Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 53.1. Prisons and Other Methods of Correction
Chapter 2. State Correctional Facilities
12/9/2021

Chapter 2. State Correctional Facilities.

Article 1. General Provisions.

§ 53.1-18. Department to have custody of property; right to sue to protect property.

The Department shall have custody of both the real and personal property of state correctional facilities. The Department is authorized to institute and prosecute in the name of the Commonwealth any suit or proceeding to protect the rights of the Commonwealth in such property.

Code 1950, § 53-20; 1970, c. 648; 1982, c. 636; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-19. Establishment of correctional institutions.

The Director shall determine the necessity for and select the site of any new state correctional facility and any land to be taken or purchased by the Commonwealth for the purposes of any new or existing state correctional facility. The Director shall have charge of the construction of any new building at any state correctional facility, shall determine the design thereof, and for this purpose may employ architects and other experts or hold competitions for plans and designs. On or after January 1, 1996, at least ninety days in advance of the issuance of requests for proposals for construction, notice shall be given by the Director to the chairman of the board of supervisors or mayor of a county, city or town in which the facility is to be established or expanded for the purpose of the confinement of inmates. In addition, if the local governing body in the jurisdiction where the facility is to be located so requests, upon receipt of such request, the Department shall hold a public hearing in that jurisdiction. The Director may, if he finds it practical and economical, use persons sentenced to the Department as laborers in the construction of such structures.

If land or property is taken or purchased by the Department, title shall be taken in the name of the Commonwealth. The original names of all state correctional facilities shall be designated by the Department and approved by the Governor.

Code 1950, § 53-76.1; 1970, c. 648; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1976, c. 393; 1982, c. 636; 1995, c. 846; 1996, c. 234; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-20. Commitment of convicted persons to custody of Director.

A. Every person convicted of a felony committed before January 1, 1995, and sentenced to the Department for a total period of more than two years shall be committed by the court to the custody of the Director of the Department. The Director shall receive all such persons into the state corrections system within sixty days of the date on which the final sentencing order is mailed by certified letter or sent by electronic transmission to the Director by the clerk.

B. Persons convicted of felonies committed on or after January 1, 1995, and sentenced to the Department or sentenced to confinement in jail for a year or more shall be placed in the custody of the Department and received by the Director into the state corrections system within sixty days of the date on which the final sentencing order is mailed by certified letter or sent by electronic transmission to the Director by the clerk.

C. If the Governor finds that the number of prisoners in state facilities poses a threat to public safety, it shall be within the discretion of the Director to determine the priority for receiving prisoners into the state corrections system from local correctional facilities.

D. All felons sentenced to a period of incarceration and not placed in an adult state correctional facility pursuant to this section shall serve their sentences in local correctional facilities which shall not include a secure facility or detention home as defined in § 16.1-228.

E. Felons committed to the custody of the Department for a new felony offense shall be received by the Director into the state corrections system in accordance with the provisions of this section without any delay for resolution of (i) issues of alleged parole violations set for hearing before the Parole Board or (ii) any other pending parole-related administrative matter.

F. After accounting for safety, security, and operational factors, the Director shall place prisoners who are known primary caretakers of minor children in a facility as close as possible to such children.

Code 1950, §§ 19-270, 19.1-296, 53-21.1; 1960, c. 366; 1966, c. 522; 1970, cc. 67, 648; 1972, c. 145; 1973, c. 330; 1974, cc. 44, 45, 506; 1981, c. 529; 1982, c. 636; 1990, cc. 676, 768; 1993, c. 502; 1994, cc. 128, 859, 949; 1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 1997, c. 840; 2020, c. 526.

§ 53.1-20.1. Compensation of local jails for cost of incarceration.

If the Director is unable to accommodate in a state correctional facility any convicted felon sentenced to the Department for a felony committed before January 1, 1995, whose sentence totals more than two years or who is convicted of a felony committed on or after January 1, 1995, and who is required to serve a total period of one year or more in a state correctional facility, the Department of Corrections shall compensate local jails for the cost of incarceration as provided for in the general appropriation act beginning on the sixty-first day following the date of mailing by certified letter or electronic transmittal by the clerk of the committing court to the Director of the final order.

1982, c. 680; 1990, cc. 676, 768; 1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 1997, c. 775.

§ 53.1-21. Transfer of prisoners into and between state and local correctional facilities.

A. Any person who (i) is accused or convicted of an offense (a) in violation of any county, city, or town ordinance within the Commonwealth, (b) against the laws of the Commonwealth, or (c) against the laws of any other state or country or (ii) is a witness held in any case in which the Commonwealth is a party and who is confined in a state or local correctional facility may be transferred by the Director, subject to the provisions of § 53.1-20, to any other state or local correctional facility which he may designate.

B. The following limitations shall apply to the transfer of persons into the custody of the Department:

1. No person convicted of violating § 20-61 shall be committed or transferred to the custody of the Department.

2. No person who is convicted of a misdemeanor or a felony and receives a jail sentence of 12 months or less shall be committed or transferred to the custody of the Department without the consent of the Director.

3. Beginning July 1, 1991, and subject to the provisions of § 53.1-20, no person, whether convicted of a felony or misdemeanor, shall be transferred to the custody of the Department when the combined length of all sentences to be served totals two years or less, without the consent of the Director.

Code 1950, §§ 19.2-310.1, 53-19.17, 53-84, 53-103, 53-135.1; Code 1950, § 53-8; 1952, c. 557; 1960, c. 432; 1962, c. 326; 1968, c. 357; 1970, c. 648; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 110; 1972, c. 573; 1973, cc. 330, 342; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1976, cc. 287, 462; 1982, c. 636; 1990, cc. 676, 768; 1999, cc. 945, 987; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 463.

§ 53.1-22. Misdemeanant suspected of having contagious disease.

Whenever any court shall have reason to believe that a person convicted by it of a misdemeanor who is sentenced to serve time in a local correctional facility is afflicted with any contagious or infectious disease dangerous to the public health, the court shall have such person examined by a licensed physician or licensed nurse practitioner. If the examination reveals the person is afflicted with such disease, the court may commit the person directly to the Department.

Code 1950, § 53-89; 1970, c. 648; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1982, c. 636; 2004, c. 855.

§ 53.1-23. Fingerprints, photographs and description.

A. Photographs, fingerprints, and a description of each person received by the Department shall be taken and filed for identification purposes. If the person is serving a sentence for an offense for which a report to the Central Criminal Records Exchange is required under subsection A of § 19.2-390, such photographs, fingerprints, and description of such person received by the Department shall be provided to the Central Criminal Records Exchange and, unless otherwise prohibited by law, may be classified and filed as part of the criminal history record information of that person. Subject to the provisions of §§ 19.2-387 through 19.2-392, the Department shall cooperate with federal, state, county, and city law-enforcement agencies, insofar as it may deem proper, in disclosing information concerning such persons and in the taking of fingerprints and photographs of persons charged with the commission of an offense for which a report to the Central Criminal Records Exchange is required under subsection A of § 19.2-390.

B. The Department shall review each person's criminal history record at least 60 days prior to his scheduled release from a state correctional facility to determine whether all offenses for which that person has been committed appear on such record and, if any such offense that is required to be reported to the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to § 19.2-390 does not appear, (i) take and provide fingerprints and a photograph of the person to the Central Criminal Records Exchange to be classified and filed as part of the criminal history record information pursuant to subsection D of § 19.2-390 and (ii) provide written or electronic notification to the Central Criminal Records Exchange within the Department of State Police that such offense does not appear on the offender's criminal history record.

Code 1950, § 53-40; 1970, c. 648; 1982, c. 636; 2019, cc. 782, 783.

§ 53.1-23.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1990, c. 669.

§ 53.1-23.2. Department to give notice of the receipt of certain prisoners.

A. At the time of receipt of any prisoner for whom registration with the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry is required pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1, the Department shall obtain from that person all necessary registration information, including fingerprints and photographs of a type and kind approved by the Department of State Police. A person required to register shall register and submit to be photographed as part of the registration. The Department shall forthwith forward the registration information and photograph to the Department of State Police on the date of the receipt of the prisoner.

B. Whenever a person required to register has failed to comply with the provisions of subsection A, the Department shall promptly investigate or request the State Police promptly investigate and, if there is probable cause to believe a violation has occurred, obtain a warrant or assist in obtaining an indictment charging a violation of § 18.2-472.1 in the jurisdiction in which the person was received. The Department shall notify the State Police forthwith of such actions taken pursuant to this section.

2006, cc. 857, 914.

§ 53.1-24. Record of convictions and register to be kept.

The Director shall file and preserve a copy of the judgment furnished by the clerk of the court of conviction of each prisoner and keep a register describing the term of his confinement, for what offense, and when received into a state correctional facility. The Director may dispose of these records with the consent of The Library of Virginia in accordance with retention regulations for records maintained by the Department established under the Virginia Public Records Act (§ 42.1-76 et seq.).

Code 1950, § 53-24; 1982, c. 636; 1994, c. 64; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-25. Director to prescribe rules; rules to be available to prisoners.

The Director may prescribe rules for the preservation of state property and the health of prisoners in state correctional facilities and for the government thereof. Printed copies of all such rules shall be made available to prisoners under such terms and conditions as the Director may prescribe.

Code 1950, § 53-23; 1970, c. 648; 1977, c. 354; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-25.1. Rules of state correctional facilities.

A. The Director shall prescribe rules for state correctional facilities to ensure that when physical contact is required between an officer and an inmate and when the inmate is required by circumstances to disrobe, to the greatest extent possible, the officer shall be the same gender as the inmate. However, such rules may allow for the suspension of the provisions of this subsection during the period of a declared emergency.

B. When contact is required between an officer and an inmate and when the inmate is required by circumstances to disrobe and the officer is not the same gender as the inmate, the officer involved shall submit a written report to the warden or other official in charge of the state correctional facility within 72 hours following the incident, containing the justification for the suspension of the provisions of subsection A.

2000, c. 807; 2020, c. 526.

§ 53.1-26. Confiscation of prohibited articles.

Any item of personal property which a prisoner in any state correctional facility is prohibited from possessing by the Code of Virginia or by the rules of the Director shall, when found in the possession of a prisoner, be confiscated and sold or destroyed as the Director may direct. Any funds from the sale of such property shall be invested and used as provided in § 53.1-44.

Code 1950, § 53-23.1; 1968, c. 222; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-27. Establishment of stores in state correctional facilities.

The Director is hereby authorized to provide for the establishment and operation of stores or commissaries in state correctional facilities to deal in such articles as he deems proper. The profits from the operation of such stores shall be used for educational, recreational, pre-release and post-release reentry and transition services, or other purposes beneficial to the inmate population as may be prescribed by the Director.

Code 1950, § 53-19.9; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1982, c. 636; 1996, cc. 28, 230; 2004, c. 417.

§ 53.1-28. Authority to fix discharge date; improper release; warrant, arrest and hearing.

For the purpose of scheduling and providing a uniform, effective and continual program of pre-release training and conditioning of prisoners, the Director shall have authority to discharge any prisoner within the Virginia penal system on any day within a period of 30 days prior to the date upon which such prisoner's term would normally expire. The Director shall provide each prisoner with the following documents upon discharge: (i) verification of the prisoner's work history while in custody; (ii) certification of all educational and treatment programs completed by the prisoner while in custody; and (iii) a copy of his medical records, so long as such prisoner requests a copy of his records at least 60 days prior to the date upon which the prisoner's term would expire. The Department shall develop procedures wherein the records are to be made available to the prisoner in a safe and secure manner.

