deeds made under repealed § 58-1052 or § 58-1091.

All deeds heretofore made by a clerk of court to a purchaser under the provisions of repealed § 58-1052 or § 58-1091 of the Code of Virginia, which deeds have been recorded for fifteen years or more in the clerk's office of the county or city wherein the land conveyed thereby is located, are hereby declared to be valid in all respects and for all purposes except as hereinafter provided as to persons under disability.

No former owner, his heirs or assigns shall make an entry on or bring an action to recover any land conveyed by such a deed or institute any suit to set aside such a deed, except within fifteen years next after the time such a deed from the clerk of court has been duly admitted to record.

An infant or insane person who owned land at the time the same was returned delinquent and sold on account of the default in paying the taxes assessed thereon, which land has been conveyed by a clerk of court by such deed, may redeem the same in accordance with the provisions of law within two years after the removal of disability; but in no case shall the right to redeem be allowed any person after the lapse of twenty years from the day of such sale.

Nothing herein shall be construed so as to affect or divert the title of a tenant in reversion or remainder to any real estate which has been returned delinquent and sold on account of the default of the tenant for life in paying the taxes assessed thereon or to affect or divert the title of a cotenant, joint tenant or coparceners, when the grantee in such deed is one of the cotenants, joint tenants or coparceners.

Code 1950, § 58-1026.1; 1974, c. 306; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3961. Assessment not invalid unless rights prejudiced by error.

No assessment of property, other than real property, shall be invalid because of any error, omission or irregularity by the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing officer in charging such property in the personal property or other tax book, unless it is shown by the person contesting any such assessment that such error, omission or irregularity has operated to prejudice his rights.

1995, c. 239.

§ 58.1-3962. Reserved.

Reserved.

Article 4. Bill in Equity for Sale of Delinquent Tax Lands.

§ 58.1-3965. When land may be sold for delinquent taxes; notice of sale; owner's right of redemption.

A. When any taxes on any real estate in a locality are delinquent on December 31 following the second anniversary of the date on which such taxes have become due, or, in the case of real property upon which is situated (i) any structure that has been condemned by the local building official pursuant to applicable law or ordinance; (ii) any nuisance as that term is defined in § 15.2-900; (iii) any derelict building as that term is defined in § 15.2-907.1; or (iv) any property that has been declared to be blighted as that term is defined in § 36-49.1:1, the first anniversary of the date on which such taxes have become due, such real estate may be sold for the purpose of collecting all delinquent taxes on such property.

However, in a qualifying locality, as defined in § 58.1-3221.6, whenever (a) taxes on any real estate in the locality are delinquent upon the expiration of six months following the date on which such taxes became due and (b) the locality has incurred abatement costs which remain unpaid upon the expiration of six months following the date on which the abatement costs were first incurred, real estate meeting the conditions described in clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) may be sold for the purpose of collecting all delinquent taxes and abatement costs on such property. For the purposes of this section, "abatement costs" means costs incurred by a locality that result from the conditions described in clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv).

Upon a finding by the court, on real estate with an assessed value of $100,000 or less in any locality, that (a) any taxes on such real estate are delinquent on December 31 following the first anniversary of the date on which such taxes have become due or (b) there is a lien on such real estate pursuant to § 15.2-900, 15.2-906, 15.2-907, 15.2-907.1, 15.2-908.1, or 36-49.1:1, which lien remains unpaid on December 31 following the first anniversary of the date on which such lien was recorded, the property shall be deemed subject to sale by public auction pursuant to proper notice under this subsection.

The officer charged with the duty of collecting taxes for the locality wherein the real property lies shall, at least 30 days prior to instituting any judicial proceeding pursuant to this section, send a notice to (1) the last known address of the property owner as such owner and address appear in the records of the treasurer, (2) the property address if the property address is different from the owner's address and if the real estate is listed with the post office by a numbered and named street address and (3) the last known address of any trustee under any deed of trust, mortgagee under any mortgage and any other lien creditor, if such trustee, mortgagee or lien creditor is not otherwise made a party defendant under § 58.1-3967, advising such property owner, trustee, mortgagee or other lien creditor of the delinquency and the officer's intention to take action. Such notice shall advise the taxpayer that the taxpayer may request the treasurer to enter into a payment agreement to permit the payment of the delinquent taxes, interest, and penalties over a period not to exceed 36 months in accordance with the provisions of subsection C. Such officer shall also cause to be published at least once a list of real estate which will be offered for sale under the provisions of this article in a newspaper of general circulation in the locality, at least 30 days prior to the date on which judicial proceedings under the provisions of this article are to be commenced.

The pro rata cost of such publication shall become a part of the tax and together with all other costs, including reasonable attorneys' fees set by the court and the costs of any title examination conducted in order to comply with the notice requirements imposed by this section, shall be collected if payment is made by the owner in redemption of the real property described therein whether or not court proceedings have been initiated. A notice substantially in the following form shall be sufficient:

Notice

Judicial Sale of Real Property

On ____________ (date) __________ proceedings will be commenced under the authority of § 58.1-3965 et seq. of the Code of Virginia to sell the following parcels for payment of delinquent taxes:

(description of properties)

B. The owner of any property listed may redeem it at any time before the date of the sale by paying all accumulated taxes, penalties, reasonable attorneys' fees, interest and costs thereon, including the pro rata cost of publication hereunder. Partial payment of delinquent taxes, penalties, reasonable attorneys' fees, interest or costs shall not be sufficient to redeem the property, and shall not operate to suspend, invalidate or make moot any action for judicial sale brought pursuant to this article.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection B and of § 58.1-3954, the treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes may suspend any action for sale of the property commenced pursuant to this article upon entering into an agreement with the owner of the real property for the payment of all delinquent amounts in installments over a period which is reasonable under the circumstances, but in no event shall exceed 36 months. Any such agreement shall be secured by the lien of the locality pursuant to § 58.1-3340.

D. During the pendency of any installment agreement permitted under subsection C, any proceeding for a sale previously commenced shall not abate, but shall be continued on the docket of the court in which such action is pending. It shall be the duty of the treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes to promptly notify the clerk of such court when obligations arising under such an installment agreement have been fully satisfied. Upon the receipt of such notice, the clerk shall cause the action to be stricken from the docket.

E. In the event the owner of the property or other responsible person defaults upon obligations arising under an installment agreement permitted by subsection C, or during the term of any installment agreement, defaults on any current obligation as it becomes due, such agreement shall be voidable by the treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes upon 15 days' written notice to the signatories of such agreement irrespective of the amount remaining due. Any action for the sale previously commenced pursuant to this article may proceed without any requirement that the notice or advertisement required by subsection A, which had previously been made with respect to such property, be repeated. No owner of property which has been the subject of a defaulted installment agreement shall be eligible to enter into a second installment agreement with respect to the same property within three years of such default.

F. Any corporate, partnership or limited liability officer, as those terms are defined in § 58.1-1813, who willfully fails to pay any tax being enforced by this section, shall, in addition to other penalties provided by law, be liable to a penalty of the amount of the tax not paid, to be assessed and collected in the same manner as such taxes are assessed and collected.

G. During the pendency of the action, the circuit court in which the action is pending may, on its own motion or on the motion of any party, refer the parties to a dispute resolution proceeding pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 20.2 (§ 8.01-576.4 et seq.) of Title 8.01.

H. In any case in which real estate subject to delinquent taxes is situated in two or more jurisdictions, a suit to sell the entirety of the real estate pursuant to this article may be brought in a single jurisdiction provided that (i) taxes are delinquent in all jurisdictions for periods not less than the minimum applicable periods set forth in subsection A and (ii) the treasurer of each jurisdiction within which the property is situated consents to the suit.

The suit shall identify the taxes, penalties, interest, and other charges due in each jurisdiction. The publications and notices required pursuant to this section shall identify each of the jurisdictions in which the property is situated. Upon sale of the property, the order confirming the sale shall provide for the payment of taxes, penalties, interest, and other charges to each jurisdiction, and copies of the order confirming the sale and the deed conveying the property to the purchaser shall be recorded among the land records of the clerk's office of the circuit court for each jurisdiction within which the property that is the subject of the suit is situated.

