Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 54.1. Professions and Occupations
12/15/2018

Subtitle II. Professions and Occupations Regulated By the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation and Boards Within the Department.

Chapter 2. General Provisions.

§ 54.1-200. Composition of regulatory boards.

A regulatory board established to administer a system of certification or licensure as provided in §§ 54.1-310 and 54.1-311, unless otherwise specified by law, shall consist of at least five members. The Board for Professional and Occupational Regulation may recommend to the General Assembly the number of members to be placed on the regulatory board. Two members of each board established hereafter shall be citizen members and the remainder of the members shall be practitioners of the profession or occupation which is being regulated. Citizen members shall participate in all matters except decisions regarding the examination of applicants for licensure or decisions regarding the professional competence of licensees. Terms of the members shall be staggered to ensure a continuing body.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.27; 1988, c. 765; 1993, c. 499.

§ 54.1-201. Powers and duties of regulatory boards.

A. The powers and duties of regulatory boards shall be as follows:

1. To establish the qualifications of applicants for certification or licensure by any such board, provided that all qualifications shall be necessary to ensure either competence or integrity to engage in such profession or occupation.

2. To examine, or cause to be examined, the qualifications of each applicant for certification or licensure within its particular regulatory system, including when necessary the preparation, administration and grading of examinations.

3. To certify or license qualified applicants as practitioners of the particular profession or occupation regulated by such board.

4. To levy and collect fees for certification or licensure and renewal that are sufficient to cover all expenses for the administration and operation of the regulatory board and a proportionate share of the expenses of the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation and the Board for Professional and Occupational Regulation.

5. To promulgate regulations in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) necessary to assure continued competency, to prevent deceptive or misleading practices by practitioners and to effectively administer the regulatory system administered by the regulatory board. The regulations shall not be in conflict with the purposes and intent of this chapter or of Chapters 1 (§ 54.1-100 et seq.) and 3 (§ 54.1-300 et seq.) of this title.

6. To ensure that inspections are conducted relating to the practice of each practitioner certified or licensed by the regulatory board to ensure that the practitioner is conducting his practice in a competent manner and within the lawful regulations promulgated by the board.

7. To place a regulant on probation or revoke, suspend or fail to renew a certificate or license for just causes as enumerated in regulations of the board. Conditions of probation may include, but not be limited to the successful completion of remedial education or examination.

8. To receive complaints concerning the conduct of any regulant and to take appropriate disciplinary action if warranted.

9. To provide a regulant subject to a disciplinary action with a notice advising the regulant of his right to be heard at an informal fact-finding conference pursuant to § 2.2-4019 of the Administrative Process Act. The notice shall state that if the regulant does not request an informal fact-finding conference within 30 days of receipt of the notice, the board may issue a case decision as defined in § 2.2-4001, with judicial review of the case decision in accordance with § 2.2-4026. If the regulant asserts his right to be heard prior to the board issuing its case decision, the board shall remand the case to an informal fact-finding conference. The notice required by this subdivision shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested or, if agreed to by the parties, electronic means, provided that the board retains sufficient proof of the electronic delivery, which may be an electronic receipt of delivery, a confirmation that the notice was sent by facsimile, or a certificate of service prepared by the sender confirming the electronic delivery.

10. To promulgate canons of ethics under which the professional activities of regulants shall be conducted.

B. A regulant shall furnish, upon the request of a person to whom the regulant is providing or offering to provide service, satisfactory proof that the regulant (i) is duly licensed, certified, or registered under this subtitle and (ii) has obtained any required bond or insurance to engage in his profession or occupation.

C. As used in this section, "regulant" means any person, firm, corporation, association, partnership, joint venture, or any other legal entity required by this subtitle to be licensed, certified, or registered.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.28; 1983, c. 569; 1988, c. 765; 1993, c. 499; 2005, c. 383; 2012, c. 769; 2013, cc. 398, 486.

§ 54.1-201.1. Issuance of temporary licenses and certifications.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the regulatory boards within the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation may issue a temporary license or certification to any applicant who holds a comparable license or certification issued by another state, provided (i) the license or certificate is valid, (ii) the applicant is in good standing with the regulatory entity that issued the license or certification, and (iii) the applicant simultaneously submits a completed application for a Virginia license or certification.

B. Any person who receives a temporary license or certification pursuant to this section shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the issuing regulatory board.

C. Any license or certification issued pursuant to this section shall be valid for a period not to exceed 45 days from the date of issuance and may not be renewed.

2010, cc. 260, 280.

§ 54.1-202. Monetary penalty; delegation to Director of authority enter consent agreements.

A. Any person licensed or certified by a regulatory board who violates any statute or regulation pertaining to that regulatory board who is not criminally prosecuted shall be subject to the monetary penalty provided in this section. If a regulatory board determines that a respondent is guilty of the violation complained of, the board shall determine the amount of the monetary penalty for the violation, which shall not exceed $2,500 for each violation. The penalty may be sued for and recovered in the name of the Commonwealth.

B. Any regulatory board within the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation may adopt a resolution delegating to the Director the authority to enter into consent agreements on behalf of the regulatory board with regulants of the board. Such resolution shall specify the types of violations to which the delegation applies and the maximum monetary penalty that may be imposed in a consent agreement for each regulatory violation. No delegation of authority pursuant to this subsection shall provide for a monetary penalty over $2,500 per regulatory violation.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.22; 1988, c. 765; 1999, cc. 37, 950; 2001, c. 832; 2005, c. 383.

§ 54.1-203. Recovery of cost after grant of formal fact-finding.

After a formal fact-finding pursuant to § 2.2-4020 wherein a sanction is imposed to fine, or to suspend, revoke or deny renewal of any license, certificate or registration, the regulatory board or the Department may assess the holder thereof the cost of conducting such fact-finding when the board or Department has final authority to grant such license, certificate or registration, unless the board or Department determines that the offense was inadvertent or done in a good faith belief that such act did not violate a statute or regulation. The cost shall be limited to (i) the reasonable hourly rate for the hearing officer and (ii) the actual cost of recording the proceedings.

1983, c. 401, § 54-1.22:1; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-204. Prior convictions not to abridge rights.

A. A person shall not be refused a license, certificate or registration to practice, pursue, or engage in any regulated occupation or profession solely because of a prior criminal conviction, unless the criminal conviction directly relates to the occupation or profession for which the license, certificate or registration is sought. However, the regulatory board shall have the authority to refuse a license, certificate or registration if, based upon all the information available, including the applicant's record of prior convictions, it finds that the applicant is unfit or unsuited to engage in such occupation or profession.

B. In determining whether a criminal conviction directly relates to an occupation or profession, the regulatory board shall consider the following criteria:

1. The nature and seriousness of the crime;

2. The relationship of the crime to the purpose for requiring a license to engage in the occupation;

3. The extent to which the occupation or profession might offer an opportunity to engage in further criminal activity of the same type as that in which the person had been involved;

4. The relationship of the crime to the ability, capacity or fitness required to perform the duties and discharge the responsibilities of the occupation or profession;

5. The extent and nature of the person's past criminal activity;

6. The age of the person at the time of the commission of the crime;

7. The amount of time that has elapsed since the person's last involvement in the commission of a crime;

8. The conduct and work activity of the person prior to and following the criminal activity; and

9. Evidence of the person's rehabilitation or rehabilitative effort while incarcerated or following release.

C. A regulatory board or department may require any applicant for registration, licensure or certification to submit to fingerprinting and to provide personal descriptive information to be forwarded along with the applicant's fingerprints through the Central Criminal Records Exchange to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the purpose of obtaining criminal history record information regarding such applicant. Such applicant shall pay the cost of the fingerprinting or a criminal records check or both.

The regulatory board or department may enter into a contract to obtain the fingerprints and descriptive information as required for submission to the Central Criminal Records Exchange in a manner and format approved by the Central Criminal Records Exchange.

The Central Criminal Records Exchange, upon receipt of an applicant's record or notification that no record exists, shall make a report to the regulatory board or department or their designee, who must belong to a governmental entity. If an applicant is denied a registration, license or certificate because of the information appearing in his criminal history record, the regulatory board or department shall notify the applicant that information obtained from the Central Criminal Records Exchange contributed to such denial. The information shall not be disseminated except as provided for in this section.

D. A regulatory board or department shall consider the criminal information as contained in the applicant's state or national criminal history in lieu of the applicant providing certified copies of such court records in determining whether a criminal conviction directly relates to an occupation or profession or if an applicant is unfit or unsuited to engage in an occupation or profession. The regulatory board or department may request additional information from the applicant in making such determination.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.21; 1988, c. 765; 2003, c. 582; 2009, c. 667.

Chapter 3. Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

§ 54.1-300. Definitions.

As used in this chapter unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Board" means the Board for Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Certification" means the process whereby the Department or any regulatory board issues a certificate on behalf of the Commonwealth to a person certifying that he possesses the character and minimum skills to engage properly in his profession or occupation.

"Department" means the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Inspection" means a method of regulation whereby a state agency periodically examines the activities and premises of practitioners of an occupation or profession to ascertain if the practitioner is carrying out his profession or occupation in a manner consistent with the public health, safety and welfare.

"Licensure" means a method of regulation whereby the Commonwealth, through the issuance of a license, authorizes a person possessing the character and minimum skills to engage in the practice of a profession or occupation that is unlawful to practice without a license.

"Registration" means a method of regulation whereby any practitioner of a profession or occupation may be required to submit information concerning the location, nature and operation of his practice.

