Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 9.1. Commonwealth Public Safety
Chapter 1. Department of Criminal Justice Services
9/24/2021

Chapter 1. Department of Criminal Justice Services.

Article 1. General Provisions.

§ 9.1-100. Department of Criminal Justice Services.

A. There is created a Department of Criminal Justice Services (the "Department") that shall be headed by a Director appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly. The Director shall serve at the pleasure of the Governor.

B. The Director of the Department shall, under the direction and control of the Governor, exercise the powers and perform the duties conferred or imposed upon him by law and perform such other duties required by the Governor or the Criminal Justice Services Board.

1981, c. 632, §§ 9-174, 9-175, 9-176; 1984, c. 720; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-101. (For contingent expiration date, see Acts 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 524 and 542) Definitions.

As used in this chapter or in Chapter 23 (§ 19.2-387 et seq.) of Title 19.2, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Administration of criminal justice" means performance of any activity directly involving the detection, apprehension, detention, pretrial release, post-trial release, prosecution, adjudication, correctional supervision, or rehabilitation of accused persons or criminal offenders or the collection, storage, and dissemination of criminal history record information.

"Board" means the Criminal Justice Services Board.

"Conviction data" means information in the custody of any criminal justice agency relating to a judgment of conviction, and the consequences arising therefrom, in any court.

"Correctional status information" means records and data concerning each condition of a convicted person's custodial status, including probation, confinement, work release, study release, escape, or termination of custody through expiration of sentence, parole, pardon, or court decision.

"Criminal history record information" means records and data collected by criminal justice agencies on adult individuals consisting of identifiable descriptions and notations of arrests, detentions, indictments, informations, or other formal charges, and any disposition arising therefrom. The term shall not include juvenile record information which is controlled by Chapter 11 (§ 16.1-226 et seq.) of Title 16.1, criminal justice intelligence information, criminal justice investigative information, or correctional status information.

"Criminal justice agency" means (i) a court or any other governmental agency or subunit thereof which as its principal function performs the administration of criminal justice and any other agency or subunit thereof which performs criminal justice activities, but only to the extent that it does so; (ii) for the purposes of Chapter 23 (§ 19.2-387 et seq.) of Title 19.2, any private corporation or agency which, within the context of its criminal justice activities, employs special conservators of the peace appointed under Chapter 2 (§ 19.2-12 et seq.) of Title 19.2, provided that (a) such private corporation or agency requires its officers or special conservators to meet compulsory training standards established by the Criminal Justice Services Board and submits reports of compliance with the training standards and (b) the private corporation or agency complies with the provisions of Article 3 (§ 9.1-126 et seq.), but only to the extent that the private corporation or agency so designated as a criminal justice agency performs criminal justice activities; and (iii) the Office of the Attorney General, for all criminal justice activities otherwise permitted under clause (i) and for the purpose of performing duties required by the Civil Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators Act (§ 37.2-900 et seq.).

"Criminal justice agency" includes any program certified by the Commission on VASAP pursuant to § 18.2-271.2.

"Criminal justice agency" includes the Department of Criminal Justice Services.

"Criminal justice agency" includes the Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission.

"Criminal justice agency" includes the Virginia State Crime Commission.

"Criminal justice information system" means a system including the equipment, facilities, procedures, agreements, and organizations thereof, for the collection, processing, preservation, or dissemination of criminal history record information. The operations of the system may be performed manually or by using electronic computers or other automated data processing equipment.

"Department" means the Department of Criminal Justice Services.

"Dissemination" means any transfer of information, whether orally, in writing, or by electronic means. The term shall not include access to the information by officers or employees of a criminal justice agency maintaining the information who have both a need and right to know the information.

"Law-enforcement officer" means any full-time or part-time employee of a police department or sheriff's office which is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof, or any full-time or part-time employee of a private police department, and who is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of the penal, traffic or highway laws of the Commonwealth, and shall include any (i) special agent of the Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority; (ii) police agent appointed under the provisions of § 56-353; (iii) officer of the Virginia Marine Police; (iv) conservation police officer who is a full-time sworn member of the enforcement division of the Department of Wildlife Resources; (v) investigator who is a sworn member of the security division of the Virginia Lottery; (vi) conservation officer of the Department of Conservation and Recreation commissioned pursuant to § 10.1-115; (vii) full-time sworn member of the enforcement division of the Department of Motor Vehicles appointed pursuant to § 46.2-217; (viii) animal protection police officer employed under § 15.2-632 or 15.2-836.1; (ix) campus police officer appointed under Article 3 (§ 23.1-809 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of Title 23.1; (x) member of the investigations unit designated by the State Inspector General pursuant to § 2.2-311 to investigate allegations of criminal behavior affecting the operations of a state or nonstate agency; (xi) employee with internal investigations authority designated by the Department of Corrections pursuant to subdivision 11 of § 53.1-10 or by the Department of Juvenile Justice pursuant to subdivision A 7 of § 66-3; or (xii) private police officer employed by a private police department. Part-time employees are those compensated officers who are not full-time employees as defined by the employing police department, sheriff's office, or private police department.

"Private police department" means any police department, other than a department that employs police agents under the provisions of § 56-353, that employs private police officers operated by an entity authorized by statute or an act of assembly to establish a private police department or such entity's successor in interest, provided it complies with the requirements set forth herein. No entity is authorized to operate a private police department or represent that it is a private police department unless such entity has been authorized by statute or an act of assembly or such entity is the successor in interest of an entity that has been authorized pursuant to this section, provided it complies with the requirements set forth herein. The authority of a private police department shall be limited to real property owned, leased, or controlled by the entity and, if approved by the local chief of police or sheriff, any contiguous property; such authority shall not supersede the authority, duties, or jurisdiction vested by law with the local police department or sheriff's office including as provided in §§ 15.2-1609 and 15.2-1704. The chief of police or sheriff who is the chief local law-enforcement officer shall enter into a memorandum of understanding with the private police department that addresses the duties and responsibilities of the private police department and the chief law-enforcement officer in the conduct of criminal investigations. Private police departments and private police officers shall be subject to and comply with the Constitution of the United States; the Constitution of Virginia; the laws governing municipal police departments, including the provisions of §§ 9.1-600, 15.2-1705 through 15.2-1708, 15.2-1719, 15.2-1721, 15.2-1721.1, and 15.2-1722; and any regulations adopted by the Board that the Department designates as applicable to private police departments. Any person employed as a private police officer pursuant to this section shall meet all requirements, including the minimum compulsory training requirements, for law-enforcement officers pursuant to this chapter. A private police officer is not entitled to benefits under the Line of Duty Act (§ 9.1-400 et seq.) or under the Virginia Retirement System, is not a "qualified law enforcement officer" or "qualified retired law enforcement officer" within the meaning of the federal Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act, 18 U.S.C. § 926B et seq., and shall not be deemed an employee of the Commonwealth or any locality. An authorized private police department may use the word "police" to describe its sworn officers and may join a regional criminal justice academy created pursuant to Article 5 (§ 15.2-1747 et seq.) of Chapter 17 of Title 15.2. Any private police department in existence on January 1, 2013, that was not otherwise established by statute or an act of assembly and whose status as a private police department was recognized by the Department at that time is hereby validated and may continue to operate as a private police department as may such entity's successor in interest, provided it complies with the requirements set forth herein.

"School resource officer" means a certified law-enforcement officer hired by the local law-enforcement agency to provide law-enforcement and security services to Virginia public elementary and secondary schools.

"School security officer" means an individual who is employed by the local school board or a private or religious school for the singular purpose of maintaining order and discipline, preventing crime, investigating violations of the policies of the school board or the private or religious school, and detaining students violating the law or the policies of the school board or the private or religious school on school property, school buses, or at school-sponsored events and who is responsible solely for ensuring the safety, security, and welfare of all students, faculty, staff, and visitors in the assigned school.

"Unapplied criminal history record information" means information pertaining to criminal offenses submitted to the Central Criminal Records Exchange that cannot be applied to the criminal history record of an arrested or convicted person (i) because such information is not supported by fingerprints or other accepted means of positive identification or (ii) due to an inconsistency, error, or omission within the content of the submitted information.

1981, c. 632, § 9-169; 1982, c. 419; 1983, c. 357; 1984, c. 543; 1989, c. 233; 1991, c. 338; 1992, cc. 422, 569; 1993, cc. 533, 622, 866; 2000, c. 426; 2001, c. 844; 2002, cc. 789, 836, 868; 2003, cc. 744, 934, 937; 2004, c. 30; 2005, c. 914; 2007, c. 87; 2008, c. 460; 2010, c. 621; 2012, c. 776; 2014, cc. 225, 342, 543; 2015, cc. 38, 195, 224, 730; 2016, cc. 498, 618; 2018, c. 548; 2019, cc. 120, 475, 782, 783; 2020, cc. 90, 958; 2020, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 37, 55.

§ 9.1-101. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 524 and 542) Definitions.

As used in this chapter or in Chapter 23 (§ 19.2-387 et seq.) of Title 19.2, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Administration of criminal justice" means performance of any activity directly involving the detection, apprehension, detention, pretrial release, post-trial release, prosecution, adjudication, correctional supervision, or rehabilitation of accused persons or criminal offenders or the collection, storage, and dissemination of criminal history record information.

"Board" means the Criminal Justice Services Board.

"Conviction data" means information in the custody of any criminal justice agency relating to a judgment of conviction, and the consequences arising therefrom, in any court.

"Correctional status information" means records and data concerning each condition of a convicted person's custodial status, including probation, confinement, work release, study release, escape, or termination of custody through expiration of sentence, parole, pardon, or court decision.

"Criminal history record information" means records and data collected by criminal justice agencies on adult individuals consisting of identifiable descriptions and notations of arrests, detentions, indictments, informations, or other formal charges, and any disposition arising therefrom. The term shall not include juvenile record information which is controlled by Chapter 11 (§ 16.1-226 et seq.) of Title 16.1, criminal justice intelligence information, criminal justice investigative information, or correctional status information.

"Criminal justice agency" means (i) a court or any other governmental agency or subunit thereof which as its principal function performs the administration of criminal justice and any other agency or subunit thereof which performs criminal justice activities, but only to the extent that it does so; (ii) for the purposes of Chapter 23 (§ 19.2-387 et seq.) of Title 19.2, any private corporation or agency which, within the context of its criminal justice activities, employs special conservators of the peace appointed under Chapter 2 (§ 19.2-12 et seq.) of Title 19.2, provided that (a) such private corporation or agency requires its officers or special conservators to meet compulsory training standards established by the Criminal Justice Services Board and submits reports of compliance with the training standards and (b) the private corporation or agency complies with the provisions of Article 3 (§ 9.1-126 et seq.), but only to the extent that the private corporation or agency so designated as a criminal justice agency performs criminal justice activities; and (iii) the Office of the Attorney General, for all criminal justice activities otherwise permitted under clause (i) and for the purpose of performing duties required by the Civil Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators Act (§ 37.2-900 et seq.).

"Criminal justice agency" includes any program certified by the Commission on VASAP pursuant to § 18.2-271.2.

"Criminal justice agency" includes the Department of Criminal Justice Services.

"Criminal justice agency" includes the Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission.

"Criminal justice agency" includes the Virginia State Crime Commission.

"Criminal justice information system" means a system including the equipment, facilities, procedures, agreements, and organizations thereof, for the collection, processing, preservation, or dissemination of criminal history record information. The operations of the system may be performed manually or by using electronic computers or other automated data processing equipment.

"Department" means the Department of Criminal Justice Services.

"Dissemination" means any transfer of information, whether orally, in writing, or by electronic means. The term shall not include access to the information by officers or employees of a criminal justice agency maintaining the information who have both a need and right to know the information.

"Law-enforcement officer" means any full-time or part-time employee of a police department or sheriff's office which is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof, or any full-time or part-time employee of a private police department, and who is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of the penal, traffic or highway laws of the Commonwealth, and shall include any (i) special agent of the Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority; (ii) police agent appointed under the provisions of § 56-353; (iii) officer of the Virginia Marine Police; (iv) conservation police officer who is a full-time sworn member of the enforcement division of the Department of Wildlife Resources; (v) investigator who is a sworn member of the security division of the Virginia Lottery; (vi) conservation officer of the Department of Conservation and Recreation commissioned pursuant to § 10.1-115; (vii) full-time sworn member of the enforcement division of the Department of Motor Vehicles appointed pursuant to § 46.2-217; (viii) animal protection police officer employed under § 15.2-632 or 15.2-836.1; (ix) campus police officer appointed under Article 3 (§ 23.1-809 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of Title 23.1; (x) member of the investigations unit designated by the State Inspector General pursuant to § 2.2-311 to investigate allegations of criminal behavior affecting the operations of a state or nonstate agency; (xi) employee with internal investigations authority designated by the Department of Corrections pursuant to subdivision 11 of § 53.1-10 or by the Department of Juvenile Justice pursuant to subdivision A 7 of § 66-3; or (xii) private police officer employed by a private police department. Part-time employees are those compensated officers who are not full-time employees as defined by the employing police department, sheriff's office, or private police department.

"Private police department" means any police department, other than a department that employs police agents under the provisions of § 56-353, that employs private police officers operated by an entity authorized by statute or an act of assembly to establish a private police department or such entity's successor in interest, provided it complies with the requirements set forth herein. No entity is authorized to operate a private police department or represent that it is a private police department unless such entity has been authorized by statute or an act of assembly or such entity is the successor in interest of an entity that has been authorized pursuant to this section, provided it complies with the requirements set forth herein. The authority of a private police department shall be limited to real property owned, leased, or controlled by the entity and, if approved by the local chief of police or sheriff, any contiguous property; such authority shall not supersede the authority, duties, or jurisdiction vested by law with the local police department or sheriff's office including as provided in §§ 15.2-1609 and 15.2-1704. The chief of police or sheriff who is the chief local law-enforcement officer shall enter into a memorandum of understanding with the private police department that addresses the duties and responsibilities of the private police department and the chief law-enforcement officer in the conduct of criminal investigations. Private police departments and private police officers shall be subject to and comply with the Constitution of the United States; the Constitution of Virginia; the laws governing municipal police departments, including the provisions of §§ 9.1-600, 15.2-1705 through 15.2-1708, 15.2-1719, 15.2-1721, 15.2-1721.1, and 15.2-1722; and any regulations adopted by the Board that the Department designates as applicable to private police departments. Any person employed as a private police officer pursuant to this section shall meet all requirements, including the minimum compulsory training requirements, for law-enforcement officers pursuant to this chapter. A private police officer is not entitled to benefits under the Line of Duty Act (§ 9.1-400 et seq.) or under the Virginia Retirement System, is not a "qualified law enforcement officer" or "qualified retired law enforcement officer" within the meaning of the federal Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act, 18 U.S.C. § 926B et seq., and shall not be deemed an employee of the Commonwealth or any locality. An authorized private police department may use the word "police" to describe its sworn officers and may join a regional criminal justice academy created pursuant to Article 5 (§ 15.2-1747 et seq.) of Chapter 17 of Title 15.2. Any private police department in existence on January 1, 2013, that was not otherwise established by statute or an act of assembly and whose status as a private police department was recognized by the Department at that time is hereby validated and may continue to operate as a private police department as may such entity's successor in interest, provided it complies with the requirements set forth herein.

"School resource officer" means a certified law-enforcement officer hired by the local law-enforcement agency to provide law-enforcement and security services to Virginia public elementary and secondary schools.

"School security officer" means an individual who is employed by the local school board or a private or religious school for the singular purpose of maintaining order and discipline, preventing crime, investigating violations of the policies of the school board or the private or religious school, and detaining students violating the law or the policies of the school board or the private or religious school on school property, school buses, or at school-sponsored events and who is responsible solely for ensuring the safety, security, and welfare of all students, faculty, staff, and visitors in the assigned school.

"Sealing" means (i) restricting dissemination of criminal history record information contained in the Central Criminal Records Exchange, including any records relating to an arrest, charge, or conviction, in accordance with the purposes set forth in § 19.2-392.13 and pursuant to the rules and regulations adopted pursuant to § 9.1-128 and the procedures adopted pursuant to § 9.1-134 and (ii) prohibiting dissemination of court records related to an arrest, charge, or conviction, unless such dissemination is authorized by a court order for one or more of the purposes set forth in § 19.2-392.13.

"Unapplied criminal history record information" means information pertaining to criminal offenses submitted to the Central Criminal Records Exchange that cannot be applied to the criminal history record of an arrested or convicted person (i) because such information is not supported by fingerprints or other accepted means of positive identification or (ii) due to an inconsistency, error, or omission within the content of the submitted information.

1981, c. 632, § 9-169; 1982, c. 419; 1983, c. 357; 1984, c. 543; 1989, c. 233; 1991, c. 338; 1992, cc. 422, 569; 1993, cc. 533, 622, 866; 2000, c. 426; 2001, c. 844; 2002, cc. 789, 836, 868; 2003, cc. 744, 934, 937; 2004, c. 30; 2005, c. 914; 2007, c. 87; 2008, c. 460; 2010, c. 621; 2012, c. 776; 2014, cc. 225, 342, 543; 2015, cc. 38, 195, 224, 730; 2016, cc. 498, 618; 2018, c. 548; 2019, cc. 120, 475, 782, 783; 2020, cc. 90, 958; 2020, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 37, 55; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 524, 542.

§ 9.1-101.1. Certified mail; subsequent mail or notices may be sent by regular mail.

Whenever in this chapter the Board or the Department is required to send any mail or notice by certified mail and such mail or notice is sent certified mail, return receipt requested, then any subsequent, identical mail or notice that is sent by the Board or the Department may be sent by regular mail.

2011, c. 566.

§ 9.1-102. Powers and duties of the Board and the Department.

The Department, under the direction of the Board, which shall be the policy-making body for carrying out the duties and powers hereunder, shall have the power and duty to:

1. Adopt regulations, pursuant to the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.), for the administration of this chapter including the authority to require the submission of reports and information by law-enforcement officers within the Commonwealth. Any proposed regulations concerning the privacy, confidentiality, and security of criminal justice information shall be submitted for review and comment to any board, commission, or committee or other body which may be established by the General Assembly to regulate the privacy, confidentiality, and security of information collected and maintained by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof;

2. Establish compulsory minimum training standards subsequent to employment as a law-enforcement officer in (i) permanent positions and (ii) temporary or probationary status and establish the time required for completion of such training. Such compulsory minimum training standards shall include crisis intervention training in accordance with clause (i) of § 9.1-188;

3. Establish minimum training standards and qualifications for certification and recertification for law-enforcement officers serving as field training officers;

4. Establish compulsory minimum curriculum requirements for in-service and advanced courses and programs for schools, whether located in or outside the Commonwealth, which are operated for the specific purpose of training law-enforcement officers;

5. Establish (i) compulsory minimum training standards for law-enforcement officers who utilize radar or an electrical or microcomputer device to measure the speed of motor vehicles as provided in § 46.2-882 and establish the time required for completion of the training and (ii) compulsory minimum qualifications for certification and recertification of instructors who provide such training;

6. [Repealed];

7. Establish compulsory minimum entry-level, in-service and advanced training standards for those persons designated to provide courthouse and courtroom security pursuant to the provisions of § 53.1-120, and to establish the time required for completion of such training;

8. Establish compulsory minimum entry-level, in-service and advanced training standards for deputy sheriffs designated to serve process pursuant to the provisions of § 8.01-293, and establish the time required for the completion of such training;

9. Establish compulsory minimum entry-level, in-service, and advanced training standards, as well as the time required for completion of such training, for persons employed as deputy sheriffs and jail officers by local criminal justice agencies and correctional officers employed by the Department of Corrections under the provisions of Title 53.1. For correctional officers employed by the Department of Corrections, such standards shall include training on the general care of pregnant women, the impact of restraints on pregnant inmates and fetuses, the impact of being placed in restrictive housing or solitary confinement on pregnant inmates, and the impact of body cavity searches on pregnant inmates;

10. Establish compulsory minimum training standards for all dispatchers employed by or in any local or state government agency, whose duties include the dispatching of law-enforcement personnel. Such training standards shall apply only to dispatchers hired on or after July 1, 1988;

11. Establish compulsory minimum training standards for all auxiliary police officers employed by or in any local or state government agency. Such training shall be graduated and based on the type of duties to be performed by the auxiliary police officers. Such training standards shall not apply to auxiliary police officers exempt pursuant to § 15.2-1731;

12. Consult and cooperate with counties, municipalities, agencies of the Commonwealth, other state and federal governmental agencies, and institutions of higher education within or outside the Commonwealth, concerning the development of police training schools and programs or courses of instruction;

13. Approve institutions, curricula and facilities, whether located in or outside the Commonwealth, for school operation for the specific purpose of training law-enforcement officers; but this shall not prevent the holding of any such school whether approved or not;

14. Establish and maintain police training programs through such agencies and institutions as the Board deems appropriate;

15. Establish compulsory minimum qualifications of certification and recertification for instructors in criminal justice training academies approved by the Department;

16. Conduct and stimulate research by public and private agencies which shall be designed to improve police administration and law enforcement;

17. Make recommendations concerning any matter within its purview pursuant to this chapter;

18. Coordinate its activities with those of any interstate system for the exchange of criminal history record information, nominate one or more of its members to serve upon the council or committee of any such system, and participate when and as deemed appropriate in any such system's activities and programs;

19. Conduct inquiries and investigations it deems appropriate to carry out its functions under this chapter and, in conducting such inquiries and investigations, may require any criminal justice agency to submit information, reports, and statistical data with respect to its policy and operation of information systems or with respect to its collection, storage, dissemination, and usage of criminal history record information and correctional status information, and such criminal justice agencies shall submit such information, reports, and data as are reasonably required;

20. Conduct audits as required by § 9.1-131;

21. Conduct a continuing study and review of questions of individual privacy and confidentiality of criminal history record information and correctional status information;

22. Advise criminal justice agencies and initiate educational programs for such agencies with respect to matters of privacy, confidentiality, and security as they pertain to criminal history record information and correctional status information;

23. Maintain a liaison with any board, commission, committee, or other body which may be established by law, executive order, or resolution to regulate the privacy and security of information collected by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof;

24. Adopt regulations establishing guidelines and standards for the collection, storage, and dissemination of criminal history record information and correctional status information, and the privacy, confidentiality, and security thereof necessary to implement state and federal statutes, regulations, and court orders;

25. Operate a statewide criminal justice research center, which shall maintain an integrated criminal justice information system, produce reports, provide technical assistance to state and local criminal justice data system users, and provide analysis and interpretation of criminal justice statistical information;

26. Develop a comprehensive, statewide, long-range plan for strengthening and improving law enforcement and the administration of criminal justice throughout the Commonwealth, and periodically update that plan;

27. Cooperate with, and advise and assist, all agencies, departments, boards and institutions of the Commonwealth, and units of general local government, or combinations thereof, including planning district commissions, in planning, developing, and administering programs, projects, comprehensive plans, and other activities for improving law enforcement and the administration of criminal justice throughout the Commonwealth, including allocating and subgranting funds for these purposes;

28. Define, develop, organize, encourage, conduct, coordinate, and administer programs, projects and activities for the Commonwealth and units of general local government, or combinations thereof, in the Commonwealth, designed to strengthen and improve law enforcement and the administration of criminal justice at every level throughout the Commonwealth;

29. Review and evaluate programs, projects, and activities, and recommend, where necessary, revisions or alterations to such programs, projects, and activities for the purpose of improving law enforcement and the administration of criminal justice;

30. Coordinate the activities and projects of the state departments, agencies, and boards of the Commonwealth and of the units of general local government, or combination thereof, including planning district commissions, relating to the preparation, adoption, administration, and implementation of comprehensive plans to strengthen and improve law enforcement and the administration of criminal justice;

31. Do all things necessary on behalf of the Commonwealth and its units of general local government, to determine and secure benefits available under the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-351, 82 Stat. 197), as amended, and under any other federal acts and programs for strengthening and improving law enforcement, the administration of criminal justice, and delinquency prevention and control;

32. Receive, administer, and expend all funds and other assistance available to the Board and the Department for carrying out the purposes of this chapter and the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, as amended;

33. Apply for and accept grants from the United States government or any other source in carrying out the purposes of this chapter and accept any and all donations both real and personal, and grants of money from any governmental unit or public agency, or from any institution, person, firm or corporation, and may receive, utilize and dispose of the same. Any arrangements pursuant to this section shall be detailed in the annual report of the Board. Such report shall include the identity of the donor, the nature of the transaction, and the conditions, if any. Any moneys received pursuant to this section shall be deposited in the state treasury to the account of the Department. To these ends, the Board shall have the power to comply with conditions and execute such agreements as may be necessary;

34. Make and enter into all contracts and agreements necessary or incidental to the performance of its duties and execution of its powers under this chapter, including but not limited to, contracts with the United States, units of general local government or combinations thereof, in Virginia or other states, and with agencies and departments of the Commonwealth;

35. Adopt and administer reasonable regulations for the planning and implementation of programs and activities and for the allocation, expenditure and subgranting of funds available to the Commonwealth and to units of general local government, and for carrying out the purposes of this chapter and the powers and duties set forth herein;

36. Certify and decertify law-enforcement officers in accordance with §§ 15.2-1706 and 15.2-1707;

37. Establish training standards and publish and periodically update model policies for law-enforcement personnel in the following subjects:

a. The handling of family abuse, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking cases, including standards for determining the predominant physical aggressor in accordance with § 19.2-81.3. The Department shall provide technical support and assistance to law-enforcement agencies in carrying out the requirements set forth in subsection A of § 9.1-1301;

b. Communication with and facilitation of the safe return of individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease;

c. Sensitivity to and awareness of systemic and individual racism, cultural diversity, and the potential for racially biased policing and bias-based profiling as defined in § 52-30.1, which shall include recognizing implicit biases in interacting with persons who have a mental illness, substance use disorder, or developmental or cognitive disability;

d. Protocols for local and regional sexual assault response teams;

e. Communication of death notifications;

f. The questioning of individuals suspected of driving while intoxicated concerning the physical location of such individual's last consumption of an alcoholic beverage and the communication of such information to the Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority;

g. Vehicle patrol duties that embody current best practices for pursuits and for responding to emergency calls;

h. Criminal investigations that embody current best practices for conducting photographic and live lineups;

i. Sensitivity to and awareness of human trafficking offenses and the identification of victims of human trafficking offenses for personnel involved in criminal investigations or assigned to vehicle or street patrol duties;

j. Missing children, missing adults, and search and rescue protocol; and

k. The handling and use of tear gas or other gases and kinetic impact munitions, as defined in § 19.2-83.3, that embody current best practices for using such items as a crowd control measure or during an arrest or detention of another person;

38. Establish compulsory training standards for basic training and the recertification of law-enforcement officers to ensure (i) sensitivity to and awareness of systemic and individual racism, cultural diversity, and the potential for racially biased policing and bias-based profiling as defined in § 52-30.1, which shall include recognizing implicit biases in interacting with persons who have a mental illness, substance use disorder, or developmental or cognitive disability; (ii) training in de-escalation techniques; and (iii) training in the lawful use of force, including the use of deadly force, as defined in § 19.2-83.3, only when necessary to protect the law-enforcement officer or another person;