The Director or his designee upon the discovery of an improper release or discharge of a prisoner from custody shall report such release or discharge to the circuit court of the jurisdiction wherein the prisoner was released or discharged. The circuit court shall then issue a warrant for the arrest of the prisoner which may be executed by any duly sworn correctional officer or law-enforcement officer. Such warrant shall direct that the prisoner be presented forthwith to the court to determine the propriety of the original discharge or release. After a hearing, if the court is satisfied that the release or discharge was made improperly, the prisoner shall be returned to the state correctional facility from which he was released or discharged, or to any other correctional facility designated by the Director to serve the remainder of his sentence.

Code 1950, § 53-37; 1964, c. 140; 1968, c. 303; 1982, c. 636; 2006, cc. 108, 132.

§ 53.1-29. Authority for correctional officers and other employees to carry weapons.

It shall be lawful for any correctional officer and any noncustodial employee who has been designated by the Director of the Department, and who has completed the basic course in firearms for correctional officers as approved by the Department of Criminal Justice Services, to carry and use sufficient weapons to prevent escapes, suppress rebellion, and defend or protect himself or others in the course of his assigned duties.

Code 1950, § 53-39; 1970, c. 648; 1979, c. 642; 1982, c. 636; 1984, c. 720; 1996, cc. 804, 838.

§ 53.1-30. Who may enter interior of state correctional facilities; searches of those entering.

A. The Governor and members of the General Assembly may go into the interior of any state correctional facility. Attorneys shall be permitted in the interior of a state correctional facility to confer with prisoners who are their clients and with prisoners who are witnesses in cases in which they are involved. The Director shall prescribe the time and conditions on which attorneys and other persons may enter any state correctional facility.

B. The Department shall promulgate a policy to assist a person who was a victim of a crime committed by an offender incarcerated in any state correctional facility to visit with such offender. Such policy may include provisions necessary to preserve the safety and security of those at such visit and the good order of the facility, including consideration of the offender's security level, crime committed, and institutional behavior of the offender. The Department shall make whatever arrangements are necessary to effectuate such a visit. This subsection shall not apply to juvenile victims.

C. Any person seeking to enter the interior of any state correctional facility shall be subject to a search of his person and effects, as provided in § 53.1-1.2. Such search shall be performed in a manner reasonable under the circumstances and may be a condition precedent to entering a correctional facility. However, no child under the age of 18 shall be strip searched or subjected to a search of any body cavity under any circumstances.

D. The Department may not permanently ban any person, or insinuate that any person will be permanently banned, from seeking entrance to a state correctional facility on the basis of such person's refusal to consent to a strip search or a search of any body cavity when such person is seeking to enter the interior of any state correctional facility. If a person refuses to consent to a strip search or a search of any body cavity when such person is seeking to enter the interior of any state correctional facility, the Department may deny such person entry to the facility, unless otherwise provided by law, but may not deny such person any future entry on the basis of a prior refusal to consent.

Code 1950, § 53-60.1; 1970, c. 648; 1978, c. 306; 1982, c. 636; 2010, c. 844; 2020, cc. 759, 1170, 1181.

§ 53.1-31. Sale or lease of gas, oil, or minerals.

The Director is empowered to make and execute contracts, easements and leases in the name of the Commonwealth for the removal or mining of gas, oil or any valuable minerals that may be found in any real estate, title of which is vested in the Department, whenever it appears to the Department that it will be in the best interest of the Commonwealth to make such disposition of such gas, oil or minerals. Before a contract, easement or lease is made, the same shall be approved by the Governor, and any contract, easement or lease shall be approved as to form by the Attorney General.

Bids therefor shall be received after notice by publication once a week for four successive weeks in at least two newspapers of general circulation. The Director shall have the right to reject any or all bids and to readvertise for bids. The accepted bidder shall give bond with good and sufficient surety to the satisfaction of the Director and in such amount as he may fix for the faithful performance of all the conditions and covenants of such contract, easement or lease.

Each such contract, easement or lease may be for a period not exceeding five years, may include the right to renew the same for an additional period not exceeding five years each and shall specify the rent royalties and other terms deemed expedient and proper. Such contracts, easements and leases may, in addition to any other rights, authorize the grantees and lessees to prospect for and take from the real estate oil, gas and such other minerals as are therein specified. No such contract, easement or lease shall in any way affect or interfere with the orderly operation of any state correctional facility. All rents or royalties collected from such contracts, easements or leases shall be paid into the state treasury to the credit of the general fund.

Code 1950, § 53-19.38:1; 1978, c. 474; 1982, c. 636; 1984, c. 734; 1989, c. 733; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-31.1. Transportation of prisoners.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Department shall provide all transportation to and from court for any prisoner in connection with a crime committed within a state correctional facility, or a facility operated pursuant to the Corrections Private Management Act (§ 53.1-261 et seq.), unless the affected sheriff and the Department agree on other transportation. Auxiliary police forces established under § 15.2-1731 who have met the training requirements of § 9.1-102, with the concurrence of the sheriff or other chief law-enforcement officer as appropriate, are specifically authorized to provide such transportation.

B. Authorized corrections personnel from any other state, the United States, and any political subdivisions thereof who transport a prisoner through the Commonwealth, deliver a prisoner to the Commonwealth, or take custody of a prisoner in the Commonwealth for transport to another jurisdiction are deemed to have lawful custody of such prisoner while in the Commonwealth.

C. Authorized Virginia corrections personnel who have a need to travel with a prisoner through or to another state are authorized to travel through such state and retain authority over such prisoner as allowed by such state.

2002, c. 240; 2003, c. 154; 2012, c. 827; 2015, c. 99.

§ 53.1-31.2. Notification of child support due by a prisoner.

The Department of Corrections shall cooperate with the Division of Child Support Enforcement to provide at regular intervals, but at least annually, a list of persons incarcerated. Upon receipt of such list, the Division shall identify those prisoners who are the subject of a court or administrative order requiring them to pay child support and the amount of each prisoner's obligation. The Division shall then inform the Department of the prisoners owing child support payments and the Department may inform the prisoner upon his reentry the amount of his arrearage.

2008, c. 763.

§ 53.1-31.3. Notification of incarcerated individuals ineligible for public assistance.

The Department shall, at regular intervals but at least monthly, provide the Department of Social Services with a list of all individuals committed to the custody of the Department of Corrections during the preceding month, to facilitate identification of prisoners who were receiving public assistance benefits prior to commitment to the custody of the Department and who may, as a result of their incarceration, be ineligible to receive such benefits.

2013, c. 218.

§ 53.1-31.4. Department of Corrections-issued identification.

Prior to the release or discharge of any prisoner who has been confined for at least 90 days and does not possess a government-issued identification card, birth certificate, and Social Security card, the Department shall provide the assistance necessary for such prisoner to apply for and obtain such identification and documents prior to his release or discharge, provided that the Department has or can readily obtain all records and information necessary for their issuance. If the prisoner is unable to obtain a government-issued identification card prior to his release or discharge, the Department shall provide the prisoner with a Department of Corrections Offender Identification form. If the Department receives a government-issued identification card, birth certificate, or Social Security card for a prisoner after his release or discharge, the Department shall forward such identification or document to the prisoner. Unless the prisoner is determined to be indigent pursuant to § 19.2-159, all costs and fees associated with applying for and obtaining any identification or documents pursuant to this section shall be paid by the prisoner.

2020, cc. 484, 523.

Article 2. Treatment and Privileges of Prisoners.

§ 53.1-32. Treatment and control of prisoners; recreation; religious services.

A. It shall be the general purpose of the state correctional facilities to provide proper employment, training and education in accordance with this title, medical and mental health care and treatment, discipline and control of prisoners committed or transferred thereto. The health service program established to provide medical services to prisoners shall provide for appropriate means by which prisoners receiving nonemergency medical services may pay fees based upon a portion of the cost of such services. In no event shall any prisoner be denied medically necessary service due to his inability to pay.

B. The Department of Corrections shall establish and maintain a treatment program for prisoners convicted pursuant to Article 7 (§ 18.2-61 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of Title 18.2 and committed to its custody. The program shall include a clinical assessment of all such prisoners upon receipt into the custody of the Department of Corrections and the development of appropriate treatment plans, if indicated. A licensed psychiatrist or licensed clinical psychologist who is experienced in the diagnosis, treatment, and risk assessment of sex offenders shall oversee the program and the program shall be administered by a licensed psychiatrist, licensed clinical psychologist, or a licensed mental health professional who is a certified sex offender treatment provider as defined in § 54.1-3600.

C. The Director shall provide a program of recreation for prisoners. The Director may establish, with consultation from the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, a comprehensive substance abuse treatment program which may include utilization of acupuncture and other treatment modalities, and may make such program available to any prisoner requiring the services provided by the program.

D. The Director or his designee who shall be a state employee is authorized to make arrangements for religious services for prisoners at times as he may deem appropriate. When such arrangements are made pursuant to a contract or memorandum of understanding, the final authority for such arrangements shall reside with the Director or his designee.

Code 1950, §§ 53-33, 53-94; 1970, c. 648; 1982, c. 636; 1992, c. 740; 1993, c. 768; 1995, cc. 766, 821; 1998, c. 798; 2009, cc. 740, 813, 840; 2010, c. 261; 2012, cc. 803, 835; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-32.01. Payment for bodily injury.

The Director is authorized to establish administrative procedures for recovering from an inmate the cost for medical treatment of a bodily injury that is inflicted intentionally on any person by the inmate. Such administrative procedures shall ensure that the inmate is afforded due process.

1997, c. 125; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-32.1. Classification system; program assignments; mandatory participation.

A. The Director shall maintain a system of classification which (i) evaluates all prisoners according to background, aptitude, education, and risk and (ii) based on an assessment of needs, determines appropriate program assignments including career and technical education, work activities and employment, academic activities which at a minimum meet the requirements of § 66-13.1, counseling, alcohol and substance abuse treatment, and such related activities as may be necessary to assist prisoners in the successful transition to free society and gainful employment.

B. The Director shall, subject to the availability of resources and sufficient program assignments, place prisoners in appropriate full-time program assignments or a combination thereof to satisfy the objectives of a treatment plan based on an assessment and evaluation of each prisoner's needs. Compliance with specified program requirements and attainment of specific treatment goals shall be required as a condition of placement and continuation in such program assignments. The Director may suspend programs in the event of an institutional emergency.

C. For the purposes of implementing the requirements of subsection B, prisoners shall be required to participate in such programs according to the following schedule:

1. From July 1, 1994, through June 30, 1995, an average of 24 hours per week.

2. From July 1, 1995, through June 30, 1996, an average of 28 hours per week.

3. From July 1, 1996, through June 30, 1997, an average of 30 hours per week.

4. From July 1, 1997, through June 30, 1998, an average of 36 hours per week.

5. From July 1, 1998, and thereafter, an average of 40 hours per week.

D. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, prisoners refusing to accept a program assignment shall not be eligible for good conduct allowances or earned sentence credits authorized pursuant to Chapter 6 (§ 53.1-186 et seq.) of Title 53.1. Such refusal shall also constitute a violation of the rules authorized pursuant to § 53.1-25 and the Director shall prescribe appropriate disciplinary action.