"Regulatory board" means the Auctioneers Board, Board for Architects, Professional Engineers, Land Surveyors, Certified Interior Designers and Landscape Architects, Board for Barbers and Cosmetology, Board for Branch Pilots, Board for Contractors, Board for Hearing Aid Specialists and Opticians, Board for Professional Soil Scientists, Wetland Professionals, and Geologists, Board for Waste Management Facility Operators, Board for Waterworks and Wastewater Works Operators and Onsite Sewage System Professionals, Cemetery Board, Real Estate Appraiser Board, Real Estate Board, Fair Housing Board, Virginia Board for Asbestos, Lead, and Home Inspectors, and Common Interest Community Board.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.18; 1980, c. 757; 1981, c. 132; 1982, c. 538; 1983, cc. 115, 322; 1984, cc. 82, 203; 1985, c. 448; 1987, c. 686; 1988, cc. 354, 716, 765; 1990, cc. 459, 466; 1991, c. 551; 1993, c. 499; 1998, c. 27; 1999, c. 950; 2000, c. 726; 2001, cc. 723, 832; 2002, c. 784; 2003, c. 575; 2007, cc. 892, 924; 2009, cc. 358, 557; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 54.1-301. Department continued; appointment of Director.

The Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation within the executive branch is hereby continued. The Department shall be headed by a Director who shall be appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly, to serve at the pleasure of the Governor for a term coincident with that of the Governor.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.30; 1984, c. 720; 1988, c. 765; 1993, c. 499.

§ 54.1-302. Supervision of Department.

The Director of the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation shall be responsible for the supervision of the Department under the direction and control of the Governor and shall exercise such other powers and perform such other duties as the Governor requires.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.31; 1984, c. 720; 1988, c. 765; 1993, c. 499.

§ 54.1-303. General powers of Director.

The Director shall have the following general powers:

To employ personnel and assistance necessary for the operation of the Department and the purposes of this chapter.

To make and enter into all contracts and agreements necessary or incidental to the performance of the duties of the Department and the execution of its powers under this chapter, including, but not limited to, contracts with the United States, other states, and agencies and governmental subdivisions of the Commonwealth.

To accept grants from the United States government and agencies and instrumentalities thereof and any other source. To these ends, the Department shall have the power to comply with such conditions and execute such agreements as may be necessary, convenient or desirable.

To do all acts necessary or convenient to carry out the purposes of this subtitle.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.32; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-304. Powers and duties of the Director with respect to regulatory boards.

Each of the regulatory boards within the Department shall be a separate board. All of the administrative functions of the regulatory boards shall be under the direction and supervision of the Director.

In the performance and discharge of his duties with respect to the regulatory boards, the Director shall:

1. Be the secretary of each board;

2. Maintain all records for each board;

3. Collect and account for all fees prescribed to be paid into each board and account for and deposit the moneys so collected into a special fund from which the expenses of the Board, regulatory boards and Department shall be paid;

4. Enforce all statutes and regulations the Director is required to administer;

5. Exercise other powers necessary to function as the sole administrative officer of each of such boards; and

6. Perform any additional administrative functions prescribed by the Board.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.33; 1984, c. 734; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-305. Bond of Director.

Before entering upon the discharge of his duties, the Director shall give bond payable to the Commonwealth of Virginia conditioned upon the faithful discharge of his duties in a form approved by the Attorney General, in such penalty as shall be fixed by the Governor, with a surety or guaranty company authorized to do business in this Commonwealth. The premium required for the bond shall be paid out of the administrative fund appropriated to the Department, and the bond shall be filed with and preserved by the Comptroller.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.34; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-306. Enforcement of laws by Director or investigators; authority of investigators appointed by Director.

A. The Director or investigators appointed by him shall be sworn to enforce the statutes and regulations pertaining to the Department, the regulatory boards within Subtitle II (§ 54.1-200 et seq.) of this title, and any of the programs which may be in another title of this Code for which any regulatory board within Subtitle II has enforcement responsibility. The Director or investigators appointed by him shall have the authority to investigate violations of the statutes and regulations that the Director is required to enforce. The Director or investigators appointed by him shall also have the authority to issue summonses for violations of the statutes and regulations governing the unlicensed practice of professions regulated by the Department. In the event a person issued such a summons fails or refuses to discontinue the unlawful acts or refuses to give a written promise to appear at the time and place specified in the summons, the investigator may appear before a magistrate or other issuing authority having jurisdiction to obtain a criminal warrant pursuant to § 19.2-72. In addition, sworn criminal investigators of the Department's Criminal Investigations section shall be statewide conservators of the peace while engaged in the performance of their official duties.

B. All investigators appointed by the Director are vested with the authority to administer oaths or affirmations for the purpose of receiving complaints and conducting investigations of violations of this subtitle, or any regulation promulgated pursuant to authority given by this subtitle or in connection with any investigation conducted on behalf of any regulatory board within this subtitle or a program which may be located in another title in this Code. Such investigators are vested with the authority to obtain, serve and execute any warrant, paper or process issued by any court or magistrate or any regulatory board under the authority of the Director and request and receive criminal history information under the provisions of § 19.2-389.

C. Any regulatory board within the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation may adopt a resolution delegating to the sworn investigators appointed by the Director pursuant to § 54.1-306, the authority to conduct inspections. After conducting an inspection pursuant to the delegation of inspection authority, an investigator may initiate an investigation based on any act, omission, or condition witnessed by the investigator and offer a consent agreement to the regulant to resolve any violation discovered during the inspection, subject to the provisions of subsection B of § 54.1-202. If a consent agreement is offered pursuant to the delegation of authority authorized by this subsection, it shall not become effective until approved by the Director.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.39; 1988, c. 765; 1989, c. 16; 1991, c. 130; 2002, c. 605; 2005, c. 383.

§ 54.1-307. Subpoenas.

In addition to the authority granted in § 2.2-4022 to issue subpoenas and the right to issue subpoenas granted the several regulatory boards within the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation, the Director or a designated subordinate shall have the right to make an ex parte application to the circuit court for the city or county wherein evidence sought is kept or wherein a licensee does business, for the issuance of a subpoena duces tecum in furtherance of the investigation of a sworn complaint within the jurisdiction of the Department or a regulatory board to request production of any relevant records, documents and physical or other evidence of any person, partnership, association or corporation licensed or regulated by the Department. The court shall be authorized to issue and compel compliance with such a subpoena upon a showing of reasonable cause. Upon determining that reasonable cause exists to believe that evidence may be destroyed or altered, the court may issue a subpoena duces tecum requiring the immediate production of evidence.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.40; 1988, c. 765; 1993, c. 499.

§ 54.1-307.1. Time for filing complaints against regulants.

A. Except as otherwise provided in § 36-96.9 and subsections B and C of this section, any complaint against a regulant for any violation of statutes or regulations pertaining to the regulatory boards within Subtitle II (§ 54.1-200 et seq.) of this title or any of the programs which may be in another title of the Code for which any regulatory board within Subtitle II has enforcement responsibility, in order to be investigated by the Department, shall be made in writing, or otherwise made in accordance with Department procedures, and received by the Department within three years of the act, omission or occurrence giving rise to the violation. Public information obtained from any source by the Director or agency staff may serve as the basis for a written complaint against a regulant.

B. However, where a regulant has materially and willfully misrepresented, concealed or omitted any information and the information so misrepresented, concealed or omitted is material to the establishment of the violation, the complaint may be made at any time within two years after discovery of the misrepresentation, concealment or omission.

C. In cases where criminal charges have been filed involving matters that, if found to be true, would also constitute a violation of the regulations or laws of the regulant's profession enforced by the Department, an investigation may be initiated by the Department at any time within two years following the date such criminal charges are filed.

D. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require the filing of a complaint if the alleged violation of the statute or regulation is discovered during the conduct of an inspection authorized by law, and the acts, omissions, or conditions constituting the alleged violations are witnessed by a sworn investigator appointed by the Director.

1994, c. 581; 2004, c. 297; 2005, c. 383.

§ 54.1-308. Departmental expenses.

The compensation of the Director and the employees within the Department, including the compensation of the members of each board, shall be paid out of the total funds collected and charged to the accounts of the respective boards. The Director shall maintain a separate account for each board showing the moneys collected on its behalf and the expenses allocated to each board.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.42; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-308.1. Interest on cash bonds held by regulatory boards of Department.

Interest earned on any cash bond held by the Department on behalf of any regulatory board shall be credited to the Department.

1995, c. 43.

§ 54.1-309. Board for Professional and Occupational Regulation; members, terms, chairman; meetings.

There shall be a Board for Professional and Occupational Regulation within the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation. The Board shall consist of nine members appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly. Members shall serve for four-year terms and no member shall serve for more than two full successive terms. The chairman of the Board shall be elected annually by the Board.

The Board shall meet at least once each year and on the call of the chairman when he deems additional meetings necessary.

1979, c. 408, §§ 54-1.23, 54-1.24; 1988, c. 765; 1993, c. 499; 2012, c. 522.

§ 54.1-310. Powers and duties of Board.

A. The Board shall have the following powers and duties:

1. Provide a means of citizen access to the Department.

2. Provide a means of publicizing the policies and programs of the Department in order to educate the public and elicit public support for Department activities.