39. Review and evaluate community-policing programs in the Commonwealth, and recommend where necessary statewide operating procedures, guidelines, and standards that strengthen and improve such programs, including sensitivity to and awareness of systemic and individual racism, cultural diversity, and the potential for racially biased policing and bias-based profiling as defined in § 52-30.1, which shall include recognizing implicit biases in interacting with persons who have a mental illness, substance use disorder, or developmental or cognitive disability;

40. Establish a Virginia Law-Enforcement Accreditation Center. The Center may, in cooperation with Virginia law-enforcement agencies, provide technical assistance and administrative support, including staffing, for the establishment of voluntary state law-enforcement accreditation standards. The Center may provide accreditation assistance and training, resource material, and research into methods and procedures that will assist the Virginia law-enforcement community efforts to obtain Virginia accreditation status;

41. Promote community policing philosophy and practice throughout the Commonwealth by providing community policing training and technical assistance statewide to all law-enforcement agencies, community groups, public and private organizations and citizens; developing and distributing innovative policing curricula and training tools on general community policing philosophy and practice and contemporary critical issues facing Virginia communities; serving as a consultant to Virginia organizations with specific community policing needs; facilitating continued development and implementation of community policing programs statewide through discussion forums for community policing leaders, development of law-enforcement instructors; promoting a statewide community policing initiative; and serving as a statewide information source on the subject of community policing including, but not limited to periodic newsletters, a website and an accessible lending library;

42. Establish, in consultation with the Department of Education and the Virginia State Crime Commission, compulsory minimum standards for employment and job-entry and in-service training curricula and certification requirements for school security officers, including school security officers described in clause (b) of § 22.1-280.2:1, which training and certification shall be administered by the Virginia Center for School and Campus Safety (VCSCS) pursuant to § 9.1-184. Such training standards shall be specific to the role and responsibility of school security officers and shall include (i) relevant state and federal laws; (ii) school and personal liability issues; (iii) security awareness in the school environment; (iv) mediation and conflict resolution, including de-escalation techniques such as a physical alternative to restraint; (v) disaster and emergency response; (vi) awareness of systemic and individual racism, cultural diversity, and implicit bias; (vii) working with students with disabilities, mental health needs, substance use disorders, and past traumatic experiences; and (viii) student behavioral dynamics, including child and adolescent development and brain research. The Department shall establish an advisory committee consisting of local school board representatives, principals, superintendents, and school security personnel to assist in the development of the standards and certification requirements in this subdivision. The Department shall require any school security officer who carries a firearm in the performance of his duties to provide proof that he has completed a training course provided by a federal, state, or local law-enforcement agency that includes training in active shooter emergency response, emergency evacuation procedure, and threat assessment;

43. License and regulate property bail bondsmen and surety bail bondsmen in accordance with Article 11 (§ 9.1-185 et seq.);

44. License and regulate bail enforcement agents in accordance with Article 12 (§ 9.1-186 et seq.);

45. In conjunction with the Virginia State Police and the State Compensation Board, advise criminal justice agencies regarding the investigation, registration, and dissemination of information requirements as they pertain to the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry Act (§ 9.1-900 et seq.);

46. Establish minimum standards for (i) employment, (ii) job-entry and in-service training curricula, and (iii) certification requirements for campus security officers. Such training standards shall include, but not be limited to, the role and responsibility of campus security officers, relevant state and federal laws, school and personal liability issues, security awareness in the campus environment, and disaster and emergency response. The Department shall provide technical support and assistance to campus police departments and campus security departments on the establishment and implementation of policies and procedures, including but not limited to: the management of such departments, investigatory procedures, judicial referrals, the establishment and management of databases for campus safety and security information sharing, and development of uniform record keeping for disciplinary records and statistics, such as campus crime logs, judicial referrals and Clery Act statistics. The Department shall establish an advisory committee consisting of college administrators, college police chiefs, college security department chiefs, and local law-enforcement officials to assist in the development of the standards and certification requirements and training pursuant to this subdivision;

47. Assess and report, in accordance with § 9.1-190, the crisis intervention team programs established pursuant to § 9.1-187;

48. In conjunction with the Office of the Attorney General, advise law-enforcement agencies and attorneys for the Commonwealth regarding the identification, investigation, and prosecution of human trafficking offenses using the common law and existing criminal statutes in the Code of Virginia;

49. Register tow truck drivers in accordance with § 46.2-116 and carry out the provisions of § 46.2-117;

50. Administer the activities of the Virginia Sexual and Domestic Violence Program Professional Standards Committee by providing technical assistance and administrative support, including staffing, for the Committee;

51. In accordance with § 9.1-102.1, design and approve the issuance of photo-identification cards to private security services registrants registered pursuant to Article 4 (§ 9.1-138 et seq.);

52. In consultation with the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia and the Virginia Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators, develop multidisciplinary curricula on trauma-informed sexual assault investigation;

53. In consultation with the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, develop a model addiction recovery program that may be administered by sheriffs, deputy sheriffs, jail officers, administrators, or superintendents in any local or regional jail. Such program shall be based on any existing addiction recovery programs that are being administered by any local or regional jails in the Commonwealth. Participation in the model addiction recovery program shall be voluntary, and such program may address aspects of the recovery process, including medical and clinical recovery, peer-to-peer support, availability of mental health resources, family dynamics, and aftercare aspects of the recovery process;

54. Establish compulsory minimum training standards for certification and recertification of law-enforcement officers serving as school resource officers. Such training shall be specific to the role and responsibility of a law-enforcement officer working with students in a school environment and shall include (i) relevant state and federal laws; (ii) school and personal liability issues; (iii) security awareness in the school environment; (iv) mediation and conflict resolution, including de-escalation techniques; (v) disaster and emergency response; (vi) awareness of systemic and individual racism, cultural diversity, and implicit bias; (vii) working with students with disabilities, mental health needs, substance use disorders, or past traumatic experiences; and (viii) student behavioral dynamics, including current child and adolescent development and brain research;

55. Establish a model policy for the operation of body-worn camera systems as defined in § 15.2-1723.1 that also addresses the storage and maintenance of body-worn camera system records;

56. Establish compulsory minimum training standards for detector canine handlers employed by the Department of Corrections, standards for the training and retention of detector canines used by the Department of Corrections, and a central database on the performance and effectiveness of such detector canines that requires the Department of Corrections to submit comprehensive information on each canine handler and detector canine, including the number and types of calls and searches, substances searched for and whether or not detected, and the number of false positives, false negatives, true positives, and true negatives;

57. Establish compulsory training standards for basic training of law-enforcement officers for recognizing and managing stress, self-care techniques, and resiliency;

58. Establish guidelines and standards for psychological examinations conducted pursuant to subsection C of § 15.2-1705;

59. Establish compulsory in-service training standards, to include frequency of retraining, for law-enforcement officers in the following subjects: (i) relevant state and federal laws; (ii) awareness of cultural diversity and the potential for bias-based profiling as defined in § 52-30.1; (iii) de-escalation techniques; (iv) working with individuals with disabilities, mental health needs, or substance use disorders; and (v) the lawful use of force, including the use of deadly force, as defined in § 19.2-83.3, only when necessary to protect the law-enforcement officer or another person;

60. Develop a uniform curriculum and lesson plans for the compulsory minimum entry-level, in-service, and advanced training standards to be employed by criminal justice training academies approved by the Department when conducting training;

61. Adopt statewide professional standards of conduct applicable to all certified law-enforcement officers and certified jail officers and appropriate due process procedures for decertification based on serious misconduct in violation of those standards;

62. Establish and administer a waiver process, in accordance with §§ 2.2-5515 and 15.2-1721.1, for law-enforcement agencies to use certain military property. Any waivers granted by the Criminal Justice Services Board shall be published by the Department on the Department's website;

63. Establish compulsory training standards for basic training and the recertification of law-enforcement officers to include crisis intervention training in accordance with clause (ii) of § 9.1-188;

64. Advise and assist the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, and support local law-enforcement cooperation, with the development and implementation of the Marcus alert system, as defined in § 37.2-311.1, including the establishment of local protocols for law-enforcement participation in the Marcus alert system pursuant to § 9.1-193 and for reporting requirements pursuant to §§ 9.1-193 and 37.2-311.1; and

65. Perform such other acts as may be necessary or convenient for the effective performance of its duties.

1981, c. 632, § 9-170; 1982, c. 473; 1984, cc. 515; 779; 1986, c. 128; 1988, cc. 46, 560; 1990, c. 632; 1991, c. 345; 1994, cc. 850, 905; 1996, cc. 154, 866, 952; 1998, cc. 31, 471, 523; 1999, cc. 307, 495; 2000, c. 561; 2001, cc. 162, 210, 434, 458, 844; 2002, cc. 490, 810, 818, 836, 868; 2004, cc. 397, 460, 972, 980, 1016; 2005, cc. 868, 881; 2006, cc. 203, 233, 857, 914; 2008, cc. 328, 600, 771; 2009, c. 715; 2010, c. 224; 2011, cc. 579, 635, 719, 821, 854; 2012, cc. 140, 159, 803, 827, 835; 2014, cc. 7, 158, 265; 2015, cc. 38, 205, 222, 223, 278, 402, 730; 2016, cc. 197, 235, 256, 481, 560; 2017, cc. 311, 758; 2019, cc. 366, 487, 488, 493; 2020, cc. 123, 184, 526, 535, 638, 1206, 1262; 2020, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 27, 32, 36, 37, 41, 42, 48, 55; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 467.

§ 9.1-102.1. Photo-identification cards.

A. The Department shall issue a photo-identification card to a private security registrant at the time of the approval of such individual's initial registration and upon renewal. Upon submission of a written statement by an individual to the Department that the individual's photo-identification card is lost, stolen, or destroyed, the Department shall reissue a photo-identification card to the individual.

B. A photo-identification card shall contain the name of the individual, the individual's registration number, the individual's registration category, and a photograph of the individual; the date of issuance; the date of expiration; the name of the issuer, "Department of Criminal Justice Services, Commonwealth of Virginia"; and any other information approved by the Department pursuant to subdivision 51 of § 9.1-102.

C. For each photo-identification card issued or reissued to an individual pursuant to this section, the Department shall charge the individual a fee in an amount equal to the fee charged by the Department of Motor Vehicles for the issuance of a special identification card set forth in §§ 46.2-333.1 and 46.2-345. In addition to such fee, the Department shall charge the individual a $4 processing fee for any photo-identification card issued or reissued on or after July 1, 2017, but before July 1, 2018.

D. The Department may enter into an agreement with the Department of Motor Vehicles to create, design, and produce photo-identification cards issued by the Department pursuant to this section and shall submit the information necessary to create and produce photo-identification cards in electronic form to the Department of Motor Vehicles in a format prescribed by the Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles. For each photo-identification card produced by the Department of Motor Vehicles, the Department of Motor Vehicles shall charge the Department an amount equal to the fee charged by the Department of Motor Vehicles for the issuance of a special identification card set forth in §§ 46.2-333.1 and 46.2-345. In addition to such fee, the Department of Motor Vehicles shall charge the Department a $4 processing fee for any photo-identification card issued or reissued on or after July 1, 2017, but before July 1, 2018. All fees paid to the Department of Motor Vehicles by the Department for each photo-identification card issued pursuant to this subsection shall be paid into the state treasury and set aside as a special fund to meet the expenses of the Department of Motor Vehicles in issuing such cards.

2016, cc. 197, 256.

§ 9.1-103. Direct operational responsibilities in law enforcement not authorized.

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as authorizing the Department to undertake direct operational responsibilities in law enforcement or the administration of criminal justice.

1981, c. 632, § 9-183; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-104. Establishment of victim and witness assistance programs; purpose; guidelines.

A. The Department shall adopt guidelines, the purpose of which shall be to make funds available to local governments for establishing, operating and maintaining victim and witness assistance programs which provide services to the victims of crime and witnesses in the criminal justice system.

B. The Department shall establish a grant procedure to govern funds awarded for this purpose.

1984, c. 561, § 9-173.3; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-105. Intensified Drug Enforcement Jurisdictions Fund.

There is created a special nonreverting fund to be administered by the Department, known as the Intensified Drug Enforcement Jurisdictions Fund. This Fund shall be established on the books of the Comptroller and any funds remaining in such Fund at the end of the biennium shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund. Interest earned on the Fund shall be credited to the Fund.

1990, c. 971, § 14.1-133.3; 1998, c. 872, § 9-178.1; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-106. Regional Criminal Justice Academy Training Fund; local fee.

There is created a special nonreverting fund to be administered by the Department, known as the Regional Criminal Justice Academy Training Fund. This Fund shall be established on the books of the Comptroller and any funds remaining in such Fund at the end of the biennium shall not revert to the general fund, but shall remain in the Fund. Interest earned on the Fund shall be credited to the Fund. The Fund shall consist of moneys forwarded to the State Treasurer for deposit in the Fund as provided in §§ 16.1-69.48:1, 17.1-275.1, 17.1-275.2, 17.1-275.3, 17.1-275.4, 17.1-275.7, 17.1-275.8, and 17.1-275.9, which sums shall be deposited in the state treasury to the credit of the Fund. Money in the Fund shall be used to provide financial support for regional criminal justice training academies, and shall be distributed as directed by the Department. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, nothing in this section shall prohibit a locality from charging a similar fee if the locality does not participate in a regional criminal justice training academy and if the locality was operating a certified independent criminal justice academy as of July 1, 2012.

Any and all funds from such local fee shall support the local academy.

Existing funds for the regional criminal justice training academies shall not be reduced by either state or local entities as a result of the enactment of Chapter 215 of the Acts of Assembly of 1997.

1997, c. 215, § 14.1-133.4; 1998, c. 872, § 9-178.2; 1999, c. 546; 2001, c. 844; 2003, cc. 993, 1028; 2010, c. 746; 2014, cc. 375, 431.

§ 9.1-107. Powers and duties of Director.

A. The Director shall be charged with executive and administrative responsibility to (i) carry out the specific duties imposed on the Department under § 9.1-102 and (ii) maintain appropriate liaison with federal, state and local agencies and units of government, or combinations thereof, in order that all programs, projects and activities for strengthening and improving law enforcement and the administration of criminal justice may function effectively at all levels of government.

B. In addition, the Director shall have the power and duty to:

1. Accept grants from the United States government and agencies and instrumentalities thereof, and any other source. To these ends, the Department shall have the power to comply with such conditions and execute such agreements as may be necessary, convenient or desirable.

2. In accordance with the standards of classification of the Personnel Act (§ 2.2-2900 et seq.), employ and fix the salaries of Department personnel and enter into contracts for services necessary in the performance of the Department's functions.

3. Do all acts necessary or convenient to carry out the purpose of this chapter and to assist the Board in carrying out its responsibilities under § 9.1-102.

C. The Director shall be the Executive Director of the Board, but shall not be a member of the Board.

1981, c. 632, §§ 9-176, 9-177; 1984, c. 720; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-108. Criminal Justice Services Board membership; terms; vacancies; members not disqualified from holding other offices; designation of chairmen; meetings; compensation.

A. The Criminal Justice Services Board is established as a policy board within the meaning of § 2.2-2100, in the executive branch of state government. The Board shall consist of 32 members as follows: the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Virginia, or his designee; the Attorney General or his designee; the Superintendent of the Department of State Police; the Director of the Department of Corrections; the Director of the Department of Juvenile Justice; the Chairman of the Parole Board; the Executive Director of the Virginia Indigent Defense Commission or his designee; and the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court of Virginia. In those instances in which the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court of Virginia, the Superintendent of the Department of State Police, the Director of the Department of Corrections, the Director of the Department of Juvenile Justice, or the Chairman of the Parole Board will be absent from a Board meeting, he may appoint a member of his staff to represent him at the meeting.

Twenty members shall be appointed by the Governor from among citizens of the Commonwealth. At least one shall be a representative of a crime victims' organization or a victim of crime as defined in subsection B of § 19.2-11.01, one shall be a representative of a social justice organization that is engaged in advancing inclusion and human rights, one shall be a mental health service provider, and two shall represent community interests, at least one of whom shall represent the community interests of minority individuals from one of the four groups defined in subsection F of § 2.2-4310. The remainder shall be representative of the broad categories of state and local governments, criminal justice systems, and law-enforcement agencies, including but not limited to, police officials, sheriffs, attorneys for the Commonwealth, defense counsel, the judiciary, correctional and rehabilitative activities, and other locally elected and appointed administrative and legislative officials. Among these members there shall be two sheriffs representing the Virginia Sheriffs' Association selected from among names submitted by the Association; one member who is an active duty law-enforcement officer appointed after consideration of the names, if any, submitted by police or fraternal associations that have memberships of at least 1,000; two representatives of the Virginia Association of Chiefs of Police appointed after consideration of the names submitted by the Association, if any; one attorney for the Commonwealth appointed after consideration of the names submitted by the Virginia Association of Commonwealth's Attorneys, if any; one person who is a mayor, city or town manager, or member of a city or town council representing the Virginia Municipal League appointed after consideration of the names submitted by the League, if any; one person who is a county executive, manager, or member of a county board of supervisors representing the Virginia Association of Counties appointed after consideration of the names submitted by the Association, if any; one member representing the Virginia Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators appointed after consideration of the names submitted by the Association, if any; one member of the Private Security Services Advisory Board; and one representative of the Virginia Association of Regional Jails appointed after consideration of the names submitted by the Association, if any.

Four members of the Board shall be members of the General Assembly appointed as follows: one member of the House Committee on Appropriations appointed by the Speaker of the House of Delegates after consideration of the recommendation by the committee's chairman; one member of the House Committee for Courts of Justice appointed by the Speaker of the House of Delegates after consideration of the recommendation by the committee's chairman; one member of the Senate Committee on Finance and Appropriations appointed by the Senate Committee on Rules after consideration of the recommendation of the chairman of the Senate Committee on Finance and Appropriations; and one member of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary appointed by the Senate Committee on Rules after consideration of the recommendation of the chairman of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. The legislative members shall serve terms coincident with their terms of office and shall serve as ex officio, nonvoting members. Legislative members may be reappointed for successive terms.

B. The members of the Board appointed by the Governor shall serve for terms of four years, provided that no member shall serve beyond the time when he holds the office or employment by reason of which he was initially eligible for appointment. Gubernatorial appointed members of the Board shall not be eligible to serve for more than two consecutive full terms. Three or more years within a four-year period shall be deemed a full term. Any vacancy on the Board shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment, but for the unexpired term.

C. The Governor shall appoint a chairman of the Board for a two-year term. No member shall be eligible to serve more than two consecutive terms as chairman. The Board shall designate one or more vice-chairmen from among its members, who shall serve at the pleasure of the Board.

D. Notwithstanding any provision of any statute, ordinance, local law, or charter provision to the contrary, membership on the Board shall not disqualify any member from holding any other public office or employment, or cause the forfeiture thereof.

E. The Board shall hold no less than four regular meetings a year. Subject to the requirements of this subsection, the chairman shall fix the times and places of meetings, either on his own motion or upon written request of any five members of the Board.

F. The Board may adopt bylaws for its operation.

G. Legislative members of the Board shall receive such compensation as provided in § 30-19.12 and nonlegislative citizen members shall receive such compensation as provided in § 2.2-2813 for the performance of their duties. All members shall be reimbursed for all reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in the performance of their duties as provided in §§ 2.2-2813 and 2.2-2825. Funding for the costs of compensation and expenses of the members shall be provided by the Department of Criminal Justice Services.

1981, c. 632, § 9-168; 1984, cc. 30, 515, 538, 734; 1986, c. 519; 1987, c. 144; 1989, c. 733; 1990, c. 98; 1991, cc. 59, 685; 1993, c. 415; 1994, cc. 20, 226; 1997, cc. 32, 795, 883; 1999, c. 495; 2001, c. 844; 2004, c. 1000; 2005, cc. 594, 672; 2011, cc. 594, 681, 691, 714; 2012, cc. 803, 835; 2017, c. 206; 2020, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 28, 37; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 467.

§ 9.1-108.1. Executive Committee; authority; effect of certain actions.

A. The Board may establish an Executive Committee consisting of the Chairman and seven members of the Board appointed by the Chair. The Chair shall serve a term coincident with his term of office as Chairman of the Board and the other members of the Executive Committee shall serve terms of two years. Five members of the Executive Committee shall constitute a quorum.

B. The Executive Committee shall have the authority to take any action authorized by this chapter including, but not limited to, hearing appeals by a regulant of a determination of a violation of regulations promulgated by the Board.

C. Any decision rendered by the Executive Committee on appeals by a regulant of a determination of a violation of regulations promulgated by the Board shall have the same effect as if made by the Board and shall be subject to judicial review in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

All other actions of the Executive Committee shall be acted upon by the full Board as soon as practicable.

2008, c. 305.

§ 9.1-109. Administration of federal programs.

The Board is designated as the supervisory board and the Department is designated as the planning and coordinating agency responsible for the implementation and administration of any federal programs for strengthening and improving law enforcement, the administration of criminal justice, and delinquency prevention and control throughout the Commonwealth.

1981, c. 632, § 9-171; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-110. School Resource Officer Grants Program and Fund.

A. From the funds appropriated for such purpose and from the gifts, donations, grants, bequests, and other funds received on its behalf, there is established (i) the School Resource Officer Grants Program, to be administered by the Board, in consultation with the Board of Education, and (ii) a special nonreverting fund within the state treasury known as the School Resource Officer Incentive Grants Fund, hereinafter known as the "Fund." The Fund shall be established on the books of the Comptroller, and any moneys remaining in the Fund at the end of the biennium shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund. Interest earned on such funds shall remain in the Fund and be credited to it.

Subject to the authority of the Board to provide for its disbursement, the Fund shall be disbursed to award matching grants to local law-enforcement agencies and local school boards that have established a collaborative agreement to employ uniformed school resource officers, as defined in § 9.1-101, in middle and high schools within the relevant school division. The Board may disburse annually up to five percent of the Fund for the training of the school resource officers. School resource officers shall be certified law-enforcement officers and shall be employed to help ensure safety and prevent truancy and violence in schools.

B. The Board shall establish criteria for making grants from the Fund, including procedures for determining the amount of a grant and the required local match. Any grant of general funds shall be matched by the locality on the basis of the composite index of local ability to pay. The Board may adopt guidelines governing the Program and the employment and duties of the school resource officers as it deems necessary and appropriate.

1999, c. 512, § 9-171.1; 2000, c. 785; 2001, cc. 33, 844; 2002, cc. 836, 868; 2016, c. 466.

§ 9.1-111. Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice and Prevention; membership; terms; quorum; compensation and expenses; duties.

A. The Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice and Prevention (the Advisory Committee) is established as an advisory committee in the executive branch of state government. The Advisory Committee shall have the responsibility for advising and assisting the Board, the Department, all agencies, departments, boards, and institutions of the Commonwealth, and units of local government, or combinations thereof, on matters related to the prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency and the administration of juvenile justice in the Commonwealth.

The membership of the Advisory Committee shall comply with the membership requirements contained in the federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act pursuant to 34 U.S.C. § 11133, as amended, and shall consist of the Commissioner of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services; the Commissioner of Social Services; the Director of the Department of Juvenile Justice; the Superintendent of Public Instruction; the Commissioner of Health; one member of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary appointed by the Senate Committee on Rules after consideration of the recommendation of the Chairman of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary; one member of the House Committee on Health, Welfare and Institutions appointed by the Speaker of the House of Delegates after consideration of the recommendation of the Chairman of the House Committee on Health, Welfare and Institutions; and such number of nonlegislative citizen members appointed by the Governor to comply with the membership range established by such federal act. The Advisory Committee may serve as an advisory committee as may be required by other federal or state laws or programs administered by the Department. Membership shall be adjusted as necessary to fulfill the requirements of such laws or programs.

Legislative members, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and the agency directors shall serve terms coincident with their terms of office. All other members shall be citizens of the Commonwealth and be appointed by the Governor for a term of four years. However, no member shall serve beyond the time when he holds the office or employment by reason of which he was initially eligible for appointment.

The Advisory Committee shall elect its chairman and vice-chairman from among its members.

B. Gubernatorial appointed members of the Advisory Committee shall not be eligible to serve for more than two consecutive full terms. Three or more years within a four-year period shall be deemed a full term. Any vacancy on the Advisory Committee shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment, but for the unexpired term.

C. Twelve members of the Advisory Committee, including voting and nonvoting members, shall constitute a quorum.

The Advisory Committee may adopt bylaws for its operation.

D. Members of the Advisory Committee shall not receive compensation but shall be reimbursed for all reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in the performance of their duties as provided in §§ 2.2-2813 and 2.2-2825. Funding for the costs of the expenses shall be provided from federal or state funds received for such purposes by the Department of Criminal Justice Services.

E. The Advisory Committee shall have the duty and responsibility to:

1. Review the operation of the juvenile justice system and delinquency prevention activities in the Commonwealth, including facilities and programs, and prepare appropriate reports;

2. Review statewide plans, conduct studies, and make recommendations on needs and priorities for the development and improvement of the juvenile justice system and delinquency prevention in the Commonwealth; and

3. Advise on all matters related to the federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-415, as amended), and recommend such actions on behalf of the Commonwealth as may seem desirable to secure benefits of that or other federal programs for delinquency prevention and the administration of juvenile justice.

F. The Department of Criminal Justice Services shall provide staff support to the Advisory Committee. Upon request, each administrative entity or collegial body within the executive branch of the state government shall cooperate with the Advisory Committee as it carries out its responsibilities.

1981, c. 632, § 9-168; 1984, cc. 30, 515, 538, 734; 1986, c. 519; 1987, c. 144; 1989, c. 733; 1990, c. 98; 1991, cc. 59, 685; 1993, c. 415; 1994, cc. 20, 226; 1997, cc. 32, 795, 883; 1999, c. 495; 2001, c. 844; 2004, c. 1000; 2009, cc. 813, 840; 2015, cc. 210, 419.

§ 9.1-112. Committee on Training; membership.

There is created a permanent Committee on Training under the Board that shall be the policy-making body responsible to the Board for effecting the provisions of subdivisions 2 through 17 of § 9.1-102. The Committee on Training shall be composed of 19 members of the Board as follows: the Superintendent of the Department of State Police; the Director of the Department of Corrections; a member of the Private Security Services Advisory Board; the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court of Virginia; two sheriffs representing the Virginia Sheriffs' Association; two representatives of the Virginia Association of Chiefs of Police; the active-duty law-enforcement officer representing police and fraternal associations; the attorney for the Commonwealth representing the Virginia Association of Commonwealth's Attorneys; an attorney representing the Virginia Indigent Defense Commission; a representative of the Virginia Municipal League; a representative of the Virginia Association of Counties; a mental health service provider; a regional jail superintendent representing the Virginia Association of Regional Jails; one citizen representing a social justice organization that is engaged in advancing inclusion and human rights; two citizens representing community interests, at least one of whom shall represent the community interests of minority individuals from one of the four groups defined in subsection F of § 2.2-4310; and one member designated by the chairman of the Board from among the other appointments made by the Governor.

The Committee on Training shall annually elect its chairman from among its members.

The Committee on Training may appoint curriculum review committees to assist the Committee on Training in carrying out its duties under this section. Any curriculum review committee shall be composed of nine members appointed by the Committee on Training. At least one member shall be a representative from the Department of State Police Training Academy, one member shall be a representative of a regional criminal justice academy, one member shall be a representative of an independent criminal justice academy, and one member shall be a representative of a community-based organization. The remainder shall be selected from names submitted by the Department of individuals with relevant experience.