E. The Director shall maintain a master program listing, by facility and program location, of all available permanent and temporary positions. The Director may, consistent with § 53.1-43, establish a system of pay incentives for such assignments based upon difficulty and level of effort required.

F. Inmates employed pursuant to Article 2 (§ 53.1-32 et seq.) of Chapter 2 of this title shall not be deemed employees of the Commonwealth of Virginia or its agencies and shall be ineligible for benefits under Chapter 29 (§ 2.2-2900 et seq.) of Title 2.2, Chapter 6 (§ 60.2-600 et seq.) of Title 60.2, Chapter 5 (§ 65.2-500 et seq.) of Title 65.2 or any other provisions of the Code pertaining to the rights of state employees.

1993, c. 768; 1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 2001, c. 483; 2012, cc. 803, 835; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-32.2. Reentry planning.

The Department shall develop and implement, in cooperation with and taking into account the individual needs and willingness to participate of the inmate, a comprehensive reentry plan for each person committed to the supervision of the Department, as soon as practicable, considering the prisoner's anticipated release date. Such plan shall identify educational, vocational, therapeutic, and other programs necessary to prepare the person for successful transition from prison to society upon the person's discharge and shall include mentor pairing to the extent possible. The Department shall coordinate any reentry programs provided through the Department pursuant to the reentry plan with any other reentry or other relevant programs offered by any public or private organization or entity at the local, state, or federal level, which are also included in the plan.

2008, cc. 177, 402.

§ 53.1-33. Physical examination of prisoner; ability to work.

Each person received by the Department shall be examined by a licensed physician upon his arrival, within 30 days prior to any work assignment in food services, medical services, or cosmetological services or a change in work assignment, and at such other times thereafter as may be deemed necessary. The work that a prisoner is required to do shall be dependent upon the report of the physician as to his physical and mental capacity.

The warden, in consultation with the physician, may exclude prisoners, on a case-by-case basis, from work assignments based upon the classification of the institution and the safety and good order of the institution. Special consideration should be used in assigning any inmate with an infectious disease to assignments in food services, medical services, and cosmetological services.

Code 1950, § 53-47; 1970, c. 630; 1979, c. 700; 1982, c. 636; 2007, c. 591.

§ 53.1-33.1. Mandatory testing for human immunodeficiency virus.

The Department shall offer to test each inmate, who does not have a record of a positive test result, for infection with human immunodeficiency virus within 60 days of the scheduled discharge of the inmate from a state correctional facility. Prior to administering a test for human immunodeficiency virus, the Department shall inform, or cause to be informed, the inmate to be tested of the purpose of the test. Any inmate may choose not to be tested.

2011, cc. 398, 415.

§ 53.1-34. Treatment of prisoner with contagious disease.

The Director may, upon the application of the person in charge of any state correctional facility who has been requested in writing so to do by the physician at such facility, have removed from such facility any prisoner therein who has contracted any contagious or infectious disease dangerous to the public health to some place to be designated by the Director. When any prisoner is so removed, he shall be safely kept and treated for such disease and, as soon as he recovers his health, be returned to such facility unless the term of his imprisonment has expired, in which event he shall be discharged, but not until all danger of his spreading contagion has passed. Expenses incurred by reason of this section shall be borne by the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 53-94; 1970, c. 648; 1979, c. 109; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-35. Correspondence privileges; receipt of publications.

The Director is authorized to prescribe reasonable rules regarding correspondence privileges and the receipt of books, newspapers and periodicals by prisoners within state correctional facilities.

Code 1950, § 53-34; 1970, c. 648; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-35.1. Electronic visitation and messaging with inmates; fees.

The Director is authorized to prescribe reasonable rules regarding electronic visitation systems or electronic messaging systems, including Voice-over-Internet Protocol technology and web-based communication systems, for communication between prisoners and third parties and collection of a fee for the system utilized. Any state correctional facility that utilizes such systems shall establish such system allowing for the security needs of the facility. Any state correctional facility that utilizes such system shall not prohibit in-person visitation.

This section does not apply to telephonic communication systems or to electronic video and audio communication systems used in judicial proceedings.

2018, c. 66.

§ 53.1-35.2. Visitation of certain prisoners by minor dependents.

A. The Director is authorized to prescribe reasonable rules regarding visitation that shall include authorization of visitation by minor dependents of prisoners who are primary caretakers of minor children with Level 1 or Level 2 security classifications that include (i) opportunities for dependent children under the age of 18 to visit their incarcerated primary caretakers at least twice per week unless an employee of the Department has a reasonable belief that the child (a) may be harmed during visitation or (b) poses a security risk due to a gang affiliation, prior conviction, or past violation of a correctional facility's contraband policy; (ii) the elimination of restrictions on the number of dependent children under the age of 18 that may be permitted visitation privileges; and (iii) authorization for contact visits for prisoners who are primary caretakers of minor children.

B. Nothing in this section shall prevent the Department from refusing visitation of a minor child based on an individualized determination by the Director, warden, or superintendent that such visitation presents security or operational risks.

2020, c. 526.

§ 53.1-36. Prisoners may assist in medical research programs.

Subject to the provisions of Chapter 5.1 (§ 32.1-162.16 et seq.) of Title 32.1, the Director may permit such prisoners as may volunteer to undergo experimental treatment or tests in state or federal medical research programs.

Code 1950, § 53-57.1; 1962, c. 48; 1982, c. 636; 1992, c. 603.

§ 53.1-37. Furloughs generally; travel expenses; penalties for violations.

A. The Director may extend the limits of confinement of any prisoner in any state correctional facility to permit him a furlough under the provisions of this section for the purpose of visiting his home or family. Such furlough shall be for a period to be prescribed by the Director or his designee, in his discretion, not to exceed three days in addition to authorized travel time. Except for furloughs permitted under subsection C, the time during which a prisoner is on furlough shall not be counted as time served against any sentence, and during any furlough, no earned sentence credits as defined in § 53.1-116, good conduct allowance, or any other reduction of sentence shall accrue. The Director shall promulgate rules and regulations governing extension of limits of confinement hereunder.

B. The Director may, when feasible, require the prisoner or his relatives to bear the travel expense required for such visit or a prescribed portion thereof. Such travel expense shall include all amounts necessarily expended for travel, food and lodging of such prisoner and any accompanying personnel of the Department during such furlough, and a per diem amount set by the Director to reimburse the Department for furnishing custodial personnel.

C. The Director may permit a prisoner a furlough when the prisoner has been approved for release on parole by the Parole Board and 30 days or less remain to be served by the prisoner prior to his date of release on parole. Such a furlough shall not exceed 30 days.

D. Any prisoner who willfully fails to remain within the limits of confinement set by the Director hereunder, or who willfully fails to return within the time prescribed to the place designated by the Director in granting such extension, shall be guilty of an escape and shall be subject to penalty as though he left the state correctional facility itself.

E. Any prisoner who without authority or just cause fails to remain within the limits of confinement set by the Director hereunder, or who without authority or just cause fails to return within the time prescribed to the place designated by the Director in granting such extension, shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

F. Fifteen days prior to a prisoner's participation in the furlough program, the Director shall give the chief of police, sheriff or local chief law-enforcement official of the locality in which the prisoner will stay, notice of the prisoner's participation. Such notice shall include the name, address and criminal history, and any additional information the chief of police or such officer may request. The transmission of information shall be confidential and not subject to the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.).

Code 1950, § 53-37.1; 1972, c. 59; 1973, c. 234; 1976, c. 476; 1982, c. 636; 1989, c. 652; 2003, c. 846; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-38. When ineligible for furloughs.

Any prisoner who is convicted of a felony included within the provisions of Chapter 4 (§ 18.2-30 et seq.) of Title 18.2 or arson, burglary or robbery committed while on administrative furlough, shall, after conviction therefor, be ineligible for further furlough during the remainder of the sentence or sentences imposed upon him prior to furlough.

Code 1950, § 53-37.2; 1976, c. 210; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-39. Certain punishment of prisoners prohibited.

Notwithstanding any provision of this Code or of any other law, rule, or regulation to the contrary, it shall be unlawful for the Director, the Board, or any other correctional authority having the care, custody, or control of any prisoner in this Commonwealth to make or enforce any rule or regulation providing for the whipping, flogging, or administration of any similar corporal punishment of any prisoner, or to give any specific order for or to cause to be administered or personally to administer or inflict any such corporal punishment.

Code 1950, § 53-55; 1982, c. 636; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-39.1. Restrictive housing; data collection and reporting; report.

A. As used in this section:

"Offender" means an adult or juvenile who is confined in a state correctional facility.

"Restrictive housing" means special-purpose bed assignments operated under maximum security regulations and procedures, and utilized under proper administrative process, for the personal protection or custodial management of offenders. The Department of Corrections' restrictive housing shall, at a minimum, adhere to the standards adopted by the American Correctional Association, the accrediting body for the corrections industry.

"Shared Allied Management Unit" or "SAM Unit" means a general population environment used to promote safety within institutions by avoiding the use of restrictive housing to manage vulnerable populations that typically require a high level of services from security, mental health, or medical staff.

"Vulnerable population" means offenders who are at a greater risk of victimization or being bullied in the general population due to characteristics such as cognitive challenge, age (seniors and youthful), small stature, or timid personalities.

B. The Department shall report to the General Assembly and the Governor on or before October 1 of each year the following information for the Department, in the aggregate for the previous fiscal year:

1. The average daily population;

2. The number of offenders who were placed in and the number of offenders who were released from restrictive housing;

3. The age, sex, race, ethnicity, mental health code, medical class code, security level, and custody level classification of each offender housed in restrictive housing or a SAM Unit;

4. The disciplinary offense history preceding placement in restrictive housing or a SAM Unit;

5. The number of days each offender spent in restrictive housing;

6. The number of offenders released from restrictive housing directly into the community;

7. The number of full-time mental health staff; and

8. Any changes made during the reporting period to written policies or procedures of the Department and each state correctional facility relating to the use and conditions of restrictive housing and SAM Units.

C. The Department shall submit the annual report to the Governor, the Chairmen of the House Committee on Public Safety and the Senate Committee on Rehabilitation and Social Services, and the Clerks of the House of Delegates and the Senate as provided in the procedures of the Division of Legislative Automated Systems for the processing of legislative documents and reports, and the annual report shall be posted on the General Assembly's website. The Department shall publish the report on the Department's website following its submission to the Governor, the Chairmen of the House Committee on Public Safety and the Senate Committee on Rehabilitation and Social Services, and the Clerks of the House of Delegates and the Senate.

2019, cc. 453, 516.

§ 53.1-40. Appointment of counsel for indigent prisoners.

The judge of a circuit court in whose county or city a state correctional facility is located shall, on motion of the attorney for the Commonwealth for such county or city, when he is requested so to do by the superintendent or warden of a state correctional facility, appoint, for a period of no less than thirty days nor more than one year, one or more discreet and competent attorneys-at-law to counsel and assist indigent prisoners therein confined regarding any legal matter relating to their incarceration.

