Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 38.2. Insurance
9/16/2019

Chapter 42. Health Services Plans.

Article 1. In General.

§ 38.2-4200. Applicability of chapter.

A. Except as otherwise provided by law, no plan shall be organized, conducted or offered in this Commonwealth other than in the manner set forth in this chapter.

B. Nothing contained in this chapter shall prohibit any physician (i) as an individual, (ii) in partnership with other physicians, or (iii) as part of a professional corporation of physicians, from entering into agreements directly with his own patients, or with a parent, guardian, conservator, spouse or other family member acting in a patient's behalf, involving payment for professional services to be rendered or made available in the future.

1979, c. 721, § 38.1-813.1; 1980, c. 682; 1986, c. 562; 1997, c. 801.

§ 38.2-4201. Definitions.

As used in this chapter:

"Contract holder" means a person entering into a subscription contract with a nonstock corporation.

"Nonstock corporation" means a foreign or domestic nonstock corporation which is subject to regulation and licensing under this chapter and which offers or administers subscription contracts to contract holders as part of a plan.

"Health services plan" or "plan" means any arrangement for offering or administering health services or similar or related services by a nonstock corporation licensed under this chapter.

"Hospital services plan" means a health services plan for providing hospital and similar or related services.

"Medical or surgical services plan" means a health services plan for providing medical or surgical services or both, and similar or related services.

"Subscriber" means any person entitled to benefits under the terms and conditions of a subscription contract.

"Subscription contract" means a written contract which is issued to a contract holder by a nonstock corporation and which provides health services or benefits for health services on a prepaid basis.

1986, c. 562; 1988, c. 185.

§ 38.2-4202. Hospital services plans.

A hospital or a group of hospitals may conduct through a nonstock corporation as agent for them a hospital services plan as defined in § 38.2-4201.

Code 1950, § 32-195.1; 1956, c. 268, § 38.1-810; 1960, c. 357; 1979, c. 721; 1980, c. 682; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4203. Medical or surgical services plans.

A group of physicians may conduct through a nonstock corporation as agent for them a medical or surgical services plan as defined in § 38.2-4201.

Code 1950, § 32-195.2; 1956, c. 268, § 38.1-811; 1960, c. 357; 1979, c. 721; 1980, c. 682; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4204. Merger of nonstock corporations.

A nonstock corporation operating a hospital services plan pursuant to § 38.2-4202 may be combined with a nonstock corporation operating a medical or surgical services plan pursuant to § 38.2-4203. The nonstock corporation created by such combination may be licensed to conduct a combination plan furnishing both hospital services and similar or related services and medical or surgical services, or both, and similar or related services.

1979, c. 721, § 38.1-812; 1980, c. 682; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4204.1. Commission approval of mergers of nonstock corporations operating prepaid hospital, medical and surgical services plans.

A. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, Article 11 (§ 13.1-893.1 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of Title 13.1 shall apply to mergers involving corporations licensed under this chapter.

B. Before any joint agreement for the merger of a corporation licensed under this chapter is submitted to the members, it shall first be submitted to and approved by the Commission. The Commission shall approve the agreement, unless, after giving notice and opportunity to be heard, it determines that:

1. After the merger, the new or surviving corporation would not be able to satisfy the requirements of this chapter for the issuance of a license;

2. The effect of the merger would lessen competition substantially or tend to create a monopoly in insurance, prepaid hospital, medical and surgical services plans, or health care benefit plans in this Commonwealth;

3. The financial condition of any party to the merger might jeopardize the financial stability of the new or surviving corporation, or prejudice the interest of the subscribers;

4. Any plans or proposals of the new or surviving corporation to liquidate the new or surviving corporation, sell its assets or merge it with any person, or to make any other material change in its business or corporate structure or management, are unfair and unreasonable to the subscribers and not in the public interest;

5. The competence, experience, and integrity of those persons who would control the operation of the new or surviving corporation are such that it would not be in the interest of the subscribers and of the public to permit the merger; or

6. After the change of control, the new or surviving corporation's surplus to subscribers would not be reasonable in relation to its outstanding liabilities or adequate to its financial needs.

C. The provisions of subsection B notwithstanding, the Commission has the authority to merge two nonstock corporations licensed under this chapter where it finds that (i) one of the corporations is insolvent or is in such condition that its further transaction of business in this Commonwealth is hazardous to subscribers and the public, (ii) that the merger of such nonstock corporation into another nonstock corporation licensed under this chapter is desirable for the protection of its subscribers, and that such merger of such nonstock corporation is in the public interest, and (iii) that an emergency exists, and if the board of directors of the insolvent or financially hazardous nonstock corporation to be merged approves a plan of merger of such nonstock corporation into another nonstock corporation licensed under this chapter, compliance with the requirements of § 13.1-895 shall be dispensed with as to such nonstock corporation and the approval by the Commission of such plan of merger shall be the equivalent of approval of two-thirds of the members for all purposes of Article 11 (§ 13.1-893.1 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of Title 13.1. The Commission shall provide that prompt notice of its findings, and plan of merger be sent to the members of record of such corporation for the purpose of providing such members an opportunity to challenge the findings of the Commission and the plan of merger. The Commission's findings and plan of merger shall become final if a hearing before the Commission is not requested by any member in a written request delivered to the Commission within fifteen days after the notice specified herein is sent.

1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4205. Dental and optometric services.

Dental services and optometric services may be provided by either subscription contract or endorsement in a plan.

1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4206. Nonstock corporation required.

Each plan shall be conducted either by or through (i) a nonstock corporation organized pursuant to the laws of this Commonwealth or (ii) a foreign nonstock corporation that is subject to regulation and licensing under the laws of its domiciliary jurisdiction that are substantially similar to those provided by this chapter.

This section shall not apply to any foreign nonstock corporation already licensed in this Commonwealth as of July 1, 1980.

1980, c. 682, § 38.1-813.2; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4207. Existing foreign nonstock corporation.

Any foreign nonstock corporation licensed in the Commonwealth as of July 1, 1980, may conduct a plan directly.