1981, c. 632, § 9-168; 1984, cc. 30, 515, 538, 734; 1986, c. 519; 1987, c. 144; 1989, c. 733; 1990, c. 98; 1991, cc. 59, 685; 1993, c. 415; 1994, cc. 20, 226; 1997, cc. 32, 795, 883; 1999, c. 495; 2001, c. 844; 2007, c. 228; 2011, cc. 594, 681; 2012, c. 827; 2014, cc. 83, 535; 2017, c. 206; 2019, c. 366; 2020, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 28, 37; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 467.

§ 9.1-112.1. Criminal justice training academies; curriculum.

A. Any criminal justice training academy approved by the Department shall employ the uniform curriculum and lesson plans developed by the Department pursuant to § 9.1-102 for all training offered at the academy intended to meet the compulsory minimum entry-level, in-service, and advanced training standards established by the Board pursuant to § 9.1-102. No credit shall be given toward the completion of the compulsory minimum training standards for any training that does not employ the uniform curriculum and lesson plans.

B. In addition to any audits or inspections conducted by the Department, the Department shall conduct an annual evaluation of each criminal justice training academy's compliance with the uniform curriculum and lesson plans. If the Department determines that a criminal justice training academy is deficient in employing the uniform curriculum and lesson plans, the Department shall provide assistance to the academy to ensure the academy's compliance and may take whatever enforcement action the Department deems appropriate, including revocation of the Department's approval of the academy.

C. Any approved criminal justice training academy may petition the Department for a waiver exempting compliance with any uniform curriculum and lesson plans requirement pursuant to § 9.1-102. Upon showing that an alternative curriculum and lesson plans developed by the petitioning criminal justice training academy meet and exceed the compulsory minimum training standards required by § 9.1-102 and substantially complies with the content of the uniform curriculum and lesson plans, then the Department shall issue a waiver for the use of the alternative curriculum and lesson plans. The Department shall conduct an evaluation of each criminal justice training academy's use of an alternative curriculum and lesson plans every third year during the criminal justice training academy's recertification to ensure compliance with the uniform curriculum and lesson plans content. If the Department determines that the criminal justice training academy is in substantial compliance with the uniform curriculum and lesson plans, the waiver shall be extended for three years. Any waiver issued to a criminal justice training academy may be revoked by the Department at any time if the Department determines that the criminal justice training academy is not in substantial compliance with the uniform curriculum and lesson plans.

2020, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 37, 48.

§ 9.1-113. Compliance with minimum training standards by certain officers; exceptions.

The provisions of this chapter shall not be construed to require (i) law-enforcement officers serving under permanent appointment on July 1, 1971, (ii) officers serving under permanent appointment under the provisions of § 56-353 appointed prior to July 1, 1982, or (iii) officers serving under permanent appointment under the provisions of § 10.1-115 appointed prior to July 1, 2003; to meet the compulsory minimum training standards provided for in subdivision 2 of § 9.1-102. Nor shall failure of any such officer to meet such standards make him ineligible for any promotional examination for which he is otherwise eligible. However, any law-enforcement officer designated under the provisions of § 53.1-120 to provide courthouse and courtroom security shall be required to meet the standards provided under subdivision 7 of § 9.1-102. Any full-time deputy sheriff who is a law-enforcement officer and who is exempted from the compulsory minimum training standards under this section shall be eligible for the minimum salary established pursuant to Article 3 (§ 15.2-1609 et seq.) of Chapter 16 of Title 15.2.

1981, c. 632, § 9-179; 1982, c. 419; 1984, c. 779; 1999, c. 495; 2001, c. 844; 2003, c. 744.

§ 9.1-114. Compliance with minimum training standards by officers employed after July 1, 1971, by officers appointed under § 56-353 after July 1, 1982, and by part-time officers.

Every full-time law-enforcement officer employed after July 1, 1971, officers appointed under the provisions of § 56-353 after July 1, 1982, and every part-time law-enforcement officer employed after July 1, 1989, shall comply with the compulsory minimum training standards established by the Board within a period of time fixed by the Board in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). However, any part-time law-enforcement officer employed for eighty, or fewer, compensated hours in a calendar year, or any noncompensated auxiliary deputy sheriff, or noncompensated auxiliary police officer who carries a firearm in the course of his employment shall be required to have completed basic firearms training and received ongoing in-service firearms training, as defined by the Board. The Board may require law-enforcement agencies of the Commonwealth and its political subdivisions to submit rosters of their personnel and pertinent data with regard to the training status of such personnel.

1981, c. 632, § 9-180; 1982, c. 419; 1989, c. 233; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-114.1. Compliance with minimum training standards by school resource officers.

Every full-time or part-time law-enforcement officer employed as a school resource officer after July 1, 2020, shall comply with the compulsory minimum training standards for school resource officers established by the Board within a period of time fixed by the Board. The Department shall ensure that such required training is available throughout the Commonwealth.

2019, cc. 487, 488.

§ 9.1-114.2. Compliance with minimum training standards and reporting requirements for detector canine handlers and detector canines.

Within a period of time established by the Board, every correctional officer employed by the Department of Corrections who performs the duties of a detector canine handler shall comply with the compulsory minimum training standards for detector canine handlers, and the Department of Corrections shall ensure that any canines used at state correctional facilities are trained in accordance with the compulsory training standards established by the Board. Each state correctional facility shall submit information to the central database on the performance and effectiveness of detector canines as required by the Board. The Department shall ensure that such required training is available throughout the Commonwealth.

2020, c. 535.

§ 9.1-115. Forfeiture of office for failing to meet training standards; termination of salary and benefits; extension of term.

A. Every person required to comply with the training standards adopted by the Board, excluding private security services business personnel, who fails to comply with the standards within the time limits established by the regulations adopted by the Board shall forfeit his office, upon receipt of notice, as provided in subsection B. Such forfeiture shall create a vacancy in the office and all pay and allowances shall cease.

B. Notice shall be by certified mail, in a form approved by the Board, to the officer failing to comply and the chief administrative officer of the agency employing the officer. Notice shall be mailed to the State Compensation Board, if approval of that Board of the necessity of his office or compensation is required by law.

C. If the necessity for the officer or compensation of the officer is required by law to be approved by the State Compensation Board, that Board, upon receipt of notice as provided in subsection B, shall notify the Comptroller, who shall cause payment of his compensation to cease as of the date of receipt of the notice by the State Compensation Board of the notice.

D. It shall be the duty of the chief administrative officer of any agency employing a person who fails to meet the training standards to enforce the provisions of § 9.1-114 and this section. Willful failure to do so shall constitute misfeasance in office, and, in addition, upon conviction, shall constitute a Class 3 misdemeanor.

1981, c. 632, § 9-181; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-116. Exemptions of certain persons from certain training requirements.

The Director of the Department, with the approval of the Board, may exempt a chief of police or any law-enforcement officer or any courthouse and courtroom security officer, jail officer, dispatcher, process server, or custodial officer or corrections officer of the Commonwealth or any political subdivision who has demonstrated sensitivity to cultural diversity issues and had previous experience and training as a law-enforcement officer, courthouse and courtroom security officer, jail officer, dispatcher, process server or custodial officer or corrections officer with any law-enforcement or custodial agency, from the mandatory attendance of any or all courses which are required for the successful completion of the compulsory minimum training standards established by the Board.

The exemption authorized by this section shall be available to all law-enforcement officers, courthouse and courtroom security officers, jail officer, dispatchers, process servers and custodial officers, and corrections officers, regardless of any officer's date of initial employment, and shall entitle the officer when exempted from mandatory attendance to be deemed in compliance with the compulsory minimum training standards and eligible for the minimum salary established pursuant to Article 3 (§ 15.2-1609 et seq.) of Chapter 16 of Title 15.2, provided that the officer is otherwise qualified.

1981, c. 632, § 9-173; 1984, c. 515; 1988, c. 138; 2001, cc. 162, 844.

§ 9.1-116.1. Virginia Sexual and Domestic Violence Victim Fund; purpose; guidelines.

A. There is created the Virginia Sexual and Domestic Violence Victim Fund as a special nonreverting fund to be administered by the Department of Criminal Justice Services to support the prosecution of domestic violence cases and victim services.

B. The Department shall adopt guidelines, the purpose of which shall be to make funds available to (i) local attorneys for the Commonwealth for the purpose of funding the cost of additional attorneys or to further dedicate existing resources to prosecute felonies and misdemeanors involving domestic violence, sexual violence, sexual abuse, stalking and family abuse, and (ii) law-enforcement authorities or appropriate programs, including civil legal assistance, to assist in protecting and providing necessary services to victims of and children affected by domestic violence, sexual abuse, stalking and family abuse.

C. A portion of the sum collected pursuant to § 16.1-69.48:1 as specified in that section shall be deposited into the state treasury to the credit of this Fund in addition to any other monies appropriated, allocated or received specifically for such purpose. The Fund shall be distributed according to grant procedures adopted pursuant to this section and shall be established on the books of the Comptroller. Any funds remaining in such Fund at the end of the biennium shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund. Interest earned on the Fund shall be credited to the Fund.

D. The Department shall establish a grant procedure to govern funds awarded for this purpose.

2004, c. 375; 2006, c. 288.

§ 9.1-116.2. Advisory Committee on Sexual and Domestic Violence; membership; terms; compensation and expenses; duties.

A. The Advisory Committee on Sexual and Domestic Violence (the Advisory Committee) is established as an advisory committee in the executive branch of state government. The Advisory Committee shall have the responsibility for advising and assisting the Board, the Department, all agencies, departments, boards, and institutions of the Commonwealth, and units of local government, or combinations thereof, on matters related to the prevention and reduction of sexual and domestic violence in the Commonwealth, and to promote the efficient administration of grant funds to state and local programs that work in these areas.

The Advisory Committee shall have a total of 19 members consisting of the following, or their designees: the Commissioner of Social Services; the Director of the Department of Criminal Justice Services; the Commissioner of Health; the Director of the Department of Housing and Community Development; the Executive Director of the Virginia sexual and domestic violence coalition; the Executive Director of the Virginia Victim Assistance Network; one member of the Senate to be appointed by the Senate Committee on Rules; one member of the House of Delegates to be appointed by the Speaker of the House; the Chairman of the Virginia State Crime Commission; and the Attorney General. The membership shall also consist of nine nonlegislative citizen members appointed by the Governor, one of whom shall be a representative of a crime victims' organization or a victim of sexual or domestic violence and eight of whom shall be representatives of local sexual and domestic violence programs. The appointments of the nonlegislative citizen members shall include racial and ethnic diversity and shall be representative of regional and geographic locations of the Commonwealth.

Legislative members and the agency directors shall serve terms coincident with their terms of office. All other members shall be citizens of the Commonwealth and shall serve a term of four years. However, no member shall serve beyond the time when he holds the office or employment by reason of which he was initially eligible for appointment.

The Advisory Committee shall elect its chairman and vice-chairman from among its members.

B. No member of the Advisory Committee appointed by the Governor shall be eligible to serve for more than two consecutive full terms.

C. A majority of the members of the Advisory Committee shall constitute a quorum. The Advisory Committee shall hold no less than four regular meetings a year. Subject to the requirements of this subsection, the chairman shall fix the times and places of meetings, either on his own motion or upon written request of any five members of the Advisory Committee.

D. The Advisory Committee may adopt bylaws for its operation.

E. Members of the Advisory Committee shall not receive compensation, but shall be reimbursed for all reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in the performance of their duties as provided in § 2.2-2825. Funding for the costs of the expenses shall be provided from federal or state funds received for such purposes by the Department.

F. The Advisory Committee shall have the following duties and responsibilities:

1. Promote appropriate and effective responses, services, and prevention for sexual assault and domestic violence across the Commonwealth; and

2. Promote strong communication, coordination, and strategy at state, regional, and local levels.

G. The Department shall provide staff support to the Advisory Committee. Upon request, each administrative entity or collegial body within the executive branch of the state government shall cooperate with the Advisory Committee as it carries out its responsibilities.

2015, cc. 222, 402; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 193.

§ 9.1-116.3. Virginia Sexual and Domestic Violence Program Professional Standards Committee.

A. The Virginia Sexual and Domestic Violence Program Professional Standards Committee (the Committee) shall establish voluntary accreditation standards and measures by which local sexual and domestic violence programs can be systematically evaluated with a peer-reviewed process. The Committee may adopt bylaws for its operation, fees, and other items as necessary. Fees for accreditation shall be used to support any administrative costs of the Department. Upon request of the Committee, the Department and the Virginia sexual and domestic violence coalition may provide accreditation assistance and training and resource material that will assist the local programs in obtaining or retaining accreditation. The Department shall provide staff support to the Committee.

The Committee shall consist of the following: one nonvoting member representing the Department of Criminal Justice Services; one nonvoting member appointed by and representative of the Department of Social Services; one nonvoting member appointed by and representative of the Virginia sexual and domestic violence coalition; and 12 nonlegislative citizen members appointed by the Governor, who shall be leadership staff of local sexual and domestic violence programs. The nonlegislative citizen members appointed by the Governor shall serve for terms of four years, provided that no voting member shall serve beyond the time when he holds the office or employment by reason of which he was initially eligible for appointment. Members appointed by the Governor shall not be eligible to serve for more than two consecutive terms. The appointment of members shall take into consideration racial and ethnic diversity and shall be representative of regional and geographic locations of the Commonwealth.

The Committee shall elect a chairman and vice-chairman from among its members.

B. A majority of the voting members of the Committee shall constitute a quorum.

C. Members of the Committee shall not receive compensation but shall be reimbursed for all reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in the performance of their duties as provided in § 2.2-2825.

D. The Committee shall have the following duties and responsibilities:

1. Establish voluntary accreditation standards and measures by which local and domestic violence programs can be systematically evaluated with a peer-reviewed process;

2. Review and vote on accreditation status recommendations for applicant programs;

3. Establish a subcommittee as needed to address appeals from applicant programs; and

4. Periodically evaluate and revise accreditation standards and measures.

E. The Department shall have the following duties and responsibilities:

1. Establish accreditation procedures by which local sexual and domestic violence programs can be systematically evaluated with a peer-reviewed process;

2. Assist local programs in obtaining or retaining accreditation;

3. Review and evaluate applications for accreditation; and

4. Determine accreditation status recommendations for applicant programs and present such recommendations to the Committee.

2015, cc. 222, 402; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 193.

§ 9.1-116.4. Virginia Prevention of Sex Trafficking Fund; purpose; guidelines.

A. There is hereby created in the state treasury a special nonreverting fund to be known as the Virginia Prevention of Sex Trafficking Fund (the Fund). The Fund shall be established on the books of the Comptroller. All moneys accruing to the Fund shall be paid into the state treasury and credited to the Fund. Interest earned on moneys in the Fund shall remain in the Fund and be credited to it. Any moneys remaining in the Fund, including interest thereon, at the end of each fiscal year shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund. Moneys in the Fund shall be used for the purpose of promoting prevention and awareness of sex trafficking. Expenditures and disbursements from the Fund shall be made by the State Treasurer on warrants issued by the Comptroller upon written request signed by the Director of the Department.

B. The Fund shall be administered by the Department, and the Department shall adopt guidelines to make funds available to agencies of the state and local governments for the purpose of promoting awareness of and preventative training and education related to sex trafficking.

2019, c. 728.

§ 9.1-116.5. Sex Trafficking Response Coordinator; duties; report.

A. There is established within the Department a Sex Trafficking Response Coordinator (the Coordinator). The Coordinator shall:

1. Create a statewide plan for local and state agencies to identify and respond to victims of sex trafficking;

2. Coordinate the development of standards and guidelines for treatment programs for victims of sex trafficking;

3. Maintain a list of programs that provide treatment or specialized services to victims of sex trafficking and make such list available to law-enforcement agencies, attorneys for the Commonwealth, crime victim and witness assistance programs, the Department of Juvenile Justice, the Department of Social Services, the Department of Education, and school divisions;

4. Oversee the development of a curriculum to be completed by persons convicted of solicitation of prostitution under § 18.2-346.01; and

5. Promote strategies for the education, training, and awareness of sex trafficking and for the reduction of demand for commercial sex.

B. The Coordinator may request and shall receive from every department, division, board, bureau, commission, authority, or other agency created by the Commonwealth, or to which the Commonwealth is a party or any political subdivision thereof, cooperation and assistance in the performance of its duties. The Coordinator may also consult and exchange information with local government agencies and interested stakeholders.

C. The Coordinator shall report annually on or before October 1 to the Governor and the General Assembly. The report shall include a summary of activities for the year and any recommendations to address sex trafficking within the Commonwealth. The Department shall ensure that such report is available to the public.

2019, cc. 486, 514; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 188.

§ 9.1-116.6. Virginia Gun Violence Intervention and Prevention Fund; purpose; guidelines.

A. There is hereby created in the state treasury a special nonreverting fund to be known as the Virginia Gun Violence Intervention and Prevention Fund (the Fund). The Fund shall be established on the books of the Comptroller. All moneys accruing to the Fund, including funds appropriated for such purpose and any gifts, donations, grants, bequests, and other funds received on its behalf, shall be paid into the state treasury and credited to the Fund. Interest earned on moneys in the Fund shall remain in the Fund and be credited to it. Any moneys remaining in the Fund, including interest thereon, at the end of each fiscal year shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund. Moneys in the Fund shall be used for the purpose of supporting gun violence intervention and prevention programs. Expenditures and disbursements from the Fund shall be made by the State Treasurer on warrants issued by the Comptroller upon written request signed by the Director of the Department.

B. The Fund shall be administered by the Department, and the Department shall adopt guidelines to make funds available to agencies of local government, community-based organizations, and hospitals for the purpose of supporting implementation of evidence-informed gun violence intervention and prevention efforts, including street outreach, hospital-based violence intervention, and group violence intervention programs.

C. The Department shall establish a grant procedure to govern funds awarded for this purpose.

2020, cc. 818, 1129.

§ 9.1-116.7. (Expires July 1, 2023) Body-Worn Camera System Fund.

A. There is hereby created in the state treasury a special nonreverting fund to be known as the Body-Worn Camera System Fund, referred to in this section as "the Fund." The Fund shall be established on the books of the Comptroller. All funds appropriated for such purpose and any gifts, donations, grants, bequests, and other funds received on its behalf shall be paid into the state treasury and credited to the Fund. Interest earned on moneys in the Fund shall remain in the Fund and be credited to it. Any moneys remaining in the Fund, including interest thereon, at the end of each fiscal year shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund. Moneys in the Fund shall be used solely for the purposes of assisting state or local law-enforcement agencies with the costs of purchasing, operating, and maintaining body-worn camera systems as defined in § 15.2-1723.1. Expenditures and disbursements from the Fund shall be made by the State Treasurer on warrants issued by the Comptroller upon written request signed by the Director of the Department.

B. The Fund shall be administered by the Department, and the Department shall adopt guidelines to make funds available to state or local law-enforcement agencies for the purpose of assisting state or local law-enforcement agencies with the costs of purchasing, operating, and maintaining body-worn camera systems as defined in § 15.2-1723.1.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 335.

Article 2. Division of Forensic Science.

§ 9.1-117. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2005, cc. 868 and 881, cl. 2.

Article 3. Criminal Justice Information System.

§ 9.1-126. Application and construction of article.

A. This article shall apply to original or copied criminal history record information, maintained by a criminal justice agency of (i) the Commonwealth or its political subdivisions and (ii) the United States or another state or its political subdivisions which exchange such information with an agency covered in clause (i), but only to the extent of that exchange.

B. The provisions of this article shall not apply to original or copied (i) records of entry, such as police blotters, maintained by a criminal justice agency on a chronological basis and permitted to be made public, if such records are not indexed or accessible by name, (ii) court records of public criminal proceedings, including opinions and published compilations thereof, (iii) records of traffic offenses disseminated to or maintained by the Department of Motor Vehicles for the purpose of regulating the issuance, suspension, revocation, or renewal of drivers' or other operators' licenses, (iv) statistical or analytical records or reports in which individuals are not identified and from which their identities cannot be ascertained, (v) announcements of executive clemency, pardons, or removals of political disabilities, (vi) posters, announcements, or lists for identifying or apprehending fugitives or wanted persons, (vii) criminal justice intelligence information, or (viii) criminal justice investigative information. Except as provided in §§ 15.2-1722, 16.1-299, and 19.2-390, nothing contained in this article shall be construed as requiring any criminal justice agency to collect, maintain, or update criminal history record information, as defined in § 9.1-101, when such information is already available and readily accessible from another criminal justice agency.

C. Nothing contained in this article shall be construed as prohibiting a criminal justice agency from disclosing to the public factual information concerning the status of an investigation, the apprehension, arrest, release, or prosecution of an individual, the adjudication of charges, or the correctional status of an individual, which is related to the offense for which the individual is currently within the criminal justice system.

1981, c. 632, § 9-184; 2001, c. 844; 2007, c. 389.

§ 9.1-127. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2011, cc. 821 and 854, cl. 2.

§ 9.1-128. (For contingent expiration see Acts 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 524 and 542) Dissemination of criminal history record information; Board to adopt regulations and procedures.

A. Criminal history record information shall be disseminated, whether directly or through an intermediary, only in accordance with § 19.2-389.

B. The Board shall adopt regulations and procedures for the interstate dissemination of criminal history record information by which criminal justice agencies of the Commonwealth shall ensure that the limitations on dissemination of criminal history record information set forth in § 19.2-389 are accepted by recipients and will remain operative in the event of further dissemination.

C. The Board shall adopt regulations and procedures for the validation of an interstate recipient's right to obtain criminal history record information from criminal justice agencies of the Commonwealth.

1981, c. 632, §§ 9-187, 9-188; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-128. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 524 and 542) Dissemination of criminal history record information; Board to adopt regulations and procedures.

A. Criminal history record information shall be disseminated, whether directly or through an intermediary, only in accordance with § 19.2-389.

B. The Board shall adopt regulations and procedures for the interstate dissemination of criminal history record information by which criminal justice agencies of the Commonwealth shall ensure that the limitations on dissemination of criminal history record information set forth in § 19.2-389 are accepted by recipients and will remain operative in the event of further dissemination.

C. The Board shall adopt regulations and procedures for the validation of an interstate recipient's right to obtain criminal history record information from criminal justice agencies of the Commonwealth.

D. The Board shall adopt regulations and procedures for the dissemination of sealed criminal history record information, including any records relating to an arrest, charge, or conviction, by which the criminal justice agencies of the Commonwealth and other persons, agencies, and employers can access such sealed records and shall ensure that access to and dissemination of such sealed records are made in accordance with the limitations on dissemination and use set forth in §§ 19.2-389, 19.2-389.3, and 19.2-392.13.

1981, c. 632, §§ 9-187, 9-188; 2001, c. 844; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 524, 542.

§ 9.1-129. Participation of state and local agencies in interstate system; access to system limited.

A. The Board shall regulate participation of state and local agencies in any interstate system for the exchange of criminal history record information and shall be responsible for ensuring the consistency of such participation with the terms and purposes of this article. The Board shall have no authority to compel any agency to participate in any such interstate system.

B. Direct access to any such system shall be limited to the criminal justice agencies expressly designated for that purpose by the Board.

1981, c. 632, § 9-189; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-130. Procedures to be adopted by agencies maintaining criminal justice information systems.

Each criminal justice agency maintaining and operating a criminal justice information system shall adopt procedures reasonably designed to ensure:

1. The physical security of the system and the prevention of unauthorized disclosure of the information in the system;

2. The timeliness and accuracy of information in the system;

3. That all criminal justice agencies to which criminal offender record information is disseminated or from which it is collected are currently and accurately informed of any correction, deletion, or revision of such information;

4. Prompt purging or sealing of criminal offender record information when required by state or federal statute, regulation, or court order;

5. Use or dissemination of criminal offender record information by criminal justice agency personnel only after it has been determined to be the most accurate and complete information available to the criminal justice agency.

1981, c. 632, § 9-191; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-131. Annual audits.

The Board shall ensure that annual audits are conducted of a representative sample of state and local criminal justice agencies to ensure compliance with this article and Board regulations. The Board shall adopt such regulations as may be necessary for the conduct of audits, the retention of records to facilitate such audits, the determination of necessary corrective actions, and the reporting of corrective actions taken.

1981, c. 632, § 9-186; 1984, cc. 30, 734; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-132. Individual's right of access to and review and correction of information.

A. Any individual who believes that criminal history record information is being maintained about him by the Central Criminal Records Exchange (the "Exchange"), or by the arresting law-enforcement agency in the case of offenses not required to be reported to the Exchange, shall have the right to inspect a copy of his criminal history record information at the Exchange or the arresting law-enforcement agency, respectively, for the purpose of ascertaining the completeness and accuracy of the information. The individual's right to access and review shall not extend to any information or data other than that defined in § 9.1-101.

B. The Board shall adopt regulations with respect to an individual's right to access and review criminal history record information about himself reported to the Exchange or, if not reported to the Exchange, maintained by the arresting law-enforcement agency. The regulations shall provide for (i) public notice of the right of access; (ii) access to criminal history record information by an individual or an attorney-at-law acting for an individual; (iii) the submission of identification; (iv) the places and times for review; (v) review of Virginia records by individuals located in other states; (vi) assistance in understanding the record; (vii) obtaining a copy for purposes of initiating a challenge to the record; (viii) procedures for investigation of alleged incompleteness or inaccuracy; (ix) completion or correction of records if indicated; and (x) notification of the individuals and agencies to whom an inaccurate or incomplete record has been disseminated.

C. If an individual believes information maintained about him is inaccurate or incomplete, he may request the agency having custody or control of the records to purge, modify, or supplement them. Should the agency decline to so act, or should the individual believe the agency's decision to be otherwise unsatisfactory, the individual may make written request for review by the Board. The Board or its designee shall, in each case in which it finds prima facie basis for a complaint, conduct a hearing at which the individual may appear with counsel, present evidence, and examine and cross-examine witnesses. The Board shall issue written findings and conclusions. Should the record in question be found to be inaccurate or incomplete, the criminal justice agency maintaining the information shall purge, modify, or supplement it in accordance with the findings and conclusions of the Board. Notification of purging, modification, or supplementation of criminal history record information shall be promptly made by the criminal justice agency maintaining the previously inaccurate information to any individuals or agencies to which the information in question was communicated, as well as to the individual who is the subject of the records.

D. Criminal justice agencies shall maintain records of all agencies to whom criminal history record information has been disseminated, the date upon which the information was disseminated, and such other record matter for the number of years required by regulations of the Board.

E. Any individual or agency aggrieved by any order or decision of the Board may appeal the order or decision in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

1981, c. 632, § 9-192; 1986, c. 615; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-133. Certain information not subject to review or correction.

A. Background checks for security clearances and investigative information not connected with a criminal prosecution or litigation including investigations of rule infractions in correctional institutions shall not be subject to review or correction by data subjects.

B. Correctional information about an offender including counselor reports, diagnostic summaries and other sensitive information not explicitly classified as criminal history record information shall not be subject to review or correction by data subjects.

1981, c. 632, § 9-193; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-134. (For contingent expiration see Acts 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 524 and 542) Sealing of criminal history record information.