An attorney so appointed shall be paid as directed by the court from the criminal fund reasonable compensation on an hourly basis and necessary expenses based upon monthly reports to be furnished the court by him.

Code 1950, § 53-21.2; 1972, c. 773; 1979, c. 700; 1982, c. 636; 1997, c. 207.

§ 53.1-40.01. Conditional release of geriatric prisoners.

Any person serving a sentence imposed upon a conviction for a felony offense, other than a Class 1 felony, (i) who has reached the age of sixty-five or older and who has served at least five years of the sentence imposed or (ii) who has reached the age of sixty or older and who has served at least ten years of the sentence imposed may petition the Parole Board for conditional release. The Parole Board shall promulgate regulations to implement the provisions of this section.

1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 2001, cc. 446, 487.

Article 2.1. Medical and Mental Health Care; Involuntary Admission and Treatment.

§ 53.1-40.1. Medical and mental health treatment of prisoners incapable of giving consent.

A. The Director or his designee may petition the circuit court or any district court judge or any special justice, as defined in § 37.2-100, herein referred to as the court, of the county or city in which the prisoner is located for an order authorizing treatment of a prisoner sentenced and committed to the Department of Corrections. The court shall authorize such treatment in a facility designated by the Director upon finding, on the basis of clear and convincing evidence, that the prisoner is incapable, either mentally or physically, of giving informed consent to such treatment and that the proposed treatment is in the best interests of the prisoner.

B. Prior to the court's authorization of such treatment, the court shall appoint an attorney to represent the interests of the prisoner. Evidence shall be presented concerning the prisoner's condition and proposed treatment, which evidence may, in the court's discretion and in the absence of objection by the prisoner or the prisoner's attorney, be submitted by affidavit.

C. Any order authorizing treatment pursuant to subsection A shall describe the treatment authorized and authorize generally such examinations, tests, medications, and other treatments as are in the best interests of the prisoner but may not authorize nontherapeutic sterilization, abortion, or psychosurgery. Such order shall require the licensed physician, psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, professional counselor, or clinical social worker acting within his area of expertise who is treating the prisoner to report to the court and the prisoner's attorney any change in the prisoner's condition resulting in restoration of the prisoner's capability to consent prior to completion of the authorized treatment and related services. Upon receipt of such report, the court may enter such order withdrawing or modifying its prior authorization as it deems appropriate. Any petition or order under this section may be orally presented or entered, provided a written order is subsequently executed.

D. Any order of a judge under subsection A may be appealed de novo within 10 days to the circuit court for the jurisdiction where the prisoner is located, and any order of a circuit court hereunder, either originally or on appeal, may be appealed within 10 days to the Court of Appeals, which shall give such appeal priority and hear the appeal as soon as possible.

E. Whenever the director of any hospital or facility reasonably believes that treatment is necessary to protect the life, health, or safety of a prisoner, such treatment may be given during the period allowed for any appeal unless prohibited by order of a court of record wherein the appeal is pending.

F. Upon the advice of a licensed physician, psychiatrist, or clinical psychologist acting within his area of expertise who has attempted to obtain consent and upon a finding of probable cause to believe that a prisoner is incapable, due to any physical or mental condition, of giving informed consent to treatment and that the medical standard of care calls for testing, observation, or other treatment within the next 12 hours to prevent death, disability or a serious irreversible condition, the court or, if the court is unavailable, a magistrate shall issue an order authorizing temporary admission of the prisoner to a hospital or other health care facility and authorizing such testing, observation, or other treatment. Such order shall expire after a period of 12 hours unless extended by the court as part of an order authorizing treatment under subsection A.

G. Any licensed health or mental health professional or licensed facility providing services pursuant to the court's or magistrate's authorization as provided in this section shall have no liability arising out of a claim to the extent it is based on lack of consent to such services. Any such professional or facility providing services with the consent of the prisoner receiving treatment shall have no liability arising out of a claim to the extent it is based on lack of capacity to consent if a court or a magistrate has denied a petition hereunder to authorize such services, and such denial was based on an affirmative finding that the prisoner was capable of making an informed decision regarding the proposed services.

H. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to limit or repeal any common law rule relating to consent for medical treatment or the right to apply or the authority conferred by any other applicable statute or regulation relating to consent.

1988, c. 873; 1997, c. 801; 2005, c. 716; 2016, c. 211.

Article 2. Treatment and Privileges of Prisoners.

§ 53.1-40.02. Conditional release of terminally ill prisoners.

A. As used in this section, "terminally ill" means having a chronic or progressive medical condition caused by injury, disease, or illness where the medical prognosis is the person's death within 12 months.

B. Any person serving a sentence imposed upon a conviction for a felony offense, except as provided in subsection C, who is terminally ill may petition the Parole Board for conditional release.

C. A person who is terminally ill and is serving a sentence imposed upon a conviction for one of the following offenses shall not be eligible to petition the Parole Board for conditional release:

1. A Class 1 felony;

2. Any violation of § 18.2-32, 18.2-32.1, 18.2-32.2, or 18.2-33;

3. Any violation of § 18.2-40 or 18.2-45;

4. Any violation of § 18.2-46.5, subsection A or B of § 18.2-46.6, or § 18.2-46.7;

5. Any kidnapping or abduction felony under Article 3 (§ 18.2-47 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of Title 18.2, except for a violation of § 18.2-49.1;

6. Any malicious felonious assault or malicious bodily wounding under Article 4 (§ 18.2-51 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of Title 18.2, any violation of § 18.2-51.7, 18.2-54.1, or 18.2-54.2, or any felony violation of § 18.2-57.2;

7. Any felony violation of § 18.2-60.3;

8. Any felony violation of § 16.1-253.2 or 18.2-60.4;

9. Robbery under § 18.2-58 or carjacking under § 18.2-58.1;

10. Criminal sexual assault punishable as a felony under Article 7 (§ 18.2-61 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of Title 18.2, except, when not committed against a minor, a violation of subdivision A 5 of § 18.2-67.3, § 18.2-67.4:1, subsection B of § 18.2-67.5, or § 18.2-67.5:1;

11. Any violation of § 18.2-90 or 18.2-93;

12. Any violation of § 18.2-289 or subsection A of § 18.2-300;

13. Any felony offense in Article 3 (§ 18.2-346 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of Title 18.2 involving a minor victim;

14. Any felony offense in Article 4 (§ 18.2-362 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of Title 18.2 involving a minor victim, except for a violation of § 18.2-362 or 18.2-370.5 or subsection B of § 18.2-371.1;

15. Any felony offense in Article 5 (§ 18.2-372 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of Title 18.2 involving a minor victim, except for a violation of subsection A of § 18.2-374.1:1;

16. Any violation of § 18.2-481, 40.1-100.2, or 40.1-103; or

17. A second or subsequent felony violation of the following offenses when such offenses were not part of a common act, transaction, or scheme and such person has been at liberty as defined in § 53.1-151 between each conviction:

a. Voluntary or involuntary manslaughter under Article 1 (§ 18.2-30 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of Title 18.2 or any crime punishable as such;

b. Any violation of § 18.2-41 or 18.2-42.1;

c. Any violation of subsection C of § 18.2-46.6;

d. Any violation when done unlawfully but not maliciously of § 18.2-51 or 18.2-51.1;

e. Arson in violation of § 18.2-77 when the structure burned was occupied or a Class 3 felony violation of § 18.2-79;

f. Any violation of § 18.2-89 with the intent to commit any larceny or § 18.2-92;

g. Any violation of subsection A of § 18.2-374.1:1;

h. Any violation of § 18.2-423, 18.2-423.01, 18.2-423.1, 18.2-423.2, or 18.2-433.2; or

i. Any violation of subdivision E 2 of § 40.1-29.

D. The Parole Board shall promulgate regulations to implement the provisions of this section.

2020, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 33, 52.

Article 2.1. Medical and Mental Health Care; Involuntary Admission and Treatment.

§ 53.1-40.2. Involuntary admission of prisoners with mental illness.

A. Upon the petition of the Director or his designee, any district court judge or any special justice, as defined by § 37.2-100, of the county or city where the prisoner is located may issue an order authorizing involuntary admission of a prisoner who is sentenced and committed to the Department of Corrections and who is alleged or reliably reported to have a mental illness to a degree that warrants hospitalization.

B. Such prisoner may be involuntarily admitted to a hospital or facility for the care and treatment of persons with mental illness by complying with the following admission procedures:

1. A hearing on the petition shall be scheduled as soon as possible, allowing the prisoner an opportunity to prepare any defenses which he may have, obtain independent evaluation and expert opinion at his own expense, and summons other witnesses.

2. Prior to such hearing, the judge or special justice shall fully inform the prisoner of the allegations of the petition, the standard upon which he may be admitted involuntarily, the right of appeal from such hearing to the circuit court, and the right to jury trial on appeal. The judge or special justice shall ascertain if the prisoner is represented by counsel, and, if he is not represented by counsel, the judge or special justice shall appoint an attorney to represent the prisoner.

3. The judge or special justice shall require an examination of such prisoner by a psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, or clinical social worker who is licensed in Virginia or, if such psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, or clinical social worker is not available, a physician or psychologist who is licensed in Virginia and who is qualified in the diagnosis of mental illness. The judge or special justice shall summons the examiner, who shall certify that he has personally examined the individual and has probable cause to believe that the prisoner does or does not have mental illness, that there does or does not exist a substantial likelihood that, as a result of mental illness, the prisoner will, in the near future, cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any, and that the prisoner does or does not require involuntary hospitalization. The judge or special justice may accept written certification of the examiner's findings if the examination has been personally made within the preceding five days and if there is no objection to the acceptance of such written certification by the prisoner or his attorney.

4. If the judge or special justice, after observing the prisoner and obtaining the necessary positive certification and other relevant evidence, finds specifically that (i) the prisoner has a mental illness and that there exists a substantial likelihood that, as a result of mental illness, the prisoner will, in the near future, (a) cause serious physical harm to himself or others as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening harm and other relevant information, if any, or (b) suffer serious harm due to his lack of capacity to protect himself from harm or to provide for his basic human needs, and (ii) alternatives to involuntary admission have been investigated and deemed unsuitable and there is no less restrictive alternative to such admission, the judge or special justice shall by written order and specific findings so certify and order that the prisoner be placed in a hospital or other facility designated by the Director for a period not to exceed 180 days from the date of the court order. Such placement shall be in a hospital or other facility for the care and treatment of persons with mental illness that is licensed or operated by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services.

5. The judge or special justice shall also order that the relevant medical records of such prisoner be released to the hospital, facility, or program in which he is placed upon request of the treating physician or director of the hospital, facility, or program.

6. The Department shall prepare the forms required in procedures for admission as approved by the Attorney General. These forms, which shall be the legal forms used in such admissions, shall be distributed by the Department to the clerks of the general district courts of the various counties and cities of the Commonwealth and to the directors of the respective state hospitals.

1988, c. 873; 2005, c. 716; 2008, cc. 779, 850, 870; 2009, cc. 813, 840; 2020, c. 945.

§ 53.1-40.3. Place of hearing or proceeding.