1980, c. 682, § 38.1-813.3; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4208. Nonstock corporation not required to act as agent.

A. A nonstock corporation may offer or administer a plan without being required to act as an agent for providers of health care services.

B. A nonstock corporation applying for its initial license pursuant to this chapter in order to offer or administer a plan must elect in its application whether to act (i) as agent for providers of health care services, in which case §§ 38.2-4210 and 38.2-4211 shall apply, or (ii) as a nonagent, in which case the provisions of subsection D of this section shall apply.

C. A nonstock corporation operating a plan pursuant to §§ 38.2-4202, 38.2-4203, 38.2-4204 or this section prior to June 30, 1985, and any successor nonstock corporation shall continue to operate as either an agent or nonagent nonstock corporation, in accordance with the manner in which it was operating as of that date, provided that it may petition the Commission to change its status as an agent or nonagent nonstock corporation, and if it does so, it shall give notice of the petition to all interested parties. The Commission shall conduct a hearing on the petition if requested by any interested party. A nonstock corporation seeking to change its status shall make application to the Commission within ninety days following the end of any calendar year. A change in status shall only be effective as to subscriber contracts issued or renewed on and after the date of a change in status. The Commission shall enter an order in response to the nonstock corporation's petition.

D. If any nonstock corporation offers or administers a plan without acting as an agent for providers of health care services, the Commission may elect to (i) require the nonstock corporation to maintain its contingency reserves above a minimum level set by the Commission, or (ii) subject the nonstock corporation, notwithstanding the provisions of § 38.2-1700, to the requirements of Chapter 17 of this title, or (iii) both. The minimum level for contingency reserves shall not exceed forty-five days of the anticipated operating expenses and incurred claims expense generated from subscription contracts issued by the nonstock corporation, and shall be computed as the Commission requires.

Code 1950, § 32-195.5:1; 1972, c. 429, § 38.1-816; 1974, c. 54; 1979, c. 721; 1980, c. 682; 1982, c. 129; 1983, c. 464, § 38.1-813.4; 1985, c. 233; 1986, c. 562; 1988, c. 185.

§ 38.2-4209. Preferred provider subscription contracts.

A. As used in this section, a "preferred provider subscription contract" is a contract that specifies how services are to be covered when rendered by providers participating in a plan, by nonparticipating providers, and by preferred providers.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 38.2-4218 and 38.2-4221, any nonstock corporation may, as a feature of its plan, offer preferred provider subscription contracts pursuant to the requirements of this section that limit the numbers and types of providers of health care services eligible for payment as preferred providers.

C. Any such nonstock corporation shall establish terms and conditions that shall be met by a hospital, physician or other type of provider listed in § 38.2-4221 in order to qualify for payment as a preferred provider under the subscription contracts. These terms and conditions shall not discriminate unreasonably against or among health care providers. No hospital, physician or type of provider listed in § 38.2-4221 willing to meet the terms and conditions offered to it or him shall be excluded. Differences in prices among hospitals or other institutional providers produced by a process of individual negotiations with the providers or based on market conditions, or price differences among providers in different geographical areas shall not be deemed unreasonable discrimination. The Commission shall have no jurisdiction to adjudicate controversies growing out of this subsection.

D. Mandated types of providers listed in § 38.2-4221 and types of providers whose services are required to be made available and which have been specifically contracted for by the holder of any subscription contract shall, to the extent required by § 38.2-4221, have the same opportunity as do doctors of medicine to qualify for payment as preferred providers.

E. Preferred provider subscription contracts shall provide for payment for services rendered by nonpreferred providers, but the payments need not be the same as for preferred providers.

F. No contract between a nonstock corporation and a provider shall include provisions which require a health care provider or health care provider group to deny covered services that such provider or group knows to be medically necessary and appropriate that are provided with respect to a specific enrollee or group of enrollees with similar medical conditions.

1983, c. 464, § 38.1-813.4; 1986, c. 562; 1999, cc. 643, 649.

§ 38.2-4209.1. Pharmacies; freedom of choice.

A. Notwithstanding any provision of § 38.2-4209, no corporation providing preferred provider subscription contracts shall prohibit any person receiving pharmaceutical benefits thereunder from selecting, without limitation, the pharmacy of his choice to furnish such benefits. This right of selection extends to and includes pharmacies that are nonpreferred providers and that have previously notified the corporation, by facsimile or otherwise, of their agreement to accept reimbursement for their services at rates applicable to pharmacies that are preferred providers, including any copayment consistently imposed by the corporation, as payment in full. Each corporation shall permit prompt electronic or telephonic transmittal of the reimbursement agreement by the pharmacy and ensure payment verification to the pharmacy of the terms of reimbursement. In no event shall any person receiving a covered pharmacy benefit from a nonpreferred provider which has submitted a reimbursement agreement be responsible for amounts that may be charged by the nonpreferred provider in excess of the copayment and the corporation's reimbursement applicable to all of its preferred pharmacy providers.

B. No such corporation shall impose upon any person receiving pharmaceutical benefits furnished under any such contract:

1. Any copayment, fee or condition that is not equally imposed upon all individuals in the same benefit category, class or copayment level, whether or not such benefits are furnished by pharmacists who are nonpreferred providers;

2. Any monetary penalty that would affect or influence any such person's choice of pharmacy; or

3. Any reduction in allowable reimbursement for pharmacy services related to utilization of pharmacists who are nonpreferred providers.

C. For purposes of this section, a prohibited condition or penalty shall include, without limitation: (i) denying immediate access to electronic claims filing to a pharmacy that is a nonpreferred provider and that has complied with subsection D or (ii) requiring a person receiving pharmacy benefits to make payment at point of service, except to the extent such conditions and penalties are similarly imposed on preferred providers.

D. Any pharmacy that wishes to be covered by this section shall, if requested to do so in writing by a corporation, within 30 days of the pharmacy's receipt of the request, execute and deliver to the corporation the direct service agreement or preferred provider agreement that the corporation requires all of its preferred providers of pharmacy benefits to execute. Any pharmacy that fails to timely execute and deliver such agreement shall not be covered by this section with respect to that corporation unless and until the pharmacy executes and delivers the agreement.