The Board shall adopt procedures reasonably designed to (i) ensure prompt sealing or purging of criminal history record information when required by state or federal law, regulation or court order, and (ii) permit opening of sealed information under conditions authorized by law.

1981, c. 632, § 9-190; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-134. (For contingent effective date, see Acts 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 524 and 542) Sealing of criminal history record information.

The Board shall adopt procedures reasonably designed to (i) ensure the prompt sealing of criminal history record information and the sealing or purging of criminal history record information, including any records relating to an arrest, charge, or conviction, when required by state or federal law, regulation, or court order and (ii) permit opening of sealed information under conditions authorized by law.

1981, c. 632, § 9-190; 2001, c. 844; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 524, 542.

§ 9.1-135. Civil remedies for violation of this chapter or Chapter 23 of Title 19.2.

A. Any person may institute a civil action in the circuit court of the jurisdiction in which the Board has its administrative headquarters, or in the jurisdiction in which any violation is alleged to have occurred:

1. For actual damages resulting from violation of this article or to restrain any such violation, or both.

2. To obtain appropriate equitable relief against any person who has engaged, is engaged, or is about to engage in any acts or practices in violation of Chapter 23 (§ 19.2-387 et seq.) of Title 19.2, this chapter or rules or regulations of the Board.

B. This section shall not be construed as a waiver of the defense of sovereign immunity.

1981, c. 632, § 9-194; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-136. Criminal penalty for violation.

Any person who willfully and intentionally requests, obtains, or seeks to obtain criminal history record information under false pretenses, or who willfully and intentionally disseminates or seeks to disseminate criminal history record information to any agency or person in violation of this article or Chapter 23 (§ 19.2-387 et seq.) of Title 19.2, shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

1981, c. 632, § 9-195; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-137. Article to control over other laws; exceptions.

A. In the event any provisions of this article conflict with other provisions of law, the provision of this article shall control, except as provided in subsection B.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, this article shall not alter, amend, or supersede any provisions of the Code of Virginia relating to the collection, storage, dissemination, or use of juvenile records.

1981, c. 632, § 9-196; 2001, c. 844.

Article 4. Private Security Services Businesses.

§ 9.1-138. Definitions.

In addition to the definitions set forth in § 9.1-101, as used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Alarm respondent" means an individual who responds to the signal of an alarm for the purpose of detecting an intrusion of the home, business or property of the end user.

"Armed" means a private security registrant who carries or has immediate access to a firearm in the performance of his duties.

"Armed security officer" means a natural person employed to (i) safeguard and protect persons and property or (ii) deter theft, loss, or concealment of any tangible or intangible personal property on the premises he is contracted to protect, and who carries or has access to a firearm in the performance of his duties.

"Armored car personnel" means persons who transport or offer to transport under armed security from one place to another, money, negotiable instruments or other valuables in a specially equipped motor vehicle with a high degree of security and certainty of delivery.

"Business advertising material" means display advertisements in telephone directories, letterhead, business cards, local newspaper advertising, contracts, and any electronic medium, including the Internet, social media, and digital advertising.

"Central station dispatcher" means an individual who monitors burglar alarm signal devices, burglar alarms or any other electrical, mechanical or electronic device used (i) to prevent or detect burglary, theft, shoplifting, pilferage or similar losses; (ii) to prevent or detect intrusion; or (iii) primarily to summon aid for other emergencies.

"Certification" means the method of regulation indicating that qualified persons have met the minimum requirements as private security services training schools, private security services instructors, compliance agents, or certified detector canine handler examiners.

"Compliance agent" means an individual who owns or is employed by a licensed private security services business to ensure the compliance of the private security services business with this title.

"Computer or digital forensic services" means the use of highly specialized expertise for the recovery, authentication, and analysis of electronic data or computer usage.

"Courier" means any armed person who transports or offers to transport from one place to another documents or other papers, negotiable or nonnegotiable instruments, or other small items of value that require expeditious services.

"Detector canine" means any dog that detects drugs or explosives.

"Detector canine handler" means any individual who uses a detector canine in the performance of private security duties.

"Detector canine handler examiner" means any individual who examines the proficiency and reliability of detector canines and detector canine handlers in the detection of drugs or explosives.

"Detector canine team" means the detector canine handler and his detector canine performing private security duties.

"Electronic security business" means any person who engages in the business of or undertakes to (i) install, service, maintain, design or consult in the design of any electronic security equipment to an end user; (ii) respond to or cause a response to electronic security equipment for an end user; or (iii) have access to confidential information concerning the design, extent, status, password, contact list, or location of an end user's electronic security equipment.

"Electronic security employee" means an individual who is employed by an electronic security business in any capacity which may give him access to information concerning the design, extent, status, password, contact list, or location of an end user's electronic security equipment.

"Electronic security equipment" means (i) electronic or mechanical alarm signaling devices including burglar alarms or holdup alarms used to safeguard and protect persons and property; or (ii) cameras used to detect intrusions, concealment or theft, to safeguard and protect persons and property. This shall not include tags, labels, and other devices that are attached or affixed to items offered for sale, library books, and other protected articles as part of an electronic article surveillance and theft detection and deterrence system.

"Electronic security sales representative" means an individual who sells electronic security equipment on behalf of an electronic security business to the end user.

"Electronic security technician" means an individual who installs, services, maintains or repairs electronic security equipment.

"Electronic security technician's assistant" means an individual who works as a laborer under the supervision of the electronic security technician in the course of his normal duties, but who may not make connections to any electronic security equipment.

"Employed" means to be in an employer/employee relationship where the employee is providing work in exchange for compensation and the employer directly controls the employee's conduct and pays some taxes on behalf of the employee. The term "employed" shall not be construed to include independent contractors.

"End user" means any person who purchases or leases electronic security equipment for use in that person's home or business.

"Firearms training verification" means the verification of successful completion of either initial or retraining requirements for handgun or shotgun training, or both.

"General public" means individuals who have access to areas open to all and not restricted to any particular class of the community.

"Key cutting" means making duplicate keys from an existing key and includes no other locksmith services.

"License number" means the official number issued to a private security services business licensed by the Department.

"Locksmith" means any individual that performs locksmith services, or advertises or represents to the general public that the individual is a locksmith even if the specific term locksmith is substituted with any other term by which a reasonable person could construe that the individual possesses special skills relating to locks or locking devices, including use of the words lock technician, lockman, safe technician, safeman, boxman, unlocking technician, lock installer, lock opener, physical security technician or similar descriptions.

"Locksmith services" mean selling, servicing, rebuilding, repairing, rekeying, repinning, changing the combination to an electronic or mechanical locking device; programming either keys to a device or the device to accept electronic controlled keys; originating keys for locks or copying keys; adjusting or installing locks or deadbolts, mechanical or electronic locking devices, egress control devices, safes, and vaults; opening, defeating or bypassing locks or latching mechanisms in a manner other than intended by the manufacturer; with or without compensation for the general public or on property not his own nor under his own control or authority.

"Natural person" means an individual person.

"Personal protection specialist" means any individual who engages in the duties of providing close protection from bodily harm to any person.

"Private investigator" means any individual who engages in the business of, or accepts employment to make, investigations to obtain information on (i) crimes or civil wrongs; (ii) the location, disposition, or recovery of stolen property; (iii) the cause of accidents, fires, damages, or injuries to persons or to property; or (iv) evidence to be used before any court, board, officer, or investigative committee.

"Private security services business" means any person engaged in the business of providing, or who undertakes to provide, armored car personnel, security officers, personal protection specialists, private investigators, couriers, security canine handlers, security canine teams, detector canine handlers, detector canine teams, alarm respondents, locksmiths, central station dispatchers, electronic security employees, electronic security sales representatives or electronic security technicians and their assistants to another person under contract, express or implied.

"Private security services instructor" means any individual certified by the Department to provide mandated instruction in private security subjects for a certified private security services training school.

"Private security services registrant" means any qualified individual who has met the requirements under this article to perform the duties of alarm respondent, locksmith, armored car personnel, central station dispatcher, courier, electronic security sales representative, electronic security technician, electronic security technician's assistant, personal protection specialist, private investigator, security canine handler, detector canine handler, unarmed security officer or armed security officer.

"Private security services training school" means any person certified by the Department to provide instruction in private security subjects for the training of private security services business personnel in accordance with this article.

"Registration" means a method of regulation whereby certain personnel employed by a private security services business are required to register with the Department pursuant to this article.

"Registration category" means any one of the following categories: (i) unarmed security officer and armed security officer/courier, (ii) security canine handler, (iii) armored car personnel, (iv) private investigator, (v) personal protection specialist, (vi) alarm respondent, (vii) central station dispatcher, (viii) electronic security sales representative, (ix) electronic security technician, (x) electronic technician's assistant, (xi) detector canine handler, or (xii) locksmith.

"Security canine" means a dog that has attended, completed, and been certified as a security canine by a certified security canine handler instructor in accordance with approved Department procedures and certification guidelines. "Security canines" shall not include detector dogs.

"Security canine handler" means any individual who utilizes his security canine in the performance of private security duties.

"Security canine team" means the security canine handler and his security canine performing private security duties.

"Supervisor" means any individual who directly or indirectly supervises registered or certified private security services business personnel.

"Unarmed security officer" means a natural person who performs the functions of observation, detection, reporting, or notification of appropriate authorities or designated agents regarding persons or property on the premises he is contracted to protect, and who does not carry or have access to a firearm in the performance of his duties.

1976, c. 737, § 54-729.27; 1977, c. 376, § 54.1-1900; 1980, c. 425, cc. 57, 779; 1988, c. 765; 1992, c. 578, § 9-183.1; 1994, cc. 45, 335, 810; 1995, c. 79; 1996, c. 541; 1997, c. 80; 1998, cc. 122, 807; 1999, c. 33; 2001, cc. 821, 844; 2003, c. 124; 2004, c. 470; 2005, c. 365; 2008, c. 638; 2009, c. 375; 2011, c. 263; 2017, c. 85.

§ 9.1-139. Licensing, certification, and registration required; qualifications; temporary licenses.

A. No person shall engage in the private security services business or solicit private security business in the Commonwealth without having obtained a license from the Department. No person shall be issued a private security services business license until a compliance agent is designated in writing on forms provided by the Department. The compliance agent shall ensure the compliance of the private security services business with this article and shall meet the qualifications and perform the duties required by the regulations adopted by the Board.

B. No person shall act as a private security services training school or solicit students for private security training in the Commonwealth without being certified by the Department. No person shall be issued a private security services training school certification until a school director is designated in writing on forms provided by the Department. The school director shall ensure the compliance of the school with the provisions of this article and shall meet the qualifications and perform the duties required by the regulations adopted by the Board.

C. No person shall be employed by a licensed private security services business in the Commonwealth as armored car personnel, courier, armed security officer, detector canine handler, unarmed security officer, security canine handler, private investigator, personal protection specialist, alarm respondent, locksmith, central station dispatcher, electronic security sales representative, electronic security technician's assistant, or electronic security technician without possessing a valid registration issued by the Department, except as provided in this article. Notwithstanding any other provision of this article, a licensed private security services business may hire as an independent contractor a personal protection specialist or private investigator who has been issued a registration by the Department.

D. A temporary license may be issued in accordance with Board regulations for the purpose of awaiting the results of the state and national fingerprint search. However, no person shall be issued a temporary license until (i) he has designated a compliance agent who has complied with the compulsory minimum training standards established by the Board pursuant to subsection A of § 9.1-141 for compliance agents, (ii) each principal of the business has submitted his fingerprints for a National Criminal Records search and a Virginia Criminal History Records search, and (iii) he has met all other requirements of this article and Board regulations.

E. No person shall be employed by a licensed private security services business in the Commonwealth unless such person is certified or registered in accordance with this chapter.

F. A temporary registration may be issued in accordance with Board regulations for the purpose of awaiting the results of the state and national fingerprint search. However, no person shall be issued a temporary registration until he has (i) complied with, or been exempted from the compulsory minimum training standards established by the Board, pursuant to subsection A of § 9.1-141, for armored car personnel, couriers, armed security officers, detector canine handlers, unarmed security officers, security canine handlers, private investigators, personal protection specialists, alarm respondents, locksmith, central station dispatchers, electronic security sales representatives, electronic security technician's assistants, or electronic security technicians, (ii) submitted his fingerprints to be used for the conduct of a National Criminal Records search and a Virginia Criminal History Records search, and (iii) met all other requirements of this article and Board regulations.

G. A temporary certification as a private security instructor or private security training school may be issued in accordance with Board regulations for the purpose of awaiting the results of the state and national fingerprint search. However, no person shall be issued a temporary certification as a private security services instructor until he has (i) met the education, training and experience requirements established by the Board and (ii) submitted his fingerprints to be used for the conduct of a National Criminal Records search and a Virginia Criminal History Records search. No person shall be issued a temporary certification as a private security services training school until (a) he has designated a training director, (b) each principal of the training school has submitted his fingerprints to be used for the conduct of a National Criminal Records search and a Virginia Criminal History Records search, and (c) he has met all other requirements of this article and Board regulations.

H. A licensed private security services business in the Commonwealth shall not employ as an unarmed security officer, electronic security technician's assistant, unarmed alarm respondent, central station dispatcher, electronic security sales representative, locksmith, or electronic security technician, any person who has not complied with, or been exempted from, the compulsory minimum training standards established by the Board, pursuant to subsection A of § 9.1-141, except that such person may be so employed for not more than 90 days while completing compulsory minimum training standards.

I. No person shall be employed as an electronic security employee, electronic security technician's assistant, unarmed alarm respondent, locksmith, central station dispatcher, electronic security sales representative, electronic security technician or supervisor until he has submitted his fingerprints to the Department to be used for the conduct of a National Criminal Records search and a Virginia Criminal History Records search. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to an out-of-state central station dispatcher meeting the requirements of subdivision 19 of § 9.1-140.

J. The compliance agent of each licensed private security services business in the Commonwealth shall maintain documentary evidence that each private security registrant and certified employee employed by his private security services business has complied with, or been exempted from, the compulsory minimum training standards required by the Board. Before January 1, 2003, the compliance agent shall ensure that an investigation to determine suitability of each unarmed security officer employee has been conducted, except that any such unarmed security officer, upon initiating a request for such investigation under the provisions of subdivision A 11 of § 19.2-389, may be employed for up to 30 days pending completion of such investigation. After January 1, 2003, no person shall be employed as an unarmed security officer until he has submitted his fingerprints to the Department for the conduct of a National Criminal Records search and a Virginia Criminal History Records search. Any person who was employed as an unarmed security officer prior to January 1, 2003, shall submit his fingerprints to the Department in accordance with subsection B of § 9.1-145.

K. No person with a criminal conviction for a misdemeanor involving (i) moral turpitude, (ii) assault and battery, (iii) damage to real or personal property, (iv) controlled substances or imitation controlled substances as defined in Article 1 (§ 18.2-247 et seq.) of Chapter 7 of Title 18.2, (v) prohibited sexual behavior as described in Article 7 (§ 18.2-61 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of Title 18.2, or (vi) firearms, or any felony shall be (a) employed as a registered or certified employee by a private security services business or training school, or (b) issued a private security services registration, certification as an unarmed security officer, electronic security employee or technician's assistant, a private security services training school or instructor certification, compliance agent certification, or a private security services business license, except that, upon written request, the Director of the Department may waive such prohibition. Any grant or denial of such waiver shall be made in writing within 30 days of receipt of the written request and shall state the reasons for such decision.

L. The Department may grant a temporary exemption from the requirement for licensure, certification, or registration for a period of not more than 30 days in a situation deemed an emergency by the Department.

M. All private security services businesses and private security services training schools in the Commonwealth shall include their license or certification number on all business advertising materials.

N. A licensed private security services business in the Commonwealth shall not employ as armored car personnel any person who has not complied with, or been exempted from, the compulsory minimum training standards established by the Board pursuant to subsection A of § 9.1-141, except such person may serve as a driver of an armored car for not more than 90 days while completing compulsory minimum training standards, provided such person does not possess or have access to a firearm while serving as a driver.

1976, c. 737, § 54-729.29; 1977, c. 376, § 54.1-1902; 1978, cc. 28, 428; 1984, cc. 57, 779; 1988, cc. 48, 765; 1991, c. 589; 1992, c. 578, § 9-183.3; 1994, cc. 45, 47, 810; 1995, c. 79; 1996, c. 541; 1998, cc. 53, 122, 807; 2000, c. 26; 2001, cc. 821, 844; 2002, cc. 578, 597; 2003, c. 124; 2004, c. 470; 2008, c. 638; 2015, c. 202; 2016, c. 561; 2018, c. 214.

§ 9.1-140. Exceptions from article; training requirements for out-of-state central station dispatchers.

The provisions of this article shall not apply to:

1. An officer or employee of the United States, the Commonwealth, or a political subdivision of either, while the officer or employee is performing his official duties;

2. A person, except a private investigator as defined in § 9.1-138, engaged exclusively in the business of obtaining and furnishing information regarding an individual's financial rating or a person engaged in the business of a consumer reporting agency as defined by the Federal Fair Credit Reporting Act;

3. An attorney licensed to practice in Virginia or his employees;

4. The legal owner of personal property which has been sold under any security agreement while performing acts relating to the repossession of such property;

5. A person receiving compensation for private employment as a security officer, or receiving compensation under the terms of a contract, express or implied, as a security officer, who is also a law-enforcement officer as defined by § 9.1-101 and employed by the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions;

6. Any person appointed under § 46.2-2003 or 56-353 while engaged in the employment contemplated thereunder, unless they have successfully completed training mandated by the Department;

7. Persons who conduct investigations as a part of the services being provided as a claims adjuster, by a claims adjuster who maintains an ongoing claims adjusting business, and any natural person employed by the claims adjuster to conduct investigations for the claims adjuster as a part of the services being provided as a claims adjuster;

8. Any natural person otherwise required to be registered pursuant to § 9.1-139 who is employed by a business that is not a private security services business for the performance of his duties for his employer. Any such employee, however, who carries a firearm and is in direct contact with the general public in the performance of his duties shall possess a valid registration with the Department as required by this article;

9. Persons, sometimes known as "shoppers," employed to purchase goods or services solely for the purpose of determining or assessing the efficiency, loyalty, courtesy, or honesty of the employees of a business establishment;

10. Licensed or registered private investigators from other states entering Virginia during an investigation originating in their state of licensure or registration when the other state offers similar reciprocity to private investigators licensed and registered by the Commonwealth;

11. Unarmed regular employees of telephone public service companies where the regular duties of such employees consist of protecting the property of their employers and investigating the usage of telephone services and equipment furnished by their employers, their employers' affiliates, and other communications common carriers;

12. An end user;

13. A material supplier who renders advice concerning the use of products sold by an electronics security business and who does not provide installation, monitoring, repair or maintenance services for electronic security equipment;

14. Members of the security forces who are directly employed by electric public service companies;

15. Any professional engineer or architect licensed in accordance with Chapter 4 (§ 54.1-400 et seq.) of Title 54.1 to practice in the Commonwealth, or his employees;

16. Any person who only performs telemarketing or schedules appointments without access to information concerning the electronic security equipment purchased by an end user;

17. Any certified forensic scientist employed as an expert witness for the purpose of possibly testifying as an expert witness;

18. Members of the security forces who are directly employed by shipyards engaged in the construction, design, overhaul or repair of nuclear vessels for the United States Navy;

19. An out-of-state central station dispatcher employed by a private security services business licensed by the Department provided he (i) possesses and maintains a valid license, registration, or certification as a central station dispatcher issued by the regulatory authority of the state in which he performs the monitoring duties and (ii) has submitted his fingerprints to the regulatory authority for the conduct of a national criminal history records search;

20. Any person, or independent contractor or employee of any person, who (i) exclusively contracts directly with an agency of the federal government to conduct background investigations and (ii) possesses credentials issued by such agency authorizing such person, subcontractor or employee to conduct background investigations;

21. Any person whose occupation is limited to the technical reconstruction of the cause of accidents involving motor vehicles as defined in § 46.2-100, regardless of whether the information resulting from the investigation is to be used before a court, board, officer, or investigative committee, and who is not otherwise a private investigator as defined in § 9.1-138;

22. Retail merchants performing locksmith services, selling locks or engaged in key cutting activities conducted at the business location who do not represent themselves to the general public as locksmiths;

23. Law-enforcement, fire, rescue, emergency service personnel, or other persons performing locksmith services in an emergency situation without compensation and who do not represent themselves to the general public as locksmiths;

24. Motor vehicle dealers as defined in § 46.2-1500 performing locksmith services who do not represent themselves to the general public as locksmiths;

25. Taxicab and towing businesses performing locksmith services that do not represent themselves to the general public as locksmiths;

26. Contractors licensed under Chapter 11 (§ 54.1-1100 et seq.) of Title 54.1 performing locksmith services when acting within the scope of such license who do not represent themselves to the general public as locksmiths;

27. Any contractor as defined in § 54.1-1100 (i) who is exempt from the licensure requirements of Chapter 11 (§ 54.1-1100 et seq.) of Title 54.1, (ii) where the total value referred to in a single contract or project is less than $1,000, (iii) when the performance of locksmith services is ancillary to the work performed by such contractor, and (iv) who does not represent himself to the general public as a locksmith;

28. Any individual, employed by a retail merchant that also holds a private security services business license as a locksmith, where such individual's duties relating to such license are limited to key cutting and the key cutting is performed under the direct supervision of the licensee;

29. Any individual engaged in (i) computer or digital forensic services as defined in § 9.1-138 or in the acquisition, review, or analysis of digital or computer-based information, in order to obtain or furnish information for evidentiary purposes or to provide expert testimony before a court, or (ii) network or system vulnerability testing, including network scans and risk assessment and analysis of computers connected to a network;

30. Employees and sales representatives of a retailer of electronic security equipment, provided such employees and sales representatives (i) sell electronic security equipment at a store location, online, or by telephone, but not at the end user's premises; (ii) are not electronic security technicians; and (iii) do not have access to end user confidential information regarding the end user's electronic security equipment; or

31. A certified public accountant authorized to practice in the Commonwealth under Chapter 44 (§ 54.1-4400 et seq.) of Title 54.1 or his employees.

1976, c. 737, § 54-729.28; 1977, c. 376, § 54.1-1901; 1981, c. 538; 1983, c. 569; 1984, c. 375; 1988, c. 765; 1992, c. 578, § 9-183.2; 1994, cc. 45, 810; 1995, c. 79; 1996, cc. 541, 543, 576; 1997, cc. 80, 204; 2000, c. 26; 2001, cc. 388, 650, 821, 844; 2002, cc. 578, 597; 2003, c. 136; 2008, c. 638; 2009, c. 225; 2011, c. 263; 2013, c. 411; 2014, c. 214.

§ 9.1-140.01. Exemption from training requirements; central station dispatchers employed by central stations certified by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory.

Central station dispatchers employed by a central station that is certified by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL) shall be exempt from the training requirements of this article. For the purposes of this section, "Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory" means the designation given by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to a private sector testing facility that provides product safety testing and certification services.

2014, c. 610.

§ 9.1-140.1. Registration; waiver of examination; locksmiths.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this article, unless an applicant is found by the Board to have engaged in any act that would constitute grounds for disciplinary action, the Board shall issue a registration, without examination, to any applicant who provides satisfactory proof to the Board of having been actively and continuously providing locksmith services immediately prior to July 1, 2008, for at least two years.

2008, c. 638.

§ 9.1-141. Powers of Board relating to private security services business.

A. The Board may adopt regulations in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.), establishing compulsory minimum, entry-level, in-service, and advanced training standards for persons employed by private security services businesses in classifications defined in § 9.1-138. The regulations may include provisions delegating to the Board's staff the right to inspect the facilities and programs of persons conducting training to ensure compliance with the law and Board regulations. In establishing compulsory training standards for each of the classifications defined in § 9.1-138, the Board shall be guided by the policy of this section to secure the public safety and welfare against incompetent or unqualified persons engaging in the activities regulated by this section and Article 4 (§ 9.1-138 et seq.) of this chapter. The regulations may provide for partial exemption from such compulsory, entry-level training for persons having previous employment as law-enforcement officers for a local, state or the federal government, to include units of the United States armed forces, or for persons employed in classifications defined in § 9.1-138. However, no such exemption shall be granted to persons having less than five continuous years of such employment, nor shall an exemption be provided for any person whose employment as a law-enforcement officer or whose employment as a private security services business employee was terminated because of his misconduct or incompetence. The regulations may include separate provisions for full exemption from compulsory training for persons having previous training that meets or exceeds the minimum training standards and has been approved by the Department. However, no such exemption shall be granted to persons whose employment as a private security services business employee was terminated because of his misconduct or incompetence. No regulation adopted by the Board shall prevent any person employed by an electronic security business, other than an alarm respondent, or as a locksmith from carrying a firearm in the course of his duties when such person carries with him a valid concealed handgun permit issued in accordance with Article 6.1 (§ 18.2-307.1 et seq.) of Chapter 7 of Title 18.2.

B. The Board may enter into an agreement with other states for reciprocity or recognition of private security services businesses and their employees, duly licensed by such states. The agreements shall allow those businesses and their employees to provide and perform private security services within the Commonwealth to secure the public safety and welfare against incompetent, unqualified, unscrupulous, or unfit persons engaging in the activities of private security services businesses.

C. The Board may adopt regulations in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) to secure the public safety and welfare against incompetent, unqualified, unscrupulous, or unfit persons engaging in the activities of private security services businesses that:

1. Establish the qualifications of applicants for registration, certification, or licensure under Article 4 (§ 9.1-138) of this chapter;

2. Examine, or cause to be examined, the qualifications of each applicant for registration, certification, or licensure, including when necessary the preparation, administration, and grading of examinations;

3. Certify qualified applicants for private security training schools and instructors or license qualified applicants as practitioners of private security services businesses;

4. Levy and collect fees for registration, certification, or licensure and renewal that are sufficient to cover all expenses for administration and operation of a program of registration, certification, and licensure for private security services businesses and training schools;

5. Are necessary to ensure continued competency, and to prevent deceptive or misleading practices by practitioners and effectively administer the regulatory system adopted by the Board;

6. Receive complaints concerning the conduct of any person whose activities are regulated by the Board, to conduct investigations, and to take appropriate disciplinary action if warranted; and

7. Revoke, suspend or fail to renew a registration, certification, or license for just cause as enumerated in Board regulations.

D. In adopting its regulations under subsections A and C, the Board shall seek the advice of the Private Security Services Advisory Board established pursuant to § 9.1-143.

1981, c. 632, § 9-182; 1990, c. 354; 1992, c. 578; 1994, cc. 45, 335, 810; 1995, c. 79; 1998, cc. 122, 807; 2001, c. 844; 2009, c. 375; 2013, c. 69; 2014, c. 32.

§ 9.1-142. Powers of Department relating to private security services businesses.

A. In addition to the powers otherwise conferred upon it by law, the Department may:

1. Charge each applicant for licensure, certification or registration a nonrefundable fee as established by the Board to cover the costs of the Department for processing an application for a registration, certification or license, and enforcement of these regulations, and other costs associated with the maintenance of this program of regulation.

2. Charge nonrefundable fees for private security services training as established by the Board for processing school certifications and enforcement of training standards.