Any hearing held by a court pursuant to § 53.1-40.1 or 53.1-40.2 may be held in any courtroom available within the county or city wherein the prisoner is located or any appropriate place which may be made available by the Director and approved by the judge. Nothing herein shall be construed as prohibiting holding the hearing on the grounds of a state or local correctional facility or a hospital or facility for the care and treatment of individuals with mental illness.

1988, c. 873; 2012, cc. 476, 507.

§ 53.1-40.4. Appeal of order authorizing involuntary admission.

A. Any prisoner involuntarily committed pursuant to § 53.1-40.2 shall have the right to appeal such order to the circuit court in the jurisdiction wherein the prisoner is located. The decision of the circuit court shall be final with no further right of appeal.

B. Such appeal must be filed within ten days from the date of the order and shall be given priority over all other pending matters before the court and heard as soon as possible, notwithstanding the provisions of § 19.2-241 providing time within which the court shall set criminal cases for trial. The clerk of the court from which an appeal is taken shall immediately transmit the record to the clerk of the circuit court.

C. No appeal bond or writ tax shall be required and the appeal shall proceed without the payment of costs or other fees. Costs may be recovered as provided for in § 53.1-40.8.

D. The appeal to the circuit court shall be heard de novo. An order continuing the commitment shall be entered only if the criteria in § 53.1-40.2 are met at the time the appeal is heard. The prisoner so committed shall be entitled to trial by jury. Seven persons from a panel of thirteen shall constitute a jury in such cases.

E. If such prisoner is not represented by counsel, the judge shall appoint an attorney to represent him. Counsel so appointed shall be paid a fee as provided in § 37.2-821. The order of the court from which the appeal is taken shall be defended by the attorney for the Commonwealth.

1988, c. 873; 1994, c. 211.

§ 53.1-40.5. Transfer of prisoner involuntarily admitted.

Whenever a prisoner is admitted to a hospital or facility for the care and treatment of individuals with mental illness, the Director may order the transfer of the prisoner to any other willing hospital or facility for the care and treatment of individuals with mental illness, and such other hospital or facility is authorized to admit such prisoner under the authority of the commitment order applicable to the hospital or facility from which such prisoner was transferred. No such transfer shall alter any right of a prisoner under the provisions of this article nor shall such transfer divest a judge or court, before which a hearing or request therefor is pending, of jurisdiction to conduct such hearing.

1988, c. 873; 2012, cc. 476, 507.

§ 53.1-40.6. Periodic review of prisoner for purposes of retention.

The director of a hospital or facility shall require a review of the progress of each prisoner admitted to such hospital or facility to be conducted at intervals of thirty days, sixty days, and ninety days after admission of such prisoner and every six months thereafter to determine whether such prisoner should be retained at such hospital or facility. A record shall be kept of the findings of each review in the hospital's or facility's file on such prisoner.

1988, c. 873.

§ 53.1-40.7. Discharge of prisoner involuntarily admitted.

A. The prisoner shall be discharged from a hospital or facility for the care and treatment of individuals with mental illness to a state or local correctional facility designated by the Director if there is no further need for involuntary hospitalization or at the expiration of 180 days unless involuntarily committed by further petition and order of a court as provided herein.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, if there is no further need for involuntary hospitalization, the prisoner may be retained in such hospital or facility if the prisoner (i) is capable of and consents to voluntary admission, and (ii) has been examined by a licensed physician, psychiatrist, or clinical psychologist acting on staff within his area of expertise and is determined to be in need of continued hospitalization.

1988, c. 873; 2005, c. 639; 2012, cc. 476, 507.

§ 53.1-40.8. Fees and expenses.

A. Any special justice, as defined in § 37.2-100, and any district court substitute judge who presides over hearings pursuant to the provisions of §§ 53.1-40.1 and 53.1-40.2 shall receive a fee as provided in § 37.2-804 for each commitment hearing under § 53.1-40.2 and each proceeding under § 53.1-40.1 ruling on competency or treatment and his necessary mileage. However, if the commitment hearing under § 53.1-40.2 and the proceeding under § 53.1-40.1 are combined for hearing or are heard on the same day, only one fee shall be allowed.

B. Every physician or clinical psychologist who is not regularly employed by the Commonwealth of Virginia who is required to serve as a witness for the Commonwealth in any proceeding under this article shall receive a fee as provided in § 37.2-804 for each commitment hearing in which he serves. Other witnesses regularly summoned before a judge under the provisions of this article shall receive such compensation for their attendance and mileage as is allowed witnesses summoned to testify before grand juries.

C. Every attorney appointed under this article shall receive a fee as provided in § 37.2-804 for each commitment hearing under § 53.1-40.2 and each proceeding under § 53.1-40.1 for which he is appointed. However, if the commitment hearing under § 53.1-40.2 and the proceeding under § 53.1-40.1 are combined for hearing or are heard on the same day, only one fee shall be allowed.

D. Except as hereinafter provided, all expenses incurred, including the fees, attendance, and mileage aforesaid, shall be paid by the Commonwealth. Any such fees, costs, and expenses incurred in connection with an examination or hearing for an admission pursuant to § 53.1-40.2 or in connection with a proceeding under § 53.1-40.1, when paid by the Commonwealth, shall be recoverable by the Commonwealth from the prisoner who is the subject of the examination, hearing, or proceeding or from his estate. Such collection or recovery may be undertaken by the Department. All such fees, costs, and expenses, if collected or recovered by the Department, shall be refunded to the Commonwealth. No such fees or costs shall be recovered, however, from the prisoner or his estate when no good cause for his admission exists or when the recovery would create an undue financial hardship.

1988, c. 873; 1990, c. 221; 2005, c. 716.

§ 53.1-40.9. Civil admission proceeding prior to release.

A prisoner whose release from the custody of the Department of Corrections is imminent and who may have a mental illness and be in need of hospitalization or treatment may be the subject of an involuntary admission proceeding under §§ 37.2-814 through 37.2-819 within 15 days prior to his anticipated release date, and any order entered in such proceedings shall be effective upon the release of the prisoner from the Department of Corrections. If a commitment hearing for involuntary admission under §§ 37.2-814 through 37.2-819 is combined for hearing or is heard on the same day with either a commitment hearing under § 53.1-40.2 or a proceeding under § 53.1-40.1, or both, only one fee shall be allowed for the special justice or district court substitute judge conducting these proceedings and only one fee shall be allowed for the attorney representing the prisoner in these proceedings.

1990, c. 221; 2005, c. 716.

§ 53.1-40.10. Exchange of medical and mental health information and records.

A. Whenever a person is committed to a state correctional facility, the following shall be entitled to obtain medical and mental health information and records concerning such person from a health care provider, even when such person does not provide consent or consent is not readily obtainable:

1. The person in charge of the facility, or his designee, when such information and records are necessary (i) for the provision of health care to the person committed, (ii) to protect the health and safety of the person committed or other residents or staff of the facility, or (iii) to maintain the security and safety of the facility. Such information and records may be exchanged among administrative personnel for the facility in which the person is imprisoned as necessary to maintain the security and safety of the facility, its employees, or other prisoners. The information exchanged shall continue to be confidential and disclosure shall be limited to that necessary to ensure the security and safety of the facility.

2. Members of the Parole Board, as specified in § 53.1-138, in order to conduct the investigation required under § 53.1-155.

3. Probation and parole officers for use in parole and probation planning, release, and supervision.

4. Officials within the Department for the purpose of formulating recommendations for treatment and rehabilitative programs; classification, security and work assignments; and determining the necessity for medical, dental, and mental health care, treatment, and programs.

5. Medical and mental health hospitals and facilities, both public and private, including community services boards, for use in planning for and supervision of post-incarceration medical and mental health care, treatment, and programs.

6. The Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services, the Department of Social Services, and any local department of social services in the Commonwealth for the purposes of reentry planning and post-incarceration placement and services.

B. Substance abuse records subject to federal regulations, Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records, 42 C.F.R. § 2.11 et seq., shall not be subject to the provisions of this section. The disclosure of results of a test for human immunodeficiency virus shall not be permitted except as provided in § 32.1-36.1.

C. The release of medical and mental health information and records to any other agency or individual shall be subject to all regulations promulgated by the Department that govern confidentiality of such records. Medical and mental health information concerning a prisoner that has been exchanged pursuant to this section may be used only as provided herein and shall otherwise remain confidential and protected from disclosure.

D. The Department shall develop policies to improve the exchange of medical and mental health information and records of persons committed to a state correctional facility, including policies to improve access to electronic health records and electronic exchange of information and records for the provision of telemedicine and telepsychiatry.

1991, c. 597; 2013, cc. 164, 235; 2018, c. 165; 2019, cc. 202, 827.

Article 2.2. Treatment and Control of Prisoners Known to Be Pregnant.

§ 53.1-40.11. Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Postpartum recovery" means the eight-week period, or longer as determined by the health care professional responsible for the health and safety of the prisoner, following childbirth.

"Restraints" means any mechanical device, medication, physical intervention, or hands-on hold to prevent an individual from moving her body.

"Restrictive housing" means the same as that term is defined in § 53.1-39.1.

"Solitary confinement" means isolation of a prisoner from the general population through confinement to a cell or other place for 22 or more hours within a 24-hour period.

2020, c. 526.

§ 53.1-40.12. Treatment of prisoners known to be pregnant.

A. The following restraints shall not be used on any prisoner known to be pregnant upon notification or diagnosis of the pregnancy and for the duration of the pregnancy, unless there is an individualized determination that the prisoner will harm herself, the fetus, the newborn child, or any other person or poses a substantial flight risk: (i) leg restraints, (ii) handcuffs or other wrist restraints, except to restrain the prisoner's wrists in front of her, or (iii) restraints connected to other inmates. If there is an individualized determination that the prisoner will harm herself, the fetus, the newborn child, or any other person or poses a substantial flight risk and restraints are used, such restraints shall be the least restrictive possible.

B. No restraints shall be used on any prisoner known to be pregnant while in labor or during delivery unless there is an individualized determination that the prisoner will harm herself, the fetus, the newborn child, or any other person or poses a substantial flight risk. If there is an individualized determination that the prisoner will harm herself, the fetus, the newborn child, or any other person or poses a substantial flight risk and restraints are used, such restraints shall be the least restrictive possible. In such case, the employee ordering the use of restraints on any prisoner known to be pregnant while in labor or during delivery shall submit a written report to the warden or other official in charge of the state correctional facility within 72 hours following the use of restraints, containing the justification for restraining the prisoner.

C. No employee of the Department other than a licensed health care professional shall conduct body cavity searches of prisoners known to be pregnant unless the employee has a reasonable belief that the prisoner is concealing contraband. In such case, the employee shall submit a written report to the warden or other official in charge of the state correctional facility within 72 hours following the body cavity search, containing the justification for the search and what contraband was found, if any.

D. The Department shall not place any prisoner known to be pregnant in restrictive housing or solitary confinement unless an employee of the Department has a reasonable belief that the inmate will harm herself, the fetus, the newborn child, or any other person or poses a substantial flight risk. In such case, the employee authorizing the placement of the inmate in restrictive housing or solitary confinement shall submit a written report to the warden or other official in charge of the state correctional facility within 72 hours following the transfer, containing the justification for confining the prisoner in restrictive housing or solitary confinement.

E. The Department shall ensure that prisoners known to be pregnant are provided sufficient food and dietary supplements as ordered by a licensed physician or physician staff member to meet generally accepted prenatal nutritional guidelines for pregnant women.