E. The Commission shall have no jurisdiction to adjudicate controversies arising out of this section.

F. Nothing in this section shall limit the authority of a corporation issuing preferred provider policies or contracts to select a single mail order pharmacy provider as the exclusive provider of pharmacy services that are delivered to the covered person's address by mail, common carrier, or delivery service. The provisions of this section shall not apply to such contracts. As used in this subsection, "mail order pharmacy provider" means a pharmacy permitted to conduct business in the Commonwealth whose primary business is to dispense a prescription drug or device under a prescriptive drug order and to deliver the drug or device to a patient primarily by mail, common carrier, or delivery service.

1994, c. 963; 1995, c. 467; 2010, cc. 157, 357.

§ 38.2-4209.2. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1995, c. 467.

§ 38.2-4210. Liability of participants.

A. All hospitals, persons, nonstock corporations, and physicians participating in a plan shall be jointly and severally liable on all contracts made for the purposes of the plan by the nonstock corporation as agent for them. Each contract may be executed and signed by their agent on their behalf. A contract so signed shall be binding on the principals and not on the agent.

B. Actions for breach of these contracts may be brought against the principals by naming the agent as the sole defendant. A judgment in favor of the plaintiff may be satisfied out of the assets of the nonstock corporation or out of the assets of each of the principals.

C. Each participant shall be liable for his own torts and not for the torts of any other participant or of the agent.

Code 1950, § 32-195.4; 1956, c. 268, § 38.1-814; 1972, c. 429; 1979, c. 721; 1980, c. 682; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4211. Change of participants.

A. Any participating hospital, person, nonstock corporation or physician may resign from a plan at any time but will continue to be liable on each subscription contract then in effect. However, this liability shall not extend beyond the end of each such subscription contract's current contract year.

B. Hospitals, persons, nonstock corporations and physicians may be admitted to a plan at any time and will then automatically become liable on all its outstanding contracts.

Code 1950, § 32-195.5; 1956, c. 268, § 38.1-815; 1972, c. 429; 1979, c. 721; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4212. Board of directors of nonstock corporation operating plan.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 13.1-853, 13.1-854 and 13.1-855, a nonstock corporation operating a plan pursuant to §§ 38.2-4202, 38.2-4203, 38.2-4204, or § 38.2-4208 shall be subject to the following:

1. The board of directors of the nonstock corporation shall consist of no more than fifteen members. However, if two or more nonstock corporations merge, the board of directors of the new or surviving nonstock corporation may consist of no more than twenty members. Further, the board of directors may be increased to a size not exceeding the aggregate number of directors on the merging nonstock corporations' boards for the balance of the year in which merger occurs and for the following five years.

2. Except as permitted by subsection B of this section, a majority of the members of the board of directors of the nonstock corporation shall be persons who are covered by subscription contracts issued by the nonstock corporation and who are not providers of health care services, or employees or salaried officers of the nonstock corporation.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 13.1-853, 13.1-854 and 13.1-855, any nonstock corporation operating a plan pursuant to § 38.2-4203 may have a board of directors consisting of a majority of providers of health care services.

C. As used in this section, "providers of health care services" shall include, but not be limited to, physicians, pharmacists, nurses, physical therapists, hospital administrators, employees or majority or controlling stockholders of hospitals, and other persons furnishing health-related services.

D. This section shall not apply to any foreign nonstock corporation licensed in this Commonwealth on or before July 1, 1980.

Code 1950, §§ 32-195.5:1, 32-195.5:2; 1972, c. 429, §§ 38.1-816, 38.1-817; 1974, c. 54; 1979, c. 721; 1980, c. 682; 1982, c. 129; 1985, c. 233; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4213. Liability of participating providers upon merger of nonstock corporation.

If two or more nonstock corporations merge, §§ 38.2-4210 and 38.2-4211 shall not apply to the new or surviving nonstock corporation, its plans or its providers unless the nonstock corporations to be merged notify the Commission in writing at least thirty days prior to the date of the merger that the new or surviving nonstock corporation will remain subject to §§ 38.2-4210 and 38.2-4211. If notice is not given, the Commission may (i) require the new or surviving nonstock corporation to maintain its contingency reserves above minimum level, (ii) subject it, notwithstanding the provisions of § 38.2-1700, to the requirements of Chapter 17 of this title or (iii) both. The minimum level of contingency reserves shall not exceed thirty days of anticipated operating expenses and claims receipts computed as the Commission requires. If the nonstock corporation elects not to file the notice permitted by this section, the nonstock corporation and not its providers shall be liable for the obligations of the plan.

Code 1950, § 32-195.5:1; 1972, c. 429, § 38.1-816; 1974, c. 54; 1979, c. 721; 1980, c. 682; 1982, c. 129; 1985, c. 233; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4214. Application of certain provisions of law.

No provision of this title except this chapter and, insofar as they are not inconsistent with this chapter, §§ 38.2-200, 38.2-203, 38.2-209 through 38.2-213, 38.2-218 through 38.2-225, 38.2-230, 38.2-232, 38.2-305, 38.2-316, 38.2-316.1, 38.2-322, 38.2-325, 38.2-326, 38.2-400, 38.2-402 through 38.2-413, 38.2-500 through 38.2-515, 38.2-600 through 38.2-620, 38.2-700 through 38.2-705, 38.2-900 through 38.2-904, 38.2-1017, 38.2-1018, 38.2-1038, 38.2-1040 through 38.2-1044, Articles 1 (§ 38.2-1300 et seq.) and 2 (§ 38.2-1306.2 et seq.) of Chapter 13, §§ 38.2-1312, 38.2-1314, 38.2-1315.1, 38.2-1317 through 38.2-1328, 38.2-1334, 38.2-1340, 38.2-1400 through 38.2-1442, 38.2-1446, 38.2-1447, 38.2-1800 through 38.2-1836, 38.2-3400, 38.2-3401, 38.2-3404, 38.2-3405, 38.2-3405.1, 38.2-3406.1, 38.2-3406.2, 38.2-3407.1 through 38.2-3407.6:1, 38.2-3407.9 through 38.2-3407.20, 38.2-3409, 38.2-3411 through 38.2-3419.1, 38.2-3430.1 through 38.2-3454, Article 8 (§ 38.2-3461 et seq.) of Chapter 34, 38.2-3501, 38.2-3502, subdivision 13 of § 38.2-3503, subdivision 8 of § 38.2-3504, §§ 38.2-3514.1, 38.2-3514.2, §§ 38.2-3516 through 38.2-3520 as they apply to Medicare supplement policies, §§ 38.2-3522.1 through 38.2-3523.4, 38.2-3525, 38.2-3540.1, 38.2-3541 through 38.2-3542, 38.2-3543.2, Article 5 (§ 38.2-3551 et seq.) of Chapter 35, Chapter 35.1 (§ 38.2-3556 et seq.), §§ 38.2-3600 through 38.2-3607, Chapter 52 (§ 38.2-5200 et seq.), Chapter 55 (§ 38.2-5500 et seq.), and Chapter 58 (§ 38.2-5800 et seq.) of this title shall apply to the operation of a plan.