3. Monitor the policies and activities of the Department and have the right of access to departmental information.

4. Advise the Governor and the Director on matters relating to the regulation of professions and occupations.

5. Promulgate regulations in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) necessary to carry out its responsibilities.

6. Evaluate constantly each profession and occupation in the Commonwealth not otherwise regulated for consideration as to whether such profession or occupation should be regulated and, if so, the degree of regulation that should be imposed. Whenever it determines that the public interest requires that a profession or occupation which is not regulated by law should be regulated, the Board shall recommend to the General Assembly next convened a regulatory system accompanied by comprehensive regulations necessary to conduct the degree of regulation required.

B. Upon the regulation of a profession or occupation as set forth in subsection A, the Board shall have the power and duty to promulgate supplemental regulations necessary to effectuate the purposes and intent of this chapter and to establish regulatory boards to administer the system of regulation and the regulations recommended by the Board and approved by the General Assembly.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.25; 1984, cc. 720, 734; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-310.1. Petitions for regulation; review by Board; report.

A. Any professional or occupational group or organization, any person, or any other interested party that proposes the regulation of any unregulated professional or occupational group shall submit a request to the Board no later than December 1 of any year for analysis and evaluation during the following year.

B. The Board shall review the request only when filed with a statement of support for the proposed regulation signed by at least 10 members of the professional or occupational group for which regulation is being sought or at least 10 individuals who are not members of the professional or occupational group.

C. The request shall include, at a minimum, the following information:

1. A description of the group proposed for regulation, including a list of associations, organizations, and other groups representing the practitioners in the Commonwealth, and an estimate of the number of practitioners in each group;

2. A definition of the problems to be solved by regulation and the reasons why regulation is necessary;

3. The reasons why registration, certification, licensure, or other type of regulation is being proposed and why that regulatory alternative was chosen;

4. The benefit to the public that would result from the proposed regulation;

5. The cost of the proposed regulation; and

6. A description of any anticipated disqualifications on an applicant for certification, licensure, or renewal and how such disqualifications serve public safety or commercial or consumer protection interests.

D. Upon receipt of a request submitted in accordance with the requirements of subsection C, the Board shall conduct an analysis and evaluation of any proposed regulation based on the criteria enumerated in § 54.1-311.

E. The Board may decline to conduct a review only if it:

1. Previously conducted an analysis and evaluation of the proposed regulation of the same professional or occupational group;

2. Issued a report not more than three years prior to the submission of the current proposal to regulate the same professional or occupational group; and

3. Finds that no new information has been submitted in the request that would cause the Board to alter or modify the recommendations made in its earlier report on the proposed regulation of the professional or occupational group.

F. The Board shall submit a report with its findings on whether the public interest requires the requested professional or occupational group be regulated to the House Committee on General Laws, the Senate Committee on General Laws and Technology, and the Joint Commission on Administrative Rules no later than November 1 of the year following the request submission.

2016, c. 467.

§ 54.1-311. Degrees of regulation.

A. Whenever the Board determines that a particular profession or occupation should be regulated, or that a different degree of regulation should be imposed on a regulated profession or occupation, it shall consider the following degrees of regulation in the order provided in subdivisions 1 through 5. The Board shall regulate only to the degree necessary to fulfill the need for regulation and only upon approval by the General Assembly.

1. Private civil actions and criminal prosecutions. -- Whenever existing common law and statutory causes of civil action or criminal prohibitions are not sufficient to eradicate existing harm or prevent potential harm, the Board may first consider the recommendation of statutory change to provide more strict causes for civil action and criminal prosecution.

2. Inspection and injunction. -- Whenever current inspection and injunction procedures are not sufficient to eradicate existing harm, the Board may promulgate regulations consistent with the intent of this chapter to provide more adequate inspection procedures and to specify procedures whereby the appropriate regulatory board may enjoin an activity which is detrimental to the public well-being. The Board may recommend to the appropriate agency of the Commonwealth that such procedures be strengthened or it may recommend statutory changes in order to grant to the appropriate state agency the power to provide sufficient inspection and injunction procedures.

3. Registration. -- Whenever it is necessary to determine the impact of the operation of a profession or occupation on the public, the Board may implement a system of registration.

4. Certification. -- When the public requires a substantial basis for relying on the professional services of a practitioner, the Board may implement a system of certification.

5. Licensing. -- Whenever adequate regulation cannot be achieved by means other than licensing, the Board may establish licensing procedures for any particular profession or occupation.

B. In determining the proper degree of regulation, if any, the Board shall determine the following:

1. Whether the practitioner, if unregulated, performs a service for individuals involving a hazard to the public health, safety or welfare.

2. The opinion of a substantial portion of the people who do not practice the particular profession, trade or occupation on the need for regulation.

3. The number of states which have regulatory provisions similar to those proposed.

4. Whether there is sufficient demand for the service for which there is no regulated substitute and this service is required by a substantial portion of the population.

5. Whether the profession or occupation requires high standards of public responsibility, character and performance of each individual engaged in the profession or occupation, as evidenced by established and published codes of ethics.

6. Whether the profession or occupation requires such skill that the public generally is not qualified to select a competent practitioner without some assurance that he has met minimum qualifications.

7. Whether the professional or occupational associations do not adequately protect the public from incompetent, unscrupulous or irresponsible members of the profession or occupation.

8. Whether current laws which pertain to public health, safety and welfare generally are ineffective or inadequate.

9. Whether the characteristics of the profession or occupation make it impractical or impossible to prohibit those practices of the profession or occupation which are detrimental to the public health, safety and welfare.

10. Whether the practitioner performs a service for others which may have a detrimental effect on third parties relying on the expert knowledge of the practitioner.

1979, c. 408, § 54-1.26; 1988, c. 765.

Chapter 4. Architects, Engineers, Surveyors, Landscape Architects and Interior Designers.

Article 1. Architects, Engineers, Surveyors and Landscape Architects.

§ 54.1-400. Definitions.

As used in this chapter unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Architect" means a person who, by reason of his knowledge of the mathematical and physical sciences, and the principles of architecture and architectural design, acquired by professional education, practical experience, or both, is qualified to engage in the practice of architecture and whose competence has been attested by the Board through licensure as an architect.

The "practice of architecture" means any service wherein the principles and methods of architecture are applied, such as consultation, investigation, evaluation, planning and design, and includes the responsible administration of construction contracts, in connection with any private or public buildings, structures or projects, or the related equipment or accessories.

"Board" means the Board for Architects, Professional Engineers, Land Surveyors, Certified Interior Designers and Landscape Architects.

"Certified interior designer" means a design professional who meets the criteria of education, experience, and testing in the rendering of interior design services established by the Board through certification as an interior designer.

"Improvements to real property" means any valuable addition or amelioration made to land and generally whatever is erected on or affixed to land which is intended to enhance its value, beauty or utility, or adapt it to new or further purposes. Examples of improvements to real property include, but are not limited to, structures, buildings, machinery, equipment, electrical systems, mechanical systems, roads, and water and wastewater treatment and distribution systems.

"Interior design" by a certified interior designer means any service rendered wherein the principles and methodology of interior design are applied in connection with the identification, research, and creative solution of problems pertaining to the function and quality of the interior environment. Such services relative to interior spaces shall include the preparation of documents for nonload-bearing interior construction, furnishings, fixtures, and equipment in order to enhance and protect the health, safety, and welfare of the public.

"Land surveyor" means a person who, by reason of his knowledge of the several sciences and of the principles of land surveying, and of the planning and design of land developments acquired by practical experience and formal education, is qualified to engage in the practice of land surveying, and whose competence has been attested by the Board through licensure as a land surveyor.

The "practice of land surveying" includes surveying of areas for a determination or correction, a description, the establishment or reestablishment of internal and external land boundaries, or the determination of topography, contours or location of physical improvements, and also includes the planning of land and subdivisions thereof. The term "planning of land and subdivisions thereof" shall include, but not be limited to, the preparation of incidental plans and profiles for roads, streets and sidewalks, grading, drainage on the surface, culverts and erosion control measures, with reference to existing state or local standards.

"Landscape architect" means a person who, by reason of his special knowledge of natural, physical and mathematical sciences, and the principles and methodology of landscape architecture and landscape architectural design acquired by professional education, practical experience, or both, is qualified to engage in the practice of landscape architecture and whose competence has been attested by the Board through licensure as a landscape architect.

The "practice of landscape architecture" by a licensed landscape architect means any service wherein the principles and methodology of landscape architecture are applied in consultation, evaluation, planning (including the preparation and filing of sketches, drawings, plans and specifications) and responsible supervision or administration of contracts relative to projects principally directed at the functional and aesthetic use of land.

"Professional engineer" means a person who is qualified to practice engineering by reason of his special knowledge and use of mathematical, physical and engineering sciences and the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design acquired by engineering education and experience, and whose competence has been attested by the Board through licensure as a professional engineer.

The "practice of engineering" means any service wherein the principles and methods of engineering are applied to, but are not necessarily limited to, the following areas: consultation, investigation, evaluation, planning and design of public or private utilities, structures, machines, equipment, processes, transportation systems and work systems, including responsible administration of construction contracts. The term "practice of engineering" shall not include the service or maintenance of existing electrical or mechanical systems.

"Residential wastewater" means sewage (i) generated by residential or accessory uses, not containing storm water or industrial influent, and having no other toxic, or hazardous constituents not routinely found in residential wastewater flows, or (ii) as certified by a professional engineer.

"Responsible charge" means the direct control and supervision of the practice of architecture, professional engineering, landscape architecture, or land surveying.