3. Conduct investigations to determine the suitability of applicants for registration, licensure, or certification of compliance agents, training schools, and instructors. For purposes of this investigation, the Department shall have access to criminal history record information maintained by the Central Criminal Records Exchange of the Department of State Police and shall conduct a background investigation, to include a National Criminal Records search and a Virginia Criminal History Records search.

4. Issue subpoenas. The Director or a designated subordinate may make an ex parte application to the circuit court for the city or county wherein evidence sought is kept or wherein a licensee does business, for the issuance of a subpoena duces tecum in furtherance of the investigation of a sworn complaint within the jurisdiction of the Department or the Board to request production of any relevant records, documents and physical or other evidence of any person, partnership, association or corporation licensed or regulated by the Department pursuant to this article. The court may issue and compel compliance with such a subpoena upon a showing of reasonable cause. Upon determining that reasonable cause exists to believe that evidence may be destroyed or altered, the court may issue a subpoena duces tecum requiring the immediate production of evidence.

5. Recover costs of the investigation and adjudication of violations of this article or Board regulations. Such costs may be recovered from the respondent when a sanction is imposed to fine or place on probation, suspend, revoke, or deny the issuance of any license, certification, or registration. Such costs shall be in addition to any monetary penalty which may be imposed. All costs recovered shall be deposited into the state treasury to the credit of the Private Security Services Regulatory Fund.

6. Institute proceedings to enjoin any person from engaging in any lawful act enumerated in § 9.1-147. Such proceedings shall be brought in the name of the Commonwealth by the Department in circuit court of the city or county in which the unlawful act occurred or in which the defendant resides.

B. The Director, or agents appointed by him, shall be vested with the authority to administer oaths or affirmations for the purpose of receiving complaints and conducting investigations of violations of this article, or any Board regulation promulgated pursuant to authority given by this article. Information concerning alleged criminal violations shall be turned over to law-enforcement officers in appropriate jurisdictions. Agents shall be vested with authority to serve such paper or process issued by the Department or the Board under regulations approved by the Board.

1976, c. 737, § 54-729.30; 1977, c. 376, § 54.1-1903; 1984, cc. 57, 779; 1985, c. 448; 1988, c. 765; 1991, c. 589; 1992, c. 578, § 9-183.4; 1994, c. 46; 1998, cc. 122, 807; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-143. Private Security Services Advisory Board; membership.

The Private Security Services Advisory Board is established as an advisory board within the meaning of § 2.2-2100, in the executive branch of state government. The Private Security Services Advisory Board shall consist of 15 members as follows: two members shall be private investigators; two shall be representatives of electronic security businesses; two members shall be representatives of locksmith businesses; three shall be representatives of private security services businesses providing security officers, armed couriers, detector canine handlers, or security canine handlers; one shall be a representative of a private security services business providing armored car personnel; one shall be a representative of a private security services business involving personal protection specialists; one shall be a certified private security services instructor; one shall be a special conservator of the peace appointed pursuant to § 19.2-13; one shall be a licensed bail bondsman and one shall be a representative of law enforcement. The Private Security Services Advisory Board shall be appointed by the Criminal Justice Services Board and shall advise the Criminal Justice Services Board on all issues relating to regulation of private security services businesses.

1976, c. 737, § 54-729.30; 1977, c. 376, § 54.1-1904; 1984, cc. 57, 779; 1985, c. 448; 1988, c. 765; 1992, c. 578, § 9-183.5; 1994, c. 810; 1997, c. 79; 2001, c. 844; 2003, c. 922; 2004, c. 460; 2008, c. 638; 2009, c. 375.

§ 9.1-144. Insurance required.

In order for his license or certificate to be operative, any person licensed as a private security services business under subsection A of § 9.1-139 or certified as a private security services training school under subsection B of § 9.1-139 shall file with the Department evidence of a policy of liability insurance in an amount and with coverage as fixed by the Department. The liability insurance shall be maintained for so long as the licensee or certificate holder is licensed or certified by the Department.

Every personal protection specialist and private investigator who has been issued a registration by the Department and is hired as an independent contractor by a licensed private security services business shall maintain comprehensive general liability insurance in a reasonable amount to be fixed by the Department, evidence of which shall be provided to the private security services business prior to the hiring of such independent contractor pursuant to subsection C of § 9.1-139.

1976, c. 737, § 54-729.31; 1988, c. 765, § 54.1-1905; 1992, c. 578, § 9-183.6; 1998, cc. 122, 807; 2001, c. 844; 2015, c. 202; 2018, c. 214.

§ 9.1-145. Fingerprints required; penalty.

A. Each applicant for initial registration, licensure or certification as a compliance agent, private security services training school or instructor or unarmed security officer under the provisions of this article and every person employed as an electronic security employee or electronic security technician's assistant shall submit his fingerprints to the Department on a form provided by the Department. The Department shall use the applicant's fingerprints and personal descriptive information for the conduct of a National Criminal Records search and a Virginia Criminal History Records search.

B. Each currently certified unarmed security officer applying for renewal between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2004, shall submit his fingerprints to the Department on a form provided by the Department. The Department shall use the applicant's fingerprints and personal descriptive information for the conduct of a National Criminal Records search and a Virginia Criminal History Records search.

C. The Department may suspend the registration, license or certification of any applicant who is subsequently convicted of a misdemeanor involving (i) moral turpitude, (ii) assault and battery, (iii) damage to real or personal property, (iv) controlled substances or imitation controlled substances as defined in Article 1 (§ 18.2-247 et seq.) of Chapter 7 of Title 18.2, (v) prohibited sexual behavior as described in Article 7 (§ 18.2-61 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of Title 18.2, or (vi) firearms or any felony.

D. Any person willfully and intentionally making a false statement in the personal descriptive information required on the fingerprint card is guilty of a Class 5 felony.

1976, c. 737, § 54-729.32; 1988, c. 765, § 54.1-1906; 1992, c. 578, § 9-183.7; 1994, c. 810; 1995, c. 79; 1998, cc. 122, 807; 2001, c. 844; 2002, cc. 578, 597.

§ 9.1-146. Limitation on powers of registered armed security officers.

Compliance with the provisions of this article shall not itself authorize any person to carry a concealed weapon or exercise any powers of a conservator of the peace. A registered armed security officer of a private security services business while at a location which the business is contracted to protect shall have the power to effect an arrest for an offense occurring (i) in his presence on such premises or (ii) in the presence of a merchant, agent, or employee of the merchant the private security business has contracted to protect, if the merchant, agent, or employee had probable cause to believe that the person arrested had shoplifted or committed willful concealment of goods as contemplated by § 18.2-106. For the purposes of § 19.2-74, a registered armed security officer of a private security services business shall be considered an arresting officer.

1976, c. 737, § 54-729.33; 1978, c. 560, § 54.1-1907; 1980, c. 425; 1988, cc. 48, 765; 1992, c. 578, § 9-183.8; 1994, c. 45; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-147. Unlawful conduct generally; penalty.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to:

1. Practice any trade or profession licensed, certified or registered under this article without obtaining the necessary license, certification or registration required by statute or regulation;

2. Materially misrepresent facts in an application for licensure, certification or registration;

3. Willfully refuse to furnish the Department information or records required or requested pursuant to statute or regulation; and

4. Violate any statute or regulation governing the practice of the private security services businesses or training schools regulated by this article.

B. Any person who is convicted of willful violation of subsection A shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. Any person convicted of a third or subsequent offense under this section during a thirty-six-month period shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony.

1992, c. 578, § 9-183.11; 1998, cc. 122, 807; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-148. Unlawful procurement of a license; penalty.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to:

1. Procure, or assist another to procure, through theft, fraud or other illegal means, a registration or license, by giving to, or receiving from, any person any information, oral, written or printed, during the administration of the examination, which is intended to, or will, assist any person taking the examination in passing the examination and obtaining the required registration or license;

2. Attempt to procure, through theft, fraud or other illegal means, any questions intended to be used by the Department conducting the examination, or the answers to the questions;

3. Promise or offer any valuable or other consideration to a person having access to the questions or answers as an inducement to procure for delivery to the promisor, or any other person, a copy of any questions or answers.

B. No person, other than a designee of the Department, shall procure or have in his possession prior to the beginning of an examination, without written authority of the Department, any question intended to be used by the Department, or receive or furnish to any person taking the examination, prior to or during the examination, any written or printed material purporting to be answers to, or aid in answering such questions;

C. If an examination is divided into separate parts, each of the parts shall be deemed an examination for the purposes of this section.

D. Any person convicted of a violation of subsections A or B shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

1992, c. 578, § 9-183.10; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-149. Unlicensed activity prohibited; penalty.

A. No person:

1. Required to possess a registration under subsection C of § 9.1-139 shall be employed by a private security services business, except as provided in this article, as armored car personnel, courier, armed security officer, security canine handler, personal protection specialist, private investigator, alarm respondent, central station dispatcher, electronic security sales representative or electronic security technician without possessing a valid registration.

2. Licensed or required to be licensed under subsection A of § 9.1-139 shall employ or otherwise utilize, except as provided in this article, as armored car personnel, courier, armed security officer, security canine handler, personal protection specialist, private investigator, alarm respondent, central station dispatcher, electronic security sales representative or electronic security technician, any person not possessing a valid registration.

3. Required to possess an instructor certification under subsection D of § 9.1-139 shall provide mandated instruction, except as provided in § 9.1-141 and Board regulations, without possessing a valid private security instructor certification.

4. Certified or required to be certified as a private security services training school under subsection B of § 9.1-139 shall employ or otherwise utilize, except as provided in § 9.1-141 and Board regulations, as a private security instructor, any person not possessing a valid instructor certification.

B. No compliance agent employed or otherwise utilized by a person licensed or required to be licensed under subsection A of § 9.1-139 shall:

1. Employ or otherwise utilize as an unarmed security officer, except as provided in this article, any individual for whom the compliance agent does not possess documentary evidence of compliance with, or exemption from, the compulsory minimum training standards established by the Board for unarmed security officers and before January 1, 2003, maintain documentary evidence that an investigation to determine suitability has been conducted.

2. Employ or otherwise utilize as an electronic security technician's assistant, except as provided in this article, any individual for whom the compliance agent does not possess documentary evidence of compliance with, or exemption from, the compulsory minimum training standards established by the Board for electronic security technician's assistants.

C. Any person convicted of a violation of subsections A or B shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

1976, c. 737, § 54-729.34; 1980, c. 425, § 54.1-1908; 1988, cc. 48, 765; 1992, c. 578, § 9-183.9; 1994, cc. 45, 810; 1995, c. 79; 1998, cc. 122, 807; 2001, c. 844; 2002, cc. 578, 597.

§ 9.1-149.1. Unlawful advertisement for regulated services; notice; penalty.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to place before the public through any medium an advertisement for services in the Commonwealth requiring a license, certification, or registration under this article unless the individual who will perform such services possesses the necessary license, certification, or registration at the time of the posting.

B. Whenever the Board receives information that an advertisement has been placed in violation of this section, the Board shall provide notice to the entity publishing the advertisement to the public.

C. Any person who is convicted of a violation of subsection A is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

2014, c. 396.

§ 9.1-150. Monetary penalty.

Any person required to be licensed, certified or registered by the Board pursuant to this article who violates any statute or Board regulation who is not criminally prosecuted is subject to the monetary penalty provided in this section. If the Board determines that such person has violated any statute or Board regulation, the Board shall determine the amount of the monetary penalty for the violation, which shall not exceed $2,500 for each violation. The penalty may be sued for and recovered in the name of the Commonwealth. The monetary penalty shall be paid into the state treasury to the credit of the Literary Fund in accordance with § 19.2-353.

1992, c. 578, § 9-183.12; 1994, c. 810; 1998, cc. 122, 807; 2001, c. 844; 2011, cc. 821, 854.

Article 4.1. Special Conservators of the Peace.

§ 9.1-150.1. Definitions.

In addition to the definitions set forth in § 9.1-101, as used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Special conservator of the peace" means any individual appointed pursuant to § 19.2-13 on or after September 15, 2004.

2003, c. 922.

§ 9.1-150.2. Powers of Criminal Justice Services Board relating to special conservators of the peace appointed pursuant to § 19.2-13.

The Board shall adopt regulations establishing compulsory minimum, entry-level, in-service, and advanced training standards for special conservators of the peace. The regulations may include provisions delegating to the Board's staff the right to inspect the facilities and programs of persons conducting training to ensure compliance with the law and its regulations. In establishing compulsory training standards for special conservators of the peace, the Board shall require training to be obtained at a criminal justice training academy established pursuant to § 15.2-1747, or at a private security training school certified by the Department, and shall ensure the public safety and welfare against incompetent or unqualified persons engaging in the activities regulated by this section. The regulations may provide for exemption from training of persons having previous employment as law-enforcement officers for a state or the federal government. However, no such exemption shall be granted to persons having less than five continuous years of such employment, nor shall an exemption be provided for any person whose employment as a law-enforcement officer was terminated because of his misconduct or incompetence or who has been decertified as a law-enforcement officer. The regulations may include provisions for exemption from such training for persons having previous training that meets or exceeds the minimum training standards and has been approved by the Department. The Board may also adopt regulations that (i) establish the qualifications of applicants for registration; (ii) cause to be examined the qualifications of each applicant for registration; (iii) provide for collection of fees for registration and renewal that are sufficient to cover all expenses for administration and operation of a program of registration; (iv) ensure continued competency and prevent deceptive or misleading practices by practitioners; (v) effectively administer the regulatory system promulgated by the Board; (vi) provide for receipt of complaints concerning the conduct of any person whose activities are regulated by the Board; (vii) provide for investigations, and appropriate disciplinary action if warranted; and (viii) allow the Board to revoke, suspend or refuse to renew a registration, certification, or license for just cause as enumerated in regulations of the Board. The Board shall adopt compulsory, entry-level training standards that shall not exceed, but shall be a minimum of 98 hours for unarmed special conservators of the peace and that shall not exceed, but shall be a minimum of 130 hours for armed special conservators of the peace. In adopting its regulations, the Board shall seek the advice of the Private Security Services Advisory Board established pursuant to § 9.1-143.

2003, c. 922; 2015, cc. 766, 772.

§ 9.1-150.3. Powers of Department of Criminal Justice Services relating to special conservators of the peace appointed pursuant to § 19.2-13.

A. In addition to the powers otherwise conferred upon it by law, the Department may (i) charge each applicant for registration a nonrefundable fee as established by the Board to cover the costs of the Department for processing an application for registration, and enforcement of the regulations, and other costs associated with the maintenance of the program of regulation; (ii) charge nonrefundable fees for private security services training as established by the Board for processing school certifications and enforcement of training standards; and (iii) conduct investigations to determine the suitability of applicants for registration, including a drug and alcohol screening. For purposes of this investigation, the Department shall require the applicant to provide personal descriptive information to be forwarded, along with the applicant's fingerprints, to the Central Criminal Records Exchange for the purpose of conducting a Virginia criminal history records search. The Central Criminal Records Exchange shall forward the fingerprints and personal description to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the purpose of obtaining a national criminal record check.

B. The Director or his designee may make an ex parte application to the circuit court for the city or county wherein evidence sought is kept or wherein a licensee does business for the issuance of a subpoena duces tecum in furtherance of the investigation of a sworn complaint within the jurisdiction of the Department or the Board to request production of any relevant records, documents and physical or other evidence of any person, partnership, association or corporation licensed or regulated by the Department pursuant to this article. The court may issue and compel compliance with such a subpoena upon a showing of reasonable cause. Upon determining that reasonable cause exists to believe that evidence may be destroyed or altered, the court may issue a subpoena duces tecum requiring the immediate production of evidence. Costs of the investigation and adjudication of violations of this article or Board regulations may be recovered. All costs recovered shall be deposited into the state treasury to the credit of the Conservators of the Peace Regulatory Fund. Such proceedings shall be brought in the name of the Commonwealth by the Department in the circuit court of the city or county in which the unlawful act occurred or in which the defendant resides. The Director, or agents appointed by him, shall have the authority to administer oaths or affirmations for the purpose of receiving complaints and conducting investigations of violations of this article, or any regulation promulgated hereunder and to serve process issued by the Department or the Board.

2003, c. 922.

§ 9.1-150.4. Unlawful conduct; penalties.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to (i) misrepresent facts in an application for registration; (ii) willfully refuse to furnish the Department information or records required or requested pursuant to statute or regulation; or (iii) violate any statute or regulation governing the practice of special conservators of the peace regulated by this article or § 19.2-13.

B. Any person registered by the Department pursuant to § 19.2-13 who the Department or the Board determines has violated any statute or Board regulation and who is not criminally prosecuted shall be subject to a monetary penalty not to exceed $2,500 for each violation. The penalty may be sued for and recovered in the name of the Commonwealth and shall be paid into the state treasury to the credit of the Literary Fund in accordance with § 19.2-353.

C. Any person who is convicted of a willful violation of the provisions of this article or § 19.2-13 is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. Any person convicted of a third or subsequent offense under this article or § 19.2-13 during a 36-month period is guilty of a Class 6 felony.

2003, c. 922.

Article 5. Court-Appointed Special Advocate Program.

§ 9.1-151. Court-Appointed Special Advocate Program; appointment of advisory committee.

A. There is established a Court-Appointed Special Advocate Program (the Program) that shall be administered by the Department. The Program shall provide services in accordance with this article to children who are subjects of judicial proceedings (i) involving allegations that the child is abused, neglected, in need of services, or in need of supervision or (ii) for the restoration of parental rights pursuant to § 16.1-283.2 and for whom the juvenile and domestic relations district court judge determines such services are appropriate. Court-Appointed Special Advocate volunteer appointments may continue for youth 18 years of age and older who are in foster care if the court has retained jurisdiction pursuant to subsection Z of § 16.1-241 or § 16.1-242 and the juvenile and domestic relations district court judge determines such services are appropriate. The Department shall adopt regulations necessary and appropriate for the administration of the Program.

B. The Board shall appoint an Advisory Committee to the Court-Appointed Special Advocate Program, consisting of 15 members, one of whom shall be a judge of the juvenile and domestic relations district court or circuit court, knowledgeable of court matters, child welfare, and juvenile justice issues and representative of both state and local interests. The duties of the Advisory Committee shall be to advise the Board on all matters relating to the Program and the needs of the clients served by the Program, and to make such recommendations as it may deem desirable.

1990, c. 752, § 9-173.6; 1994, c. 24; 2001, c. 844; 2013, cc. 338, 685; 2014, c. 636; 2016, c. 202; 2020, cc. 95, 732.

§ 9.1-152. Local court-appointed special advocate programs; powers and duties.

A. The Department shall provide a portion of any funding appropriated for this purpose to applicants seeking to establish and operate a local court-appointed special advocate program in their respective judicial districts. Only local programs operated in accordance with this article shall be eligible to receive state funds.

B. Local programs may be established and operated by local boards created for this purpose. Local boards shall ensure conformance to regulations adopted by the Board and may:

1. Solicit and accept financial support from public and private sources.

2. Oversee the financial and program management of the local court-appointed special advocate program.

3. Employ and supervise a director who shall serve as a professional liaison to personnel of the court and agencies serving children.

4. Employ such staff as is necessary to the operation of the program.

1990, c. 752, § 9-173.7; 1991, c. 421; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-153. Volunteer court-appointed special advocates; powers and duties; assignment; qualifications; training.

A. Services in each local court-appointed special advocate program shall be provided by volunteer court-appointed special advocates, hereinafter referred to as advocates. The advocate's duties shall include:

1. Investigating the case to which he is assigned to provide independent factual information to the court.

2. Submitting to the court of a written report of his investigation in compliance with the provisions of § 16.1-274. The report may, upon request of the court, include recommendations as to the child's welfare.

3. Monitoring the case to which he is assigned to ensure compliance with the court's orders.

4. Assisting the guardian ad litem appointed to represent the child in providing effective representation of the child's needs and best interests.

5. Reporting a suspected abused or neglected child pursuant to § 63.2-1509.

B. The advocate is not a party to the case to which he is assigned and shall not call witnesses or examine witnesses. The advocate shall not, with respect to the case to which he is assigned, provide legal counsel or advice to any person, appear as counsel in court or in proceedings which are part of the judicial process, or engage in the unauthorized practice of law. The advocate may testify if called as a witness.

C. The program director shall assign an advocate to a child when requested to do so by the judge of the juvenile and domestic relations district court having jurisdiction over the proceedings. The advocate shall continue his association with each case to which he is assigned until relieved of his duties by the court or by the program director. The program director may assign an advocate to attend and participate in family partnership meetings as defined by the Department of Social Services and in meetings of family assessment and planning teams established pursuant to § 2.2-5208, multidisciplinary child sexual abuse response teams established pursuant to § 15.2-1627.5, individualized education program teams established pursuant to Article 2 (§ 22.1-213 et seq.) of Chapter 13 of Title 22.1, and multidisciplinary teams established pursuant to §§ 63.2-1503 and 63.2-1505.

D. The Department shall adopt regulations governing the qualifications of advocates who for purposes of administering this subsection shall be deemed to be criminal justice employees. The regulations shall require that an advocate be at least twenty-one years of age and that the program director shall obtain with the approval of the court (i) a copy of his criminal history record or certification that no conviction data are maintained on him and (ii) a copy of information from the central registry maintained pursuant to § 63.2-1515 on any investigation of child abuse or neglect undertaken on him or certification that no such record is maintained on him. Advocates selected prior to the adoption of regulations governing qualifications shall meet the minimum requirements set forth in this article.

E. An advocate shall have no associations which create a conflict of interests or the appearance of such a conflict with his duties as an advocate. No advocate shall be assigned to a case of a child whose family has a professional or personal relationship with the advocate. Questions concerning conflicts of interests shall be determined in accordance with regulations adopted by the Department.

F. No applicant shall be assigned as an advocate until successful completion of a program of training required by regulations. The Department shall set standards for both basic and ongoing training.

1990, c. 752, § 9-173.8; 1994, cc. 700, 830; 1997, c. 606; 1999, c. 606; 2001, c. 844; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 177.

§ 9.1-154. Immunity.

No staff of or volunteers participating in a program, whether or not compensated, shall be subject to personal liability while acting within the scope of their duties, except for gross negligence or intentional misconduct.

1990, c. 752, § 9-173.10; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-155. Notice of hearings and proceedings.

The provision of § 16.1-264 regarding notice to parties shall apply to ensure that an advocate is notified of hearings and other proceedings concerning the case to which he is assigned.

1990, c. 752, § 9-173.9; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-156. Inspection and copying of records by advocate; confidentiality of records.

A. Upon presentation by the advocate of the order of his appointment and upon specific court order, any state or local agency, department, authority, or institution, and any hospital, school, physician, or other health or mental health care provider shall permit the advocate to inspect and copy, without the consent of the child or his parents, any records relating to the child involved in the case. Upon the advocate presenting to the mental health provider the order of the advocate's appointment and, upon specific court order, in lieu of the advocate inspecting and copying any related records of the child involved, the mental health care provider shall be available within seventy-two hours to conduct for the advocate a review and an interpretation of the child's treatment records which are specifically related to the investigation.

B. An advocate shall not disclose the contents of any document or record to which he becomes privy, which is otherwise confidential pursuant to the provisions of this Code, except (i) upon order of a court of competent jurisdiction or (ii) if the advocate has been assigned pursuant to subsection C of § 9.1-153 to attend and participate in family partnership meetings as defined by the Department of Social Services or in meetings of family assessment and planning teams established pursuant to § 2.2-5208, multidisciplinary child sexual abuse response teams established pursuant to § 15.2-1627.5, individualized education program teams established pursuant to Article 2 (§ 22.1-213 et seq.) of Chapter 13 of Title 22.1, or multidisciplinary teams established pursuant to §§ 63.2-1503 and 63.2-1505, the advocate may verbally disclose any information contained in such document or record related to the child to which he is assigned at such meetings, provided that such information shall not be disclosed further.

1990, c. 752, §§ 9-173.11, 9-173.12; 1995, c. 490; 2001, c. 844; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 177.

§ 9.1-157. Cooperation of state and local entities.

All state and local departments, agencies, authorities, and institutions shall cooperate with the Department and with each local court-appointed special advocate program to facilitate its implementation of the Program.

1990, c. 752, § 9-173.13; 2001, c. 844.

Article 6. Crime Prevention Programs.

§ 9.1-158. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2011, cc. 821 and 854, cl. 2.

§ 9.1-161. Crime prevention specialists; duties.

The Board shall adopt regulations establishing minimum standards for certification of crime prevention specialists. Such regulations shall require that the chief law-enforcement officer of the locality or the campus police departments of institutions of higher education established by Article 3 (§ 23.1-809 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of Title 23.1 wherein the person serves shall approve the certification before a candidate for certification may serve as a crime prevention specialist. A crime prevention specialist shall have the duty to:

1. Provide citizens living within his jurisdiction information concerning personal safety and the security of property, and other matters relating to the reduction of criminal opportunity;

2. Provide business establishments within his jurisdiction information concerning business and employee security, and other matters relating to reduction of criminal activity;

3. Provide citizens and businesses within his jurisdiction assistance in forming and maintaining neighborhood and business watch groups and other community-based crime prevention programs;

4. Provide assistance to other units of government within his jurisdiction in developing plans and procedures related to the reduction of criminal activity within government and the community; and

5. Promote the reduction and prevention of crime within his jurisdiction and the Commonwealth.

1994, cc. 60, 868, § 9-173.19; 2001, c. 844; 2004, c. 466.

§ 9.1-162. Eligibility for crime prevention specialists.

Any employee of a local, state or federal government agency who serves in a law-enforcement, crime prevention or criminal justice capacity is eligible to be trained and certified as a crime prevention specialist.

The chief executive of any local, state or federal government agency may designate one or more employees in his department or office, who serves in a law-enforcement, crime prevention or criminal justice capacity, to be trained and certified as a crime prevention specialist.

No person who is a candidate for certification shall serve as a crime prevention specialist unless his certification is approved by the chief law-enforcement officer of the locality wherein the person serves.

1994, cc. 60, 868, § 9-173.20; 2001, c. 844; 2002, c. 209; 2004, c. 466.

Article 7. Detoxification Programs.

§ 9.1-163. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2011, cc. 821 and 854.

Article 8. Law-Enforcement Expenditures.

§ 9.1-165. Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Adjusted crime index" means the potential crime rate for a locality multiplied by the base year population of the locality as estimated by the Center for Public Service.

"Average crime rate" for a city or eligible county means the annual average number of violent and property index crimes per 100,000 persons, as reported by the Superintendent of State Police, for the base year and the fiscal year immediately preceding, and the fiscal year immediately following, the base year. If the data are not available for the fiscal year immediately following the base year, the average shall be based on the base year and the two immediately preceding fiscal years.

"Base year" means the most recent fiscal year for which comparable data are available for: (i) population estimates by the Center for Public Service or the United States Bureau of the Census, adjusted for annexation as determined by the Department, (ii) actual state expenditures for salaries and expenses of sheriffs as reported by the Compensation Board, (iii) number of persons eligible for Temporary Assistance to Needy Families as defined in § 63.2-100, (iv) number of persons in foster care, as defined in § 63.2-100, and (v) the number of persons receiving maintenance payments in a general relief program as defined in § 63.2-100.