Code 1950, § 58-1117.1; 1973, c. 467; 1982, c. 669; 1983, cc. 37, 345; 1984, c. 675; 1988, c. 306; 1994, c. 884; 1995, c. 547; 1996, cc. 323, 710; 1997, c. 724; 1999, c. 674; 2002, c. 64; 2003, c. 168; 2004, c. 968; 2009, cc. 181, 551; 2013, c. 334; 2015, c. 50; 2020, c. 1213.

§ 58.1-3965.1. Additional authority to sell land for delinquent taxes.

In addition to the authority provided by subsection A of § 58.1-3965, a city may also, by ordinance, institute proceedings to sell in accordance with law any real estate when any taxes on such real estate are delinquent on December 31 following the first anniversary of the date on which such taxes have become due provided proper notice is given in accordance with subsection A of § 58.1-3965.

2000, c. 756.

§ 58.1-3965.2. Additional authority to sell land for certain delinquent special taxes or special assessments.

In addition to the authority provided by subsection A of § 58.1-3965, a locality may provide, as part of any ordinance adopted pursuant to Article 6 (§ 15.2-5152 et seq.) of Chapter 51 of Title 15.2 (i) to create a community development authority or (ii) to levy special taxes or special assessments on real property within any district covered by the community development authority or on abutting property within the district, that proceedings be instituted to sell any such real property when any special tax or special assessment described under subdivision A 3 or A 5 of § 15.2-5158 imposed on the property is delinquent on the first anniversary of the date on which the tax or assessment became due.

No proceedings shall be instituted under this section to sell real property that is a single family residence if the owner of the property is the resident on such first anniversary date. No proceedings shall be instituted under this section to sell an individual residential unit in a multi-unit structure or building if the owner of the unit is the resident of the unit on such first anniversary date.

Proper notice in accordance with subsection A of § 58.1-3965 shall be required, and the sale shall be made in accordance with law and subject to all other applicable provisions of this article.

2011, c. 324.

§ 58.1-3966. Employment of attorney to institute proceedings; bond of attorney.

Proceedings under this article shall be instituted and conducted in the name of the county, city or town in which the real estate lies, by such attorney as the governing body or treasurer of the county, city or town employs for such purpose. The governing body or treasurer may require the attorney to give bond in an amount to be fixed by it, with surety to be approved by it, conditioned upon the lawful accounting for all funds which may come into his hands as such attorney under this article, and the premium on the bond may be ordered to be paid out of the local treasury. The bond shall be delivered to the clerk of the circuit court of the county or city and shall be recorded by the clerk in his special commissioner's bond book.

Code 1950, § 58-1117.2; 1973, c. 467; 1984, c. 675; 1997, c. 724.

§ 58.1-3967. How proceedings instituted; parties; procedure generally; title acquired; disposition of surplus proceeds of sale.

Proceedings under this article for the appointment of a special commissioner under § 58.1-3970.1 or the sale of real estate on which county, city, or town taxes are delinquent shall be by bill in equity, filed in the circuit court of the county or city in which such real estate is located, to subject the real estate to the lien for such delinquent taxes.

Any party with an interest in such real estate, including a lienor or person with a claim of title, but not including a person whose interest in the real estate is secured by a deed of trust properly recorded, shall file his claim within 90 days after notice of such proceedings. Failure to timely file shall bar any such claims.

Any party who is not otherwise served shall be served by publication pursuant to § 8.01-316. Any person served by publication may petition to have the case reheard, but, notwithstanding § 8.01-322, only for good cause shown, and only within 90 days of entry of the confirmation of sale.

All necessary parties shall be made parties defendant. A guardian ad litem shall be appointed for persons under a disability as defined in § 8.01-2, and for all persons proceeded against by an order of publication as parties unknown. The beneficiary or beneficiaries under any deed of trust, security interest or mortgage shall not be deemed necessary parties, provided any trustee under the deed of trust, any mortgagee under the mortgage, and any lien creditor are given notice as prescribed in § 58.1-3965, except that either the beneficiary or beneficiaries, or the trustee or trustees, under any deed of trust, security interest or mortgage securing a financial institution, or any lien creditor that is a financial institution, shall be necessary parties defendant. After filing of suit and a lis pendens, any party who thereafter acquires an interest in the delinquent real estate, including a lienor or party with a claim of title, shall not be deemed a necessary party, but shall be permitted to intervene in the proceedings to file his claim. Failure to file such a claim shall bar any such claim. The title conveyed to the purchaser at the judicial sale shall be held to bar any disabilities of parties defendant, and shall be free of all claims of any creditor, person, or entity, including those claims of beneficiaries under any deed of trust or mortgage, provided that notice was given or the creditor, person, or entity was made a party defendant.

Such proceedings shall be held in accordance with the requirements, statutory or arising at common law, relative to effecting the sale of real estate by a creditor's bill in equity to subject real estate to the lien of a judgment creditor, provided that publication, if necessary, shall be as provided by § 8.01-321.

In proceedings under this article, the character of the title acquired by the purchaser of such real estate at such sale shall be governed by the principles and rules applicable to the titles of purchases at judicial sales of real estate generally; however nothing herein shall be construed to affect any easements recorded prior to the date of sale.

The former owner, his heirs or assigns of any real estate sold under this article shall be entitled to the surplus received from such sale in excess of the taxes, penalties, interest, reasonable attorneys' fees, costs and any liens chargeable thereon. If no claim for payment of the indebtedness secured by any lien chargeable thereon is made by an unknown beneficiary of such lien, or if no claim for such surplus is made by such former owner, his heirs or assigns, within two years after the date of confirmation of such sale, then such amount secured by the lien of the unknown beneficiary, surplus, or both, as applicable, shall be paid by the clerk of the court in which such suit was instituted to the county, city, or town that received proceeds from the sale of the real estate. If a county and a town receive proceeds from the same sale, then such surplus shall be divided between the county and town pro rata based on the relative amount of proceeds received by each. Upon request of the former owner, his heirs or assigns, or unknown beneficiary of any real estate sold under this article, and after a showing of a prior entitlement thereto, the governing body of any county or city which has received such surplus funds may, in its discretion, grant relief, by ordinance, to such former owner, heir, or assign, or unknown beneficiary and pay over such amount as the governing body may deem appropriate to such former owner, heir, assign, or unknown beneficiary.

Code 1950, § 58-1117.3; 1973, c. 467; 1984, c. 675; 1990, cc. 831, 918; 1992, c. 854; 1993, cc. 51, 372; 1994, cc. 295, 884; 1996, c. 710; 1997, c. 327; 1999, cc. 403, 869; 2000, c. 756; 2001, c. 37; 2004, c. 645; 2006, c. 616; 2009, c. 682.

§ 58.1-3968. When two or more parcels may be covered by one bill.

In any proceeding under this article, two or more parcels of real estate may be covered by one bill if they were assessed against or are owned by the same party or parties, or if they are assessed against and owned by different parties but each parcel is assessed at a value which does not exceed $100,000.

Code 1950, § 58-1117.4; 1973, c. 467; 1978, c. 54; 1984, c. 675; 1985, c. 60; 1991, c. 243.

§ 58.1-3969. Order of reference; appointment of special commissioner to make sale; costs; attorney fees.

The court shall have the option, for good cause shown after proper objection made by any party respondent, to refer the case to a commissioner in chancery for hearing and report, in which case, the order of reference shall be to a commissioner in chancery or special master other than the attorney (or any attorney practicing in the same firm as the attorney) employed to subject the real estate to the lien of any taxes. Upon (i) receipt of proper service of process on all parties defendant, a written real estate title certificate and the written report of a licensed real estate appraiser where there is no dispute as to title or value, (ii) the receipt of the report of the commissioner in chancery, or (iii) where the assessor for the locality files an affidavit with the court of value and the value is averred to not exceed $100,000, the court may appoint a special commissioner to sell the properties and execute the necessary deeds when a sale is found necessary or advisable. The court may designate the attorney employed by the governing body of the locality to bring the suit.

