Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 18.2. Crimes and Offenses Generally
Chapter 13. Virginia Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act
6/20/2021

Chapter 13. Virginia Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act.

§ 18.2-512. Short title.

This chapter may be cited as the "Virginia Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization (RICO) Act."

2004, cc. 883, 996.

§ 18.2-513. Definitions.

As used in this chapter:

"Criminal street gang" means the same as that term is defined in § 18.2-46.1.

"Enterprise" includes any of the following: sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, business trust, criminal street gang, or other group of three or more individuals associated for the purpose of criminal activity.

"Proceeds" means the same as that term is defined in § 18.2-246.2.

"Racketeering activity" means to commit, attempt to commit, or conspire to commit or to solicit, coerce, or intimidate another person to commit two or more of the following offenses: Article 2.1 (§ 18.2-46.1 et seq.) of Chapter 4, § 18.2-460; a felony offense of § 3.2-4212, 3.2-4219, 10.1-1455, 18.2-31, 18.2-32, 18.2-32.1, 18.2-33, or 18.2-35, Article 2.2 (§ 18.2-46.4 et seq.) of Chapter 4, § 18.2-47, 18.2-48, 18.2-48.1, 18.2-49, 18.2-51, 18.2-51.2, 18.2-52, 18.2-53, 18.2-55, 18.2-58, 18.2-59, 18.2-77, 18.2-79, 18.2-80, 18.2-89, 18.2-90, 18.2-91, 18.2-92, 18.2-93, or 18.2-95, Article 4 (§ 18.2-111 et seq.) of Chapter 5, Article 1 (§ 18.2-168 et seq.) of Chapter 6, § 18.2-178 or 18.2-186, Article 6 (§ 18.2-191 et seq.) of Chapter 6, Article 9 (§ 18.2-246.1 et seq.) of Chapter 6, § 18.2-246.13, Article 1 (§ 18.2-247 et seq.) of Chapter 7, § 18.2-279, 18.2-286.1, 18.2-289, 18.2-300, 18.2-308.2, 18.2-308.2:1, 18.2-328, 18.2-346, 18.2-348, 18.2-348.1, 18.2-349, 18.2-355, 18.2-356, 18.2-357, 18.2-357.1, 18.2-368, 18.2-369, or 18.2-374.1, Article 8 (§ 18.2-433.1 et seq.) of Chapter 9, Article 1 (§ 18.2-434 et seq.) of Chapter 10, Article 2 (§ 18.2-438 et seq.) of Chapter 10, Article 3 (§ 18.2-446 et seq.) of Chapter 10, Article 1.1 (§ 18.2-498.1 et seq.) of Chapter 12, § 3.2-6571, 18.2-516, 32.1-314, 58.1-1008.2, 58.1-1017, or 58.1-1017.1; or any substantially similar offenses under the laws of any other state, the District of Columbia, or the United States or its territories.

2004, cc. 883, 996; 2008, c. 681; 2009, cc. 662, 847; 2013, c. 626; 2015, cc. 690, 691; 2019, cc. 458, 617.

§ 18.2-514. Racketeering offenses.

A. It shall be unlawful for an enterprise, or for any person who occupies a position of organizer, supervisor, or manager of an enterprise, to receive any proceeds known to have been derived directly from racketeering activity and to use or invest an aggregate of $10,000 or more of such proceeds in the acquisition of any title to, or any right, interest, or equity in, real property, or in the establishment or operation of any enterprise.

B. It shall be unlawful for any enterprise, or for any person who occupies a position of organizer, supervisor, or manager of an enterprise, to directly acquire or maintain any interest in or control of any enterprise or real property through racketeering activity.

C. It shall be unlawful for any person employed by, or associated with, any enterprise to conduct or participate, directly or indirectly, in such enterprise through racketeering activity.

D. It shall be unlawful for any person to conspire to violate any of the provisions of subsection A, B, or C.

E. Each violation of this section is a separate and distinct felony punishable in accordance with § 18.2-515.

2004, cc. 883, 996; 2009, c. 847.

§ 18.2-515. Criminal penalties; forfeiture.

A. Any person or enterprise convicted of engaging in activity in violation of the provisions of § 18.2-514 is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not less than five years nor more than 40 years and a fine of not more than $1 million. A second or subsequent offense shall be punishable as a Class 2 felony and a fine of not more than $2 million.

The court may order any such person or enterprise to be divested of any interest in any enterprise or real property identified in § 18.2-514; order the dissolution or reorganization of such enterprise; and order the suspension or revocation of any license, permit, or prior approval granted to such enterprise or person by any agency of the Commonwealth or political subdivision thereof.

B. All property, real or personal, including money, together with any interest or profits derived from the investment of such money, used in substantial connection with, intended for use in the course of, or traceable to, conduct in violation of any provision of § 18.2-514 is subject to civil forfeiture to the Commonwealth. The forfeiture proceeding shall be conducted pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 22.1 (§ 19.2-386.1 et seq.) of Title 19.2.

2004, cc. 883, 996; 2012, c. 511.

§ 18.2-516. Prohibition of illegal money transmitting.

A. Any person who controls, manages, or owns all or part of an enterprise, engaged in money transmission as defined in § 6.2-1900, and transmits money, which he knows or should have known was derived from or traceable to racketeering activity, is guilty of a Class 6 felony.

B. All property, real or personal, including money, used in substantial connection with, intended for use in the course of, or traceable to, conduct in violation of any provision of subsection A is subject to civil forfeiture to the Commonwealth. The forfeiture proceeding shall be conducted pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 22.1 (§ 19.2-386.1 et seq.) of Title 19.2.

2004, cc. 883, 996.

§ 18.2-517. Venue for prosecution.

For the purposes of venue, any violation of this chapter shall be considered to have been committed in any county or city:

1. In which any act was performed in furtherance of any course of conduct that violates this chapter;

2. That is the principal place of the enterprise in the Commonwealth;

3. In which any offender had control or possession of any proceeds of a violation of this chapter, or of any records, or any other material or objects, which were used in furtherance of a violation;

4. In which any offender resides; or

5. Any place of venue under Article 2 (§ 19.2-244 et seq.) of Chapter 15 of Title 19.2.

2004, cc. 883, 996.