"Distribution formula" means that linear equation derived biennially by the Department, using standard statistical procedures, which best predicts average crime rates in all cities and eligible counties in the Commonwealth on the basis of the following factors in their simplest form:

1. The total base year number of (i) persons enrolled in Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, (ii) persons in foster care, and (iii) persons receiving maintenance payments in a general relief program, per 100,000 base year population; and

2. The local population density, based on the base year population estimates of the Center for Public Service, adjusted for annexation as determined by the Department, and the land area in square miles of the city or eligible county as reported by the United States Census Bureau, adjusted for annexation as determined by the Department.

"Eligible county" means any county which operates a police department.

"Police department" means that organization established by ordinance by a local governing body that is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime, the apprehension of criminals, the safeguard of life and property, the preservation of peace and the enforcement of state and local laws, regulations, and ordinances. Such department shall have a chief of police, which in the case of counties may be the sheriff, and such officers, privates, and other personnel as may be provided for in the ordinance, one sworn member of which shall be a full-time employee. All law-enforcement officers serving as members of such police department, whether full-time or part-time, and whether permanently or temporarily employed, shall meet the minimum training standards established pursuant to §§ 9.1-102 and 9.1-114, unless such personnel are exempt from the minimum training standards as provided in §§ 9.1-113 and 9.1-116. Any police department established subsequent to July 1, 1981, shall also have, at a minimum, one officer on duty at all times for the purposes set forth above.

However, notwithstanding any contrary provision of this definition,

1. Any locality receiving funds under this article during the 1980-82 biennium shall be considered to have a valid police department eligible for funds as long as such police department continues in operation;

2. Any town receiving funds under this article during the 1986-1988 biennium shall be considered to have a valid police department eligible for funds even though police services for such town may thereafter be provided by the sheriff of the county in which the town is located by agreement made pursuant to § 15.2-1726. Eligibility for funds under this subdivision shall last as long as such agreement remains in effect. Police services for the town furnished by the sheriff shall be equal to or greater than the police services last furnished by the town's police department.

"Population served by police departments" means the total base year population of the Commonwealth less the population served by sheriffs only.

"Population served by sheriffs only" means the total base year population of those counties without a police department, less the latest available estimate from the United States Bureau of the Census of the total population of towns, or portions of towns, having police departments, located in such counties.

"Potential crime rate" means the number of crimes per 100,000 persons in the base year population for each city or eligible county, as derived from the distribution formula.

"State aid to localities with police" means that amount which bears the same relationship to the population served by police departments as state aid to sheriff-only localities bears to the population served by sheriffs only.

"State aid to sheriff-only localities" means the estimated total amount for salaries and expenses to be paid by the Commonwealth, pursuant to Article 3 (§ 15.2-1609 et seq.) of Chapter 16 of Title 15.2, to sheriffs' offices in those counties without a police department, based on the actual percentage of total state expenditures in the base year distributed to those counties without police departments.

1979, c. 83, § 14.1-84.2; 1981, c. 485; 1982, c. 600; 1984, c. 779; 1985, c. 140; 1989, cc. 84, 292; 1998, c. 872, § 9-183.14; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-166. Local governments to receive state funds for law enforcement.

The Department of the Treasury shall disburse funds to cities, towns and counties, to aid in the law-enforcement expenditures of those local governments, pursuant to the terms of this article.

1979, c. 83, § 14.1-84.1; 1981, c. 485; 1998, c. 872, § 9-183.13; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-167. Calculation of adjusted crime index; use.

By January 1 of each even-numbered year, the Department, using the relevant base year data, shall calculate the adjusted crime index for each city and each eligible county. Such calculation shall be used for the succeeding fiscal biennium adjusted for annexation as determined by the Department.

1979, c. 83, § 14.1-84.3; 1981, c. 485; 1989, c. 84; 1998, c. 872, § 9-183.15; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-168. Eligibility for funds.

A. Any city, county, or town establishing a police department shall provide the Department written notice of its intent to seek state funds in accordance with the provisions of this article. Such city, county, or town shall become eligible to receive funds at the beginning of the next fiscal year which commences not sooner than twelve months after the filing of this notice.

B. No city, county, or town shall receive any funds in accordance with the terms of this article unless it notifies the Department prior to July 1 each year that its law-enforcement personnel, whether full-time or part-time and whether permanently or temporarily employed, have complied with the minimum training standards as provided in §§ 9.1-102 and 9.1-114, unless such personnel are exempt from the minimum training standards as provided in §§ 9.1-113 and 9.1-116 or that an effort will be made to have its law-enforcement personnel comply with such minimum training standards during the ensuing fiscal year. Any city, county, or town failing to make an effort to comply with the minimum training standards may be declared ineligible for funding in the succeeding fiscal year by the Department.

C. A change in the form of government from city to tier-city shall not preclude the successor tier-city which continues to provide a police department from eligibility for funds.

D. Any county consolidated under the provisions of Chapter 35 (§ 15.2-3500 et seq.) of Title 15.2 shall be eligible to receive financial assistance for law-enforcement expenditures subject to the provisions of this article. The consolidated county shall be eligible to receive, on behalf of the formerly incorporated towns that became shires, boroughs or special service tax districts within the consolidated county, law-enforcement assistance under the provisions of this article, provided that the consolidation agreement approved pursuant to Chapter 35 (§ 15.2-3500 et seq.) of Title 15.2 provides for the additional law-enforcement governmental services previously provided by the police department of such incorporated towns.

1981, c. 485, § 14.1-84.6:1; 1982, c. 600; 1983, c. 4, § 14.1-84.6:2; 1984, cc. 695, 779; 1998, c. 872, §§ 9-183.19, 9-183.20; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-169. Total amount and method of distribution of funds to counties and cities.

A. The total amount of funds to be distributed as determined by the Department shall be equal to the amount of state aid to localities with police, as defined in § 9.1-165, minus (i) the salaries and expenses of sheriffs' offices in such cities and counties as estimated pursuant to Article 3 (§ 15.2-1609 et seq.) of Chapter 16 of Title 15.2 and (ii) five percent of the remainder, which shall be placed in a discretionary fund to be administered as specified in § 9.1-171. However, the percentage change in the total amount of funds to be distributed for any fiscal year from the preceding fiscal year shall be equal to the anticipated percentage change in total general fund revenue collections for the same time period as stated in the appropriation act.

B. Each city and eligible county shall receive a percentage of such total amount to be distributed equal to the percentage of the total adjusted crime index attributable to such city or county. Payments to the cities and eligible counties shall be made in equal quarterly installments by the State Treasurer on warrants issued by the Comptroller. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, the General Assembly, through the appropriation act, may appropriate specific dollar amounts to provide financial assistance to localities with police departments.

1979, c. 83, § 14.1-84.4; 1981, c. 485; 1986, c. 235; 1998, c. 872, § 9-183.16; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-170. Distribution of funds to towns.

A. Towns located in eligible counties and which have police departments shall receive a percentage of the funds distributed to the county in accordance with § 9.1-169, such percentage to be equal to the ratio of the town's population as determined by the Department to the total population of the county.

B. Towns located in noneligible counties shall be assigned an adjusted crime index based on their population and the average of the three lowest predicted crime rates for cities. Such towns shall receive funds based on such adjusted crime index in the same manner as cities and eligible counties as provided in § 9.1-169.

1979, c. 83, § 14.1-84.5; 1981, c. 485; 1998, c. 872, § 9-183.17; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-171. Distribution of discretionary fund.

In the case of a city with a population of more than 200,000 receiving per capita aid for law enforcement in accordance with § 9.1-169 of less than sixty-five percent of the average per capita aid to law enforcement received by all other cities with a population of more than 200,000 under such provisions, exclusive of amounts payable by reason of this section, the discretionary fund established by § 9.1-169 shall first be used to pay such city an aggregate sum so as to make its per capita receipts for law enforcement under § 9.1-169 equal to sixty-five percent of the average per capita aid for law enforcement disbursed to all other cities with a population of more than 200,000. The remainder, if any, shall be distributed per capita among (i) cities with populations under 200,000, (ii) eligible counties, and (iii) towns having police departments.

1979, c. 83, § 14.1-84.6; 1981, c. 485; 1998, c. 872, § 9-183.18; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-172. Periodic determination of weights and constants.

Prior to the convening of the General Assembly in each even-numbered year, the Department shall determine whether the variables incorporated in the equation used in the distribution formula are statistically acceptable for such computation, and to determine whether any other variables would be better predictors of crime. If, as a result of this research, the Department determines that the variables used in the equation should be changed, it shall recommend to the General Assembly appropriate legislation to accomplish this change.

1979, c. 83, § 14.1-84.7; 1981, c. 485; 1998, c. 872, § 9-183.21; 2001, c. 844.

Article 9. Comprehensive Community Corrections Act for Local-Responsible Offenders.

§ 9.1-173. Purpose.

It is the purpose of this article to enable any city, county or combination thereof to develop, establish, and maintain a local community-based probation services agency to provide the judicial system with sentencing alternatives for certain misdemeanants or persons convicted of felonies that are not felony acts of violence, as defined in § 19.2-297.1 and sentenced pursuant to § 19.2-303.3, for whom the court imposes a sentence of 12 months or less and who may require less than institutional custody.

The article shall be interpreted and construed so as to:

1. Allow individual cities, counties, or combinations thereof greater flexibility and involvement in responding to the problem of crime in their communities;

2. Provide more effective protection of society and to promote efficiency and economy in the delivery of correctional services;

3. Provide increased opportunities for offenders to make restitution to victims of crimes through financial reimbursement or community service;

4. Permit cities, counties or combinations thereof to operate and utilize local community-based probation services specifically designed to meet the rehabilitative needs of selected offenders; and

5. Provide appropriate post-sentencing alternatives in localities for certain offenders with the goal of reducing the incidence of repeat offenders.

1980 c. 300, § 53.1-180; 1982, c. 636; 1983, c. 344; 1990, c. 578; 1992, c. 196; 1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 1995, cc. 502, 574; 1996, c. 568; 2000, c. 1040; 2001, c. 844; 2002, c. 491; 2007, c. 133.

§ 9.1-173.1. Procedures for treatment of veterans and active service members.

Localities may establish special treatment procedures for veterans and active military service members pursuant to § 2.2-2001.1.

2011, cc. 772, 847.

§ 9.1-174. Establishment of a community-based probation services agency.

To facilitate local involvement and flexibility in responding to the problem of crime in their communities and to permit a locally designed community-based probation services agency that will fit its needs, any city, county or combination thereof may, and any city, county or combination thereof that is required by § 53.1-82.1 to file a community-based corrections plan shall establish a system of community-based services pursuant to this article. This system is to provide alternatives for (i) offenders who are convicted and sentenced pursuant to § 19.2-303.3 and who are considered suitable candidates for probation services that require less than incarceration in a local correctional facility and (ii) defendants who are provided a deferred proceeding and placed on probation services. Such services may be provided by qualified public agencies or by qualified private agencies pursuant to appropriate contracts.

Code 1950, § 53-128.17; 1980, c. 300; 1982, c. 636, § 53.1-181; 1983, c. 344; 1992, c. 196; 1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 1995, cc. 502, 574; 1999, c. 372; 2000, c. 1040; 2001, c. 844; 2006, c. 883; 2007, c. 133.

§ 9.1-175. Board to prescribe standards; biennial plan.

The Board shall approve standards as prescribed by the Department for the development, implementation, operation, and evaluation of local community-based probation services and facilities authorized by this article, which shall include standards for the transfer of supervision between local community-based probation agencies. Any city, county, or combination thereof which establishes and provides local community-based probation services pursuant to this article shall submit a biennial criminal justice plan to the Department for review and approval.

Code 1950, § 53-128.18; 1980, c. 300; 1982, c. 636, § 53.1-182; 1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 1999, c. 372; 2000, c. 1040; 2001, c. 844; 2002, c. 491; 2007, c. 133; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 191.

§ 9.1-176. Mandated services; optional services and facilities.

A. As used in this section:

"Detoxification center program" means any facility program or procedure for the placement of public inebriates as an alternative to arresting and jailing such persons, for the purpose of monitoring the withdrawal from excessive use of alcohol or use of a narcotic drug or other intoxicant or drug of whatever nature.

"Public inebriate" means any person who is intoxicated in a public place and would be subject to arrest for public intoxication under § 18.2-388 or a local ordinance established for the same offense.

B. Any city, county or combination thereof that elects or is required to establish a local community-based probation services agency pursuant to this article shall provide to the judicial system the following services as components of local community-based probation supervision: community service; home incarceration with or without electronic monitoring; electronic monitoring; and substance abuse screening, assessment, testing and treatment. Additional services and facilities, including, but not limited to, local day reporting centers and services, local halfway house facilities and services for the temporary care of adults placed on community-based probation, and law-enforcement diversion into detoxification center programs may be established by the city, county or combination thereof.

Any city, county, or combination thereof, may develop, establish, operate, maintain, or contract with any qualified public or private agency for local or regional detoxification center programs, services, or facilities.

The chief judge of the general district court in the jurisdiction that will be served by the facility shall approve the facility for the diversion of public inebriates from arrest and jail pursuant to § 18.2-388.

1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2, § 53.1-182.1; 1996, c. 569; 1997, c. 339; 1999, c. 372; 2000, c. 1040; 2001, c. 844; 2002, c. 491; 2007, c. 133; 2011, cc. 821, 854.

§ 9.1-176.1. Duties and responsibilities of local community-based probation officers.

A. Each local community-based probation officer, for the localities served, shall:

1. Supervise and assist all local-responsible adult offenders, residing within the localities served and placed on local community-based probation by any judge of any court within the localities served;

2. Ensure offender compliance with all orders of the court, including the requirement to perform community service;

3. Conduct, when ordered by a court, substance abuse screenings, or conduct or facilitate the preparation of assessments pursuant to state approved protocols;

4. Conduct, at his discretion, random drug and alcohol tests on any offender whom the officer has reason to believe is engaged in the illegal use of controlled substances or marijuana or the abuse of alcohol or prescribed medication;

5. Facilitate placement of offenders in substance abuse education or treatment programs and services or other education or treatment programs and services based on the needs of the offender;

6. Seek a capias from any judicial officer in the event of failure to comply with conditions of local community-based probation or supervision on the part of any offender provided that noncompliance resulting from intractable behavior presents a risk of flight, or a risk to public safety or to the offender;

7. Seek a motion to show cause for offenders requiring a subsequent hearing before the court;

8. Provide information to assist any law-enforcement officer with the return to custody of defendants placed on supervision for which a capias has been sought;

9. Keep such records and make such reports as required by the Department of Criminal Justice Services;

10. Determine by reviewing the Local Inmate Data System upon intake and again prior to discharge whether a blood, saliva, or tissue sample has been taken for DNA analysis for each offender required to submit a sample pursuant to Article 1.1 (§ 19.2-310.2 et seq.) of Chapter 18 of Title 19.2 and, if no sample has been taken, require an offender to submit a sample for DNA analysis;

11. Monitor the collection and payment of restitution to the victims of crime for offenders placed on local supervised probation; and

12. Determine by reviewing the offender's criminal history record at least 60 days prior to discharge whether all offenses for which the offender is being supervised appear on such record and, if any such offense that is required to be reported to the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to § 19.2-390 does not appear, (i) order the offender to report to the law-enforcement agency that made the arrest for such offense or to the Department of State Police and submit to having his fingerprints and photograph taken for each such offense, (ii) provide written or electronic notification to the Central Criminal Records Exchange within the Department of State Police that the offense does not appear on the offender's criminal history record, and (iii) verify that such fingerprints and photograph have been taken.

B. Each local probation officer may provide the following optional services, as appropriate and when available resources permit:

1. Supervise local-responsible adult offenders placed on home incarceration with or without home electronic monitoring as a condition of local community-based probation;

2. Investigate and report on any local-responsible adult offender and prepare or facilitate the preparation of any other screening, assessment, evaluation, testing or treatment required as a condition of probation;

3. Monitor placements of local-responsible adults who are required to perform court-ordered community service at approved work sites;

4. Assist the courts, when requested, by monitoring the collection of court costs and fines for offenders placed on local probation; and

5. Collect supervision and intervention fees pursuant to § 9.1-182 subject to local approval and the approval of the Department of Criminal Justice Services.

2003, c. 142; 2007, cc. 133, 528; 2011, cc. 384, 410; 2014, cc. 674, 719; 2018, cc. 316, 671; 2019, cc. 782, 783.

§ 9.1-177. Form of oath of office for local community-based probation officers.

Every local community-based probation officer who is an employee of a local community-based probation agency, established by any city, county or combination thereof, or operated pursuant to this article, that provides probation and related services pursuant to the requirements of this article, shall take an oath of office as prescribed in § 49-1 before entering the duties of his office. The oath of office shall be taken before any general district or circuit court judge in any city or county that has established services for the judicial system pursuant to this article.

2000, c. 1040, § 53.1-182.1:1; 2001, c. 844; 2007, c. 133.

§ 9.1-177.1. Confidentiality of records of and reports on adult persons under investigation by, or placed on probation supervision with a local community-based probation services agency.

A. Any investigation report, including a presentencing investigation report, prepared by a local community-based probation officer is confidential and is exempt from the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.). Such reports shall be filed as a part of the case record. Such reports shall be made available only by court order and shall be sealed upon final order by the court; except that such reports shall be available upon request to (i) any criminal justice agency, as defined in § 9.1-101, of this or any other state or of the United States; (ii) any agency where the accused is referred for assessment or treatment; (iii) counsel for the person who is the subject of the report; or (iv) counsel who represents the person in pursuit of a post-conviction remedy, subject to the limitations set forth in § 37.2-901.

B. Any report on the progress of an offender under the supervision of a local community-based probation agency and any information relative to the identity of or inferring personal characteristics of an accused, including demographic information, diagnostic summaries, records of office visits, medical, substance abuse, psychiatric or psychological records or information, substance abuse screening, assessment and testing information, and other sensitive information not explicitly classified as criminal history record information, is exempt from the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.). However, such information may be disseminated to criminal justice agencies as defined in § 9.1-101 in the discretion of the custodian of these records.

2002, c. 769; 2003, c. 146; 2006, c. 289; 2007, c. 133; 2010, c. 223.

§ 9.1-178. Community criminal justice boards.

A. Each county or city or combination thereof developing and establishing a local pretrial services or a community-based probation services agency pursuant to this article shall establish a community criminal justice board. Each county and city participating in local pretrial services or local community-based probation services shall be represented on the community criminal justice board. In the event that one county or city appropriates funds to these services as part of a multijurisdictional effort, any other participating county or city shall be considered to be participating if such locality appropriates funds to these services. Appointments to the board shall be made by each local governing body. In cases of multijurisdictional participation, unless otherwise agreed upon, each participating city or county shall have an equal number of appointments. Boards shall be composed of the number of members established by a resolution or ordinance of each participating jurisdiction.

B. Each board shall include, at a minimum, the following members: a person appointed by each governing body to represent the governing body; a judge of the general district court; a circuit court judge; a juvenile and domestic relations district court judge; a chief magistrate; one chief of police or the sheriff in a jurisdiction not served by a police department to represent law enforcement; an attorney for the Commonwealth; a public defender or an attorney who is experienced in the defense of criminal matters; a sheriff or the regional jail administrator responsible for jails serving those jurisdictions involved in local pretrial services and community-based probation services; a local educator; and a community services board administrator. Any officer of the court appointed to a community criminal justice board pursuant to this subsection may designate a member of his staff approved by the governing body to represent him at meetings of the board.

Code 1950, § 53-128.19; 1980, c. 300; 1982, c. 636, § 53.1-183; 1983, c. 344; 1988, c. 557; 1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 1995, cc. 502, 574, 768; 1996, c. 342; 1997, c. 339; 2000, c. 1040; 2001, c. 593; 2001, c. 844; 2002, c. 491; 2004, c. 395; 2007, c. 133.

§ 9.1-179. Withdrawal from services.

Any participating city or county may, at the beginning of any calendar quarter, by ordinance or resolution of its governing body, notify the Director of the Department and, in the case of multijurisdictional services, the other member jurisdictions, of its intention to withdraw from participation in local community-based probation services. Withdrawal shall be effective as of the last day of the quarter in which the notice is given.

Code 1950, § 53-128.20; 1980, c. 300; 1982, c. 636, § 53.1-184; 1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 1995, cc. 502, 574; 2000, c. 1040; 2001, c. 844; 2002, c. 491; 2007, c. 133.

§ 9.1-180. Responsibilities of community criminal justice boards.

On behalf of the counties, cities, or combinations thereof which they represent, the community criminal justice boards shall have the responsibility to:

1. Advise on the development and operation of local pretrial services and community-based probation services pursuant to §§ 19.2-152.2 and 9.1-176 for use by the courts in diverting offenders from local correctional facility placements;

2. Assist community agencies and organizations in establishing and modifying programs and services for defendants and offenders on the basis of an objective assessment of the community's needs and resources;

3. Evaluate and monitor community programs and pretrial and local community-based probation services and facilities to determine their impact on offenders;

4. Develop and amend the criminal justice plan in accordance with guidelines and standards set forth by the Department and oversee the development and amendment of the community-based corrections plan as required by § 53.1-82.1 for approval by participating local governing bodies;

5. Review the submission of all criminal justice grants regardless of the source of funding;

6. Facilitate local involvement and flexibility in responding to the problem of crime in their communities; and

7. Do all things necessary or convenient to carry out the responsibilities expressly given in this article.

Code 1950, § 53-128.21; 1980, c. 300; 1982, c. 636, § 53.1-185; 1983, c. 344; 1991, c. 43; 1992, c. 740; 1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 1995, cc. 502, 574; 2000, c. 1040; 2001, c. 844; 2002, c. 491; 2007, c. 133.

§ 9.1-181. Eligibility to participate.

A. Any city, county, or combination thereof, which elects to, or is required to establish services shall participate in a local community-based probation services agency by ordinance or resolution of its governing authority. In cases of multijurisdictional participation, each ordinance or resolution shall identify the chosen administrator and fiscal agent as set forth in § 9.1-183. Such ordinances or resolutions shall be provided to the Director of the Department, regardless of funding source for the established programs.

B. Any local community-based probation services agency established pursuant to this article shall be available as a sentencing alternative for persons sentenced to incarceration in a local correctional facility or who otherwise would be sentenced to incarceration and who would have served their sentence in a local or regional correctional facility.

1992, c. 196, § 53.1-185.1; 1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 2000, c. 1040; 2001, c. 844; 2007, c. 133.

§ 9.1-182. Funding; failure to comply; prohibited use of funds.

A. Counties and cities shall be required to establish a local community-based probation services agency under this article only to the extent funded by the Commonwealth through the general appropriation act.

B. The Department shall periodically review each program established under this article to determine compliance with the submitted plan and operating standards. If the Department determines that a program is not in substantial compliance with the submitted plan or standards, the Department may suspend all or any portion of financial aid made available to the locality for purposes of this article until there is compliance.

C. Funding shall be used for the provision of local community-based probation services and operation of facilities but shall not be used for capital expenditures.

D. The Department, in conjunction with local boards, shall establish a statewide system of supervision and intervention fees to be paid by offenders participating in local community-based probation services established under this article for reimbursement towards the costs of their supervision.

E. Any supervision or intervention fees collected by local community-based probation services agencies established under this article shall be retained by the locality serving as fiscal agent and shall be utilized solely for expansion and development of services, or to supplant local costs of operation. Any local community-based probation services agency collecting such fees shall keep records of the collected fees, report the amounts to the locality serving as fiscal agent and make all records available to the community criminal justice board. Such fees shall be in addition to any other imposed on a defendant or offender as a condition of a deferred proceeding, conviction or sentencing by a court as required by general law.

1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2, § 53.1-185.2; 1995, cc. 502, 574, 768; 2000, c. 1040; 2001, c. 844; 2007, c. 133.

§ 9.1-183. City or county to act as administrator and fiscal agent.

Any single participating city or county shall act as the administrator and fiscal agent for the funds awarded for purposes of implementing a local pretrial services or community-based probation services agency. In cases of multijurisdictional participation, the governing authorities of the participating localities shall select one of the participating cities or counties, with its consent, to act as administrator and fiscal agent for the funds awarded for purposes of implementing the local pretrial services or community-based probation services agency on behalf of the participating jurisdictions.

The participating city or county acting as administrator and fiscal agent pursuant to this section may be reimbursed for the actual costs associated with the implementation of the local pretrial services or community-based probation services agency, including fiscal administration, accounting, payroll services, financial reporting, and auditing. Any costs must be approved by the community criminal justice board and reimbursed from those funds received for the operation of the local pretrial or community-based probation services agency, and may not exceed one percent of those funds received in any single fiscal year.

1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2, § 53.1-185.3; 1995, cc. 502, 574; 1996, c. 969; 2000, c. 1040; 2001, c. 844; 2007, c. 133.

Article 10. Virginia Center for School and Campus Safety.

§ 9.1-184. Virginia Center for School and Campus Safety created; duties.

A. From such funds as may be appropriated, the Virginia Center for School and Campus Safety (the Center) is hereby established within the Department. The Center shall:

1. Provide training for Virginia public school personnel in school safety, on evidence-based antibullying tactics based on the definition of bullying in § 22.1-276.01, and in the effective identification of students who may be at risk for violent behavior and in need of special services or assistance;

2. Serve as a resource and referral center for Virginia school divisions by conducting research, sponsoring workshops, and providing information regarding current school safety concerns, such as conflict management and peer mediation, bullying as defined in § 22.1-276.01, school facility design and technology, current state and federal statutory and regulatory school safety requirements, and legal and constitutional issues regarding school safety and individual rights;

3. Maintain and disseminate information to local school divisions on effective school safety initiatives in Virginia and across the nation;

4. Develop a case management tool for the collection and reporting of data by threat assessment teams pursuant to § 22.1-79.4;

5. Collect, analyze, and disseminate various Virginia school safety data, including school safety audit information submitted to it pursuant to § 22.1-279.8, collected by the Department and, in conjunction with the Department of Education, information relating to the activities of school resource officers submitted pursuant to § 22.1-279.10;

6. Encourage the development of partnerships between the public and private sectors to promote school safety in Virginia;

7. Provide technical assistance to Virginia school divisions in the development and implementation of initiatives promoting school safety, including threat assessment-based protocols with such funds as may be available for such purpose;

8. Develop a memorandum of understanding between the Director of the Department of Criminal Justice Services and the Superintendent of Public Instruction to ensure collaboration and coordination of roles and responsibilities in areas of mutual concern, such as school safety audits and crime prevention;

9. Provide training for and certification of school security officers, as defined in § 9.1-101 and consistent with § 9.1-110;

10. Develop, in conjunction with the Department of State Police, the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, and the Department of Education, a model critical incident response training program for public school personnel and others providing services to schools that shall also be made available to private schools in the Commonwealth;

11. In consultation with the Department of Education, provide schools with a model policy for the establishment of threat assessment teams, including procedures for the assessment of and intervention with students whose behavior poses a threat to the safety of school staff or students; and

12. Develop a model memorandum of understanding setting forth the respective roles and responsibilities of local school boards and local law-enforcement agencies regarding the use of school resource officers. Such model memorandum of understanding may be used by local school boards and local law-enforcement agencies to satisfy the requirements of § 22.1-280.2:3.