1970, c. 671, § 54-17.1; 1974, c. 534; 1980, c. 757; 1982, c. 590; 1984, c. 437; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 512; 1992, cc. 780, 783; 1998, c. 27; 2008, c. 68; 2009, c. 309.

§ 54.1-401. Exemptions.

The following shall be exempted from the provisions of this chapter:

1. Practice of professional engineering and land surveying by a licensed architect when such practice is incidental to what may be properly considered an architectural undertaking.

2. Practice of architecture and land surveying by a licensed professional engineer when such practice is incidental to an engineering project.

3. Practice as a professional engineer, architect or landscape architect in this Commonwealth by any person not a resident of and having no established place of business in this Commonwealth, or by any person resident in this Commonwealth whose arrival is recent, provided that such person is otherwise qualified for such professional service in another state or country and qualifies in Virginia and files prior to commencement of such practice an application, with the required fee, for licensure as a professional engineer, architect or landscape architect. The exemption shall continue until the Board has had sufficient time to consider the application and grant or deny licensure or certification.

4. Engaging in the practice of professional engineering as an employee under a licensed professional engineer, engaging in the practice of architecture as an employee under a licensed architect, engaging in the practice of landscape architecture as an employee under a licensed landscape architect, or engaging in the practice of land surveying as an employee under a licensed land surveyor; provided, that such practice shall not include responsible charge of design or supervision.

5. Practice of professional engineering, architecture, landscape architecture, or land surveying solely as an employee of the United States. However, the employee shall not be exempt from other provisions of this chapter if he furnishes advisory service for compensation to the public in connection with engineering, architectural, landscape architecture, or land surveying matters.

6. Practice of architecture or professional engineering by an individual, firm or corporation on property owned or leased by such individual, firm or corporation, unless the public health or safety is involved.

7. Practice of engineering solely as an employee of a corporation engaged in interstate commerce, or as an employee of a public service corporation, by rendering such corporation engineering service in connection with its facilities which are subject to regulation by the State Corporation Commission; provided, that corporation employees who furnish advisory service to the public in connection with engineering matters other than in connection with such employment shall not be exempt from the provisions of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 54-37; 1968, c. 77; 1980, c. 757; 1988, c. 765; 1992, cc. 595, 780, 783; 2009, c. 309.

§ 54.1-402. Further exemptions from license requirements for architects, professional engineers, and land surveyors.

A. No license as an architect or professional engineer shall be required pursuant to § 54.1-406 for persons who prepare plans, specifications, documents and designs for the following, provided any such plans, specifications, documents or designs bear the name and address of the author and his occupation:

1. Single- and two-family homes, townhouses and multifamily dwellings, excluding electrical and mechanical systems, not exceeding three stories; or

2. All farm structures used primarily in the production, handling or storage of agricultural products or implements, including, but not limited to, structures used for the handling, processing, housing or storage of crops, feeds, supplies, equipment, animals or poultry; or

3. Buildings and structures classified with respect to use as business (Use Group B) and mercantile (Use Group M), as provided in the Uniform Statewide Building Code and churches with an occupant load of 100 or less, excluding electrical and mechanical systems, where such building or structure does not exceed 5,000 square feet in total net floor area, or three stories; or

4. Buildings and structures classified with respect to use as factory and industrial (Use Group F) and storage (Use Group S) as provided in the Uniform Statewide Building Code, excluding electrical and mechanical systems, where such building or structure does not exceed 15,000 square feet in total net floor area, or three stories; or

5. Additions, remodeling or interior design without a change in occupancy or occupancy load and without modification to the structural system or a change in access or exit patterns or increase in fire hazard; or

6. Electric installations which comply with all applicable codes and which do not exceed 600 volts and 800 amps, where work is designed and performed under the direct supervision of a person licensed as a master's level electrician or Class A electrical contractor by written examination, and where such installation is not contained in any structure exceeding three stories or located in any of the following categories:

a. Use Group A-1 theaters which exceed assembly of 100 persons;

b. Use Group A-4 except churches;

c. Use Group I, institutional buildings, except day care nurseries and clinics without life-support systems; or

7. Plumbing and mechanical systems using packaged mechanical equipment, such as equipment of catalogued standard design which has been coordinated and tested by the manufacturer, which comply with all applicable codes. These mechanical systems shall not exceed gauge pressures of 125 pounds per square inch, other than refrigeration, or temperatures other than flue gas of 300 degrees F (150 degrees C) where such work is designed and performed under the direct supervision of a person licensed as a master's level plumber, master's level heating, air conditioning and ventilating worker, or Class A contractor in those specialties by written examination. In addition, such installation may not be contained in any structure exceeding three stories or located in any structure which is defined as to its use in any of the following categories:

a. Use Group A-1 theaters which exceed assembly of 100 persons;

b. Use Group A-4 except churches;

c. Use Group I, institutional buildings, except day care nurseries and clinics without life-support systems; or

8. The preparation of shop drawings, field drawings and specifications for components by a contractor who will supervise the installation and where the shop drawings and specifications (i) will be reviewed by the licensed professional engineer or architect responsible for the project or (ii) are otherwise exempted; or

9. Buildings, structures, or electrical and mechanical installations which are not otherwise exempted but which are of standard design, provided they bear the certification of a professional engineer or architect registered or licensed in another state, and provided that the design is adapted for the specific location and for conformity with local codes, ordinances and regulations, and is so certified by a professional engineer or architect licensed in Virginia; or

10. Construction by a state agency or political subdivision not exceeding $75,000 in value keyed to the January 1, 1991, Consumer Price Index (CPI) and not otherwise requiring a licensed architect, engineer, or land surveyor by an adopted code and maintenance by that state agency or political subdivision of water distribution, sewage collection, storm drainage systems, sidewalks, streets, curbs, gutters, culverts, and other facilities normally and customarily constructed and maintained by the public works department of the state agency or political subdivision; or

11. Conventional and alternative onsite sewage systems receiving residential wastewater, under the authority of Chapter 6 of Title 32.1, designed by a licensed onsite soil evaluator, which utilize packaged equipment, such as equipment of catalogued standard design that has been coordinated and tested by the manufacturer, and complies with all applicable codes, provided (i) the flow is less than 1,000 gallons per day; and (ii) if a pump is included, (a) it shall not include multiple downhill runs and must terminate at a positive elevational change; (b) the discharge end is open and not pressurized; (c) the static head does not exceed 50 feet; and (d) the force main length does not exceed 500 feet.

B. No person shall be exempt from licensure as an architect or engineer who engages in the preparation of plans, specifications, documents or designs for:

1. Any unique design of structural elements for floors, walls, roofs or foundations; or

2. Any building or structure classified with respect to its use as high hazard (Use Group H).

C. Persons utilizing photogrammetric methods or similar remote sensing technology shall not be required to be licensed as a land surveyor pursuant to subsection B of § 54.1-404 or 54.1-406 to: (i) determine topography or contours, or to depict physical improvements, provided such maps or other documents shall not be used for the design, modification, or construction of improvements to real property or for flood plain determination, or (ii) graphically show existing property lines and boundaries on maps or other documents provided such depicted property lines and boundaries shall only be used for general information.

Any determination of topography or contours, or depiction of physical improvements, utilizing photogrammetric methods or similar remote sensing technology by persons not licensed as a land surveyor pursuant to § 54.1-406 shall not show any property monumentation or property metes and bounds, nor provide any measurement showing the relationship of any physical improvements to any property line or boundary.

Any person not licensed pursuant to subsection B of § 54.1-404 or 54.1-406 preparing documentation pursuant to subsection C of § 54.1-402 shall note the following on such documentation: "Any determination of topography or contours, or any depiction of physical improvements, property lines or boundaries is for general information only and shall not be used for the design, modification, or construction of improvements to real property or for flood plain determination."

D. Terms used in this section, and not otherwise defined in this chapter, shall have the meanings provided in the Uniform Statewide Building Code in effect on July 1, 1982, including any subsequent amendments.

1982, c. 590, § 54-37.1; 1988, cc. 294, 765; 1992, cc. 780, 783; 2005, cc. 359, 440; 2008, c. 68.

§ 54.1-402.1. State and local government employees; license exemptions for persons employed prior to March 8, 1992.

Any person engaged in the practice of engineering, architecture, or land surveying as those terms are defined in § 54.1-400 as a regular, full-time, salaried employee of the Commonwealth or any political subdivision of the Commonwealth on March 8, 1992, who remains employed by any state agency or political subdivision shall be exempt until June 30, 2010, from the licensure requirements of § 54.1-406 provided the employee does not furnish advisory service for compensation to the public or as an independent contracting party in this Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof in connection with engineering, architectural, or land surveying matters. The chief administrative officer of any agency of the Commonwealth or political subdivision thereof employing persons engaged in the practice of engineering, architecture, or land surveying as regular, full-time, salaried employees shall have the authority and responsibility to determine the engineering, architecture, and land surveying positions which have responsible charge of engineering, architectural, or land surveying decisions.

1992, cc. 780, 783; 1994, c. 379.

§ 54.1-402.2. Cease and desist orders for unlicensed activity; civil penalty.

A. Notwithstanding § 54.1-111, the Board may issue an order requiring any person to cease and desist from (i) practicing or offering to practice as an architect, professional engineer, land surveyor, or landscape architect when such person is not licensed or registered by the Board in accordance with this chapter or (ii) holding himself out as a certified interior designer when such person is not certified or registered by the Board in accordance with this chapter. The order shall be effective upon its entry and shall become final unless such person files an appeal with the Board in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) within 21 days of the date of entry of the order.