The sale price achieved at a public auction shall be prima facie, but rebuttable, evidence of the value of the property for purposes of the approval of the sale. If the attorney employed by the governing body of the locality be appointed a special commissioner to sell the land and execute the deed and he has already given the bond hereinabove mentioned, no additional bond shall be required of him as special commissioner unless the court regards the bond already given as insufficient in amount. No fee or commission shall be allowed or paid to any attorney for acting under the order of reference or as special commissioner, except as hereinafter provided, and the compensation contracted to be paid any such attorney by the governing body, whether the employment was on a salary, commission or other basis, shall be in full for all services rendered by him. The court shall allow as part of the costs, to be paid into the treasury of the locality, a reasonable sum to defray the cost of its attorneys and the expenses of publication and appraisal necessary for the purpose of instituting such suit and such fees and commissions, including fees for preparing and executing deeds, as would be allowed if the suit were an ordinary lien creditor's suit. When the special commissioner is other than the attorney employed by the locality the court may allow him reasonable fees for selling the land and executing the deed, payable out of the proceeds of sale.

In any case in which the attorney representing the locality and the governing body thereof have failed to reach an agreement as to a salary or commission or other basis as compensation for the services of such attorney, the court in which any proceedings are brought under this article may allow from the proceeds of the sale of any such real estate such fee as the court shall deem reasonable and proper to the attorney representing any such locality in such proceeding.

Code 1950, § 58-1117.5; 1973, c. 467; 1984, c. 675; 1997, c. 724; 1999, c. 674; 2005, c. 885; 2006, c. 333; 2009, cc. 181, 551; 2012, c. 627; 2014, c. 34.

§ 58.1-3970. County, city, etc., may be purchaser.

The county, city or town may be a purchaser at any sale held under this article or under any other provision of law for the enforcement of tax liens.

Code 1950, § 58-1117.6; 1973, c. 467; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3970.1. Appointment of special commissioner to execute title to certain real estate with delinquent taxes or liens to localities.

A. Except as provided in subsection B, in any proceedings under this article for the sale of a parcel or parcels of real estate which meet all of the following: (i) each parcel has delinquent real estate taxes or the locality has a lien against the parcel for removal, repair or securing of a building or structure; removal of trash, garbage, refuse, litter; or the cutting of grass, weeds or other foreign growth, (ii) each parcel has an assessed value of $75,000 or less, and (iii) such taxes and liens, together, including penalty and accumulated interest, exceed 50 percent of the assessed value of the parcel or such taxes alone exceed 25 percent of the assessed value of the parcel, the locality may petition the circuit court to appoint a special commissioner to execute the necessary deed or deeds to convey the real estate to the locality in lieu of the sale at public auction. After notice as required by this article, service of process, and upon answer filed by the owner or other parties in interest to the bill in equity, the court shall allow the parties to present evidence and arguments, ore tenus, prior to the appointment of the special commissioner. Any surplusage accruing to a locality as a result of the sale of the parcel or parcels after the receipt of the deed shall be payable to the beneficiaries of any liens against the property and to the former owner, his heirs or assigns in accordance with § 58.1-3967. No deficiency shall be charged against the owner after conveyance to the locality.

B. For a parcel or parcels of real estate in the Cities of Norfolk, Richmond, Hopewell, Newport News, Petersburg, Fredericksburg, Hampton, and Martinsville, all of the provisions of subsection A shall apply except (i) that the percentage of taxes and liens, together, including penalty and accumulated interest, and the percentage of taxes alone set forth in clause (iii) of subsection A shall exceed 35 percent and 15 percent, respectively, of the assessed value of the parcel or parcels or (ii) that the percentage of taxes and liens, together, including penalty and accumulated interest, and the percentage of taxes alone set forth in clause (iii) of subsection A shall exceed 20 percent and 10 percent, respectively, of the assessed value of the parcel or parcels, and each parcel has an assessed value of $150,000 or less, provided that under this clause the property is not an occupied dwelling, and the locality enters into an agreement for sale of the parcel to a nonprofit organization to renovate or construct a single-family dwelling on the parcel for sale to a person or persons to reside in the dwelling whose income is below the area median income.

C. For sales by a nonprofit organization pursuant to subsection B, such sales may include either (i) both the land and the structural improvements on a property or (ii) only the structural improvements of a property and not the land the structural improvements are located on. A sale of only the structural improvements is permissible only if (a) the structural improvements are subject to a ground lease with a community land trust, as that term is defined in § 55.1-1200; (b) the structural improvements are subject to a ground lease that has a term of at least 90 years; and (c) the community land trust retains a preemptive option to purchase such structural improvements at a price determined by a formula that is designed to ensure that the improvements remain affordable in perpetuity to low-income and moderate-income families earning less than 120 percent of the area median income, adjusted for family size.

1999, c. 869; 2003, cc. 16, 156; 2004, c. 968; 2011, c. 688; 2012, cc. 87, 610; 2014, c. 519; 2015, c. 379; 2019, cc. 159, 541; 2020, c. 244.

§ 58.1-3970.2. When delinquent taxes may be deemed paid in full.

A. For purposes of this section, "tax delinquent property" means any real property for which real property taxes are delinquent on December 31 following the second anniversary of the date on which such taxes have become due or, in the case of real property upon which is situated (i) any structure that has been condemned by the local building official pursuant to applicable law or ordinance, (ii) any nuisance as that term is defined in § 15.2-900, (iii) any derelict building as that term is defined in § 15.2-907.1, or (iv) any property that has been declared to be blighted pursuant to § 36-49.1:1, for which real property taxes are delinquent on the first anniversary of the date on which such taxes have become due.

B. Any county, city, or town may deem paid in full all accumulated taxes, penalties, interest, and other costs on any tax delinquent property and notify credit reporting agencies that such amounts are deemed paid in full, in exchange for conveyance of the property by the owner to a land bank entity created pursuant to Chapter 75 (§ 15.2-7500 et seq.) of Title 15.2 or an organization that has been granted tax-exempt status under § 501(c)(3) or 501(c)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code and that builds, renovates, or revitalizes affordable housing for low-income families.

2015, c. 498; 2016, cc. 159, 383.

§ 58.1-3971. Property improperly placed on delinquent land books.

A. The attorney shall periodically report to the governing body employing him every parcel of real estate which he ascertains to be improperly placed on the delinquent land books and the governing body, upon satisfying itself of the correctness of the report, or correcting it to conform to the facts, shall certify the information to the treasurer who shall mark his delinquent land book accordingly. The attorney shall make the same report to the commissioner of the revenue and request that the commissioner of the revenue correct the assessment of such property pursuant to § 58.1-3981, and the attorney shall, to the extent necessary if the correction is not or cannot be made pursuant to § 58.1-3981, move the court to enter an order correcting such assessment accordingly.

B. If any parcel which is improperly placed on the delinquent land books is sold under the provisions of this article, the purchaser shall be entitled to a refund of the entire amount he paid for such parcel. The governing body shall reimburse the court or the appropriate party for costs and fees allowed out of such payment.

Code 1950, § 58-1117.7; 1973, c. 467; 1983, c. 255; 1984, c. 675; 1994, c. 540; 2012, c. 627.

§ 58.1-3972. Reserved.

Reserved.

§ 58.1-3973. Certain land purchased in name of Commonwealth to revert to owners, etc., subject to lien of delinquent taxes.

On June 1, 1973, the title to any real estate purchased by the treasurer of any county, city or town in the name of the Commonwealth pursuant to §§ 58-1067 through 58-1072, which are hereby repealed, and not sold by the treasurer pursuant to such sections shall revert to the former owner or owners, or his or their heirs, successors and assigns, subject to the lien created by § 58.1-3340. The liens of such delinquent taxes shall continue to be recorded in the appropriate clerk's office or other office where such liens are customarily recorded.

Code 1950, § 58-1117.9; 1973, c. 467; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3974. Redemption of land by owner; lien for taxes paid.