F. The Department shall not assign any prisoner known to be pregnant to any bed that is elevated more than three feet from the floor of the facility.

2020, c. 526.

§ 53.1-40.13. Treatment of prisoners during postpartum recovery.

A. No restraints shall be used on any prisoner who is in postpartum recovery, unless an employee of the Department has a reasonable belief that the prisoner will harm herself, her newborn child, or any other person or poses a substantial flight risk. If there is a reasonable belief that the prisoner will harm herself, her newborn child, or any other person or poses a substantial flight risk and restraints are used, such restraints shall be the least restrictive possible. In such case, the employee ordering the use of restraints shall submit a written report to the warden or other official in charge of the state correctional facility within 72 hours following the use of restraints, containing justification for restraining the prisoner.

B. The Department shall not place any prisoner who has given birth in the past 30 days and is in postpartum recovery in restrictive housing or solitary confinement unless an employee of the Department has a reasonable belief that the inmate will harm herself, her newborn child, or any other person or poses a substantial flight risk. In such case, the employee authorizing the placement of the inmate in restrictive housing or solitary confinement shall submit a written report to the warden or other official in charge of the state correctional facility within 72 hours following the transfer, containing the justification for confining the prisoner in restrictive housing or solitary confinement.

C. Following the delivery of a newborn child by a prisoner, the Department shall permit the newborn child to remain with the mother for 72 hours unless a licensed medical or mental health care professional has a reasonable belief that the newborn child remaining with the mother poses a health or safety risk to the newborn child. During the 72 hours, the Department shall make available the necessary nutritional and hygiene products to care for the newborn child, including diapers, and the necessary postpartum recovery products for the mother. If the prisoner qualifies as indigent, such products shall be provided without cost.

2020, c. 526.

§ 53.1-40.14. Reporting requirement.

The warden or other official in charge of a state correctional facility shall compile a monthly summary of all written reports received pursuant to §§ 53.1-25.1, 53.1-40.12, and 53.1-40.13 and shall submit the summary to the Director each month.

2020, c. 526.

§ 53.1-40.15. Training of correctional facility employees regarding pregnant inmates.

For correctional officers, and juvenile correctional officers who may have contact with pregnant inmates, the compulsory minimum entry-level training standards established pursuant to § 9.1-102 shall include training on the general care of pregnant women, the impact of restraints on pregnant inmates and fetuses, the impact of being placed in restrictive housing or solitary confinement on pregnant inmates, and the impact of body cavity searches on pregnant inmates.

2020, c. 526.

§ 53.1-40.16. Education for pregnant prisoners.

The Department shall provide, to the extent practicable, educational programming for prisoners known to be pregnant related to (i) prenatal care, (ii) pregnancy-specific hygiene, (iii) parenting skills, (iv) the impact of alcohol and drugs on the fetus, (v) postpartum recovery health, and (vi) the general health of children.

2020, c. 526.

Article 3. Employment and Training of Prisoners.

§ 53.1-41. Opportunities for work and career and technical education.

A. To the extent feasible, it shall be the duty of the Director to provide persons sentenced to the Department with opportunities to work and to participate in career and technical education programs. Such work opportunities may include business, industrial, agricultural, highway maintenance and construction, and work release programs as hereafter specified in this article. In addition, prisoners may be employed to improve, repair, work on or cultivate public property or buildings.

In addition to meeting the qualifications for work performance and security compatibility, preference for placement in work programs shall be given to any prisoner who requests a work assignment and assigns a minimum of 50 percent of his earnings to his child support obligation.

B. When a person committed to the Department owes any court imposed fines, costs, forfeitures, restitution or penalties, he shall be required as a condition of participating in any work program to either make full payment or make payments in accordance with an agreed upon installment or deferred payment plan while participating in such work program. If, after the person enters into an installment or deferred payment agreement, the person fails to pay as agreed, his participation in the work program may be terminated until all fines, costs, forfeitures, restitution and penalties are satisfied. The Director shall withhold such payments from any amounts due to such person.

Code 1950, §§ 53-33, 53-57, 53-224; 1970, c. 648; 1982, c. 636; 2001, c. 483; 2006, c. 98; 2010, c. 616; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 53.1-42. Allowance for work and disposition thereof.

Every prisoner committed and transferred to the Department and thereafter confined for the sentence for which he was committed in a state or local correctional facility shall be allowed an amount to be established by the Director for each day of labor satisfactory to the superintendent or sheriff in whose charge he is. The allowance so made shall accumulate and be paid over to the prisoner upon discharge, except that an amount thereof to be determined by the Director may be drawn upon by the prisoner for such purposes as may be authorized by the regulations of the Director.

For the purposes of this section only, the phrase "transferred to the Department" means (i) the actual physical receipt by the Department of a prisoner in a state correctional facility or (ii) the complete processing by the Department of a prisoner for the purposes of classifying the person as a state prisoner whether or not the person is physically received into a state correctional facility.

Code 1950, § 53-220.1; 1970, c. 339; 1982, c. 636; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-43. Pay incentives for prisoners.

The Director may establish a system of pay incentives for prisoners confined in any state correctional facility. Such system may provide for the payment of a bonus to any prisoner who is assigned to employment in any position of responsibility or who performs his job in an exemplary manner.

Code 1950, § 53-222; 1968, c. 590; 1982, c. 636; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-43.1. Inmate trust accounts.

In addition to any other account established to hold funds for inmates, the Department shall establish for each inmate a personal trust account. Unless an inmate has been sentenced to be executed, is serving a sentence of life without the possibility of parole, or is sentenced to a term that makes him ineligible for release, excluding the conditional release of geriatric prisoners pursuant to § 53.1-40.01, prior to 75 years of age, 10 percent of any funds received by an inmate from any source shall be deposited by the Department in the inmate's personal trust account until the account has a balance of $1,000. When the inmate's personal trust account reaches $1,000, any funds received by the inmate shall be deposited in the inmate's other account.

An inmate may direct the Department at any time to deposit a portion or all of any funds received by him in the inmate's personal trust account. After the balance of a personal trust account has exceeded $1,000, an inmate may direct the Department to transfer funds from his personal trust account to any other account maintained for him; provided, however, that the balance of the personal trust account shall not fall below $1,000.

Funds in an inmate's personal trust account shall be paid to the inmate upon parole or final discharge.

2011, cc. 260, 284; 2017, c. 205.

§ 53.1-44. Investment of funds belonging to prisoners; use of income.

Portions of the funds held by the Director or by any state correctional facility, which belong to prisoners may, in the discretion of the Director, be invested in bonds of the Commonwealth of Virginia or of the United States or in federally-insured investments. In determining how to invest the funds, the Director shall balance any long-term investments with those which permit ready accessibility to the funds. Any income or increment of increase received from the bonds or investments may be used by the Director for the benefit of the prisoners under his care.

Code 1950, § 53-223; 1970, c. 648; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-45. Sale of prison goods and services; print shop.

A. Articles produced or manufactured and services provided by prisoners sentenced to state correctional facilities may be disposed of by the Director by sale only to municipal and county agencies in Virginia and to federal, state and local public agencies within or without the Commonwealth or as the Director, with the approval of the Governor, may deem to be in the best interests of the Commonwealth. Except as otherwise provided, no articles produced or manufactured nor services provided by prisoners may be bought, sold or acquired by exchange on the open market.

B. The products of any printing shop in any state correctional facility shall be sold only to the departments, institutions and agencies of the Commonwealth which are supported in whole or in part with funds from the state treasury and to offices or agencies of the counties, cities and towns of the Commonwealth. Such products shall not be sold on the open market except as provided in § 53.1-45.1.

C. The Department shall not offer manufactured goods for resale to any department, agency or institution of the state unless those goods (i) have been incorporated into a finished product produced or manufactured by prisoners, (ii) are necessary for use with a product produced or manufactured by prisoners, or (iii) are a component part of a product system, a portion of which comprises goods produced or manufactured by prisoners.

Code 1950, §§ 53-63, 53-64; 1970, c. 648; 1977, c. 540; 1982, c. 636; 1983, c. 186; 1993, cc. 464, 488; 1998, c. 240.

§ 53.1-45.1. Work programs; agreements with other entities.

A. The Director, with the prior approval of the Governor, may enter into an agreement with a public or private entity to operate a work program in a state correctional facility for prisoners confined therein.

B. Articles produced or manufactured and services provided by prisoners participating in such a program may be purchased as provided in § 53.1-47 and may be bought, sold or acquired by exchange on the open market through the participating public or private entity.

C. The Director shall arrange for compensation for such employment. Wages earned by prisoners shall be paid to the Director who shall deduct from such wages, in the following order of priority, an amount to:

1. Meet the obligation of any judicial or administrative order to provide support and such funds shall be disbursed according to the terms of such order;

2. Pay any fines, restitution or costs as ordered by the court; and

3. Defray a portion of the prisoner's keep.

The balance shall be credited to the prisoner's account in accordance with § 53.1-42.

1993, cc. 464, 488; 1996, cc. 284, 368; 2003, cc. 94, 854.

§ 53.1-45.2. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2003, cc. 94 and 854, cl. 2.

§ 53.1-46. Sale of artistic products.

Subject to such rules as he may prescribe, the Director may permit prisoners confined in state correctional facilities to sell to the public artistic products personally crafted by the prisoners. Such artistic products shall include, but are not limited to, paintings, pottery and leatherwork.

1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-47. Purchases by agencies, localities, and certain nonprofit organizations.

Articles and services produced or manufactured by persons confined in state correctional facilities:

1. Shall be purchased by all departments, institutions, and agencies of the Commonwealth that are supported in whole or in part with funds from the state treasury for their use or the use of persons whom they assist financially. Except as provided in § 53.1-48, no such articles or services shall be purchased by any department, institution, or agency of the Commonwealth from any other source; and

2. May be purchased by any county, district of any county, city, or town and by any nonprofit organization, including volunteer emergency medical services agencies, fire departments, sheltered workshops, and community service organizations.

Code 1950, § 53-67; 1970, c. 648; 1972, c. 54; 1975, c. 647; 1980, c. 240; 1982, cc. 499, 636, 647; 1993, cc. 464, 488; 2015, cc. 502, 503.

§ 53.1-48. Exceptions as to purchases.

A department, institution, or agency of the Commonwealth may be granted an exemption from the provisions of § 53.1-47 with the written consent of the Chief Executive Officer of the Virginia Correctional Enterprises Program in any case where (i) the article so produced or manufactured does not meet the reasonable requirements of the department, institution, or agency, (ii) an identical article can be obtained at a verified lesser cost from the private sector, which is evidenced by a verified request for pricing, or (iii) the requisition made cannot be complied with on account of an insufficient supply of the articles or supplies required, or otherwise. In any case where an exemption from the provisions of § 53.1-47 is not granted as provided in this section, the Chief Executive Officer of the Virginia Correctional Enterprises Program shall provide a written justification for the denial to the department, institution, or agency that requested the exemption.

Code 1950, § 53-69; 1958, c. 124; 1982, cc. 499, 636; 1984, c. 720; 2012, c. 360; 2019, c. 167.

§ 53.1-49. Evasion by variance from specifications of Director.