B. If the person fails to cease and desist the unlicensed, uncertified, or unregistered activity after entry of an order in accordance with subsection A, the Board may refer the matter for enforcement pursuant to § 54.1-306.

C. Any person engaging in unlicensed, uncertified, or unregistered activity shall be subject to further proceedings before the Board and the Board may impose a civil penalty not to exceed $2,500. Any penalties collected under this section shall be paid to the Literary Fund after deduction of the administrative costs of the Board in furtherance of this section.

D. Nothing contained in this section shall apply to any person engaged in activity exempted from the provisions of this chapter.

2007, c. 618; 2009, c. 309.

§ 54.1-403. Board members and officers; quorum.

The Board for Architects, Professional Engineers, Land Surveyors, Certified Interior Designers and Landscape Architects shall be composed of 15 members as follows: three architects, three professional engineers, three land surveyors, two landscape architects, two certified interior designers, and two nonlegislative citizen members.

Except for the nonlegislative citizen members appointed in accordance with § 54.1-107, Board members shall have actively practiced or taught their professions for at least 10 years prior to their appointments. The terms of Board members shall be four years.

The Board shall elect a president and vice-president from its membership.

Nine Board members, consisting of two engineers, two architects, two land surveyors, one landscape architect, one interior designer and one nonlegislative citizen member, shall constitute a quorum.

Code 1950, §§ 54-19, 54-22, 54-23; 1980, c. 757, § 54-18.1; 1981, c. 447; 1988, cc. 42, 765; 1990, c. 512; 1991, c. 291; 1998, c. 27; 2009, c. 309; 2010, c. 91; 2018, c. 824.

§ 54.1-404. Regulations; code of professional practice and conduct.

A. The Board shall promulgate regulations not inconsistent with this chapter governing its own organization, the professional qualifications of applicants, the requirements necessary for passing examinations in whole or in part, the proper conduct of its examinations, the implementation of exemptions from license requirements, and the proper discharge of its duties.

B. The Board may impose different licensure requirements for a limited area of the practice of land surveying for persons who determine topography, contours, or depiction of physical improvements utilizing photogrammetric methods or similar remote sensing technology who are not otherwise exempt pursuant to subsection C of § 54.1-402. Any such requirements shall include reasonable provisions for licensure without examination of persons deemed by the Board to be qualified to provide photogrammetric and remote sensing surveying services.

Any license issued pursuant to this subsection shall be distinctive, reflecting the limited area of the practice of land surveying so authorized, and considered as a land surveyor and the practice of land surveying for the purposes of §§ 13.1-549, 13.1-1111, 54.1-402, 54.1-405, 54.1-406 and 54.1-411. Nothing herein shall be construed to authorize a person issued a limited license pursuant to this subsection to practice beyond such limited area of practice. The establishment of any such limited license shall not prohibit any duly qualified land surveyor licensed pursuant to § 54.1-400 from engaging in any such limited area of practice.

C. The regulations may include a code of professional practice and conduct, the provisions of which shall serve any or all of the following purposes:

1. The protection of the public health, safety and welfare;

2. The maintenance of standards of objectivity, truthfulness and reliability in public statements by professionals;

3. The avoidance by professionals of conflicts of interests;

4. The prohibition of solicitation or acceptance of work by professionals on any basis other than their qualifications for the work offered;

5. The restriction by the professional in the conduct of his professional activity from association with any person engaging in illegal or dishonest activities; or

6. The limitation of professional service to the area of competence of each professional.

Code 1950, § 54-25; 1974, c. 459; 1982, c. 590; 1988, c. 765; 2005, cc. 359, 440.

§ 54.1-404.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2010, c. 91, cl. 2.

§ 54.1-404.2. Continuing education.

A. The Board shall promulgate regulations governing continuing education requirements for architects, professional engineers, land surveyors, and landscape architects licensed by the Board. Such regulations shall require the completion of the equivalent of 16 hours per biennium of Board-approved continuing education activities as a prerequisite to the renewal or reinstatement of a license issued to an architect, professional engineer, land surveyor, or landscape architect. The Board shall establish criteria for continuing education activities including, but not limited to (i) content and subject matter; (ii) curriculum; (iii) standards and procedures for the approval of activities, courses, sponsors, and instructors; (iv) methods of instruction for continuing education courses; and (v) the computation of course credit.

B. The Board may grant exemptions or waive or reduce the number of continuing education hours required in cases of certified illness or undue hardship.

2006, c. 683; 2009, c. 309.

§ 54.1-405. Examinations and issuance of licenses and certificates.

A. The Board shall hold at least one examination each year at times and locations designated by the Board. A license to practice as a professional engineer, an architect, a land surveyor, or a landscape architect shall be issued to every applicant who complies with the requirements of this chapter and the regulations of the Board. A license shall be valid during the life of the holder unless revoked or suspended by the Board. A license holder must register with the Board to practice in the Commonwealth. The licenses shall be signed by at least four members of the Board.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 54.1-111, a license holder who has retired from practice may use the designation granted by such license, followed by the word "emeritus," without possessing a current registration from the Board provided (i) the license has not been revoked or suspended by the Board and (ii) the license holder does not practice or offer to practice architecture, engineering, land surveying, or landscape architecture.

Code 1950, § 54-26; 1974, c. 534; 1980, c. 757; 1988, c. 765; 1992, c. 613; 1994, c. 29; 2009, c. 309; 2010, c. 612.

§ 54.1-406. License required.

A. Unless exempted by § 54.1-401, 54.1-402, or 54.1-402.1, a person shall hold a valid license prior to engaging in the practice of architecture or engineering which includes design, consultation, evaluation or analysis and involves proposed or existing improvements to real property.

Unless exempted by § 54.1-401, 54.1-402, or 54.1-402.1, a person shall hold a valid license prior to engaging in the practice of land surveying.

B. Unless exempted by § 54.1-402, any person, partnership, corporation or other entity offering to practice architecture, engineering, or land surveying without being registered or licensed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, shall be subject to the provisions of § 54.1-111 of this title.

C. Any person, partnership, corporation or other entity which is not licensed or registered to practice in accordance with this chapter and which advertises or promotes through the use of the words "architecture," "engineering" or "land surveying" or any modification or derivative thereof in its name or description of its business activity in a manner that indicates or implies that it practices or offers to practice architecture, engineering or land surveying as defined in this chapter shall be subject to the provisions of § 54.1-111.

D. Notwithstanding these provisions, any state agency or political subdivision of the Commonwealth unable to employ a qualified licensed engineer, architect, or land surveyor to fill a responsible charge position, after reasonable and unsuccessful search, may fill the position with an unlicensed person upon the determination by the chief administrative officer of the agency or political subdivision that the person, by virtue of education, experience, and expertise, can perform the work required of the position.

E. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, a contractor who is licensed pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 11 (§ 54.1-1100 et seq.) of this title shall not be required to be licensed or registered to practice in accordance with this chapter when bidding upon or negotiating design-build contracts or performing services other than architectural, engineering or land surveying services under a design-build contract. The architectural, engineering or land surveying services offered or rendered in connection with such contracts shall only be rendered by an architect, professional engineer or land surveyor licensed in accordance with this chapter.

1979, c. 408, § 54-26.1; 1982, c. 590; 1984, c. 470; 1988, c. 765; 1992, cc. 780, 783; 1994, c. 784; 1996, c. 329; 2004, c. 191; 2005, cc. 359, 440; 2010, c. 91.

§ 54.1-407. Land surveying.

Notwithstanding the provisions of any regulation promulgated by the Board for Architects, Professional Engineers, Land Surveyors, Certified Interior Designers and Landscape Architects, a land surveyor shall not be required by Board regulations to set corner monumentation or perform a boundary survey on any property when (i) corner monumentation has been set or is otherwise required to be set pursuant to the provisions of a local subdivision ordinance as mandated by § 15.2-2240 or subdivision 7 of § 15.2-2241, or where the placing of such monumentation is covered by a surety bond, cash escrow, set-aside letter, letter of credit, or other performance guaranty, or (ii) the purpose of the survey is to determine the location of the physical improvements on the said property only, if the prospective mortgagor or legal agent ordering the survey agrees in writing that such corner monumentation shall not be provided in connection with any such physical improvements survey. The provisions of this section shall apply only to property located within the Counties of Arlington, Fairfax, King George, Loudoun, Prince William, Spotsylvania and Stafford; and the Cities of Alexandria, Fairfax, Falls Church, Fredericksburg, Manassas and Manassas Park.

1986, c. 531, § 54-25.1; 1988, cc. 271, 765; 1998, c. 27.

§ 54.1-408. Practice of land surveying; subdivisions.

In addition to the work defined in § 54.1-400, a land surveyor may, for subdivisions, site plans and plans of development only, prepare plats, plans and profiles for roads, storm drainage systems, sanitary sewer extensions, and water line extensions, and may perform other engineering incidental to such work, but excluding the design of pressure hydraulic, structural, mechanical, and electrical systems. The work included in this section shall involve the use and application of standards prescribed by local or state authorities. The land surveyor shall pass an examination given by the Board in addition to that required for the licensing of land surveyors as defined in § 54.1-400. Any land surveyor previously licensed pursuant to subdivision (3) (b) of former § 54-17.1 may continue to do the work herein described without further examination.