B. All agencies of the Commonwealth shall cooperate with the Center and, upon request, assist the Center in the performance of its duties and responsibilities.

2000, c. 519, § 9-173.21; 2001, cc. 436, 440, 844; 2002, cc. 836, 868; 2012, cc. 281, 433; 2013, cc. 676, 710; 2014, cc. 7, 92, 158; 2019, cc. 39, 455, 456, 502; 2020, cc. 169, 1039.

Article 11. Bail Bondsmen.

§ 9.1-185. Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Agent" means a person who is a licensed bail bondsman who has been given power of attorney to act on the behalf of a licensed property bail bondsman.

"Bail bondsman" means any person who is licensed by the Department who engages in the business of bail bonding and is thereby authorized to conduct business in all courts of the Commonwealth.

"Board" means the Criminal Justice Services Board.

"Certificate" means a certificate issued by a judge on or before June 30, 2005, pursuant to former § 19.2-152.1.

"Department" means the Department of Criminal Justice Services.

"Property bail bondsman" means a person licensed pursuant to this article who, for compensation, enters into a bond or does so through his agent and who pledges real property, cash or certificates of deposit issued by a federally insured institution, or any combination thereof as security for a bond as defined in § 19.2-119 that has been posted to assure performance of terms and conditions specified by order of an appropriate judicial officer as a condition of bail.

"Surety bail bondsman" means a person licensed pursuant to this article who is also licensed by the State Corporation Commission as a property and casualty insurance agent, and who sells, solicits, or negotiates surety insurance as defined in § 38.2-121 on behalf of insurers licensed in the Commonwealth, pursuant to which the insurer becomes surety on or guarantees a bond, as defined in § 19.2-119, that has been posted to assure performance of terms and conditions specified by order of an appropriate judicial officer as a condition of bail.

2004, c. 460; 2007, c. 708.

§ 9.1-185.1. Inapplicability of this article.

This article shall not apply to a person who does not receive profit or consideration for his services.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.2. Powers of the Criminal Justice Services Board relating to bail bondsmen.

The Board shall have full regulatory authority and oversight of property and surety bail bondsmen.

The Board shall adopt regulations that are necessary to ensure respectable, responsible, safe and effective bail bonding within the Commonwealth. The Board's regulations shall include but not be limited to regulations that (i) establish the qualifications of applicants for licensure and renewal under this article; (ii) examine, or cause to be examined, the qualifications of each applicant for licensure, including when necessary the preparation, administration, and grading of examinations; (iii) levy and collect nonrefundable fees for licensure and renewal that are sufficient to cover all expenses for administration and operation of a program of licensure; (iv) ensure continued competency and prevent deceptive or misleading practices by practitioners; (v) administer the regulatory system; (vi) provide for receipt of complaints concerning the conduct of any person whose activities are regulated by the Board; (vii) provide for investigations and appropriate disciplinary action if warranted; (viii) establish standards for professional conduct, solicitation, collateral received in the course of business, firearms training and usage, uniforms and identification, documentation and recordkeeping requirements, reporting requirements, and methods of capture for the recovery of bailees; and (ix) allow the Board to suspend, revoke or refuse to issue, reissue or renew a license for just cause. The Board shall not adopt compulsory, minimum, firearms training standards in excess of 24 hours per year for bail bondsmen. In adopting its regulations, the Board shall seek the advice of the Private Security Services Advisory Board established pursuant to § 9.1-143.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.3. Powers of Department of Criminal Justice Services relating to bail bondsmen.

A. In addition to the powers otherwise conferred upon it by law, the Department may (i) charge each applicant for licensure a nonrefundable fee as established by the Board to cover the costs of processing an application for licensure, enforcement of the regulations, and other costs associated with the maintenance of the program of regulation; (ii) charge nonrefundable fees for training, processing school certifications and enforcement of training standards; (iii) conduct investigations to determine the suitability of applicants for licensure; and (iv) conduct investigations to determine if any disciplinary actions against a licensed bondsman are warranted. For purposes of determining eligibility for licensure, the Department shall require the applicant to provide personal descriptive information to be forwarded, along with the applicant's fingerprints, to the Central Criminal Records Exchange for the purpose of conducting a Virginia criminal history records search. The Central Criminal Records Exchange shall forward the fingerprints and personal description to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the purpose of obtaining a national criminal record check.

B. The Director or his designee may make an ex parte application to the circuit court for the city or county wherein evidence sought is kept or wherein a licensee does business for the issuance of a subpoena duces tecum in furtherance of the investigation of a sworn complaint within the jurisdiction of the Department or the Board to request production of any relevant records, documents and physical or other evidence of any person, partnership, association or corporation licensed or regulated by the Department pursuant to this article. The court may issue and compel compliance with such a subpoena upon a showing of reasonable cause. Upon determining that reasonable cause exists to believe that evidence may be destroyed or altered, the court may issue a subpoena duces tecum requiring the immediate production of evidence. Costs of the investigation and adjudication of violations of this article or Board regulations may be recovered. All costs recovered shall be deposited into the state treasury to the credit of the Bail Bondsman Regulatory Fund. Such proceedings shall be brought in the name of the Commonwealth by the Department in the circuit court of the city or county in which the unlawful act occurred or in which the defendant resides. The Director, or agents appointed by him, shall have the authority to administer oaths or affirmations for the purpose of receiving complaints and conducting investigations of violations of this article, or any regulation promulgated hereunder and to serve process issued by the Department or the Board.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.4. Limitations on licensure.

A. In order to be licensed as a bail bondsman a person shall (i) be 18 years of age or older, (ii) have received a high school diploma or passed a high school equivalency examination approved by the Board of Education, and (iii) have successfully completed the bail bondsman exam required by the Board or successfully completed prior to July 1, 2005, a surety bail bondsman exam required by the State Corporation Commission under former § 38.2-1865.7.

B. The following persons are not eligible for licensure as bail bondsmen and may not be employed nor serve as the agent of a bail bondsman:

1. Persons who have been convicted of a felony within the Commonwealth, any other state, or the United States, who have not been pardoned, or whose civil rights have not been restored;

2. Employees of a local or regional jail;

3. Employees of a sheriff's office;

4. Employees of a state or local police department;

5. Persons appointed as conservators of the peace pursuant to Article 4.1 (§ 9.1-150.1 et seq.) of this chapter;

6. Employees of an office of an attorney for the Commonwealth;

7. Employees of the Department of Corrections, Department of Criminal Justice Services, or a local pretrial or community-based probation services agency; and

8. Spouses of or any persons residing in the same household as persons referred to in subdivisions 2 through 7 who are sworn officers or whose responsibilities involve direct access to records of inmates.

C. The exclusions in subsection B shall not be construed to limit the ability of a licensed bail bondsman to employ or contract with a licensed bail enforcement agent authorized to do business in the Commonwealth.

2004, c. 460; 2007, c. 133; 2008, c. 438; 2014, c. 84.

§ 9.1-185.5. Bail bondsman licensure requirements.

A. An applicant for a bail bondsman license shall apply for such license in a form and manner prescribed by the Board, and containing any information the Board requires.

B. Prior to the issuance of any bail bondsman license, each bondsman applicant shall:

1. File with the Department an application for such license on the form and in the manner prescribed by the Board.

2. Pass the bail bondsman exam as prescribed by the Board pursuant to this article or have successfully completed a surety bail bondsman exam as required by the State Corporation Commission under former § 38.2-1865.7. Any applicant who improperly uses notes or other reference materials, or otherwise cheats on the exam, shall be ineligible to become a licensed bail bondsman.

3. Submit to fingerprinting by a local or state law-enforcement agency and provide personal descriptive information to be forwarded, along with the applicant's fingerprints, to the Department of State Police Central Criminal Records Exchange. The Central Criminal Records Exchange shall forward the applicant's fingerprints and personal descriptive information to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the purpose of obtaining national criminal history record information regarding such applicant. The applicant shall pay for the cost of such fingerprinting and criminal records check. The Department of State Police shall forward to the Director of the Department, or his designee, who shall be a governmental entity, the results of the records search from the Central Criminal Records Exchange and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Director of the Department, or his designee, who shall be a governmental entity, shall review the record and if the report indicates a prior felony conviction, the individual shall be prohibited from pursuing the application process for issuance of a bail bondsman license unless the individual submits proof that his civil rights have been restored by the Governor or other appropriate authority.

4. Submit the appropriate nonrefundable application processing fee to the Department.

C. Additionally, prior to the issuance of a property bail bondsman license, each property bail bondsman applicant shall provide proof of collateral of $200,000 on his bonds and proof of collateral of $200,000 on the bonds of each of his agents. Any collateral that is not in the form of real estate, cash, or certificates of deposit issued by a FDIC-insured financial institution shall be specifically approved by the Department before it may be used as collateral.

1. If the property used as collateral is real estate, such real estate shall be located in the Commonwealth. In addition, the property bail bondsman applicant shall submit to the Department:

a. A true copy of the current real estate tax assessment thereof, certified by the appropriate assessing officer of the locality wherein such property is located or, at the option of the property bail bondsman, an appraisal of the fair market value of the real estate, which appraisal shall have been prepared by a licensed real estate appraiser, within one year of its submission.

b. A new appraisal, if, at its discretion, the Department so orders for good cause shown prior to certification. At the discretion of the Department, after the original submission of any property appraisal or tax assessment, further appraisals or tax assessments for that property may not be required more than once every five years.

c. An affidavit by the property bail bondsman applicant that states, to the best of such person's knowledge, the amount of equity in the real estate, and the amounts due under any obligations secured by liens or similar encumbrances against the real estate, including any delinquent taxes, as of the date of the submission. At its discretion, the Department may require additional documentation to verify these amounts.

2. If the property used as collateral consists of cash or certificates of deposit, the property bail bondsman applicant shall submit to the Department verification of the amounts, and the names of the financial institution in which they are held.

3. Any property bail bondsman issued a certificate by a judge pursuant to former § 19.2-152.1, prior to July 1, 1989, who has continuously maintained his certification and who has never provided to a court collateral of $200,000 or more, shall continue to be exempt from the $200,000 collateral requirements specified above. Those property bail bondsmen who are exempted from this provision shall satisfy all of the other requirements in this article for bail bondsmen, and shall provide to the Department the collateral amount to which they may bond and provide proof of his prior certification by obtaining a certified copy of: (i) the certificate issued pursuant to former § 19.2-152.1 and (ii) the documents held by the originating court that stated the collateral amount for which they were able to bond.

4. Each property bail bondsman, if so directed by the Department, shall place a deed of trust on the real estate that he is using for the limit of his expected bonded indebtedness to secure the Commonwealth and shall name the attorney for the Commonwealth of the affected locality as trustee under the deed of trust, and furnish the Department an acceptable appraisal and title certificate of the real estate subject to any such deed of trust.

D. Prior to the issuance of a surety bail bondsman license, each surety bail bondsman applicant shall:

1. Submit proof of current licensing as a property and casualty insurance agent validated by the State Corporation Commission.

2. Submit copies of each qualifying power of attorney that will be used to provide surety. All qualifying powers of attorney filed with the Department shall contain the name and contact information for both the surety agent and the registered agent of the issuing company. In the event an applicant for a surety bail bondsman license is unable to obtain a qualifying power of attorney prior to the issuance of his license, he may be granted his license, on the condition that each qualifying power of attorney obtained after his licensure be filed with the Department within 30 days after its receipt. A surety bail bondsman shall not be permitted to write bail bonds for any insurance company without first filing the company qualifying power of attorney with the Department.

3. All surety bail bondsman licenses in effect with the State Corporation Commission shall become void after June 30, 2005. Applicants for licensure for bail bondsmen may submit an application to the Department on or after May 1, 2005.

4. Any surety bail bondsman license issued pursuant to this article shall terminate immediately upon the termination of the licensee's property and casualty insurance agent license, and may not be applied for again until the individual has been issued a new property and casualty insurance agent license. Upon notification from the State Corporation Commission of a license suspension, the Department shall immediately suspend a surety bondsman's license, pending the results of an investigation conducted pursuant to this article. In the event a surety bail bondsman is under investigation by the State Corporation Commission for allegations regarding his activities as a licensed property and casualty agent, the Commission shall notify the Department of such investigation and the Department and the Commission may conduct a joint investigation of the individual. All powers granted to the Department and the Commission regarding investigation and disciplinary proceedings shall be permitted to be applied to any such joint investigation, and both the Department and the Commission shall be permitted to utilize their own rules and internal procedures in determining appropriate disciplinary proceedings, if any.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.6. Licenses; renewal.

A. A license granted to a bondsman by the Department shall authorize such person to enter into bonds, as defined in § 19.2-119, in any county or city in the Commonwealth.

B. Every bail bondsman license issued pursuant to this article shall be for a term of two years.

C. A bail bondsman license may be renewed for an ensuing two-year period, upon the filing of an application in the form prescribed by the Department and payment of the nonrefundable renewal application processing fee prescribed by the Department. In addition, applicants for renewal of a bail bondsman license shall undergo a criminal history background check as set out in subdivision B 3 of § 9.1-185.5 and shall provide all other documentation listed in subsections C and D of § 9.1-185.5 as the Department deems appropriate.

D. On or before the first day of the month prior to the month his license is due to expire, the licensee shall make application for license renewal and shall at that time pay the renewal application fee.

E. Any license not renewed by its expiration date shall terminate on such date.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.7. Licensure of nonresidents.

A. All nonresident transfers and applicants for a bail bondsman license shall satisfy all licensing requirements for residents of the Commonwealth.

B. For the purposes of this article, any individual whose physical place of residence and physical place of business are in a county or city located partly within the Commonwealth and partly within another state may be considered as meeting the requirements as a resident of the Commonwealth, provided the other state has established by law or regulation similar requirements as to residence of such individuals.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.8. Professional conduct standards; grounds for disciplinary actions.

A. Any violations of the restrictions or standards under this statute shall be grounds for placing on probation, refusal to issue or renew, sanctioning, suspension or revocation of the bail bondsman's license. A licensed bail bondsman is responsible for ensuring that his employees, partners and individuals contracted to perform services for or on behalf of the bonding business comply with all of these provisions, and do not violate any of the restrictions that apply to bail bondsmen. Violations by a bondsman's employee, partner, or agent may be grounds for disciplinary action against the bondsman, including probation, suspension or revocation of license.

B. A licensed bail bondsman shall not:

1. Knowingly commit, or be a party to, any material fraud, misrepresentation, concealment, conspiracy, collusion, forgery, scheme or device whereby any other person lawfully relies upon the word, representation, or conduct of the bail bondsman.

2. Solicit sexual favors or extort additional consideration as a condition of obtaining, maintaining, or exonerating bail bond, regardless of the identity of the person who performs the favors.

3. Conduct a bail bond transaction that demonstrates bad faith, dishonesty, coercion, incompetence, extortion or untrustworthiness.

4. Coerce, suggest, aid and abet, offer promise of favor, or threaten any person on whose bond he is surety or offers to become surety, to induce that person to commit any crime.

5. Give or receive, directly or indirectly, any gift of any kind to any nonelected public official or any employee of a governmental agency involved with the administration of justice, including but not limited to law-enforcement personnel, magistrates, judges, and jail employees, as well as attorneys. De minimis gifts, not to exceed $50 per year per recipient, are acceptable, provided the purpose of the gift is not to directly solicit business, or would otherwise be a violation of Board regulations or the laws of the Commonwealth.

6. Fail to comply with any of the statutory or regulatory requirements governing licensed bail bondsmen.

7. Fail to cooperate with any investigation by the Department.

8. Fail to comply with any subpoena issued by the Department.

9. Provide materially incorrect, misleading, incomplete or untrue information in a license application, renewal application, or any other document filed with the Department.

10. Provide bail for any person if he is also an attorney representing that person.

11. Provide bail for any person if the bondsman was initially involved in the arrest of that person.

C. A licensed bail bondsman shall ensure that each recognizance on all bonds for which he signs shall contain the name and contact information for both the surety agent and the registered agent of the issuing company.

D. An administrative fee may be charged by a bail bondsman, not to exceed reasonable costs. Reasonable costs may include, but are not limited to, travel, court time, recovery fees, phone expenses, administrative overhead and postage.

E. A property bail bondsman shall not enter into any bond if the aggregate of the penalty of such bond and all other bonds, on which he has not been released from liability, is in excess of four times the true market value of the equity in his real estate, cash or certificates of deposit issued by a federally insured institution, or any combination thereof.

F. A property bail bondsman or his agent shall not refuse to cover any forfeiture of bond against him or refuse to pay such forfeiture after notice and final order of the court.

G. A surety bail bondsman shall not write bail bonds on any qualifying power of attorney for which a copy has not been filed with the Department.

H. A surety bail bondsman shall not violate any of the statutes or regulations that govern insurance agents.

I. A licensed bail bondsman shall not charge a bail bond premium less than 10 percent or more than 15 percent of the amount of the bond. A licensed bail bondsman shall not loan money with interest for the purpose of helping another obtain a bail bond.

For the purposes of this subsection, "bail bond premium" means the amount of money paid to a licensed bail bondsman for the execution of a bail bond.

J. A licensed bail bondsman who has been arrested for a felony offense shall not issue any new bonds pending the outcome of the investigation by the Department.

K. If a recognizance is forfeited pursuant to § 19.2-143 and such recognizance is not paid by 4:00 p.m. on the last day of the 150-day period from the finding of default, the clerk shall notify the Department of such default and the Department shall suspend the license of any bail bondsman on the bond in the forfeited recognizance until the forfeited recognizance is satisfied, unless suspended for another cause. If any employer of such bail bondsman receives notice pursuant to § 19.2-143 to pay a forfeited recognizance within 10 business days and such forfeiture is not paid within 10 business days of the notice to pay, the Department shall suspend the licenses of the employer of the bail bondsman and the agents thereof until the forfeited recognizance is satisfied, unless suspended for another cause.

2004, c. 460; 2007, c. 708; 2011, c. 623; 2015, c. 600; 2019, c. 200.

§ 9.1-185.9. Solicitation of business; standards; restrictions and requirements.

A. Only licensed bail bondsmen shall be authorized to solicit bail bond business in the Commonwealth.

B. A licensed bail bondsman shall not:

1. Solicit bail bond business by directly initiating contact with any person in any court, jail, lock-up, or surrounding government property.

2. Loiter by any jail or magistrate's office unless there on legitimate business.

3. Refer a client or a principal for whom he has posted bond to an attorney for financial profit or other consideration.

C. The Board shall adopt regulations as to what constitutes impermissible solicitations by bondsmen, their employees and agents.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.10. Collateral received in the course of business; standards and requirements.

A. A licensed bail bondsman shall be permitted to accept collateral security or other indemnity from the principal, which shall be returned upon final termination of liability on the bond, including the conclusion of all appeals or appeal periods. Such collateral security or other indemnity required by the bail bondsman shall be reasonable in relation to the amount of the bond.

B. When a bondsman accepts collateral, he shall give a written receipt to the depositor. The receipt shall provide a full description of the collateral received and the terms of redemption or forfeiture. The receipt shall also include the depositor's name and contact information.

C. Any bail bondsman who receives collateral in connection with a bail transaction shall receive such collateral in a fiduciary capacity, and prior to any forfeiture of bail shall keep it separate and apart from any other funds or assets of such bail bondsman. In the event a bondsman receives collateral in the nature of a tangible good, it shall be a per se violation of the bail bondsman's fiduciary duty to make personal use of any such collateral unless there is a proper forfeiture of bail.

D. Any collateral received shall be returned with all due diligence to the person who deposited it with the bail bondsman or any assignee other than the bail bondsman as soon as the obligation is discharged and all fees owed to the bail bondsman have been paid. In any event, after a specific request for the return of the collateral by the depositor, the collateral shall be returned within 15 days after all fees owed have been paid.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.11. Firearms, training and usage; standards and requirements.

A. If a bail bondsman chooses to carry a firearm in the course of his duties, he shall be required to:

1. First complete basic firearms training, as defined by the Board; and

2. Receive ongoing in-service firearms training, as defined by the Board.

B. In the event a bail bondsman discharges a firearm during the course of his duties, he shall report it to the Department within 24 business hours.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.12. Uniforms and identification; standards and restrictions.

A. A bail bondsman shall not wear, carry, or display any uniform, badge, shield, or other insignia or emblem that implies he is an agent of state, local, or federal government.

B. A bail bondsman shall wear or display only identification issued by, or whose design has been approved by, the Department.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.13. Documentation and recordkeeping standards and requirements.

A. The bail bondsman shall retain, for a minimum of the three calendar years from the date of the termination of the liability:

1. Copies of all written representations made to any court or to any public official for the purpose of avoiding a forfeiture of bail, setting aside a forfeiture, or causing a defendant to be released on his own recognizance.

2. Copies of all affidavits and receipts made in connection with collateral received in the course of business.

3. Evidence of the return of any security or collateral received in the course of business, including a copy of the receipt showing when and to whom the collateral was returned.

B. Upon request of the Department, a bail bondsman shall provide any documents required to be kept pursuant to this section.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.14. Reporting standards and requirements.

A. Each licensed bail bondsman shall report within 10 calendar days to the Department any change in his residence, name, business name or business address, and ensure that the Department has the names and all fictitious names of all companies under which he carries out his bail bonding business.

B. Each licensed bail bondsman arrested for or convicted of a felony shall report within 10 calendar days to the Department the facts and circumstances regarding the criminal arrest or conviction.

C. Each licensed bail bondsman shall report to the Department within 10 calendar days of the final disposition of the matter any administrative action taken against him by another governmental agency in the Commonwealth or in another jurisdiction. Such report shall include a copy of the order, consent to order or other relevant legal documents.

D. Each licensed property bail bondsman shall submit to the Department, on a prescribed form, not later than the fifth day of each month, a list of all outstanding bonds on which he was obligated as of the last day of the preceding month, together with the amount of the penalty of each such bond.

E. Each licensed property bail bondsman shall report to the Department any change in the number of agents in his employ within seven days of such change and concurrently provide proof of collateral of $200,000 for each new agent, in accordance with subsection C of § 9.1-185.5.

F. Each licensed surety bail bondsman shall report to the Department within 30 days any change in his employment or agency status with a licensed insurance company. If the surety bail bondsman receives a new qualifying power of attorney from an insurance company, he shall forward a copy thereof within 30 days to the Department, in accordance with subdivision D 2 of § 9.1-185.5.

G. Each licensed property bail bondsman shall report to the Department within five business days if any new lien, encumbrance, or deed of trust is placed on any real estate that is being used as collateral on his or his agents' bonds as well as the amount it is securing. The reporting requirement deadline is deemed to begin as soon as the licensed property bail bondsman learns of the new lien, encumbrance, or deed of trust, or should have reasonably known that such a lien, encumbrance, or deed of trust had been recorded.

2004, c. 460; 2015, c. 600.

§ 9.1-185.15. Recovery of bailees; methods of capture; standards and requirements; limitations.

A. During the recovery of a bailee, a bail bondsman shall have a copy of the relevant recognizance for the bailee. In the event a bail bondsman is recovering the bailee of another bondsman, he shall also have written authorization from the bailee's bondsman, obtained prior to effecting the capture. The Department shall develop the written authorization form to be used in such circumstances.

B. A bail bondsmen shall not enter a residential structure without first verbally notifying the occupants who are present at the time of the entry.

C. Absent exigent circumstances, a bail bondsman shall give prior notification of at least 24 hours to local law enforcement or state police of the intent to apprehend a bailee. In all cases, a bail bondsman shall inform local law enforcement within 30 minutes of capturing a bailee.

D. A bail bondsman shall not break any laws of the Commonwealth in the act of apprehending a bailee.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.16. Department submission to the State Corporation Commission.

A. The Department shall provide to the State Corporation Commission a list of all newly licensed surety bondsmen each month.

B. When the Department terminates a surety bail bondsman's license, the Department shall immediately notify the State Corporation Commission of the surety bail bondsman's termination and the reason for such termination.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.17. Department submissions to local and regional correctional facilities.

Once a year, the Department shall provide to each local and regional correctional facility a list of all licensed bail bondsmen in the Commonwealth. The list shall consist of each bondsman's individual name, the name of the bondsman's business and the address where the bondsman's office is physically located. The Department shall update the list monthly and have the list available on its website.

2004, c. 460.

§ 9.1-185.18. Penalties.

It shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor to engage in bail bonding for profit or other consideration without a valid license issued by the Department in this Commonwealth. A third conviction shall be a Class 6 felony.

Any person licensed by the Board pursuant to this article who violates any statute or Board regulation who is not criminally prosecuted shall be subject to the monetary penalty provided in this section. If the Board determines that a respondent has committed the violation complained of, the Board shall determine the amount of the monetary penalty for the violation, which shall not exceed $2,500 for each violation. The penalty may be sued for and recovered in the name of the Commonwealth.

2004, c. 460.

Article 12. Bail Enforcement Agents.

§ 9.1-186. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Bail enforcement agent," also known as "bounty hunter," means any individual engaged in bail recovery.

"Bail recovery" means an act whereby a person arrests a bailee with the object of surrendering the bailee to the appropriate court, jail, or police department, for the purpose of discharging the bailee's surety from liability on his bond. "Bail recovery" shall include investigating, surveilling or locating a bailee in preparation for an imminent arrest, with such object and for such purpose.

"Bailee" means a person who has been released on bail, and who is or has been subject to a bond, as defined in § 19.2-119.

"Board" means the Criminal Justice Services Board.

"Department" means the Department of Criminal Justice Services.

2004, c. 397.

§ 9.1-186.1. Inapplicability of article.

The provisions of this article shall not apply to licensed bail bondsmen nor to law-enforcement officers.

2004, c. 397.

§ 9.1-186.2. Powers of Department and Board relating to bail enforcement agents.

A. The Board shall have full regulatory authority and oversight of bail enforcement agents.

B. The Board shall adopt regulations establishing compulsory minimum, entry-level and in-service training and education for bail enforcement agents. The regulations may include provisions allowing the Department to inspect the facilities and programs of persons conducting training to ensure compliance with the law and regulations. In establishing compulsory training standards for bail enforcement agents, the Board shall ensure the public safety and welfare against incompetent or unqualified persons engaging in the activities regulated by this article. The regulations may provide for exemption from training of persons having previous employment as law-enforcement officers for a local, state or the federal government. However, no such exemption shall be granted for any person whose employment as a law-enforcement officer was terminated because of his misconduct or incompetence. The regulations may include provisions for partial exemption from such training for persons having previous training that meets or exceeds the minimum training standards and has been approved by the Department.

C. The Board shall adopt regulations that are necessary to ensure respectable, responsible, safe and effective bail enforcement within the Commonwealth and shall include but not be limited to regulations that: (i) establish qualifications of applicants for licensure and renewal under this article; (ii) examine, or cause to be examined, the qualifications of each applicant for licensure, including when necessary the preparation, administration, and grading of examinations; (iii) levy and collect nonrefundable fees for licensure and renewal that are sufficient to cover all expenses for administration and operation of a program of licensure; (iv) ensure continued competency and prevent deceptive or misleading practices by practitioners; (v) administer the regulatory system; (vi) provide for receipt of complaints concerning the conduct of any person whose activities are regulated by the Board; (vii) provide for investigations, and appropriate disciplinary action if warranted; (viii) establish professional conduct standards, firearms training and usage standards, uniform and identification standards, reporting standards, and standards for the recovery and capture of bailees; (ix) allow the Board to revoke, suspend or refuse to renew a license for just cause; and (x) establish an introductory training curriculum which includes search, seizure and arrest procedure, pursuit, arrest, detainment and transportation of a bailee, specific duties and responsibilities regarding entering an occupied structure, the laws and rules relating to the bail bond business, the rights of the accused, ethics and Virginia law and regulation. The Board shall adopt annual compulsory, minimum, firearms training standards for bail enforcement agents. In adopting its regulations, the Board shall seek the advice of the Private Security Services Advisory Board established pursuant to § 9.1-143.