Any owner of the real estate described in any notice published pursuant to § 58.1-3965 or any bill in equity filed pursuant to this article, or his or their heirs, successors and assigns, shall have the right to redeem such real estate prior to the date set for a judicial sale thereof by paying into court all taxes, penalties and interest due with respect to such real estate, including any outstanding taxes, penalties, and interest owed to a town or other concurrent taxing entity, together with all costs including costs of publication and a reasonable attorney fee set by the court. Any person who has paid any taxes on such real estate shall have a lien thereon for any taxes paid, plus interest at the rate of six percent per year.

Code 1950, § 58-1117.10; 1973, c. 467; 1983, c. 345; 1984, c. 675; 2012, c. 627.

§ 58.1-3975. Nonjudicial sale of tax delinquent real properties of minimal size and value.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, the treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes may sell, at public auction, any parcel of real property that is assessed at $10,000 or less, provided that the taxes on such parcel are delinquent on December 31 following the third anniversary of the date on which such taxes have become due.

B. The treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes may in addition sell, at public auction, any parcel of real property that is assessed at more than $10,000 but no more than $25,000, provided that the taxes on such parcel are delinquent on December 31 following the third anniversary of the date on which such taxes have become due, it is not subject to a recorded mortgage or deed of trust lien, and such parcel:

1. Is unimproved and measures no more than 43,560 square feet (1.0 acre);

2. Is unimproved and is determined to be unsuitable for building due to the size, shape, zoning, floodway, or other environmental designations of the parcel made by the locality's zoning administrator or other official designated by the locality to administer its zoning ordinance and carry out the duties set forth in subdivision A 4 of § 15.2-2286;

3. Has a structure on it that has been condemned by the local building official pursuant to applicable law or ordinance;

4. Has been declared by the locality a nuisance as that term is defined in § 15.2-900;

5. Contains a derelict building as that term is defined in § 15.2-907.1; or

6. Has been declared by the locality to be blighted as that term is defined in § 36-3.

For purposes of determining the area of any parcel, the area or acreage found in the locality's land book shall be determinative.

C. At least 30 days prior to conducting a sale under this section, the treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes shall:

1. Send notice by certified or registered mail to the record owner or owners of such property and anyone appearing to have an interest in the property at their last known address as contained in the records of the treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes; and

2. Post notice of such sale at the property location, if such property has frontage on any public or private street, and at the circuit courthouse of the locality.

D. The treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes shall also cause a notice of sale to be published in the legal classified section of a newspaper of general circulation in the locality in which the property is located at least seven days but no more than 21 days prior to the sale; however, if the annual taxes assessed on the property are less than $500, such notice may be placed, in lieu of publication, on the treasurer's or local government's website beginning at least 21 days prior to sale and through the date of sale. The pro rata costs of posting notice, publication, and mailing shall become a part of the tax and shall be collected if payment is made in redemption of such real property.

E. The treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes may advertise and sell multiple parcels at the same time and place pursuant to one notice of sale.

F. The treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes may enter into an agreement with the owner of such parcel for payment over time.

G. The owner of any property, or other interested party, may redeem it at any time prior to the date of the sale by paying all accumulated taxes, penalties, interest, and costs thereon, including reasonable attorney fees. Partial payment of delinquent taxes, penalties, interest, or costs shall be insufficient to redeem the property and shall not operate to suspend, invalidate, or nullify any sale brought pursuant to this section.

H. At the time of sale, the treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes shall sell to the highest bidder at public auction each parcel that has not been redeemed by the owner. Such sale shall be free and clear of the locality's tax lien, but shall not affect easements or other rights of record recorded prior to the date of sale or liens recorded prior to the date of sale unless the treasurer has given the lienholder written notice of the sale at least 30 days prior to the sale, at the lienholder's address of record and through his registered agent, if any. The treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes shall tender a special warranty deed pursuant to this section to effectuate the conveyance of the parcel to the highest bidder.

I. If the sale proceeds are insufficient to pay the amounts owed in full, the treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes may remove the unpaid taxes from the books and mark the same as satisfied. The sale proceeds shall be applied first to the costs of sale, then to the taxes, penalty, interest, and fees due on the parcel, and thereafter to any other taxes or other charges owed by the former owner to the jurisdiction.

J. Any excess proceeds shall remain the property of the former owner, subject to claims of creditors, and shall be kept by the treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes in an interest-bearing escrow account. If any petition for excess proceeds is made to the treasurer or other officer responsible for collecting taxes under this section, the treasurer or officer holding the funds shall forward the funds to the locality's circuit court clerk to be interpleaded along with a copy of the claim for excess proceeds. A copy of such transmission shall be forwarded to the claimant. The burden of scheduling a hearing with the circuit court on the claim shall be that of the claimant and shall be made within two years of the date of the sale of the property that generated the excess funds. In the event that funds remain with the court two years after the date of the sale, the locality may petition to have the funds distributed to the locality's general fund. If no claim for payment of excess proceeds is made within two years after the date of sale, the treasurer or other responsible officer shall deposit the excess proceeds in the jurisdiction's general fund.

K. If the sale does not produce a successful bidder, the treasurer or other responsible officer shall add the costs of sale incurred by the jurisdiction to the delinquent real estate account.

2004, c. 100; 2006, c. 616; 2014, c. 28; 2015, c. 59; 2017, c. 437; 2020, c. 257.

§ 58.1-3976. Reserved.

Reserved.

Article 5. Correction of Assessments, Remedies and Refunds.

§ 58.1-3980. Application to commissioner of the revenue or other official for correction.

A. Any person, firm or corporation assessed by a commissioner of the revenue or other official performing the duties imposed on commissioners of the revenue under this title with any local tax authorized by this title, including, but not limited to, taxes on tangible personal property, machinery and tools, merchants' capital, transient occupancy, food and beverage, or admissions, or a local license tax, aggrieved by any such assessment, may, within three years from the last day of the tax year for which such assessment is made, or within one year from the date of the assessment, whichever is later, apply to the commissioner of the revenue or such other official who made the assessment for a correction thereof.

Sections 58.1-3980 through 58.1-3983 shall also apply to erroneous assessments of real estate if the error sought to be corrected in any case was made by the commissioner of the revenue or such other official to whom the application is made, or is due to a factual error made by others in connection with conducting general reassessments as provided in subsection C of § 58.1-3981.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, an unpaid tangible personal property tax assessment may be appealed to the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official at any time during which such assessment is collectible under § 58.1-3940, provided the taxpayer can demonstrate by clear factual evidence that he was not subject to the tax for the year in question. If the assessing official is satisfied that the assessment is erroneous, he shall abate the assessment and notify the treasurer or other collecting official of the abatement. Upon receipt of such notice, the treasurer or other collecting official shall forthwith issue a refund or take such other steps as may be necessary to correct the taxpayer's liability accordingly upon the books of the locality.

In the case of an erroneous assessment that has been satisfied in whole or in part through an involuntary payment, an appeal to the assessing official must be made within one year from the date of the involuntary payment. If the assessing official is satisfied that the assessment is erroneous, he shall abate the assessment and notify the treasurer or other collecting official of the abatement. Upon receipt of such notice, the treasurer or other collecting official shall forthwith issue a refund. For purposes of this section, "involuntary payment" means a payment received pursuant to the Setoff Debt Collection Act (§ 58.1-520 et seq.) or § 58.1-3952.

Code 1950, § 58-1141; 1952, c. 82; 1954, c. 533; 1958, c. 585; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 13; 1974, c. 362; 1977, c. 99; 1984, c. 675; 1989, c. 86; 1991, c. 8; 1992, c. 382; 1995, c. 445; 1998, c. 648; 1999, cc. 123, 624, 677.

§ 58.1-3981. Correction by commissioner or other official performing his duties.