Except as provided, nothing contained herein or in the definition of "practice of land surveying" in § 54.1-400 shall be construed to include engineering design and the preparation of plans and specifications for construction.

1970, c. 671, § 54-17.1; 1974, c. 534; 1980, c. 757; 1982, c. 590; 1984, c. 437; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-409. Practice of landscape architecture; license required.

A. Beginning July 1, 2010, a person who engages in the practice of landscape architecture as defined in § 54.1-400 and who holds himself out as a landscape architect shall hold a valid license prior to engaging in such practice. Resulting site plans, plans of development, preliminary plats, drawings, technical reports, and specifications, submitted under the seal, stamp or certification of a licensed landscape architect, shall be accepted for review by local and state authorities, in connection with both public and private projects. However, no landscape architect, unless he is also licensed as a land surveyor, shall provide boundary surveys, plats or descriptions for any purpose, except in conjunction with or under the supervision of an appropriately licensed professional, who shall provide certification, as required. Landscape architects shall only engage in projects which they are qualified to undertake based on education, training, and examination and in accordance with the practice of landscape architecture as defined in § 54.1-400.

Any person who (i) holds a valid certification as a landscape architect issued by the Board on June 30, 2010, and (ii) is a Virginia-certified landscape architect in good standing with the Board, shall be licensed to practice landscape architecture as of July 1, 2010.

B. Nothing contained herein or in the definition of "practice of landscape architecture" or in the definition of "landscape architect" in § 54.1-400 shall be construed to restrict or otherwise affect the right of any architect, professional engineer, land surveyor, nurseryman, landscape designer, landscape contractor, land planner, community planner, landscape gardener, golf course designer, turf maintenance specialist, irrigation designer, horticulturist, arborist, or any other similar person from engaging in their occupation or the practice of their profession or from rendering any service in connection therewith that is not otherwise proscribed.

C. Any person, partnership, corporation, or other entity that is not licensed to practice landscape architecture in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and that advertises or promotes through the use of the words "landscape architecture" or any modification or derivation thereof in its name or description of its business activity in a manner that indicates or implies that it practices or offers to practice landscape architecture as defined in this chapter shall be subject to the provisions of § 54.1-111. Nothing contained herein or in the definitions of "landscape architect" or "practice of landscape architecture" in § 54.1-400 shall be construed to restrict or otherwise affect the right of any person undertaking the occupations or professions referred in subsection B of this section to engage in their occupation, or the practice of their profession, or from rendering any service in connection therewith that is not otherwise proscribed.

D. Any person, partnership, corporation, or other entity offering to practice landscape architecture without being registered or licensed to practice landscape architecture in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, shall be subject to the provisions of § 54.1-111. Nothing contained herein or in the definitions of "landscape architect" and "practice of landscape architecture" in § 54.1-400 shall be construed to restrict or otherwise affect the right of any person undertaking the occupations or professions referenced in subsection B of this section to engage in their occupation, or the practice of their profession, or from rendering any service in connection therewith that is not otherwise proscribed.

1970, c. 671, § 54-17.1; 1974, c. 534; 1980, c. 757; 1982, c. 590; 1984, c. 437; 1988, c. 765; 2000, c. 990; 2006, c. 643; 2009, c. 309.

§ 54.1-410. Other building laws not affected; duties of public officials.

A. Nothing contained in this chapter or in the regulations of the Board shall be construed to limit the authority of any public official authorized by law to approve plans, specifications or calculations in connection with improvements to real property. This shall include, but shall not be limited to, the authority of officials of local building departments as defined in § 36-97, to require pursuant to the Uniform Statewide Building Code, state statutes, local ordinances, or code requirements that such work be prepared by a person licensed or certified pursuant to this chapter.

B. Any public body authorized by law to require that plans, specifications or calculations be prepared in connection with improvements to real property shall establish a procedure to ensure that such plans, specifications or calculations be prepared by an architect, professional engineer, land surveyor or landscape architect licensed or authorized pursuant to this chapter in any case in which the exemptions contained in §§ 54.1-401, 54.1-402 or § 54.1-402.1 are not applicable.

Drafting of permits, reviewing of plans or inspection of facilities for compliance with an adopted code or standard by any public body or its designated agent shall not require the services of an architect, professional engineer, land surveyor or landscape architect licensed pursuant to this chapter.

1982, c. 590, § 54-37.2; 1988, c. 765; 1992, cc. 780, 783; 1993, c. 662; 2009, c. 309.

§ 54.1-410.1. Prerequisites for obtaining business license.

Any architect or professional engineer applying for or renewing a business license in any locality in accordance with Chapter 37 (§ 58.1-3700 et seq.) of Title 58.1 shall furnish prior to the issuance or renewal of such license either (i) satisfactory proof that he is duly licensed under the terms of this chapter or (ii) a written statement, supported by an affidavit, that he is not subject to licensure as an architect or professional engineer pursuant to this chapter.

No locality shall issue or renew or allow the issuance or renewal of such license unless the architect or professional engineer has furnished his license number issued pursuant to this chapter or evidence of being exempt from the provisions of this chapter.

2011, c. 79.

§ 54.1-411. Organization for practice; registration.

A. Nothing contained in this chapter or in the regulations of the Board shall prohibit the practice of architecture, engineering, land surveying, landscape architecture or the offering of the title of certified interior designer by any corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship, limited liability company, or other entity provided such practice or certification is rendered through its officers, principals or employees who are correspondingly licensed or certified. No individual practicing architecture, engineering, land surveying, landscape architecture, or offering the title of certified interior designer under the provisions of this section shall be relieved of responsibility that may exist for services performed by reason of his employment or other relationship with such entity. No such corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship, limited liability company, or other entity, or any affiliate thereof, shall, on its behalf or on behalf of any such licensee or certificate holder, nor any licensee or certificate holder, be prohibited from (i) purchasing or maintaining insurance against any such liability; (ii) entering into any indemnification agreement with respect to any such liability; (iii) receiving indemnification as a result of any such liability; or (iv) limiting liability through contract.

B. Except for professional corporations holding a certificate of authority issued in accordance with § 13.1-549, professional limited liability companies holding a certificate of authority issued in accordance with § 13.1-1111, and sole proprietorships that do not employ other individuals for which licensing is required, any person, corporation, partnership, limited liability company, or other entity offering or rendering the practice of architecture, engineering, land surveying, landscape architecture or offering the title of certified interior designer shall register with the Board. As a condition of registration, the entity shall name at least one licensed architect, professional engineer, land surveyor, landscape architect or certified interior designer for such profession offered or rendered. The person or persons named shall be responsible and have control of the regulated services rendered by the entity.

C. The Board shall adopt regulations governing the registration of persons, corporations, partnerships, limited liability companies, sole proprietors and other entities as required in subsections A and B which:

1. Provide for procedural requirements to obtain and renew registration on a periodic basis;

2. Establish fees for the application and renewal of registration sufficient to cover costs;

3. Assure that regulated services are rendered and controlled by persons authorized to do so; and

4. Ensure that conflicts of interests are disclosed.

1982, c. 590, § 54-37.3; 1983, c. 28; 1988, c. 765; 1992, c. 574; 2000, c. 763; 2009, c. 309; 2010, cc. 99, 206.

Article 2. Interior Designers.

§ 54.1-412. Applicability.

This chapter shall not be construed to restrict or otherwise affect the right of any uncertified interior designer, architect, engineer, or any other person from rendering any of the services which constitute the practice of interior design; however, no person may hold himself out as, or use the title of, "certified interior designer" unless he has been so certified pursuant to the provisions of this chapter.

1990, c. 512.

§ 54.1-413. Examination.

At least once each year the Board shall arrange for the National Council for Interior Design Qualification examination or an equivalent examination approved by the Board to be given to qualified applicants for certification as interior designers.

1990, c. 512; 1991, c. 291.

§ 54.1-414. Issuance of certification; waiver of examination.

The Board shall issue a certification to practice as a certified interior designer in the Commonwealth to every applicant who shall have complied with the requirements of this chapter and the regulations of the Board. The certificates shall be signed by at least three members of the Board.

The Board shall certify any person who is a graduate of a minimum four-year professional degree program accredited by the Foundation for Interior Design Education Research, an equivalent accrediting organization or a professional program approved by the Board and who has two years of monitored experience in the performance of interior design services and who has taken and passed the examination for certification as a certified interior designer.

The Board, in its discretion, shall determine whether an applicant's professional education and professional experience in the field of interior design are sufficient to establish eligibility for the examination.

The Board, in lieu of all examinations, may accept satisfactory evidence of licensing or certification in another state or country or the District of Columbia where (i) the qualifications for such licensure or certification are equal, in the opinion of the Board, to the qualifications required by the provisions of this chapter as of the date of application and (ii) the applicant is the holder of a license or certificate in good standing. Upon receipt of such satisfactory evidence and provided all other such requirements of this chapter are complied with, a certificate shall be issued to such applicant.

1990, c. 512; 1991, c. 291; 1994, c. 625; 2000, c. 42.

§ 54.1-415. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2000, c. 42, cl. 2.

Chapter 5. Asbestos, Lead, and Home Inspection Contractors and Workers.

Article 1. General Provisions.

§ 54.1-500. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Accredited asbestos training program" means a training program that has been approved by the Board to provide training for individuals to engage in asbestos abatement, conduct asbestos inspections, prepare management plans, prepare project designs or act as project monitors.