Code 1950, § 32-195.8; 1956, c. 268, § 38.1-818; 1960, c. 357; 1973, c. 28; 1975, c. 281; 1976, c. 355; 1977, cc. 606, 607; 1978, c. 496; 1979, cc. 47, 97, 721, 726; 1980, cc. 682, 719; 1981, c. 575; 1982, c. 577; 1983, c. 457; 1984, c. 718; 1986, cc. 550, 562; 1987, cc. 565, 655; 1989, cc. 606, 653; 1990, cc. 301, 393, 439, 531, 795, 802, 826; 1991, c. 369; 1992, c. 800; 1993, cc. 158, 306, 307; 1994, cc. 213, 320, 374, 522; 1995, cc. 420, 522; 1996, cc. 550, 776, 967; 1997, cc. 688, 807, 913; 1998, cc. 154, 891, 908; 1999, cc. 643, 649, 709, 739, 856, 857, 923; 2000, cc. 47, 50, 187, 532, 540, 922; 2004, c. 315; 2006, c. 427; 2009, cc. 796, 877; 2010, cc. 504, 583, 734; 2011, cc. 788, 882; 2012, cc. 634, 641; 2013, cc. 670, 679, 751; 2015, cc. 14, 723; 2016, c. 475; 2019, cc. 661, 662, 666, 684.

§ 38.2-4214.1. Rehabilitation, liquidation, conservation.

Any rehabilitation, liquidation, or conservation of a health services plan shall be deemed to be the rehabilitation, liquidation, or conservation of an insurer and shall be subject to the provisions of Chapter 15 (§ 38.2-1500 et seq.) of Title 38.2.

1990, c. 331.

§ 38.2-4215. Payments by nonstock corporation.

No payments shall be made by a nonstock corporation to a person included in a subscription contract unless the payment is for breach of contract or for contractually included costs incurred by that person or for services received by that person and rendered by a nonparticipating hospital or nonparticipating health care provider.

In no case shall that person be denied the right to assign his rights to benefits, except that denial may be made where the benefit is eighty percent of covered charges or greater.

Code 1950, § 32-195.8; 1956, c. 268, § 38.1-818; 1960, c. 357; 1973, c. 28; 1975, c. 281; 1976, c. 355; 1977, cc. 606, 607; 1978, c. 496; 1979, cc. 47, 97, 721, 726; 1980, cc. 682, 719; 1981, c. 575; 1982, c. 577; 1983, c. 457; 1984, c. 718; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4216. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1987, cc. 565, 655.

§ 38.2-4216.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2013, cc. 136 and 210, cl. 2, effective January 1, 2014.

§ 38.2-4217. Reports.

A. In addition to the annual statement required by § 38.2-1300, the Commission shall require each nonstock corporation to file on a quarterly basis any additional reports, exhibits or statements the Commission considers necessary to furnish full information concerning the condition, solvency, experience, transactions or affairs of the nonstock corporation. The Commission shall establish deadlines for submitting any additional reports, exhibits or statements. The Commission may require verification by any officers of the nonstock corporation the Commission designates.

B. In addition to the annual statement required by § 38.2-1300, the Commission shall require each nonstock corporation to file annually, on or before June 1, an annual statement, signed by two of its principal officers subject to § 38.2-1304, showing:

1. The number of Virginia subscribers by the following type of contract or its equivalent:

a. Individual, open enrollment; and

b. Medicare, extended, under 65 disabled;

2. The subscriber income and benefit payments in the aggregate for the types of contracts listed above subject to specific breakdown by type of contract as requested by the Commission; and

3. Expenditures for providing public services, in addition to open enrollment, to the community.

Code 1950, § 32-195.8:1; 1972, c. 429, § 38.1-819; 1979, c. 721; 1986, c. 562; 1987, cc. 565, 655; 1997, cc. 807, 913; 2014, c. 814.

§ 38.2-4218. Subscriber to have free choice of medical practitioners available.

A plan shall be organized and operated to assure that any subscriber shall have free choice of the medical practitioners available and participating in the plan.

Code 1950, § 32-195.8:2; 1972, c. 429, § 38.1-820; 1979, c. 721; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4219. Subscriber to be advised in writing as to benefits and limitations thereon.

A nonstock corporation shall, prior to and during the term of the subscription contract, fully, fairly and currently advise the subscriber in writing of the benefits available under the contract and all limitations on the benefits available under the contract.

Code 1950, § 32-195.8:3; 1972, c. 429, § 38.1-821; 1979, c. 721; 1980, c. 682; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4220. Interplan arrangements.

A nonstock corporation may enter into contracts with similar nonstock corporations for the interchange of services to those included in subscription contracts and may provide in subscription contracts for the substitution of services instead of those recited in its subscription contracts. However, no corporation shall enter into any contract to acquire or to attempt to acquire control, as defined in § 38.2-1322, of any person or enter into any material transaction, as defined in § 38.2-1322, if such contract or transaction would jeopardize or adversely affect the interests of the corporation's subscribers as determined by the Commission.