No department, institution or agency of the Commonwealth shall be allowed to evade the intent and meaning of §§ 53.1-47 and 53.1-48 by slight variations from specifications adopted by the Division of Purchases and Supply of the Department of General Services pursuant to § 2.2-1112, when the articles produced or manufactured in accordance with specifications of the Department are reasonably adapted to the actual needs of the department, institution or agency.

Code 1950, § 53-70; 1982, cc. 636, 647.

§ 53.1-50. Vouchers, certificates and warrants not to be questioned.

No voucher, certificate or warrant issued on the Comptroller by any such department, institution or agency shall be questioned by him or by the State Treasurer on the ground that §§ 53.1-47 through 53.1-49 and § 53.1-52 have not been complied with by such department, institution or agency.

Code 1950, § 53-71; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-51. Intentional violations constitute malfeasance.

Intentional violations of §§ 53.1-47 through 53.1-49 and § 53.1-52 by any such department, institution or agency, continued after notice from the Governor to desist, shall constitute malfeasance in office, and shall subject the officer or officers responsible for such violations to suspension or removal from office, as may be provided by law in other cases of malfeasance.

Code 1950, § 53-72; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-52. Procedure for purchases.

All purchases, except for those of information technology and telecommunications goods and services as provided in § 2.2-2012, made by departments, institutions and agencies of the Commonwealth shall be made as provided by the Division of Purchases and Supply of the Department of General Services. All purchases of information technology and telecommunications made by departments, institutions, and agencies of the Commonwealth shall be made as provided by the Virginia Information Technologies Agency. All other purchases shall be upon requisition by the proper authority of the county, district, city or town requiring such articles.

Code 1950, § 53-68; 1958, c. 124; 1982, cc. 636, 647; 2003, cc. 895, 981, 1021.

§ 53.1-53. Transfer or sale of by-products of manufacturing processes.

In those industries operated by the Department in which saleable by-products are generated while producing primary products, such by-products shall not be classified as surplus supplies or equipment. Such by-products shall be disposed of as provided in § 2.2-1124. Proceeds from the sale of such by-products shall be paid into the state treasury and credited to the special funds account of the generating industry.

1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-54. Charges and catalogue; annual estimates of requirements by departments, etc.

A. The Director shall establish charges for articles produced or manufactured and services provided by prison labor that will, in his judgment, defray the administration, operation and maintenance costs and make allowances for depreciation, return on capital and contingencies.

B. A catalogue shall be prepared by the Department on a periodic basis which describes all articles and supplies manufactured and produced by persons confined in state correctional facilities. Copies of the catalogue shall be sent to all departments, institutions and agencies of the Commonwealth mandated to purchase such articles and supplies. At least thirty days before the commencement of each fiscal year, the proper official of each department, institution and agency of the Commonwealth shall report to the Division of Purchases and Supply estimates of the kinds and amounts of articles and supplies required by it for the ensuing year. Such estimates shall refer to the catalogue issued by the Director insofar as the articles and supplies indicated are included within the catalogue.

Code 1950, §§ 53-62, 53-73; 1958, c. 124; 1970, c. 648; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-55. Sale or exchange of goods manufactured by prisoners of other states.

It shall be unlawful for any person within this Commonwealth to buy or acquire by exchange on the open market, either for his own use or for the purpose of resale, or for any person to sell or exchange on the open market within this Commonwealth, any goods, wares or merchandise prepared in whole or in part, or manufactured by prisoners of any other state, other than prisoners on parole or probation.

Any person or any agent or manager for any person who shall violate any provision of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $500 or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both in the discretion of the court or jury trying the case.

Code 1950, § 53-74; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-56. Construction and maintenance of highways; grass cutting; acquisition of quarries, etc.; use of materials for county roads.

Persons sentenced to the Department shall, so far as practicable, be employed in the construction and maintenance of the primary state highway system and secondary system of state highways, and to this end may be used in rock quarries, gravel pits and other plants in the preparation of materials for construction and maintenance of roads and in the maintenance of any or all medians and other nontraveled portions of such highways. Persons sentenced to the Department may also be employed in the maintenance of the rest areas along the Interstate Highway System, providing that such maintenance activities are jointly approved by the Department and the Virginia Department of Transportation based on the safety of the traveling public.

The Commonwealth Transportation Board may acquire out of the proceeds of the money, now or hereafter available for construction and maintenance of the primary state highway system and secondary system, such quarries, gravel pits or plants as may in its opinion be necessary for such work. The Board shall on the request of any county road authorities allow such county road authorities to take from such quarries or gravel pits or shall sell to such county road authorities at cost of production such materials as may be required to be used for the construction and maintenance of county roads. This arrangement shall in no way interfere with the furnishing of materials by the Board for the maintenance or construction of the primary state highway system and secondary system.

The Department of Transportation shall make requisition from time to time upon the Director for the number of prisoners it deems necessary for the work on the primary state highway system or secondary system or for the preparation of road material for road construction and maintenance, in the maintenance of any or all medians and other nontraveled portions of such highways, and in the maintenance of the rest areas along the Interstate Highway System. The number of prisoners so requisitioned shall be furnished subject to availability as determined by the Director of the Department of Corrections.

Fifteen days prior to a prisoner's participation in the program, the Director shall give the chief of police, sheriff or local chief law-enforcement official of the locality in which the prisoner will work, notice of the prisoner's participation. Such notice shall include the name, address and criminal history of the prisoner, in addition to other information the chief of police or such officer may request. The transmission of information shall be confidential and not subject to the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.).

Code 1950, § 53-109; 1970, c. 648; 1974, c. 128; 1982, c. 636; 1989, c. 652; 2010, c. 128; 2011, cc. 40, 48; 2013, cc. 585, 646.

§ 53.1-57. Payments by Department of Transportation to Director for labor.

The Department of Transportation shall pay to the Director monthly for the hours prisoners are employed on the state highway primary system and secondary system and work incidental thereto, an amount agreed upon by the Department of Corrections and the Department of Transportation. Monthly payments by the Department to the Director shall be made not later than the fifteenth day of the succeeding month after the work or labor has been performed for the Department.

Code 1950, § 53-71; 1958, c. 324; 1960, c. 450; 1970, c. 648; 1982, c. 636; 2013, cc. 585, 646.

§ 53.1-58. Highway employees as guards.

The Director, with the consent of the Commissioner of Highways, may appoint and authorize employees of the Department of Transportation to act as guards of prisoners when such prisoners are at work on the roads under the jurisdiction of the Commonwealth Transportation Board. Such employees shall be deemed to be acting within the scope of their official duties for the Board when acting as guards pursuant to this section. The Director may authorize such employees to carry firearms in accordance with § 53.1-29.

Code 1950, § 53-122; 1958, c. 572; 1970, c. 648; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-59. Prisoners performing work for localities, state agencies or nonprofit civic organizations; payment of costs; foremen as guards.

The Director is authorized to enter into agreements with the proper authorities of any state agency, county, city, town, local commission or nonprofit civic organization in the Commonwealth to build and maintain roads and streets and to perform such other public works as he may approve. The state agency, county, town, city, local commission or nonprofit civic organization for which such work is performed may be required to pay to the Department in monthly installments such sum as is necessary to cover the costs of work done by such prisoners at the rate specified in the agreement authorized by § 53.1-57.

The state agency, county, town, city, local commission or nonprofit civic organization that has the use of prison labor authorized by this section shall designate the projects to be worked. It may be required to furnish all engineering service, tools, implements, machinery and equipment used in such projects; shall secure rights-of-way; and shall furnish such foremen as the Director deems necessary and acceptable to direct the work. The Director may authorize such persons employed as foremen to carry firearms in accordance with § 53.1-29.

Fifteen days prior to a prisoner's participation in the program, the Director shall give the chief of police, sheriff or local chief law-enforcement official of the locality in which the prisoner will work, written notice of the prisoner's participation. Such notice shall include the name, address and criminal history of the prisoner in addition to other information the chief of police or such officer may request. A copy of such notice shall be provided to the attorney for the Commonwealth and the governing body where the work is to be performed. The transmission of information shall be confidential and not subject to the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.). When notice has been requested in accordance with § 53.1-133.02, the Director shall provide notice to the victim that the prisoner has been assigned to a facility where the prisoner may participate in supervised work programs established pursuant to this section.

Code 1950, § 53-122.1; 1962, c. 370; 1970, c. 648; 1982, c. 636; 1989, c. 652; 1991, c. 412; 1996, cc. 703, 726.

§ 53.1-60. Extending limits of confinement of state prisoners for work and educational programs; disposition of wages; support of certain dependents; penalties for violations.

A. The Director is authorized to establish work release programs whereby (i) a prisoner who is proficient in any trade or occupation and whom the Director is satisfied is trustworthy, may be approved for employment by private individuals, corporations or state agencies at places of business, or (ii) a prisoner whom the Director is satisfied is trustworthy and capable of receiving substantial benefit from educational and other related community activity programs that are not available within a state correctional facility may attend such programs outside of the correctional facility, without a correctional officer during any hour of the day or night. Such prisoner shall travel directly to, from or be in authorized attendance or employment at such place of business, educational or related community activity program.

B. The Director is authorized to arrange for the temporary care of prisoners who are deemed capable of participation in the programs established herein in approved local or community correctional facilities. The hours of employment or attendance shall be arranged by the Director. In the event of a legally sanctioned strike at the prisoner's place of employment, the prisoner in the work release program shall be withdrawn from the employment for the duration of the strike.

C. The compensation for such employment shall be arranged by the Director and shall be the same as that of regular employees in similar occupations. Any wages earned shall be paid to the Director. The Director shall, in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Director, deduct from such wages, in the following order of priority, an amount to:

1. Meet the obligation of any judicial or administrative order to provide support and such funds shall be disbursed according to the terms of such order;

2. Pay any fines, restitution or costs as ordered by the court;

3. Pay travel and other such expenses made necessary by his work release employment or participation in an educational or rehabilitative program, including the sums specified in § 53.1-150; and

4. Defray the prisoner's keep.

The balance shall be credited to the prisoner's account or sent to his family in an amount the prisoner so chooses.

D. Any prisoner who has been placed in any of the programs authorized herein shall, while outside the state correctional facility or approved local or community correctional facility to which he is assigned, be deemed to be in custody whether or not he is under the supervision of a correctional officer. If the prisoner, without proper authority or without just cause, leaves the area in which he has been directed to work or to attend educational or community activity programs, or the vehicle or route involved in his traveling to or from such place or program, he may be found guilty of escape as provided for in § 18.2-477 as though he had left the state, local or community correctional facility itself, or, if there are mitigating circumstances or the culpability of the prisoner is minimal, he may be found guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

E. The Director and any sheriff or other administrative head of any local correctional facility are authorized to enter into agreements whereby persons committed to the Department, whether such persons are housed in a state or local correctional facility, and who meet the Department's standards for such release may participate in local work release programs or in educational or other rehabilitative programs operating pursuant to § 53.1-131. Any person so placed shall be governed by the rules and regulations applicable to local work release programs.

F. The provisions of § 53.1-131 shall apply to any person convicted of a felony but confined in jail pursuant to § 53.1-20 and participating in work, rehabilitation, or education programs.