2004, c. 397.

§ 9.1-186.3. Powers of Department relating to bail enforcement agents.

A. In addition to the powers otherwise conferred upon it by law, the Department may charge each applicant for licensure or licensee a nonrefundable fee as established by the Board to (i) cover the costs of processing an application for licensure, enforcement of the regulations, and other costs associated with the maintenance of the program of regulation; (ii) cover the costs of bail recovery training, processing school certifications and enforcement of training standards; (iii) conduct investigations to determine the suitability of applicants for licensure and (iv) conduct investigations to determine if any disciplinary actions against a licensed bail enforcement agent are warranted. For purposes of determining eligibility for licensure, the Department shall require the applicant to provide personal descriptive information to be forwarded, along with the applicant's fingerprints, to the Central Criminal Records Exchange for the purpose of conducting a Virginia criminal history records search. The Central Criminal Records Exchange shall forward the fingerprints and personal description to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the purpose of obtaining a national criminal record check.

B. The Director or his designee may make an ex parte application to the circuit court for the city or county wherein evidence sought is kept or wherein a licensee does business for the issuance of a subpoena duces tecum in furtherance of the investigation of a sworn complaint within the jurisdiction of the Department or the Board to request production of any relevant records, documents and physical or other evidence of any person, partnership, association or corporation licensed or regulated by the Department pursuant to this article. The court may issue and compel compliance with such a subpoena upon a showing of reasonable cause. Upon determining that reasonable cause exists to believe that evidence may be destroyed or altered, the court may issue a subpoena duces tecum requiring the immediate production of evidence. Costs of the investigation and adjudication of violations of this article or Board regulations may be recovered. All costs recovered shall be deposited into the state treasury to the credit of the Bail Enforcement Agent Regulatory Fund. Such proceedings shall be brought in the name of the Commonwealth by the Department in the circuit court of the city or county in which the unlawful act occurred or in which the defendant resides. The Director, or agents appointed by him, shall have the authority to administer oaths or affirmations for the purpose of receiving complaints and conducting investigations of violations of this article, or any regulation promulgated hereunder and to serve process issued by the Department or the Board.

2004, c. 397.

§ 9.1-186.4. Limitations on licensure.

A. In order to be licensed as a bail enforcement agent a person shall (i) be 21 years of age or older, (ii) have received a high school diploma or passed a high school equivalency examination approved by the Board of Education, and (iii) have satisfactorily completed a basic certification course in training for bail enforcement agents offered by the Department. Partial exemptions to the training requirements may be approved by the Department if the individual has received prior training.

B. The following persons are not eligible for licensure as a bail enforcement agent and may not be employed nor serve as agents for a bail enforcement agent:

1. Persons who have been convicted of a felony within the Commonwealth, any other state, or the United States, who have not been pardoned, or whose civil rights have not been restored.

2. Persons who have been convicted of any misdemeanor within the Commonwealth, any other state, or the United States within the preceding five years. This prohibition may be waived by the Department, for good cause shown, so long as the conviction was not for one of the following or a substantially similar misdemeanor: carrying a concealed weapon, assault and battery, sexual battery, a drug offense, driving under the influence, discharging a firearm, a sex offense, or larceny.

3. Persons who have been convicted of any misdemeanor within the Commonwealth, any other state, or the United States, that is substantially similar to the following: brandishing a firearm or stalking. The Department may not waive the prohibitions under this subdivision 3.

4. Persons currently the subject of a protective order within the Commonwealth or another state.

5. Employees of a local or regional jail.

6. Employees of a sheriff's office, or a state or local police department.

7. Commonwealth's Attorneys, and any employees of their offices.

8. Employees of the Department of Corrections, Department of Criminal Justice Services, or a local pretrial or community-based probation services agency.

C. The exclusions in subsection B shall not be construed to prohibit law enforcement from accompanying a bail enforcement agent when he engages in bail recovery.

2004, c. 397; 2007, c. 133; 2014, c. 84.

§ 9.1-186.5. Bail enforcement agent license; criminal history records check.

A. An applicant for a bail enforcement license shall apply for such license in a form and manner prescribed by the Board, and containing any information the Board requires.

B. Prior to the issuance of any bail enforcement agent license, each applicant shall:

1. File with the Department an application for such license on the form and in the manner prescribed by the Board.

2. Complete the basic certification courses in training for bail enforcement agents required by the Department. Any applicant who improperly uses notes or other reference materials, or otherwise cheats in any course, shall be ineligible to become a licensed bail enforcement agent.

3. Submit the appropriate nonrefundable application processing fee to the Department.

4. Submit to fingerprinting by a local or state law-enforcement agency and provide personal descriptive information to be forwarded, along with the applicant's fingerprints, to the Department of State Police Central Criminal Records Exchange. The Central Criminal Records Exchange shall forward the applicant's fingerprints and personal descriptive information to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the purpose of obtaining national criminal history record information regarding such applicant. The applicant shall pay for the cost of such fingerprinting and criminal records check. The Department of State Police shall forward it to the Director of the Department, or his designee, who shall be a governmental entity, who shall review the record, and if the report indicates a prior conviction listed in subsection B of § 9.1-186.4, the individual shall be prohibited from pursuing the application process for issuance of a bail enforcement agent license unless the individual submits proof that his civil rights have been restored by the Governor or other appropriate authority.

2004, c. 397.

§ 9.1-186.6. Licenses; renewal.

A. A license granted to a bail enforcement agent by the Department shall authorize such person to engage in the business of bail recovery.

B. Every bail enforcement agent license issued pursuant to this article shall be for a term of two years.

C. A bail enforcement agent license may be renewed for an ensuing two-year period, upon the filing of an application in the form prescribed by the Department and payment of the nonrefundable renewal application processing fee prescribed by the Department. In addition, applicants for renewal of a bail enforcement agent's license shall provide all other documentation as the Department deems appropriate, including but not limited to, a criminal history background check.

D. On or before the first day of the month prior to the month his license is due to expire, the licensee shall make application for license renewal and shall at that time pay the renewal application fee.

E. Any license not renewed by its expiration date shall terminate on such date.

F. Prior to license renewal, bail enforcement agents shall be required to complete eight hours of continuing education approved by the Department.

2004, c. 397.

§ 9.1-186.7. Licensure of nonresidents.

A. All nonresident transfers and applicants for a bail enforcement agent license shall satisfy all licensing requirements for residents of the Commonwealth.

B. For the purposes of this article, any individual whose physical place of residence and physical place of business are in a county or city located partly within the Commonwealth and partly within another state may be considered as meeting the requirements as a resident of the Commonwealth, provided the other state has established by law or regulation similar requirements as to residence of such individuals.

2004, c. 397.

§ 9.1-186.8. Professional conduct standards; grounds for disciplinary actions.

A. Any violations of the restrictions or standards under subsection B shall be grounds for placing on probation, refusal to issue or renew, sanctioning, suspension or revocation of the bail enforcement agent's license. A licensed bail enforcement agent is responsible for ensuring that his employees, partners and individuals contracted to perform services for or on his behalf comply with all of these provisions, and do not violate any of the restrictions that apply to bail enforcement agents. Violations by a bail enforcement agent's employee, partner or agent may be grounds for disciplinary action against the bail enforcement agent, including probation, suspension, or revocation of license.

B. A licensed bail enforcement agent shall not:

1. Engage in any fraud or willful misrepresentation, or provide materially incorrect, misleading, incomplete or untrue information in applying for an original license, or renewal of an existing license, or in submitting any documents to the Department.

2. Use any letterhead, advertising, or other printed matter in any manner representing that he is an agent, employee, or instrumentality of the federal government, a state, or any political subdivision of a state.

3. Impersonate, permit or aid and abet any employee to impersonate, a law-enforcement officer or employee of the United States, any state, or a political subdivision of a state.

4. Use a name different from that under which he is currently licensed for any advertising, solicitation, or contract to secure business unless the name is an authorized fictitious name.

5. Coerce, suggest, aid and abet, offer promise of favor, or threaten any person to induce that person to commit any crime.

6. Give or receive, directly or indirectly, any gift of any kind to any nonelected public official or any employee of a governmental agency involved with the administration of justice, including but not limited to law-enforcement personnel, magistrates, judges, jail employees, and attorneys. De minimis gifts, not to exceed $50 per year per recipient, are acceptable, provided the purpose of the gift is not to directly solicit business, or would otherwise be a violation of Department regulations or the laws of the Commonwealth.

7. Knowingly violate, advise, encourage, or assist in the violation of any statute, court order, or injunction in the course of conducting activities regulated under this chapter.

8. Solicit business for an attorney in return for compensation.

9. Willfully neglect to render to a client services or a report as agreed between the parties and for which compensation has been paid or tendered in accordance with the agreement of the parties, but if the bail enforcement agent chooses to withdraw from the case and returns the funds for work not yet done, no violation of this section exists.

10. Fail to comply with any of the statutory or regulatory requirements governing licensed bail enforcement agents.

11. Fail or refuse to cooperate with any investigation by the Department.

12. Fail to comply with any subpoena issued by the Department.

13. Employ or contract with any unlicensed or improperly licensed person or agency to conduct activities regulated under this article, if the licensure status was known or could have been ascertained by reasonable inquiry.

14. Solicit or receive a bribe or other consideration in exchange for failing to recover or detain a bailee.

C. The Department shall have the authority to place on probation, suspend or revoke a bail enforcement agent's license if an agent is arrested or issued a summons for a criminal offense, or becomes the subject of a protective order.

2004, c. 397.

§ 9.1-186.9. Firearms, training and usage; standards and requirements.

A. If a bail enforcement agent chooses to carry a firearm, either concealed or visible, in the course of his duties, he shall be required to:

1. First complete basic firearms training, as defined by the Board; and

2. Receive ongoing in-service firearms training, as defined by the Board.

B. In the event a bail enforcement agent discharges a firearm during the course of his duties, he shall report it to the Department within 24 business hours.

2004, c. 397.

§ 9.1-186.10. Uniforms and identification; standards and restrictions.

A. A bail enforcement agent shall not wear, carry, or display any uniform, badge, shield, or other insignia or emblem that implies he is an agent of state, local, or federal government.

B. A bail enforcement agent shall wear or display only identification issued by, or whose design has been approved by, the Department.

2004, c. 397.

§ 9.1-186.11. Reporting standards and requirements.

A. Each licensed bail enforcement agent shall report within 10 calendar days to the Department any change in his residence, name, or business name or business address, and ensure that the Department has the names and fictitious names of all companies under which he carries out his bail recovery business.

B. Each licensed bail enforcement agent arrested or issued a summons for any crime shall report such fact within 10 calendar days to the Department, and shall report to the Department within 10 days the facts and circumstances regarding the final disposition of his case.

C. Each licensed bail enforcement agent shall report to the Department within 10 calendar days of the final disposition any administrative action taken against him by another governmental agency in the Commonwealth or in another jurisdiction. Such report shall include a copy of the order, consent to order or other relevant legal documents.

2004, c. 397; 2015, c. 600.

§ 9.1-186.12. Recovery of bailees; methods of capture; standards and requirements; limitations.

A. During the recovery of a bailee, a bail enforcement agent shall have a copy of the relevant recognizance for the bailee. He shall also have written authorization from the bailee's bondsman, obtained prior to effecting the capture. The Department shall develop the written authorization form to be used in such circumstances.

B. A bail enforcement agent shall not enter the residence of another without first verbally notifying the occupants who are present at the time of entry.

C. Absent exigent circumstances, a bail enforcement agent shall give prior notification of at least 24 hours to local law enforcement or state police of the intent to apprehend a bailee. In all cases, a bail enforcement agent shall inform local law enforcement within 60 minutes of capturing a bailee.

D. A bail enforcement agent shall not break any laws of the Commonwealth in the act of apprehending a bailee.

2004, c. 397.

§ 9.1-186.13. Penalties, criminal and monetary.

Any person who engages in bail recovery in the Commonwealth without a valid license issued by the Department is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. A third conviction under this section is a Class 6 felony.

Any person who violates any statute or Board regulation who is not criminally prosecuted shall be subject to the monetary penalty provided in this section. If the Board determines that a respondent is guilty of the violation complained of, the Board shall determine the amount of the monetary penalty for the violation, which shall not exceed $2,500 for each violation. The penalty may be sued for and recovered in the name of the Commonwealth.

2004, c. 397.

§ 9.1-186.14. Expired.

Expired.

Article 13. Crisis Intervention Teams.

§ 9.1-187. Establishment of crisis intervention team programs.

A. By January 1, 2010, the Department of Criminal Justice Services and the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, utilizing such federal or state funding as may be available for this purpose, shall support the development and establishment of crisis intervention team programs in areas throughout the Commonwealth. Areas may be composed of any combination of one or more localities or institutions of higher education contained therein that may have law-enforcement officers as defined in § 9.1-101. The crisis intervention teams shall assist law-enforcement officers in responding to crisis situations involving persons with mental illness, substance abuse problems, or both. The goals of the crisis intervention team programs shall be:

1. Providing immediate response by specially trained law-enforcement officers;

2. Reducing the amount of time officers spend out of service awaiting assessment and disposition;

3. Affording persons with mental illness, substance abuse problems, or both, a sense of dignity in crisis situations;

4. Reducing the likelihood of physical confrontation;

5. Decreasing arrests and use of force;

6. Identifying underserved populations with mental illness, substance abuse problems, or both, and linking them to appropriate care;

7. Providing support and assistance for mental health treatment professionals;

8. Decreasing the use of arrest and detention of persons experiencing mental health and/or substance abuse crises by providing better access to timely treatment;

9. Providing a therapeutic location or protocol for officers to bring individuals in crisis for assessment that is not a law-enforcement or jail facility;

10. Increasing public recognition and appreciation for the mental health needs of a community;

11. Decreasing injuries to law-enforcement officers during crisis events;

12. Reducing inappropriate arrests of individuals with mental illness in crisis situations; and

13. Decreasing the need for mental health treatment in jail.

B. The Department, in collaboration with the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, shall establish criteria for the development of crisis intervention teams that shall include assessment of the effectiveness of the area's plan for community involvement, training, and therapeutic response alternatives and a determination of whether law-enforcement officers have effective agreements with mental health care providers and all other community stakeholders.

C. By November 1, 2009, the Department, and the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, shall submit to the Joint Commission on Health Care a report outlining the status of the crisis intervention team programs, including copies of any requests for proposals and the criteria developed for such areas.

2009, c. 715; 2012, c. 776.

§ 9.1-188. Crisis intervention training program.

The Department, in consultation with the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services, and law-enforcement, brain injury, and mental health stakeholders, shall develop a crisis intervention training program divided into the following three categories: (i) a module of principles-based training to be included as a part of the compulsory minimum training standards subsequent to employment for all law-enforcement officers, (ii) a module of principles-based training to be included as a part of the basic training of and the recertification requirements for law-enforcement officers, and (iii) a comprehensive advanced training course for all persons involved in the crisis intervention team programs. Every locality shall establish or be part of a crisis intervention team program in accordance with the provisions of this article.

The curriculum for the basic training and recertification modules and the comprehensive advanced training course shall be approved for Department-certified in-service training credits for law-enforcement officers. All law-enforcement officers involved in a crisis intervention team program shall complete the comprehensive advanced training course in accordance with clause (iii). The comprehensive advanced training course's curriculum developed in accordance with clause (iii) shall include a module on brain injury as part of the four hours of mandatory training in legal issues.

2009, c. 715; 2020, cc. 514, 515; 2020, Sp. Sess. I, c. 36.

§ 9.1-189. Crisis intervention team protocol.

Each crisis intervention team shall develop a protocol that permits law-enforcement officers to release a person with mental illness, substance abuse problems, or both, whom they encounter in crisis situations from their custody when the crisis intervention team has determined the person is sufficiently stable and to refer him for emergency treatment services.

2009, c. 715.

§ 9.1-190. Crisis intervention team program assessment.

The Department, and the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, shall assess and report on the impact and effectiveness of the crisis intervention team programs in meeting the program goals. The assessment shall include, but not be limited to, consideration of the number of incidents, injuries to the parties involved, successes and problems encountered, the overall operation of the crisis intervention team programs, and recommendations for improvement of the program. The Department, and the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, shall submit a report to the Joint Commission on Health Care by November 15, 2009, 2010, and 2011.

2009, c. 715.

Article 14. Virginia Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner Coordination Program.

§ 9.1-191. Virginia sexual assault forensic examiner coordination program.

A. The Department shall establish a Virginia sexual assault forensic examiner coordination program. The program shall be headed by a coordinator (the Coordinator). The Coordinator shall:

1. Create and coordinate an annual statewide sexual assault forensic nurse examiner training program in partnership with the Attorney General, the Department of Health, the Virginia Hospital and Healthcare Association, the Victim Compensation Fund, the International Association of Forensic Nurses, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services;

2. Coordinate the development and enhancement of sexual assault forensic examiner programs across the Commonwealth that include prevention of secondary trauma to survivors of sexual assault and culturally sensitive training for health professionals;

3. Participate in the development of hospital protocols and guidelines for treatment of survivors of sexual assault in partnership with the Department of Health;

4. Coordinate and strengthen communications among sexual assault nurse examiner medical directors, sexual assault response teams, and hospitals for existing and developing sexual assault nurse examiner programs;

5. Provide technical assistance for existing and developing sexual assault forensic examiner programs, including local sexual assault forensic examiner training programs;

6. Create and maintain a statewide list, updated biannually, to include the following:

a. A list of available sexual assault forensic examiners, sexual assault nurse examiners, sexual assault forensic nurse examiners, and pediatric sexual assault nurse examiners;

b. The location and facility affiliation of each examiner;

c. The duty hours for each examiner and affiliated facility for sexual assault exam services; and

d. The location of available local sexual assault forensic examiner training programs;

7. Coordinate, share, and disseminate the list created pursuant to subdivision 6 to the emergency operations communications system available to emergency medical services and law-enforcement agencies as well as the internal emergency and hospital communications system;

8. Share and disseminate the list created pursuant to subdivision 6 with all other relevant agencies, including law-enforcement agencies, attorneys for the Commonwealth, victim-witness programs, sexual assault service organizations, the Department of Juvenile Justice, the Department of Social Services, the Department of Education, and school divisions;

9. Create sexual assault nurse examiner recruitment materials for universities and colleges with nursing programs in partnership with the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia; and

10. Support and coordinate community education and public outreach, when appropriate, relating to sexual assault nurse examiner issues for the Commonwealth.

B. The Coordinator may request and shall receive from every department, division, board, bureau, commission, authority, or other agency created by the Commonwealth, or to which the Commonwealth is a party, or any political subdivision thereof, cooperation and assistance in the performance of its duties. The Coordinator may also consult and exchange information with local government agencies and interested stakeholders.

C. The Coordinator shall report annually on or before October 1 to the Governor and the General Assembly. The report shall include a summary of activities for the year and any recommendations to address sexual assault exams within the Commonwealth, including budget needs to increase the availability of sexual assault exam services across the Commonwealth. The Department shall ensure that such report is available to the public.

2020, cc. 274, 276.

Article 15. Virginia Community Policing Report.

§ 9.1-192. Community Policing Reporting Database; annual report.

A. The Department shall periodically access the Community Policing Reporting Database, which is maintained by the Department of State Police in accordance with § 52-30.3, for the purposes of analyzing the data to determine the existence and prevalence of the practice of bias-based profiling and the prevalence of complaints alleging the use of excessive force. The Department shall maintain all records relating to the analysis, validation, and interpretation of such data. The Department may seek assistance in analyzing the data from any accredited public or private institution of higher education in the Commonwealth or from an independent body having the experience, staff expertise, and technical support capability to provide such assistance.

B. The Director shall annually report the findings and recommendations resulting from the analysis and interpretation of the data from the Community Policing Reporting Database to the Governor, the General Assembly, and the Attorney General beginning on or before July 1, 2021, and each July 1 thereafter. The report shall also include information regarding state or local law-enforcement agencies that have failed or refused to report the required data to the Department of State Police as required by §§ 15.2-1609.10, 15.2-1722.1, and 52-30.2. A copy of the Director's report shall also be provided to each attorney for the Commonwealth of the county or city in which a reporting law-enforcement agency is located.

2020, c. 1165, § 9.1-191.

Article 16. Mental Health Awareness Response and Community Understanding Services (Marcus) Alert System.

§ 9.1-193. Mental health awareness response and community understanding services (Marcus) alert system; law-enforcement protocols.

A. As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Area" means a combination of one or more localities or institutions of higher education contained therein that may have law-enforcement officers as defined in § 9.1-101.

"Body-worn camera system" means the same as that term is defined in § 15.2-1723.1.

"Community care team" means the same as that term is defined in § 37.2-311.1.

"Comprehensive crisis system" means the same as that term is defined in § 37.2-311.1.

"Developmental disability" means the same as that term is defined in § 37.2-100.

"Developmental services" means the same as that term is defined in § 37.2-100.

"Historically economically disadvantaged community" means the same as that term is defined in § 56-576.

"Mental health awareness response and community understanding services alert system" or "Marcus alert system" means the same as that term is defined in § 37.2-311.1.

"Mental health service provider" means the same as that term is defined in § 54.1-2400.1.

"Mobile crisis response" means the same as that term is defined in § 37.2-311.1.

"Mobile crisis team" means the same as that term is defined in § 37.2-311.1.

"Registered peer recovery specialist" means the same as that term is defined in § 54.1-3500.

"Substance abuse" means the same as that term is defined in § 37.2-100.

B. The Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services and the Department shall collaborate to ensure that the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services maintains purview over best practices to promote a behavioral health response through the use of a mobile crisis response to behavioral health crises whenever possible, or law-enforcement backup of a mobile crisis response when necessary, and that the Department maintains purview over requirements associated with decreased use of force and body-worn camera system policies and enforcement of such policies in the protocols established pursuant to this article and § 37.2-311.1.

C. By July 1, 2021, the Department shall develop a written plan outlining (i) the Department's and law-enforcement agencies' roles and engagement with the development of the Marcus alert system; (ii) the Department's role in the development of minimum standards, best practices, and the review and approval of the protocols for law-enforcement participation in the Marcus alert system set forth in subsection D; and (iii) plans for the measurement of progress toward the goals for law-enforcement participation in the Marcus alert system set forth in subsection E.

D. All protocols and training for law-enforcement participation in the Marcus alert system shall be developed in coordination with local behavioral health and developmental services stakeholders and approved by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services according to standards developed pursuant to § 37.2-311.1. Such protocols and training shall provide for a specialized response by law enforcement designed to meet the goals set forth in this article to ensure that individuals experiencing a mental health, substance abuse, or developmental disability-related behavioral health crisis receive a specialized response when diversion to the comprehensive crisis system is not feasible. Specialized response protocols and training by law enforcement shall consider the impact to care that the presence of an officer in uniform or a marked vehicle at a response has and shall mitigate such impact when feasible through the use of plain clothes and unmarked vehicles. The specialized response protocols and training shall also set forth best practices, guidelines, and procedures regarding the role of law enforcement during a mobile crisis response, including the provisions of backup services when requested, in order to achieve the goals set forth in subsection E and to support the effective diversion of mental health crises to the comprehensive crisis system whenever feasible.

E. The goals of law-enforcement participation, including the development of local protocols, in comprehensive crisis services and the Marcus alert system shall be:

1. Ensuring that individuals experiencing behavioral health crises are served by the behavioral health comprehensive crisis service system when considered feasible pursuant to protocols and training and associated clinical guidance provided pursuant to Title 37.2;

2. Ensuring that local law-enforcement departments and institutions of higher education with law-enforcement officers establish standardized agreements for the provision of law-enforcement backup and specialized response when required for a mobile crisis response;

3. Providing immediate response and services when diversion to the comprehensive crisis system continuum is not feasible with a protocol that meets the minimum standards and strives for the best practices developed by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services and the Department pursuant to § 37.2-311.1;

4. Affording individuals whose behaviors are consistent with mental illness, substance abuse, intellectual or developmental disabilities, brain injury, or any combination thereof a sense of dignity in crisis situations;

5. Reducing the likelihood of physical confrontation;

6. Decrease arrests and use-of-force incidents by law-enforcement officers;

7. Ensuring the use of unobstructed body-worn cameras for the continuous improvement of the response team;

8. Identifying underserved populations in historically economically disadvantaged communities whose behaviors are consistent with mental illness, substance abuse, developmental disabilities, or any combination thereof and ensuring individuals experiencing a mental health crisis, including individuals experiencing a behavioral health crisis secondary to mental illness, substance use problem, developmental or intellectual disabilities, brain injury, or any combination thereof, are directed or referred to and provided with appropriate care, including follow-up and wrap-around services to individuals, family members, and caregivers to reduce the likelihood of future crises;

9. Providing support and assistance for mental health service providers and law-enforcement officers;

10. Decreasing the use of arrest and detention of persons whose behaviors are consistent with mental illness, substance abuse, developmental or intellectual disabilities, brain injury, or any combination thereof by providing better access to timely treatment;

11. Providing a therapeutic location or protocol to bring individuals in crisis for assessment that is not a law-enforcement or jail facility;

12. Increasing public recognition and appreciation for the mental health needs of a community;

13. Decreasing injuries during crisis events;

14. Decreasing the need for mental health treatment in jail;

15. Accelerating access to care for individuals in crisis through improved and streamlined referral mechanisms to mental health and developmental services;

16. Improving the notifications made to the comprehensive crisis system concerning an individual experiencing a mental health crisis if the individual poses an immediate public safety threat or threat to self; and

17. Decreasing the use of psychiatric hospitalizations as a treatment for mental health crises.

F. By July 1, 2021, every locality shall establish a voluntary database to be made available to the 9-1-1 alert system and the Marcus alert system to provide relevant mental health information and emergency contact information for appropriate response to an emergency or crisis. Identifying and health information concerning behavioral health illness, mental health illness, developmental or intellectual disability, or brain injury may be voluntarily provided to the database by the individual with the behavioral health illness, mental health illness, developmental or intellectual disability, or brain injury; the parent or legal guardian of such individual if the individual is under the age of 18; or a person appointed the guardian of such person as defined in § 64.2-2000. An individual shall be removed from the database when he reaches the age of 18, unless he or his guardian, as defined in § 64.2-2000, requests that the individual remain in the database. Information provided to the database shall not be used for any other purpose except as set forth in this subsection.

G. By July 1, 2022, every locality shall have established local protocols that meet the requirements set forth in the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services plan set forth in clauses (vi), (vii), and (viii) of subdivision B 2 of § 37.2-311.1. In addition, by July 1, 2022, every locality shall have established, or be part of an area that has established, protocols for law-enforcement participation in the Marcus alert system that has been approved by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services and the Department.

2020, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 41, 42.