A. If the commissioner of the revenue, or other official performing the duties imposed on commissioners of the revenue under this title, is satisfied that he has erroneously assessed such applicant with any such tax, he shall correct such assessment. If the assessment exceeds the proper amount, he shall exonerate the applicant from the payment of so much as is erroneously charged if not paid into the treasury of the county or city. If the assessment has been paid, the governing body of the county or city shall, upon the certificate of the commissioner with the consent of the town, city or county attorney, or if none, the attorney for the Commonwealth, that such assessment was erroneous, direct the treasurer of the county, city or town to refund the excess to the taxpayer, with interest if authorized pursuant to § 58.1-3918 or in the ordinance authorized by § 58.1-3916, or as otherwise authorized in that section. However, the governing body of the county, city or town may authorize the treasurer to approve and issue any refund up to $5,000 as a result of an erroneous assessment.

B. If the assessment is less than the proper amount, the commissioner shall assess such applicant with the proper amount. If any assessment is erroneous because of a mere clerical error or calculation, the same may be corrected as herein provided and with or without petition from the taxpayer. If such error or calculation was made in work performed by others in connection with conducting general assessments, such mistake may be corrected by the commissioner of the revenue.

C. If the commissioner of the revenue, or other official performing the duties imposed on commissioners of the revenue under this title, is satisfied that any assessment is erroneous because of a factual error made in work performed by others in connection with conducting general reassessments, he shall correct such assessment as herein provided and with or without petition from the taxpayer.

D. An error in the valuation of property subject to the rollback tax imposed under § 58.1-3237 for those years to which such tax is applicable may be corrected within three years of the assessment of the rollback tax.

E. A copy of any correction made under this section shall be certified by the commissioner or such other official to the treasurer of his county, city, or town.

F. In any action on application for correction under § 58.1-3980, if so requested by the applicant, the commissioner or other such official shall state in writing the facts and law supporting the action on such application and mail a copy of such writing to the applicant at his last known address.

Code 1950, § 58-1142; 1956, c. 598; 1958, c. 585; 1960, c. 547; 1974, c. 362; 1975, c. 257; 1977, c. 99; 1980, c. 657; 1982, c. 332; 1984, c. 675; 1995, c. 108; 1998, c. 529; 1999, cc. 624, 631, 677; 2020, cc. 240, 644.

§ 58.1-3982. Appeal by locality.

Any county, city, town or other political subdivision of this Commonwealth, aggrieved by any such correction made by a commissioner of the revenue under the preceding section (§ 58.1-3981), may, through its county, city or town attorney, or if none, its attorney for the Commonwealth, within six months from the date such correction is certified by the commissioner of the revenue to such treasurer or city collector, apply to any court of record of the county or city for a review of the action of such commissioner. At least twenty-one days before the hearing on such application notice thereof shall be given the commissioner of the revenue.

Code 1950, § 58-1143; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3983. Remedy not to affect right to apply to court.

The remedy granted by the three preceding sections (§§ 58.1-3980 through 58.1-3982) shall be in addition to the right of any taxpayer to apply within the time prescribed by law to the proper court as provided by law for the correction of erroneous assessments of the classes described in such sections. Application may be made to the proper court whether or not such applicant has theretofore made application to the commissioner of the revenue for the correction of any such assessment.

Code 1950, § 58-1144; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3983.1. Appeals and rulings of local taxes.

A. Definitions. For purposes of this section:

"Amount in dispute," when used with respect to taxes due or assessed, means the amount specifically identified in the administrative appeal or application for judicial review as disputed by the party filing such appeal or application.

"Frivolous" means a finding, based upon specific facts, that the party asserting the appeal is unlikely to prevail upon the merits because the appeal is (i) not well grounded in fact; (ii) not warranted by existing law or a good faith argument for the extension, modification, or reversal of existing law; (iii) interposed for an improper purpose, such as to harass, to cause unnecessary delay in the payment of tax or a refund, or to create needless cost from the litigation; or (iv) otherwise frivolous.

"Jeopardized by delay" means a finding, based upon specific facts, that a taxpayer designs to (i) depart quickly from the locality, (ii) remove his property therefrom, (iii) conceal himself or his property therein, or (iv) do any other act tending to prejudice, or to render wholly or partially ineffectual, proceedings to collect the tax for the period in question.

"Local business tax" means machinery and tools tax, business tangible personal property tax (including, without limitation, computer equipment), merchant's capital tax, and a consumer utility tax where the amount in dispute exceeds $2,500 other than the tax collected on mobile telecommunication service as defined in § 58.1-3812.

"Local mobile property tax" means the tangible personal property tax on airplanes, boats, campers, recreational vehicles, and trailers.

"Taxpayer" includes a business required to collect a local consumer utility tax to the extent that the business is charged or assessed with such tax.

B. Administrative appeal to commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official.

1. Any person assessed with any local mobile property tax or local business tax as defined in this section may appeal such assessment within one year from the last day of the tax year for which such assessment is made, or within one year from the date of such assessment, whichever is later, to the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official.

2. The appeal shall be filed in good faith and sufficiently identify the taxpayer, the tax period covered by the challenged assessment, the amount in dispute, the remedy sought, each alleged error in the assessment, the grounds upon which the taxpayer relies, and any other facts relevant to the taxpayer's contention.

3. The commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official may hold a conference with the taxpayer if requested by the taxpayer, or require submission of additional information and documents, an audit or further audits, or other evidence deemed necessary for a proper and equitable determination of the application.

4. The assessment shall be deemed prima facie correct.

5. The commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall undertake a full review of the taxpayer's claims and issue a written determination to the taxpayer setting forth the facts and arguments in support of his decision within 90 days after such appeal is filed. Such determination shall be accompanied by a written explanation of the taxpayer's right to file an administrative appeal of the determination to the Tax Commissioner pursuant to subsection D.

6. Any taxpayer whose administrative appeal to the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official pursuant to this subsection has been pending for more than one year without the issuance of a final determination may, upon not less than 30 days' written notice to the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official, elect to treat the application as denied and appeal the assessment to the Tax Commissioner in accordance with the provisions of subsection D. The Tax Commissioner shall not consider an appeal filed pursuant to the provisions of this subsection if he finds that the absence of a final determination on the part of the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official was caused by the willful failure or refusal of the taxpayer to provide information requested and reasonably needed by the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official to make his determination.

C. Suspension of collection activity pending administrative appeal to commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official. Provided a timely and complete appeal is filed pursuant to subsection B, collection activity shall be suspended by the treasurer or other official responsible for the collection of such tax until a final determination is issued by the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official, unless the treasurer or other collection official (i) determines that collection would be jeopardized by delay as defined in this section; or (ii) is advised by the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official that the taxpayer has not responded to a request for relevant information after a reasonable time. Interest shall accrue in accordance with the provisions of subdivision A 2 e of § 58.1-3703.1, but no further penalty shall be imposed while collection action is suspended.

D. Administrative appeal to Tax Commissioner.

1. Any person whose administrative appeal to the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official pursuant to subsection B has been denied in whole or in part may appeal the determination of the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official by filing an appeal with the Tax Commissioner and serving a copy of the appeal upon the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official within 90 days of the date of the determination of the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official. The appeal shall include a copy of the written determination of the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official that is challenged, together with a statement of the facts and grounds upon which the taxpayer relies.

2. The Tax Commissioner shall determine whether he has jurisdiction to hear the appeal within 30 days of receipt of the taxpayer's appeal.

3. If the Tax Commissioner determines that he has jurisdiction, he shall provide the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official with an opportunity to respond to the appeal and permit the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official to participate in the proceedings. The Tax Commissioner shall issue a determination to the taxpayer within 90 days of receipt of the taxpayer's appeal, unless the taxpayer and the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official are notified that a longer period will be required. Such longer period of time shall not exceed 60 days, and the Tax Commissioner shall notify the affected parties of the reason necessitating the longer period of time. If the Tax Commissioner is unable to issue a determination within the 60-day extension period due to the failure of an affected party to supply the Tax Commissioner with necessary information, the Tax Commissioner shall certify this fact in writing prior to the expiration of the extension period. The Tax Commissioner shall then issue his determination within 60 days of receipt of such necessary information.