"Accredited lead training program" means a training program that has been approved by the Board to provide training for individuals to engage in lead-based paint activities.

"Accredited renovation training program" means a training program that has been approved by the Board to provide training for individuals to engage in renovation or dust clearance sampling.

"Asbestos" means the asbestiform varieties of actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysotile, crocidolite, and tremolite.

"Asbestos analytical laboratory license" means an authorization issued by the Board to perform phase contrast, polarized light, or transmission electron microscopy on material known or suspected to contain asbestos.

"Asbestos contractor's license" means an authorization issued by the Board permitting a person to enter into contracts to perform an asbestos abatement project.

"Asbestos-containing materials" or "ACM" means any material or product which contains more than 1.0 percent asbestos or such other percentage as established by EPA final rule.

"Asbestos inspector's license" means an authorization issued by the Board permitting a person to perform on-site investigations to identify, classify, record, sample, test and prioritize by exposure potential asbestos-containing materials.

"Asbestos management plan" means a program designed to control or abate any potential risk to human health from asbestos.

"Asbestos management planner's license" means an authorization issued by the Board permitting a person to develop or alter an asbestos management plan.

"Asbestos project" or "asbestos abatement project" means an activity involving job set-up for containment, removal, encapsulation, enclosure, encasement, renovation, repair, construction or alteration of an asbestos-containing material. An asbestos project or asbestos abatement project shall not include nonfriable asbestos-containing roofing, flooring and siding materials which when installed, encapsulated or removed do not become friable.

"Asbestos project designer's license" means an authorization issued by the Board permitting a person to design an asbestos abatement project.

"Asbestos project monitor's license" means an authorization issued by the Board permitting a person to monitor an asbestos project, subject to Department regulations.

"Asbestos supervisor" means any person so designated by an asbestos contractor who provides on-site supervision and direction to the workers engaged in asbestos projects.

"Asbestos worker's license" means an authorization issued by the Board permitting an individual to work on an asbestos project.

"Board" means the Virginia Board for Asbestos, Lead, and Home Inspectors.

"Dust clearance sampling" means an on-site collection of dust or other debris that is present after the completion of a renovation to determine the presence of lead-based paint hazards and the provisions of a report explaining the results.

"Dust sampling technician" means an individual licensed by the Board to perform dust clearance sampling.

"Friable" means that the material when dry may be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure and includes previously nonfriable material after such previously nonfriable material becomes damaged to the extent that when dry it may be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure.

"Home inspection" means any inspection of a residential building for compensation conducted by a licensed home inspector. A home inspection shall include a written evaluation of the readily accessible components of a residential building, including heating, cooling, plumbing, and electrical systems; structural components; foundation; roof; masonry structure; exterior and interior components; and other related residential housing components. A home inspection may be limited in scope as provided in a home inspection contract, provided that such contract is not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter or the regulations of the Board. For purposes of this chapter, residential building energy analysis alone, as defined in § 54.1-1144, shall not be considered a home inspection.

"Home inspector" means a person who meets the criteria of education, experience, and testing required by this chapter and regulations of the Board and who has been licensed by the Board to perform home inspections.

"Lead abatement" means any measure or set of measures designed to permanently eliminate lead-based paint hazards, including lead-contaminated dust or soil.

"Lead-based paint" means paint or other surface coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligrams per square centimeter or more than 0.5 percent by weight.

"Lead-based paint activity" means lead inspection, lead risk assessment, lead project design and abatement of lead-based paint and lead-based paint hazards, including lead-contaminated dust and lead-contaminated soil.

"Lead-contaminated dust" means surface dust that contains an area or mass concentration of lead at or in excess of levels identified by the Environmental Protection Agency pursuant to § 403 of TSCA (15 U.S.C. § 2683).

"Lead-contaminated soil" means bare soil that contains lead at or in excess of levels identified by the Environmental Protection Agency.

"Lead contractor" means a person who has met the Board's requirements and has been issued a license by the Board to enter into contracts to perform lead abatements.

"Lead inspection" means a surface-by-surface investigation to determine the presence of lead-based paint and the provisions of a report explaining the results of the investigation.

"Lead inspector" means an individual who has been licensed by the Board to conduct lead inspections and abatement clearance testing.

"Lead project design" means any descriptive form written as instructions or drafted as a plan describing the construction or setting up of a lead abatement project area and the work practices to be utilized during the lead abatement project.

"Lead project designer" means an individual who has been licensed by the Board to prepare lead project designs.

"Lead risk assessment" means (i) an on-site investigation to determine the existence, nature, severity and location of lead-based paint hazards and (ii) the provision of a report by the individual or the firm conducting the risk assessment, explaining the results of the investigation and options for reducing lead-based paint hazards.

"Lead risk assessor" means an individual who has been licensed by the Board to conduct lead inspections, lead risk assessments and abatement clearance testing.

"Lead supervisor" means an individual who has been licensed by the Board to supervise lead abatements.

"Lead worker" or "lead abatement worker" means an individual who has been licensed by the Board to perform lead abatement.

"Person" means a corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship, firm, enterprise, franchise, association or any other individual or entity.

"Principal instructor" means the individual who has the primary responsibility for organizing and teaching an accredited asbestos training program, an accredited lead training program, an accredited renovation training program, or any combination thereof.

"Renovation" means the modification of any existing structure or portion thereof, for compensation, that results in the disturbance of painted surfaces, unless that activity is (i) performed as a part of a lead abatement or (ii) limited in scope to the site work or remediation as referenced in the definition of contractor in § 54.1-1100. As used in this definition, "compensation" shall include the receipt of (a) pay for work performed, such as that paid to contractors and subcontractors; (b) wages, including but not limited to those paid to employees of contractors, building owners, property management companies, child-occupied facilities operators, state and local government agencies, and nonprofit organizations; and (c) rent for housing constructed before January 1, 1978, or child-occupied facilities in public or commercial building space.

"Renovation contractor" means a person who has met the Board's requirements and has been issued a license by the Board to conduct renovations.

"Renovator" means an individual who has been issued a license by the Board to perform renovations or to direct others who perform renovations.

"Residential building" means, for the purposes of home inspection, a structure consisting of one to four dwelling units used or occupied, or intended to be used or occupied, for residential purposes.

"Training manager" means the individual responsible for administering a training program and monitoring the performance of instructors for an accredited asbestos training, accredited lead training program or accredited renovation training program.

1987, c. 579, § 54-145.4; 1988, cc. 765, 802; 1989, c. 397; 1990, cc. 49, 73, 823; 1992, c. 152; 1993, cc. 499, 660; 1994, cc. 185, 911; 1996, cc. 76, 176, 180, 846; 1997, c. 885; 1998, c. 739; 2001, c. 723; 2009, cc. 358, 819; 2012, cc. 803, 835; 2016, cc. 161, 436, 527.

§ 54.1-500.1. Virginia Board for Asbestos, Lead, and Home Inspectors; membership; meetings; offices; quorum.

The Virginia Board for Asbestos, Lead, and Home Inspectors shall be appointed by the Governor and composed of 14 members as follows: one shall be a representative of a Virginia-licensed asbestos contractor, one shall be a representative of a Virginia-licensed lead contractor, one shall be a representative of a Virginia-licensed renovation contractor, one shall be either a Virginia-licensed asbestos inspector or project monitor, one shall be a Virginia-licensed lead risk assessor, one shall be a Virginia-licensed renovator, one shall be a Virginia-licensed dust sampling technician, one shall be a representative of a Virginia-licensed asbestos analytical laboratory, one shall be a representative of an asbestos, lead, or renovation training program, one shall be a member of the Board for Contractors, two shall be Virginia-licensed home inspectors, and two shall be citizen members. After initial staggered terms, the terms of members of the Board shall be four years, except that vacancies may be filled for the remainder of the unexpired term. The two home inspector members appointed to the Board shall have practiced as home inspectors for at least five consecutive years immediately prior to appointment. The renovation contractor, renovator, and dust sampling technician members appointed to the board shall have practiced respectively as a renovation contractor, renovator, or dust sampling technician for at least five consecutive years prior to appointment.

The Board shall meet at least once each year and other such times as it deems necessary. The Board shall elect from its membership a chairman and a vice-chairman to serve for a period of one year. Eight members of the Board shall constitute a quorum. The Board is vested with the powers and duties necessary to execute the purposes of this chapter.

1993, c. 660; 1994, cc. 185, 911; 1996, cc. 180, 846; 1997, c. 885; 2001, c. 723; 2009, cc. 358, 819; 2012, cc. 522, 803, 835; 2016, cc. 161, 436.

§ 54.1-501. Powers and duties of the Board.