Code 1950, § 53-38; 1968, c. 152; 1970, c. 114; 1972, c. 55; 1973, c. 114; 1975, c. 322; 1976, cc. 295, 475; 1978, c. 660; 1979, cc. 127, 706; 1981, c. 634; 1982, c. 636; 1984, c. 516; 1985, c. 488; 1988, c. 397; 1990, cc. 107, 676, 768; 1994, c. 487; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-60.1. Duties of Director in collecting court-imposed debt.

Upon receipt of a valid court order or judgment against a person confined in a state correctional facility, the Director or his designee shall satisfy, to the extent possible, the amount required to be paid by the order or judgment from the inmate's trust account. The Director shall promulgate regulations governing the process of collecting funds from inmates to be used for (i) the satisfaction of judgments or orders granting monetary relief or imposing fines or other monetary sanctions or (ii) payment of court costs and fees.

1998, c. 596.

§ 53.1-61. Determination whether prisoner has dependents receiving public assistance; payment of portion of earnings; remedies for enforcement of support obligation.

A. In order to determine whether a prisoner to be released for employment as provided in § 53.1-60 has dependents receiving public assistance benefits, the Director may require such person to reveal the identity and residence of any dependents as a condition to release. The Director shall notify any such dependents, the local department of social services where such dependents reside and the Commissioner of Social Services of the release of such person for employment. Upon request of the local department of social services or the Commissioner of Social Services, the Director shall withhold and pay over a portion of the person's earnings as provided in § 53.1-60.

B. If the local department of social services or the Commissioner of Social Services objects to the amount withheld by the Director, the balance credited to the person's account shall be subject to all civil remedies provided by law to the local department of social services or the Commissioner of Social Services for the enforcement of support of dependents receiving public assistance benefits.

C. The director of the local department of social services and the Commissioner of Social Services or their designees shall be permitted access to the records of the Director concerning the earnings of the prisoner.

Code 1950, § 53-38.01; 1978, c. 660; 1982, c. 636; 2002, c. 747.

§ 53.1-62. When ineligible for work release.

Any person who is released from confinement for work release employment pursuant to the provisions of § 53.1-60, who is convicted of a felony included within Chapter 4 (§ 18.2-30 et seq.) of Title 18.2, or arson, burglary or robbery committed while so released, shall, after such conviction, be ineligible for work release employment during the remainder of the sentence or sentences imposed upon him prior to his release for work release employment.

Code 1950, § 53-38.1; 1976, c. 210; 1982, c. 636.

Article 4. State Facilities for Youthful Offenders.

§ 53.1-63. Department to establish facilities for persons committed under Article 2 (§ 19.2-311 et seq.) of Chapter 18 of Title 19.2.

A. The Department shall establish, staff and maintain, at any state correctional facility designated by the Director, programs and housing for the rehabilitation, training and confinement of persons committed to the Department under the provisions of Article 2 (§ 19.2-311 et seq.) of Chapter 18 of Title 19.2. Persons admitted to these facilities shall be determined by the Department to have the potential for rehabilitation through confinement and treatment therein.

B. Elements of the program shall include but not be limited to (i) an initial period of military style drill, (ii) cognitive behavioral restructuring designed to teach responsibility and accountability through anger management, life skills development, substance abuse education, parenting skills development and peer tutoring, (iii) developmental counseling as needed, (iv) academic education, career and technical education, and apprenticeships, and (v) transitional release, reentry services, aftercare and intensive parole supervision.

Code 1950, § 53-128.1; 1966, c. 482; 1974, cc. 44, 45; 1982, c. 636; 1990, c. 701; 2000, cc. 668, 690; 2001, c. 483; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-63.1. Department to establish facilities for juveniles sentenced as adults.

The Department shall establish, staff and maintain, at any state correctional facilities designated by the Director, programs and housing for the rehabilitation, training, and confinement of juveniles sentenced by the circuit courts as adults and committed to the Department pursuant to § 16.1-272. The Department shall establish, staff, and maintain education for such juveniles in accordance with standards established by the Department of Juvenile Justice.

1996, cc. 755, 914; 2012, cc. 803, 835; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-64. Programs and facilities.

The Department shall establish and maintain within each facility programs for counseling and education, including career and technical education; buildings sufficient to ensure the secure confinement of persons admitted to the facility; and programs in at least one such facility for the study, testing and diagnosis of the following persons:

1. Persons committed to the Department for diagnosis and evaluation under the provisions of § 19.2-316 for a determination as to the likelihood of their benefitting from the program of such facility; and

2. Persons confined in the state corrections system under the indeterminate period of commitment authorized by Article 2 (§ 19.2-311 et seq.) of Chapter 18 of Title 19.2, to evaluate their progress periodically and to determine their readiness for release.

Code 1950, § 53-128.2; 1966, c. 482; 1982, c. 636; 1990, c. 701; 2001, c. 483.

§ 53.1-65. Consideration of report developed at diagnostic facilities.

The Department shall give careful consideration to the report developed at the diagnostic facilities established under § 53.1-64 in determining whether persons committed to it under the provisions of § 19.2-311 et seq., are to be confined at a youthful offender facility or elsewhere in the state corrections system.

Code 1950, § 53-128.3; 1966, c. 482; 1982, c. 636.

§ 53.1-66. Transfer of prisoners to other facilities.

Any person confined by the Department in a facility established by this chapter may be transferred from such facility to other facilities in the state corrections system for the remainder of the period of commitment under § 16.1-272 or Article 2 (§ 19.2-311 et seq.) of Chapter 18 of Title 19.2, upon a written finding by the Department submitted to the sentencing court that the person has exhibited intractable behavior or, in the case of persons committed under § 19.2-311, otherwise becomes ineligible to use such facilities pursuant to § 19.2-311.

"Intractable behavior" means behavior which (i) indicates an inmate's unwillingness or inability to conform his behavior to that necessary to his successful completion of the program or (ii) is so disruptive as to threaten the successful completion of the program by other participants.

Code 1950, § 53-128.4; 1966, c. 482; 1982, c. 636; 1990, c. 701; 1996, cc. 755, 914.

§ 53.1-67. Admission to facility; good conduct allowance restricted.

In no case shall a person previously confined in a youthful offender facility, whether for a different or the same offense, be confined again in such a facility, except for the purposes of study, testing and diagnosis.

The provisions of §§ 53.1-191, 53.1-196, and 53.1-198 through 53.1-201 relating to good conduct credits and allowances and extraordinary service and the provisions of § 53.1-187 relating to credit for time served in a correctional facility or juvenile detention facility shall not apply to persons sentenced to an indeterminate sentence under § 19.2-311 for a crime committed on or after July 1, 1983. Acts performed by such persons which would earn credit for them under § 53.1-191, if it were applicable, shall be noted on their record by the authorities of the facility.

Code 1950, § 53-128.5; 1966, c. 482; 1982, c. 636; 1983, c. 606; 1984, c. 313; 1990, c. 701.

Article 5. Boot Camp Incarceration Program.

§ 53.1-67.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2019, c. 618, cl. 2

Article 6. Statewide Community-Based Corrections System for State-Responsible Offenders.

§ 53.1-67.2. Purpose.

The purposes of this article are to (i) provide effective protection of society and (ii) provide efficient and economical correctional services by establishing and maintaining appropriate sanction alternatives and by assisting state-responsible offenders who are incarcerated in returning to society as productive citizens, with the goal of reducing the incidence of repeat offenders.

1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2.

§ 53.1-67.3. Establishment of system.

The Director shall establish a statewide community-based system of programs, services and residential and nonresidential facilities for (i) those state-responsible offenders convicted of felonies and sentenced to alternative forms of punishment and (ii) those state-responsible offenders who the Director has determined, after a period of incarceration in a state or local correctional facility, require less secure confinement or a lower level of supervision. Facilities established pursuant to this article may be partially or completely physically restrictive with varying levels and types of offender control.

1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2.

§ 53.1-67.4. Authority of Director; purchase of services authorized; location and notification.

A. Facilities established under this article may, in the discretion of the Director, be purchased, constructed or leased. The Director is further authorized to employ necessary personnel for these facilities. The Director may purchase such services as are deemed necessary in furtherance of this article. Such services may be provided by qualified public agencies or private agencies.

B. At least 90 days prior to (i) the issuance of a request for proposal for construction, (ii) the execution of a contract for the purchase of improved or unimproved land, or (iii) the execution or renewal of a lease agreement, notice shall be given by the Director to the chairman of the board of supervisors or mayor of the county, city, or town in which the facility is to be located. Such notice shall also be given to each adjacent land owner. In addition, if the local governing body in the jurisdiction where the facility is to be located so requests, the Department shall hold a public hearing in that jurisdiction.

1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 1995, cc. 502, 574; 2006, c. 187; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-67.5. Director to prescribe standards.

The Director shall prescribe standards for the development, implementation, operation, and evaluation of programs, services and facilities authorized by this article. The Director shall also prescribe guidelines for the transfer of offenders from a state or local correctional facility who the Director has determined should be placed in programs or facilities authorized under this article.

1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 2020, c. 759.

§ 53.1-67.6. Minimum programs.

The Statewide Community-Based Corrections System shall include, but not be limited to, the following programs, services and facilities: regular and intensive probation supervision, regular and intensive parole supervision for those state-responsible offenders sentenced for an offense committed prior to January 1, 1995, home/electronic incarceration, community corrections alternative programs, work release, pre-release centers, probation-violator and parole-violator centers, halfway houses and, for selected offenders, drug testing and treatment. The programs, facilities, and services required under this article shall be made available to each judicial circuit, but the manner in which such are provided shall be determined by the Director. Additional programs, services, and facilities may be established by the Director.

1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 1, 2; 2019, c. 618.

Article 7. Diversion Center Incarceration Program.

§ 53.1-67.7. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2019, c. 618, cl. 2

Article 8. Detention Center Incarceration Program.

§ 53.1-67.8. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2019, c. 618, cl. 2

Article 9. Community Corrections Alternative Program.

§ 53.1-67.9. Establishment of community corrections alternative program; supervision upon completion.

The Department is authorized to establish and maintain a system of residential community corrections alternative facilities for probationers and parolees whose identified risks and needs cannot be addressed by conventional probation or parole supervision and who are committed to the Department under § 19.2-316.4. The program shall include components for providing access to counseling, substance abuse testing and treatment, remedial education, and career and occupational assessment; providing assistance in securing and maintaining employment; ensuring compliance with terms and conditions of probation or parole; ensuring restitution and performance of community service; payment of fines, if any, and costs of court; and providing other programs that will assist the probationer or parolee in returning to society as a productive citizen. The Department shall perform risk and needs assessments to establish a case plan for each probationer or parolee determining the appropriate program components and program duration for that probationer or parolee.

Upon completion of the program, the probationer or parolee shall be released from confinement and remain on probation or parole for a period of one year or for such other longer period as may be specified by the sentencing court or Parole Board. As a condition of such probation or parole following the community corrections alternative component, a probationer's or parolee's successful participation in employment, career and technical education, or other educational or treatment programs may be required.

Probation officers assigned to the program shall be authorized by the judges of the circuit court of the county or city in which the position is assigned. Any officer so appointed shall have the same powers and duties as specified in § 53.1-145, and such appointment shall be valid in any judicial circuit in the Commonwealth.

2019, c. 618.