4. The appeal shall be treated as an application pursuant to § 58.1-1821, and the Tax Commissioner may issue an order correcting such assessment of such property pursuant to § 58.1-1822, if the taxpayer has met the burden of proof provided in § 58.1-3987.

5. The Tax Commissioner shall not make a determination regarding the valuation or the method of valuation of property subject to any local tax other than a local business tax.

E. Suspension of collection activity during administrative appeal to Tax Commissioner. On receipt of a notice of intent to file an appeal to the Tax Commissioner under subsection D, the treasurer or other official responsible for the collection of such tax shall further suspend collection activity until a final determination is issued by the Tax Commissioner, unless the treasurer or other collection official (i) determines that collection would be jeopardized by delay as defined in this section; or (ii) is advised by the commissioner or other assessing official that the taxpayer has not responded to a request for relevant information after a reasonable time. Interest shall accrue in accordance with the provisions of subdivision A 2 e of § 58.1-3703.1, but no further penalty shall be imposed while collection action is suspended. The requirement that collection activity be suspended shall cease unless an appeal pursuant to subsection D is filed and served on the necessary parties within 30 days of the service of the notice of intent to file such appeal.

F. Implementation of determination of Tax Commissioner. Promptly upon receipt of a final determination of the Tax Commissioner, the commissioner of the revenue or other local assessing official shall take those steps necessary to calculate the amount of tax owed by or refund due to the taxpayer consistent with the Tax Commissioner's determination and shall provide that information to the taxpayer and to the treasurer or other official responsible for collection in accordance with the provisions of this subsection.

1. If the determination of the Tax Commissioner sets forth a specific amount of tax due, the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall certify this amount to the treasurer or other official responsible for collection, and the treasurer or other official responsible for collection shall issue a bill to the taxpayer for such amount due, together with interest accrued, within 30 days of the date of the determination of the Tax Commissioner.

2. If the determination of the Tax Commissioner sets forth a specific amount of refund due, the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall certify this amount to the treasurer or other official responsible for collection, and the treasurer or other official responsible for collection shall issue a payment to the taxpayer for such amount due, together with interest accrued, within 30 days of the date of the determination of the Tax Commissioner.

3. If the determination of the Tax Commissioner does not set forth a specific amount of tax due, or otherwise requires the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official to undertake a new or revised assessment that will result in the determination of a tax due that has not previously been paid in full, the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall promptly commence the steps necessary to undertake such new or revised assessment, and provide the same to the taxpayer within 60 days of the date of the determination of the Tax Commissioner, or within 60 days after receipt from the taxpayer of any additional information requested or reasonably required under the determination of the Tax Commissioner, whichever is later. The commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall certify the new assessment to the treasurer or other official responsible for collection, and the treasurer or other official responsible for collection shall issue a bill to the taxpayer for the amount due, together with interest accrued, within 30 days of the date of the new assessment.

4. If the determination of the Tax Commissioner does not set forth a specific amount of refund due, or otherwise requires the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official to undertake a new or revised assessment that will result in the determination of a refund of taxes previously paid, the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall promptly commence the steps necessary to undertake such new or revised assessment, and provide the same to the taxpayer within 60 days of the date of the determination of the Tax Commissioner, or within 60 days after receipt from the taxpayer of any additional information requested or reasonably required under the determination of the Tax Commissioner, whichever is later. The commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall certify the new assessment to the treasurer or other official responsible for collection, and the treasurer or other official responsible for collection shall issue a refund to the taxpayer for the amount of tax due, together with interest accrued, within 30 days of the date of the new assessment.

G. Judicial review of determination of Tax Commissioner. Following the issuance of a final determination of the Tax Commissioner pursuant to subsection D, the taxpayer or commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official may apply to the appropriate circuit court for judicial review of the determination, or any part thereof, pursuant to § 58.1-3984. In any such proceeding for judicial review of a determination of the Tax Commissioner, the burden shall be on the party challenging the determination of the Tax Commissioner, or any part thereof, to show that the ruling of the Tax Commissioner is erroneous with respect to the part challenged. Neither the Tax Commissioner nor the Department of Taxation shall be made a party to an application to correct an assessment merely because the Tax Commissioner has ruled on it.

H. Suspension of payment of disputed amount of tax due upon taxpayer's notice of intent to initiate judicial review.

1. On receipt of a notice of intent to file an application for judicial review, pursuant to § 58.1-3984, of a determination of the Tax Commissioner pursuant to subsection D, and upon payment of the amount of the tax that is not in dispute together with any penalty and interest then due with respect to such undisputed portion of the tax, the treasurer or other collection official shall further suspend collection activity while the court retains jurisdiction unless the court, upon appropriate motion after notice and an opportunity to be heard, determines that (i) the taxpayer's application for judicial review is frivolous, as defined in this section; (ii) collection would be jeopardized by delay, as defined in this section; or (iii) suspension of collection would cause substantial economic hardship to the locality. For purposes of determining whether substantial economic hardship to the locality would arise from a suspension of collection activity, the court shall consider the cumulative effect of then-pending appeals filed within the locality by different taxpayers that allege common claims or theories of relief.

2. Upon a determination that the appeal is frivolous, that collection may be jeopardized by delay, or that suspension of collection would result in substantial economic hardship to the locality, the court may require the taxpayer to pay the amount in dispute or a portion thereof, or to provide surety for payment of the amount in dispute in a form acceptable to the court.

3. No suspension of collection activity shall be required if the application for judicial review fails to identify with particularity the amount in dispute.

4. The requirement that collection activity be suspended shall cease unless an application for judicial review pursuant to § 58.1-3984 is filed and served on the necessary parties within 30 days of the service of the notice of intent to file such application.

5. The suspension of collection activity authorized by this subdivision shall not be applicable to any appeal of a local business tax or local mobile property tax that is initiated by the direct filing of an action pursuant to § 58.1-3984 without prior exhaustion of the appeals provided by subsections B and D.

I. Suspension of payment of disputed amount of refund due upon locality's notice of intent to initiate judicial review.

1. Payment of any refund determined to be due pursuant to the determination of the Tax Commissioner shall be suspended if the locality assessing the tax serves upon the taxpayer, within 60 days of the date of the determination of the Tax Commissioner, a notice of intent to file an application for judicial review of the Tax Commissioner's determination pursuant to § 58.1-3984 and pays the amount of the refund not in dispute, including tax and accrued interest. Payment of such refund shall remain suspended while the court retains jurisdiction unless the court, upon appropriate motion after notice and an opportunity to be heard, determines that the locality's application for judicial review is frivolous, as defined in this section.

2. No suspension of refund activity shall be permitted if the locality's application for judicial review fails to identify with particularity the amount in dispute.

3. The requirement that the obligation to make a refund be suspended shall cease unless an application for judicial review pursuant to § 58.1-3984 is filed and served on the necessary parties within 30 days of the service of the notice of intent to file such application.

J. Rulings and advisory opinions.

1. Written rulings from commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official. Any taxpayer or authorized representative of a taxpayer may request a written ruling regarding the application of a local mobile property tax or a local business tax to a specific situation from the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official. Any taxpayer requesting such a ruling shall provide all facts relevant to the situation and may present a rationale for the basis of an interpretation of the law most favorable to the taxpayer. Any misrepresentation or change in the applicable law or the factual situation as presented in the ruling request shall invalidate any such ruling issued. A written ruling may be revoked or amended prospectively if (i) there is a change in the law, a court decision, or the guidelines issued by the Department of Taxation upon which the ruling was based or (ii) the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official notifies the taxpayer of a change in the policy or interpretation upon which the ruling was based. However, any taxpayer who acts on a written ruling which later becomes invalid shall be deemed to have acted in good faith during the period in which such ruling was in effect.

2. Advisory opinions of the Tax Commissioner. The Tax Commissioner shall have the authority to issue advisory written opinions in specific cases as requested to interpret a local business tax and matters related to the administration thereof when an assessment of that tax is subject to appeal to the Tax Commissioner under this chapter. Opinions issued pursuant to this section shall not be applicable as an interpretation of any other tax law.