Code 1950, § 32-195.10; 1956, c. 268, § 38.1-823; 1979, c. 721; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4221. (Effective October 1, 2019) Services of certain practitioners other than physicians to be covered.

A. A nonstock corporation shall not fail or refuse, either directly or indirectly, to allow or to pay to a subscriber for all or any part of the health services rendered by any doctor of podiatry, doctor of chiropody, optometrist, optician, chiropractor, professional counselor, psychologist, physical therapist, clinical social worker, clinical nurse specialist who renders mental health services, audiologist, speech pathologist, certified nurse midwife or other nurse practitioner, marriage and family therapist, or licensed acupuncturist licensed to practice in Virginia, if the services rendered (i) are services provided for by the subscription contract and (ii) are services which the doctor of podiatry, doctor of chiropody, optometrist, optician, chiropractor, professional counselor, psychologist, physical therapist, clinical social worker, clinical nurse specialist who renders mental health services, audiologist, speech pathologist, certified nurse midwife or other nurse practitioner, marriage and family therapist, or licensed acupuncturist is licensed to render in this Commonwealth.

B. If a subscription contract provides reimbursement for a service that may be legally performed by a licensed pharmacist, reimbursement under the subscription contract by the nonstock corporation shall not be denied because the service is rendered by the licensed pharmacist provided that (i) the service is performed for a subscriber for a condition under the terms of a collaborative agreement, as defined in § 54.1-3300, between a pharmacist and the physician with whom the subscriber is undergoing a course of treatment or (ii) the service is for the administration of vaccines for immunization. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 38.2-4209, the nonstock corporation may require the pharmacist, any pharmacy or provider that may employ such pharmacist, or the collaborating physician to enter into a written agreement with the nonstock corporation as a condition for reimbursement for such services. In addition, reimbursement to pharmacists acting under the terms of a collaborative agreement under this subsection shall not be subject to the provisions of § 38.2-4209.1.

Code 1950, § 32-195.10:1; 1966, c. 276, § 38.1-824; 1973, c. 428; 1979, cc. 13, 721; 1980, c. 682; 1986, c. 562; 1987, cc. 549, 551, 557; 1988, c. 522; 1989, cc. 7, 201; 1997, c. 203; 1998, c. 146; 2001, cc. 102, 475; 2019, cc. 332, 333.

§ 38.2-4221. (Effective until October 1, 2019) Services of certain practitioners other than physicians to be covered.

A. A nonstock corporation shall not fail or refuse, either directly or indirectly, to allow or to pay to a subscriber for all or any part of the health services rendered by any doctor of podiatry, doctor of chiropody, optometrist, optician, chiropractor, professional counselor, psychologist, physical therapist, clinical social worker, clinical nurse specialist who renders mental health services, audiologist, speech pathologist, certified nurse midwife, marriage and family therapist, or licensed acupuncturist licensed to practice in Virginia, if the services rendered (i) are services provided for by the subscription contract and (ii) are services which the doctor of podiatry, doctor of chiropody, optometrist, optician, chiropractor, professional counselor, psychologist, physical therapist, clinical social worker, clinical nurse specialist who renders mental health services, audiologist, speech pathologist, certified nurse midwife, marriage and family therapist, or licensed acupuncturist is licensed to render in this Commonwealth.

B. If a subscription contract provides reimbursement for a service that may be legally performed by a licensed pharmacist, reimbursement under the subscription contract by the nonstock corporation shall not be denied because the service is rendered by the licensed pharmacist provided that (i) the service is performed for a subscriber for a condition under the terms of a collaborative agreement, as defined in § 54.1-3300, between a pharmacist and the physician with whom the subscriber is undergoing a course of treatment or (ii) the service is for the administration of vaccines for immunization. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 38.2-4209, the nonstock corporation may require the pharmacist, any pharmacy or provider that may employ such pharmacist, or the collaborating physician to enter into a written agreement with the nonstock corporation as a condition for reimbursement for such services. In addition, reimbursement to pharmacists acting under the terms of a collaborative agreement under this subsection shall not be subject to the provisions of § 38.2-4209.1.

Code 1950, § 32-195.10:1; 1966, c. 276, § 38.1-824; 1973, c. 428; 1979, cc. 13, 721; 1980, c. 682; 1986, c. 562; 1987, cc. 549, 551, 557; 1988, c. 522; 1989, cc. 7, 201; 1997, c. 203; 1998, c. 146; 2001, cc. 102, 475.

§ 38.2-4222. Licensing of nonstock corporations.

A. No person shall deliver or issue for delivery in this Commonwealth a subscription contract without a license issued by the Commission. Each nonstock corporation shall apply for a license and furnish any relevant information the Commission requires. Each license shall expire at midnight on the following June 30. Application for a license shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable application fee of $500.

B. The Commission may refuse to issue or renew a license to a nonstock corporation if it is not satisfied that the financial condition, the method of operation, and the manner of doing business of the nonstock corporation enable it to meet its contractual obligations to all subscribers and that the nonstock corporation has otherwise complied with all the requirements of law.

Code 1950, § 32-195.11; 1956, c. 268, § 38.1-825; 1978, c. 4; 1979, c. 721; 1980, c. 682; 1986, c. 562; 1987, cc. 565, 655; 1988, c. 185; 1994, c. 503.

§ 38.2-4223. Renewal of license.

A. Each nonstock corporation shall renew its license with the Commission annually by July 1. The renewal license shall not be issued unless the nonstock corporation has complied with all requirements of law.

B. The Commission shall not fail or refuse to renew the license of any nonstock corporation without first giving the nonstock corporation ten days' notice of its intention not to renew the license and giving the nonstock corporation an opportunity to be heard and introduce evidence in its behalf. Any such hearing may be informal, and the required notice may be waived by the Commission and the nonstock corporation.

Code 1950, § 32-195.12; 1956, c. 268, § 38.1-826; 1978, c. 4; 1979, c. 721; 1980, c. 682; 1986, c. 562; 1987, cc. 565, 655.

§ 38.2-4224. Licensing of agents.

Subscription contracts may be solicited only through life and health insurance agents licensed in accordance with Chapter 18 of this title. Home office salaried officers whose principal duties and responsibilities do not include the negotiation or solicitation of subscription contracts shall not be required to be licensed.

Code 1950, § 32-195.13; 1956, c. 268, § 38.1-827; 1978, c. 4; 1979, c. 721; 1980, c. 682; 1986, c. 562; 1999, c. 86.

§ 38.2-4225. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1987, cc. 565, 655.

§ 38.2-4226. Taxation.

Except as provided by Chapter 4 of this title, the license tax paid by a nonstock corporation under Chapter 25 of Title 58.1 shall be in lieu of all other state and local license fees or license taxes and state income taxes of the nonstock corporation.

Code 1950, § 32-195.15; 1956, c. 268, § 38.1-828; 1969, Ex. Sess., c. 26; 1979, c. 721; 1980, c. 682; 1986, c. 562; 1987, cc. 565, 655.

§ 38.2-4227. Misleading applications or contracts.

In the operation of a plan, no person shall use any misleading subscription applications or contracts.

Code 1950, § 32-195.16; 1956, c. 268, § 38.1-829; 1960, c. 357; 1979, c. 721; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4228. Controversies involving subscription contracts.

The Commission shall have no jurisdiction to adjudicate controversies growing out of subscription contracts. A breach of contract shall not be deemed a violation of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 32-195.20; 1956, c. 268, § 38.1-833; 1979, c. 721; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4229. Reinsurance.

Any nonstock corporation licensed under this chapter may by policy, treaty or other agreement cede to any insurer reinsurance upon the whole or any part of any risk, with or without contingent liability or participation, and if a mutual insurer, with or without membership therein.

1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-4229.1. Conversion to domestic mutual insurer.

A. Any domestic nonstock corporation subject to the provisions of this chapter that has the surplus required by § 38.2-1030 for domestic mutual insurers issuing policies without contingent liability may, at its option and without reincorporation, convert to a domestic mutual insurer by following the procedure set forth in this section.

B. Any nonstock corporation eligible to convert to a domestic mutual insurer under subsection A may effect such conversion by amending its articles of incorporation to delete any reference to this chapter and to comply with the provisions of § 38.2-1002 relating to the articles of incorporation of a domestic mutual insurer. Upon the issuance of a certificate of amendment by the Commission, the conversion shall be effective, such nonstock corporation shall become subject to all of the provisions of this title relating to domestic mutual insurers, and such nonstock corporation shall no longer be subject to the provisions of this chapter.

C. If any nonstock corporation converts from a health services plan organized under this chapter to a domestic mutual insurer, then at least 90 days prior to the effective date of conversion, the nonstock corporation shall comply with § 38.2-316 by filing with the Commission copies of all policies of insurance that it proposes to issue after the effective date of conversion. All subscription contracts issued and outstanding as of the effective date of conversion shall remain in force in accordance with their terms until the expiration or termination of such contracts.

D. No policy of accident and sickness insurance issued by a nonstock corporation after its conversion to a domestic mutual insurer shall deny the policyholder the right to assign his benefit, except that denial may be made where the benefit is 80 percent of covered charges or greater.

1991, c. 87; 1992, c. 473; 1994, c. 294; 1997, cc. 807, 913; 2013, cc. 136, 210.

§ 38.2-4229.2. Hearings and investigations on effect of other state's law.

A. If another state enacts a law or takes any other regulatory action that requires a health services plan operating in the Commonwealth to provide a program or benefits for the residents of the other state or to distribute or reduce its surplus on grounds that it is excessive in whole or in part, the Commission shall conduct a proceeding to review and evaluate the impact of the law or action on the health services plan. The Commission shall direct the Commissioner to conduct an examination of the health service plan in accordance with Article 4 (§ 38.2-1317 et seq.) of Chapter 13 and report its findings to the Commission, including the impact on (i) surplus; (ii) premium rates for residents of the Commonwealth covered by policies issued or delivered either in the Commonwealth or in any other state; and (iii) solvency.

B. Based on the findings of the Commissioner, the Commission shall determine whether the impact on the health services plan is harmful to the interests of residents of the Commonwealth covered by policies issued or delivered either in the Commonwealth or in any other state.

C. If the Commission determines the program or benefits for the residents of another state or the surplus distribution or reduction has an impact on the health services plan that is harmful to the interests of residents of the Commonwealth covered by policies issued or delivered either in the Commonwealth or in any other state, the Commission shall issue an appropriate order to protect such residents of the Commonwealth. The order may include:

1. A prohibition on the health services plan subsidizing the program or benefits for the residents of another state through:

a. Premiums charged or otherwise allocable to residents of the Commonwealth covered by policies issued or delivered either in the Commonwealth or in any other state; or

b. The use of any earned surplus attributable to residents of the Commonwealth covered by policies issued or delivered either in the Commonwealth or in any other state;

2. A prohibition on the health services plan's distributing or reducing its surplus for the benefit of residents of another state; or

3. Any other action the Commission finds necessary to protect the interests of the residents of the Commonwealth.

The determination of premiums charged or otherwise allocable to residents of the Commonwealth and the determination of surplus attributable to residents of the Commonwealth in each case covered by policies issued or delivered either in the Commonwealth or in any other state shall be based upon the number of residents in the Commonwealth compared with the number of residents in other states covered by the policies of the health services plan.

D. No health services plan shall distribute or reduce its surplus pursuant to a law or regulatory action the impact of which is subject to a proceeding under subsection A except with the approval of the Commission after the examination required by this section.

2010, c. 704; 2015, cc. 519, 520.

Article 2. Holding Companies.

§ 38.2-4230. Definitions.

As used in this article:

"Affiliate" of a specific person or a person "affiliated" with a specific person means a person that directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by or is under common control with the person specified.