K. Record-keeping and audits. Every person who is assessable with a local mobile property tax or a local business tax shall keep sufficient records to enable the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official to verify the correctness of the tax paid for the taxable years assessable and to enable the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official to ascertain the correct amount of tax assessable for each of those years. All such records, books of accounts and other information shall be open to inspection and examination by the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official in order to allow him to establish whether the tax is due within this jurisdiction. The commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall provide the taxpayer with the option to conduct the audit in the taxpayer's local business office, if the records are maintained there. In the event the records are maintained outside this jurisdiction, copies of the appropriate books and records shall be sent to the commissioner's or assessor's office upon demand.

1999, cc. 202, 470; 2002, c. 525; 2003, c. 196; 2004, cc. 527, 534; 2005, c. 927; 2006, c. 611.

§ 58.1-3984. Application to court to correct erroneous assessments of local levies generally.

A. Any person assessed with local taxes, aggrieved by any such assessment, may, unless otherwise specially provided by law (including, but not limited to, as provided under (i) § 15.2-717 and (ii) § 3 of Chapter 261 of the Acts of Assembly of 1936 (which was continued in effect by § 58-769 of the Code of Virginia; and now continued in effect by § 58.1-3260), as amended by Chapter 422 of the Acts of Assembly of 1950, as amended by Chapter 339 of the Acts of Assembly of 1958, and as amended by the 2003 Regular Session of the General Assembly), (a) within three years from the last day of the tax year for which any such assessment is made, (b) within one year from the date of the assessment, (c) within one year from the date of the Tax Commissioner's final determination under § 58.1-3703.1 A 5 or § 58.1-3983.1 D, or (d) within one year from the date of the final determination under § 58.1-3981, whichever is later, apply for relief to the circuit court of the county or city wherein such assessment was made. The application shall be before the court when it is filed in the clerk's office. In such proceedings, except for proceedings seeking relief from real property taxes, the burden of proof shall be upon the taxpayer to show that the property in question is valued at more than its fair market value or that the assessment is not uniform in its application, or that the assessment is otherwise invalid or illegal, but it shall not be necessary for the taxpayer to show that intentional, systematic and willful discrimination has been made.

All proceedings pursuant to this section shall be conducted as an action at law before the court, sitting without a jury. The county or city attorney, or if none, the attorney for the Commonwealth, shall defend the application.

Prior to the release of any information that constitutes confidential tax information under § 58.1-3, pursuant to discovery or otherwise, for the purposes of a proceeding under this section, the court shall, no later than the issuance of the scheduling order, make the following order:

"Unless otherwise ordered by the court, no entity or person who has obtained confidential information protected by § 58.1-3 of the Code of Virginia regarding [property reference], directly or indirectly through any party to this action, shall disclose, exhibit, or discuss the confidential information except as provided herein. Confidential information protected by § 58.1-3 may be revealed to or discussed only with the following persons in connection with the review or litigation of the assessment of the above-referenced property:

1. The taxpayer or the local government (the "Parties");

2. Counsel for any Party to this action and employees of the counsel's firm, including attorneys other than counsel;

3. Outside experts retained by and assisting counsel for any Party in the preparation for or trial of this action;

4. The court or an administrative board reviewing the assessment on the above-referenced property, persons employed by the court or administrative board, and persons employed to transcribe or record the testimony or argument at a hearing, trial, or deposition regarding the assessment of the above-referenced property; and

5. Any person who may be called as a witness in a hearing, trial, or discovery that counsel believes in good faith to be necessary for the preparation or presentation of the case.

No person who is furnished with confidential information shall reveal it to, or discuss it with, any person who is not entitled to receive it under the terms of this order. Prior to their receipt of confidential information, those persons described in subdivisions 3 and 5 shall be required to sign an acknowledgement of this order and agree to be bound by the terms hereof and be subject to the jurisdiction of the court for enforcement thereof. Any person who violates the provisions of this order shall be subject to the penalty provided in subsection F of § 58.1-3."

Once the above-referenced order is entered, § 58.1-3 shall not be applicable to prevent the release of any relevant information that is responsive to a request for discovery made in the course of an appeal pursuant to this section.

B. In circuit court proceedings to seek relief from real property taxes, there shall be a presumption that the valuation determined by the assessor or as adjusted by the board of equalization is correct. The burden of proof shall be on the taxpayer to rebut such presumption and show by a preponderance of the evidence that the property in question is valued at more than its fair market value or that the assessment is not uniform in its application, and that it was not arrived at in accordance with generally accepted appraisal practices, procedures, rules, and standards as prescribed by nationally recognized professional appraisal organizations such as the International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO) and applicable Virginia law relating to valuation of property. Mistakes of fact, including computation, that affect the assessment shall be deemed not to be in accordance with generally accepted appraisal practice.

However, in any appeal of the assessment of residential property filed by a taxpayer as an owner of real property containing less than four residential units, the assessing officer shall give the required written notice to the taxpayer, or his duly authorized representative, under subsection E of § 58.1-3331, and, upon written request, shall provide the taxpayer or his duly authorized representative copies of the assessment records set out in subsections A, B, and C of § 58.1-3331 pertaining to the assessing officer's determination of fair market value of the property under appeal. A written request by the taxpayer or his duly authorized representative shall be made following the filing of the appeal to circuit court and no later than 45 days prior to trial, unless otherwise provided by an order of the court before which the appeal is pending. Provided the written request is made in accordance with this section or any applicable court order, the assessing officer shall provide such records within 15 days of the written request to the taxpayer or his duly authorized representative. If the assessing officer fails to do so, the assessing officer shall present the following into evidence prior to the presentation of evidence by the taxpayer at the hearing: (i) copies of the assessment records maintained by the assessing officer under § 58.1-3331, (ii) testimony that explains the methodologies employed by the assessing officer to determine the assessed value of the property, and (iii) testimony that states that the assessed value was arrived at in accordance with generally accepted appraisal practices, procedures, rules, and standards as prescribed by nationally recognized professional appraisal organizations such as the International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO) and applicable Virginia law relating to valuation of property. Upon the conclusion of the presentation of the evidence of the assessing officer, the taxpayer shall have the burden of proof by a preponderance of the evidence to rebut such evidence presented by the assessing officer as otherwise provided in this section.

C. The presumptions, burdens, and standards set out in subsection B shall not be construed to change or have any effect upon the presumptions, burdens, and standards applicable to applications for the correction of erroneous assessments of any local tax other than real property taxes.

D. In the event it comes or is brought to the attention of the commissioner of the revenue of the locality that the assessment of any tax is improper or is based on obvious error and should be corrected in order that the ends of justice may be served, and he is not able to correct it under § 58.1-3981, the commissioner of the revenue shall apply to the appropriate court, in the manner herein provided for relief of the taxpayer. Such application may include a petition for relief for any of several taxpayers.

Code 1950, §§ 58-1145, 58-1146, 58-1149, 58-1153, 58-1154, 58-1155; 1968, c. 360; 1974, c. 362; 1977, c. 99; 1980, c. 735; 1984, c. 675; 1988, c. 282; 1989, c. 86; 1991, c. 8; 1992, c. 382; 1997, c. 251; 1998, c. 529; 1999, cc. 202, 407; 2003, c. 1036; 2011, cc. 184, 232; 2016, cc. 460, 635.

§ 58.1-3985. Section 58.1-3984 not applicable to applications for correction of assessments for local improvements.

Section 58.1-3984 shall not apply to applications for correction of assessments for local improvements provided for in Article 2 (§ 15.2-2404 et seq.) of Chapter 24 of Title 15.2 of this Code or the charter of any city or town.

Code 1950, § 58-1145.1; 1964, c. 469; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3986. Correction of double assessments; time for filing.

When it is shown to the satisfaction of the court that there has been a double assessment in any case, one of which assessments is proper and the other erroneous, and that a proper single tax has been paid thereon, the court may order such erroneous assessment to be corrected and grant redress therefor, whether such erroneously assessed tax has been paid or not, even though the application for such relief or redress be not made to the court within the time hereinbefore required.

Code 1950, § 58-1147; 1981, c. 178; 1982, c. 359; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3987. Action of court.

If the court is satisfied from the evidence that the assessment is erroneous and that the erroneous assessment was not caused by the wilful failure or refusal of the applicant to furnish the tax-assessing authority with the necessary information, as required by law, the court may order that the assessment be corrected and that the applicant be exonerated from the payment of so much as is erroneously charged, if not already paid. If the tax has been paid, the court shall order that it be refunded to the taxpayer, with interest at the rate provided by § 58.1-3918 or in the ordinance authorized by § 58.1-3916, or as otherwise authorized in that section.

If, in the opinion of the court, any property is valued for taxation at more than fair market value, the court may reduce the assessment to what in its opinion based on the evidence is the fair market value of the property involved. If, in the opinion of the court, the assessment be less than fair market value, the court shall order it increased to what in its opinion is the fair market value of the property involved and shall order that the applicant pay the proper taxes.

For the purpose of reducing or increasing the assessment and adjusting the taxes the court shall have all the powers and duties of the authority which made the assessment complained of, as of the time when such assessment was made, and all powers and duties conferred by law upon such authority between the time such assessment was made and the time such application is heard.

Code 1950, § 58-1148; 1975, c. 257; 1984, c. 675; 1999, c. 631.

§ 58.1-3988. Effect of order.

An order of exoneration under § 58.1-3987, when delivered to the tax-collecting officer, shall restrain him from collecting so much as is thus erroneously charged. If what was so erroneously charged has been paid, the order of the court shall compel the tax collecting officer, to refund to the applicant the amount specified in the order.

Code 1950, § 58-1150; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3989. Remedy applicable upon general reassessments; all changes to be certified to commissioners.

Sections 58.1-3984 through 58.1-3988, insofar as they apply to real estate, shall be construed to include assessments made at a general reassessment, and the remedy therein provided shall be available to any person assessed at such general reassessment although no taxes may have been extended on the basis of such assessment at the time the application is filed. Whenever a correction of a real estate assessment is ordered by a court, whether such assessment was made at a general reassessment or not, the clerk of the court shall certify to the proper commissioner of the revenue and treasurer the changes made by the court so that they may note such changes on the land assessment books.

Code 1950, § 58-1151; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3990. Refunds of local taxes erroneously paid.

The governing body of any city or county may provide by ordinance for the refund of any local taxes or classes of taxes erroneously paid. If such ordinance be passed, and the commissioner of the revenue is satisfied that he has erroneously assessed any applicant with any local taxes, he shall certify to the tax-collecting officer the amount erroneously assessed. If the taxes have not been paid, the applicant shall be exonerated from payment of so much thereof as is erroneous, and if such taxes have been paid, the tax-collecting officer or his successor in office shall refund to the applicant the amount erroneously paid, together with any penalties and interest paid thereon.

When the commissioner of the revenue who made the erroneous assessment has been succeeded by another person, such person shall have the same authority as the commissioner making the original erroneous assessment provided he makes diligent investigation to determine that the original assessment was erroneously made and certifies thereto to the local tax-collecting officer and to his local governing body.

No refund shall be made in any case when application therefor was made more than three years after the last day of the tax year for which such taxes were assessed; that however, if any tax is declared to be unconstitutional by a court of competent jurisdiction, the governing body may grant a refund of such tax hereunder to all taxpayers, for those years to which the court proceeding was applicable.

Code 1950, § 58-1152.1; 1958, c. 71; 1960, c. 547; 1974, c. 362; 1976, c. 690; 1977, c. 99; 1978, c. 789; 1979, c. 517; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3991. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1999, c. 631, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-3992. Appeal.

Any locality or taxpayer aggrieved by the action of a court of record under this article may appeal to the Supreme Court.

1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3993. No injunctions against assessment or collection of taxes.

No suit for the purpose of restraining the assessment or collection of any local tax shall be maintained in any court of this Commonwealth, except when the party has no adequate remedy at law.

Code 1950, § 58-1158; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-3994. Offers in compromise with respect to local taxes.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the commissioner of the revenue or other official responsible for the assessment of any local tax appealed pursuant to § 58.1-3703.1 or § 58.1-3983.1 may, in his sole discretion, compromise and settle any disputed assessment of taxes prior to the time that such assessment is no longer subject to administrative or judicial review pursuant to applicable law if the commissioner or other official responsible for assessment determines that there is substantial doubt under applicable law, regulations, or guidelines as to the taxpayer's liability for such taxes.

B. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the treasurer or other official responsible for the collection of any local tax imposed pursuant to this title may, with the consent of the governing body or its designee, compromise and settle the amount due and payable when the treasurer or other official determines that the collection of the entire amount due and owing is in substantial doubt and the best interests of the locality will be served by such compromise. Whenever a tax otherwise due and owing is compromised pursuant to the provisions of this subsection, the difference between the amount of tax then due and owing, and the amount of tax paid pursuant to such compromise, shall be treated for the purposes of § 58.1-3921 in the same fashion as a tax rendered legally uncollectible by reason of the application of the United States Bankruptcy Code.

C. Any offer in compromise submitted to an official responsible for the assessment or collection of local taxes shall be made in writing and shall be deemed accepted only when the taxpayer is notified in writing of the acceptance by the responsible official.

D. Whenever a compromise and settlement is made pursuant to the provisions of this section, the responsible official shall make a complete record of the case, including: (i) the tax assessed; (ii) audit findings, if any; (iii) the taxpayer's grounds for dispute or contest together with all evidences thereof; (iv) factors calling collectibility into substantial doubt; (v) any nonprivileged reports or recommendations made with respect to the liability of the taxpayer, the requirements of effective tax administration considered, and/or the collectibility of taxes due; and (vi) the amount assessed or accepted and the terms and conditions attendant to settlement or compromise, with respect to the liability in question.

E. The treasurer or other official charged with collection of taxes may deposit into the treasury of the county, city or town any and all payments submitted with offers in compromise, unless the taxpayer specifically, clearly and conspicuously directs otherwise in writing at the time the offer in compromise is submitted to the responsible official. For the purposes of this subsection, no restrictive endorsement or other notation upon a check or other payment instrument shall constitute clear and conspicuous notice of a direction not to deposit.

F. Upon acceptance of an offer in compromise by the responsible local official with respect to a tax liability, the matter thereafter may not be reopened except upon a showing of fraud, malfeasance or misrepresentation of a material fact.

2004, c. 526.

§ 58.1-3995. Effect of application for correction of assessment or appeal upon applications for local permits and licenses.

A. Except as otherwise provided in subsection B, no county, city or town shall deny to any person a permit or license to which such person otherwise is entitled solely on the grounds that such person has failed to pay taxes, penalties and interest due such locality, as applicable, when and to the extent that such taxes, penalties and interest are the subject of a pending, bona fide: (i) application for correction of an assessment of taxes pursuant to § 58.1-3980; (ii) appeal of a local license tax pursuant to § 58.1-3703.1; (iii) appeal by a political subdivision pursuant to § 58.1-3982 of a correction of assessment of local taxes; (iv) appeal of a local tax or local business tax pursuant to § 58.1-3983.1; (v) an application pursuant to § 58.1-3984 for correction of a local tax or local business tax as those terms are defined in § 58.1-3983.1; or (vi) an application for correction or equalization of an assessment with respect to real property pursuant to § 58.1-3350.

B. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require: (i) the issuance by a county, city or town of a local vehicle license that has been withheld pursuant to the provisions of § 46.2-752 or any subsection thereof; or (ii) the issuance by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles of a vehicle registration or renewal of registration with respect to a vehicle as to which registration has been withheld pursuant to the provisions of subsection J of § 46.2-752.

C. Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the ability of a locality to exercise powers granted under general law, including without limitation §§ 15.2-2286 and 58.1-3700, to deny a license or permit to a taxpayer who is delinquent in the payment of taxes, penalties, or interest and who does not have presently pending a bona fide application or appeal enumerated in subsection A with respect to such taxes, penalties, or interest.

2004, c. 902.