"Control," including the terms "controlling," "controlled by" and "under common control with," means direct or indirect possession of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a person through (i) the ownership of voting securities, (ii) by contract other than a commercial contract for goods or nonmanagement services, or (iii) otherwise, unless the power is the result of an official position with or corporate office held by the person. Control shall be presumed to exist if any person directly or indirectly owns, controls, holds with the power to vote, or holds proxies representing collectively ten percent or more of the voting securities of any other person. This presumption may be rebutted by a showing made in the manner provided by subsection H of § 38.2-4231 that control does not exist. After giving all interested persons notice and opportunity to be heard and making specific findings to support its determination, the Commission may determine that control exists, notwithstanding the absence of a presumption to that effect.

"Holding company system" means two or more affiliated persons, one or more of which is a nonstock corporation licensed under this chapter.

"Surplus" means the excess of total admitted assets over the liabilities of a nonstock corporation licensed under this chapter, and shall include any contingency reserves maintained pursuant to § 38.2-4208 and any voluntary reserves.

"Transaction" means any (i) sale, purchase, exchange, renting or leasing arrangement, loan or extension of credit, arrangement for the assumption, extension or renewal of any obligation or liability, guaranty or surety arrangement, or investment; (ii) dividend or distribution of cash or property; (iii) reinsurance treaty or risk-sharing arrangement; (iv) management contract, service contract or cost-sharing arrangement; or (v) other arrangement, relationship or dealings that the Commission by order, rule or regulation determines to be a transaction contemplated by this article. A transaction shall not include any transaction which the Commission by rule or regulation exempts as not being material for the purpose of §§ 38.2-4231 and 38.2-4233. Any series of transactions occurring within a twelve-month period that are sufficiently similar in nature as to be reasonably construed as a single transaction and that in the aggregate exceed any minimum set forth in §§ 38.2-4231 and 38.2-4233 shall be deemed a transaction subject to the provisions of such sections.

"Voting security" means any security that enables the owner to vote for the election of directors. Voting security includes any security convertible into or evidencing a right to acquire a voting security.

1989, c. 606; 1992, c. 588.

§ 38.2-4231. Registration of nonstock corporations that are members of holding company system.

A. Each nonstock corporation licensed under this chapter that is a member of a holding company system shall register with the Commission. Any nonstock corporation subject to registration under this section shall register within fifteen days after it becomes subject to registration, unless the Commission extends the time for registration for good cause shown.

B. 1. This section shall not apply to:

a. Any foreign nonstock corporation subject to disclosure requirements and standards adopted by statute or regulation in the jurisdiction of its domicile that are substantially similar to those contained in this section;

b. Any nonstock corporation licensed under this chapter, information, or transaction if and to the extent that the Commission exempts the same from this section; or

c. Any transaction involving less than one-sixth of one percent of admitted assets or one percent of surplus as of the immediately preceding December 31, whichever is less.

2. Any nonstock corporation licensed under this chapter that is a member of a holding company system but not subject to registration under this section may be required by the Commission to furnish a copy of the registration statement, or other information filed by the nonstock corporation, with the regulatory authority of its domiciliary jurisdiction.

C. Each nonstock corporation subject to registration under this section shall file a registration statement on a form provided by the Commission. Such statement shall contain current information on:

1. The capital structure, general financial condition, ownership, and management of the nonstock corporation and any person controlling the nonstock corporation;

2. The identity of every member of the insurance holding company system;

3. The following agreements in force, continuing relationships and transactions currently outstanding between the nonstock corporation and its affiliates:

a. Loans or extensions of credit, other investments, or purchases, sales or exchanges of securities of the affiliates by the nonstock corporation or of the nonstock corporation by its affiliates;

b. Purchases, sales, renting or leasing arrangements, or exchanges of assets;

c. Guarantees or undertakings for the benefit of an affiliate that result in an actual contingent exposure of the nonstock corporation's assets to liability;

d. All management and service contracts and all cost-sharing arrangements;

e. Reinsurance agreements or other risk-sharing arrangements;

f. Transactions not in the ordinary course of business; and

4. Other matters relating to transactions between a registered nonstock corporation and any affiliates which may be included from time to time in any registration forms adopted or approved by the Commission.

D. Each registered nonstock corporation shall report all additional transactions with affiliates and any changes in previously reported transactions with affiliates on amendment forms provided by the Commission. Each nonstock corporation shall make its report within fifteen days after the end of the month in which it learns of each additional transaction or change in a transaction. Each registered nonstock corporation shall also keep current the information required by subsection C of this section by filing an amendment to its registration statement within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the ultimate controlling person of the holding company system.

E. The Commission shall terminate the registration of any nonstock corporation that demonstrates it no longer is a member of a holding company system.

F. The Commission may require or allow two or more affiliated nonstock corporations subject to registration under this section to file a consolidated registration statement or consolidated reports amending their consolidated registration statement or their individual registration statements.

G. The Commission may allow a nonstock corporation which is licensed under this chapter and which is part of a holding company system, to register on behalf of any affiliated nonstock corporation required to register under subsection A of this section and to file all information and material required to be filed under this section.

H. Any person may file with the Commission a disclaimer of affiliation with any licensed nonstock corporation. The disclaimer shall fully disclose all relationships and bases for affiliation between the person and the nonstock corporation as well as the basis for disclaiming the affiliation. After a disclaimer has been filed, the nonstock corporation shall be relieved of any registration or reporting requirements under this section that may arise out of the nonstock corporation's relationship with the person unless and until the Commission disallows the disclaimer. The Commission shall disallow the disclaimer only after giving all interested parties notice and opportunity to be heard. Any disallowance shall be supported by specific findings of fact.

1989, c. 606; 1992, c. 588.

§ 38.2-4232. Standards for transactions with affiliates; adequacy of surplus; dividends and other distributions.

A. Transactions by nonstock corporations licensed under this chapter with their affiliates shall be subject to the following standards:

1. The terms shall be fair and reasonable;

2. Charges and fees for service performed shall be reasonable;

3. Expenses incurred and payments received shall be allocated to the insurer in conformity with customary insurance accounting practices consistently applied;

4. The books, accounts, and records of each party shall disclose clearly and accurately the precise nature and details of the transactions;

5. The nonstock corporation's surplus following any transaction with affiliates involving more than one-sixth of one percent of admitted assets or one percent of surplus as of the immediately preceding December 31, whichever is less, shall be reasonable in relation to the nonstock corporation's outstanding liabilities and adequate to its financial needs; and

6. The transaction is in the best interest of the subscribers.

B. For purposes of this article, in determining whether a nonstock corporation's surplus is reasonable in relation to the nonstock corporation's outstanding liabilities and adequate to its financial needs, the following factors, among others, shall be considered:

1. The size of the nonstock corporation as measured by its assets, surplus, reserves, business in force, and other appropriate criteria;

2. The nonstock corporation's method of operation and manner of doing business;

3. The nature and extent of the nonstock corporation's risk-sharing arrangements;

4. The quality, diversification, and liquidity of the nonstock corporation's investment portfolio;

5. The recent past and projected future trend in the size of the nonstock corporation's surplus;

6. The adequacy of the nonstock corporation's reserves; and

7. The quality and liquidity of investments in subsidiaries. The Commission in its judgment may classify any investment as a nonadmitted asset for the purpose of determining the adequacy of surplus.

1989, c. 606; 1992, c. 588.

§ 38.2-4233. Commission approval required for certain transactions.

A. Prior written approval of the Commission shall be required for any transaction between a nonstock corporation licensed under this chapter and any of its affiliates, if such transaction involves more than three-fourths of one percent of admitted assets or five percent of surplus as of the immediately preceding December 31, whichever is less. Failure of the Commission to act within sixty days after notification by the nonstock corporation shall constitute approval of the transaction.

B. Nothing contained in this section shall authorize or permit any transaction that would be otherwise contrary to law.

C. The Commission, in reviewing any transaction under this section, shall consider whether the transaction complies with the standards set forth in § 38.2-4232. The Commission shall set forth the specific reasons for the disapproval of any transaction.

D. The approval of any transaction under this section shall be deemed an amendment under subsection D of § 38.2-4231 to a nonstock corporation's registration statement without further filing.

E. The Commission shall have continuing oversight over the terms and conditions of all continuing transactions by a nonstock corporation licensed under this chapter with its affiliates. The Commission may prohibit the continuation of any continuing transaction if the Commission finds that, because of changed circumstances or material information unknown to the Commission at the time of the approval of the transaction, the transaction does not comply with the standards set forth in § 38.2-4232.

F. Existing transactions entered into between a nonstock corporation and its affiliates prior to July 1, 1989, shall be filed with the Commission for approval no later than September 1, 1989, if such transaction involves more than three-fourths of one percent of admitted assets or five percent of surplus as of the immediately preceding December 31, whichever is less. Failure of the Commission to act within 120 days after such filings shall constitute approval of such transactions. The Commission shall not disapprove any transaction entered into prior to July 1, 1989, if such transaction was lawful when entered into, but if any such transaction is found not to meet the standards of this section, such transaction shall not be renewed or extended except upon terms approved by the Commission.

G. Any nonstock corporation aggrieved by a disapproval or withdrawal of approval under this section may proceed under the provisions of § 38.2-222.

H. For the purposes of this section, a "transaction between a nonstock corporation licensed under this chapter and any of its affiliates" includes any transaction between a nonstock corporation licensed under this chapter and a nonaffiliate if such transaction involves (i) any loan or extension of credit where the licensee makes such loan or extension of credit with the agreement or understanding that the proceeds of such transaction, in whole or substantial part, are to be used to make any loan or extension of credit to, to purchase assets of, or to make investments in any affiliate of the licensee or (ii) any reinsurance agreement or risk-sharing arrangement, or modifications thereto, which requires as consideration the transfer of assets from a licensee to a nonaffiliate, if an agreement or understanding exists between the licensee and the nonaffiliate that any portion of such assets will be transferred to one or more affiliates of the licensee.

1989, c. 606; 1993, c. 158.

§ 38.2-4234. Examinations.

A. In addition to the powers the Commission has under Article 4 of Chapter 13 (§ 38.2-1317 et seq.) of this title, the Commission shall also have the power to order any nonstock corporation registered under § 38.2-4231 to produce any records, books, or other information papers in the possession of the nonstock corporation or its affiliates necessary to determine the financial condition or legality of conduct of the nonstock corporation. If the nonstock corporation fails to comply with the order, the Commission shall have the power to examine its affiliates to obtain the information.

B. The Commission shall exercise its power under subsection A of this section only if the examination of the nonstock corporation under Article 4 of Chapter 13 (§ 38.2-1317 et seq.) of this title is inadequate or the interests of the subscribers of the nonstock corporation may be adversely affected.

C. The Commission may retain at the expense of the registered nonstock corporation any attorneys, actuaries, accountants and other experts reasonably necessary to assist in the conduct of the examination under subsection A of this section. Any persons so retained shall be under the direction and control of the Commission and shall act in a purely advisory capacity.

D. Each nonstock corporation producing books and papers for examination records pursuant to subsection A of this section shall be liable for and shall pay the expense of the examination in accordance with the provisions of Article 4 of Chapter 13 (§ 38.2-1317 et seq.) of this title.

1989, c. 606; 1992, c. 588.

§ 38.2-4235. Confidential treatment of information and documents.

All information, documents and copies obtained by or disclosed to the Commission or any other person in the course of an examination or investigation made pursuant to § 38.2-4234, and all information reported pursuant to § 38.2-4231, shall be confidential, shall not be subject to subpoena, and shall not be made public by the Commission or any other person without the prior written consent of the nonstock corporation to which they pertain. However, this provision shall not apply to information disclosed to (i) a regulatory official of any state or country; (ii) the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, its affiliate or its subsidiary; or (iii) a law-enforcement authority of any state or country. Any such disclosure by the Commission shall not constitute a waiver of confidentiality of such information. After the licensed nonstock corporation and its affiliates have been given notice and opportunity to be heard, the Commission may publish all or any part of the information and materials referred to in this section in any manner it considers appropriate, if it determines that the interests of subscribers or the public will be served by the publication.

1989, c. 606; 2001, c. 519.

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