The Board shall administer and enforce this chapter. The Board shall:

1. Promulgate regulations necessary to carry out the requirements of this chapter in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) to include but not be limited to the prescription of fees, procedures, and qualifications for the issuance and renewal of asbestos, lead, and renovation licenses, and governing conflicts of interest among various categories of asbestos, lead, and renovation licenses;

2. Approve the criteria for accredited asbestos training programs, accredited lead training programs, accredited renovation training programs, training managers, and principal instructors;

3. Approve accredited asbestos training programs, accredited lead training programs, accredited renovation training programs, examinations and the grading system for testing applicants for asbestos, lead, and renovation licensure;

4. Promulgate regulations governing the licensing of and establishing performance criteria applicable to asbestos analytical laboratories;

5. Promulgate regulations governing the functions and duties of project monitors on asbestos projects, circumstances in which project monitors shall be required for asbestos projects, and training requirements for project monitors;

6. Promulgate, in accordance with the Administrative Process Act, regulations necessary to establish procedures and requirements for the: (i) approval of accredited lead training programs, (ii) licensure of individuals and firms to engage in lead-based paint activities, and (iii) establishment of standards for performing lead-based paint activities consistent with the Residential Lead-based Paint Hazard Reduction Act and United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations. If the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has adopted, prior to the promulgation of any related regulations by the Board, any final regulations relating to lead-based paint activities, then the related regulations of the Board shall not be more stringent than the EPA regulations in effect as of the date of such promulgation. In addition, if the EPA shall have outstanding any proposed regulations relating to lead-based paint activities (other than as amendments to existing EPA regulations), as of the date of promulgation of any related regulations by the Board, then the related regulations of the Board shall not be more stringent than the proposed EPA regulations. In the event that the EPA shall adopt any final regulations subsequent to the promulgation by the Board of related regulations, then the Board shall, as soon as practicable, amend its existing regulations so as to be not more stringent than such EPA regulations;

7. Promulgate regulations for the licensing of home inspectors not inconsistent with this chapter regarding the professional qualifications of home inspectors applicants, the requirements necessary for passing home inspectors examinations, the proper conduct of its examinations, the proper conduct of the home inspectors licensed by the Board, and the proper discharge of its duties; and

8. Promulgate, in accordance with the Administrative Process Act, regulations necessary to establish procedures and requirements for the (i) approval of accredited renovation training programs, (ii) licensure of individuals and firms to engage in renovation, and (iii) establishment of standards for performing renovation consistent with the Residential Lead-based Paint Hazard Reduction Act and United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. Such regulations of the Board shall be consistent with the EPA Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program final rule.

1987, c. 579, § 54-145.5; 1988, c. 765; 1989, c. 397; 1990, cc. 49, 73, 823; 1991, c. 45; 1992, c. 477; 1993, cc. 499, 660; 1994, cc. 185, 911; 1995, cc. 543, 585; 1996, cc. 180, 846; 1997, cc. 649, 885; 1998, c. 739; 2001, c. 723; 2009, cc. 358, 819; 2012, cc. 803, 835; 2016, cc. 161, 436.

§ 54.1-501.1. Applicability.

The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to any employer, or any employees of such employer, regulated by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act, and under the enforcement authority of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

1992, c. 52.

§ 54.1-502. Interdepartmental implementation plan.

The Board, in conjunction with the Departments of General Services, Health, Labor and Industry, Education, and Environmental Quality, shall develop a plan for the implementation of this chapter which specifies the duties of each agency.

1987, c. 579, § 54-145.6; 1988, cc. 765, 802; 1989, c. 397; 1990, cc. 73, 823; 1993, c. 660.

§ 54.1-503. Licenses required.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not have an asbestos contractor's license to contract with another person, for compensation, to carry out an asbestos project or to perform any work on an asbestos project. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not have an asbestos project designer's license to develop an asbestos project design. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not have an asbestos inspector's license to conduct an asbestos inspection. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not have an asbestos management planner's license to develop an asbestos management plan. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not have a license as an asbestos project monitor to act as project monitor on an asbestos project.

B. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not possess a valid asbestos analytical laboratory license issued by the Board to communicate the findings of an analysis, verbally or in writing, for a fee, performed on material known or suspected to contain asbestos for the purpose of determining the presence or absence of asbestos.

C. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not possess a license as a lead contractor to contract with another person to perform lead abatement activities or to perform any lead abatement activity or work on a lead abatement project. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not possess a lead supervisor's license to act as a lead supervisor on a lead abatement project. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not possess a lead worker's license to act as a lead worker on a lead abatement project. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not possess a lead project designer's license to develop a lead project design. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not possess a lead inspector's license to conduct a lead inspection. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not possess a lead risk assessor's license to conduct a lead risk assessment. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not possess a lead inspector's or lead risk assessor's license to conduct lead abatement clearance testing.

D. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not possess a license as a renovation contractor to perform renovation. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not possess a renovator's license to perform or direct others to perform renovation. It shall be unlawful for any person who does not possess a dust sampling technician's license to perform dust clearance sampling.

E. It shall be unlawful for any individual who does not possess a license as a home inspector issued by the Board to perform a home inspection for compensation on a residential building. It shall be unlawful for any individual who does not possess a home inspector license with the new residential structure endorsement to conduct a home inspection for compensation on any new residential structure. For purposes of this chapter, "new residential structure" means a residential structure for which the first conveyance of record title to a purchaser has not occurred, or of which a purchaser has not taken possession, whichever occurs later.

1987, c. 579, § 54-145.7; 1988, cc. 765, 802; 1989, c. 397; 1990, c. 73; 1993, c. 660; 1994, cc. 185, 911; 1995, cc. 543, 585; 1996, cc. 180, 846; 1997, cc. 560, 885; 1998, c. 739; 2004, c. 133; 2009, c. 819; 2015, c. 411; 2016, cc. 161, 436.

§ 54.1-504. Asbestos supervisor's or worker's license required; exception.

After July 1, 1988, it shall be unlawful for an individual who does not have an asbestos supervisor's license or worker's license to work on an asbestos project. No asbestos supervisor's license or worker's license shall be required for a supervisor or worker in the installation, maintenance, repair or removal of asbestos-containing roofing, flooring or siding material, provided that such supervisor or worker shall satisfy any training requirements promulgated by the Board pursuant to § 54.1-501.

1987, c. 579, § 54-145.8; 1988, c. 765; 1989, c. 397; 1993, c. 660.

§ 54.1-504.1. Notices for handling asbestos.

The Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation shall include with every asbestos worker's license a notice, in English and Spanish, containing a summary of the basic worker safety procedures regarding the handling of asbestos and information on how to file a complaint with the Virginia Board for Asbestos, Lead, and Home Inspectors.

2016, c. 252.

§ 54.1-505. Qualification for an asbestos contractor's license.

To qualify for an asbestos contractor's license, an applicant shall:

1. Except as provided in § 54.1-504, ensure that each of his employees or agents who will come into contact with asbestos or who will be responsible for an asbestos project is licensed as an asbestos supervisor or worker; and

2. Demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Board that the applicant and his employees or agents are familiar with and are capable of complying fully with all applicable requirements, procedures and standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Department of Labor and Industry, and the State Air Pollution Control Board covering any part of an asbestos project.

1987, c. 579, § 54-145.9; 1988, cc. 765, 802; 1989, c. 397; 1993, c. 660; 1996, cc. 180, 846.

§ 54.1-506. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1993, c. 660.

§ 54.1-507. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1992, c. 477.

§ 54.1-508. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1993, c. 660.

§ 54.1-510. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, c. 802.

§ 54.1-511. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1993, c. 660.

§ 54.1-512. Exemptions from licensure.

A. In an emergency, the Board may, at its discretion, waive the requirement for asbestos contractor's, supervisor's and worker's licenses.

B. Any employer, and any employee of such employer, who conducts an asbestos project on premises owned or leased by such employer shall be exempt from licensure.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of the Virginia Tort Claims Act (§ 8.01-195.1 et seq.), neither the Commonwealth nor any agency or employee of the Commonwealth shall be subject to any liability as the result of a determination made by the Board hereunder.

D. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as requiring the licensure of a contractor who contracts to undertake a project, a portion of which constitutes an asbestos or lead abatement project or renovation, if all of the asbestos or lead abatement work or renovation is subcontracted to a person licensed to perform such work in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

E. This chapter shall not apply to any person who performs lead-based paint activities within residences which they own, unless the residence is occupied by a person or persons other than the owner or the owner's immediate family while these activities are being conducted or a child is residing in the property and has been identified as having an elevated blood-lead level.

F. This chapter shall not apply to renovations of owner-occupied housing constructed before 1978, provided the person performing renovations obtains a statement signed by the owner providing that (i) no child under the age of six or pregnant woman resides in the structure, (ii) the residence is not a child-occupied facility, and (iii) the owner acknowledges that renovations may not include all of the lead-safe work practices contained in the EPA Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program final rule.

G. This chapter shall not apply to any person who performs renovations on (i) housing constructed after January 1, 1978, (ii) housing for the elderly or persons with disabilities, unless a child under the age of six resides or is expected to reside in the structure, or (iii) a structure that does not have bedrooms.

1987, c. 579, § 54-145.10:6; 1988, cc. 765, 807; 1989, c. 397; 1993, c. 660; 1996, cc. 180, 846; 1998, c. 739; 2009, c. 819.

§ 54.1-513. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1998, c. 739.

§ 54.1-514. Award of contracts by state agencies and political subdivisions.

A state agency or a political subdivision shall not award a contract in connection with an asbestos project to a person who does not hold an asbestos contractor's, inspector's, management planner's or project designer's license at the time the bid is submitted unless the general contractor to whom the contract is awarded will be contractually committed to have all asbestos related work performed by its own subcontractors who are appropriately licensed as asbestos contractors, inspectors, management planners or project designers pursuant to this chapter.

1987, c. 579, § 54-145.10:8; 1988, cc. 765, 802; 1989, c. 397; 1990, c. 105; 1996, cc. 180, 846.

§ 54.1-515. Employer discrimination; penalty.

Any employer who discriminates against or otherwise penalizes an employee who complains to or cooperates with the Board or any other governmental agency in administering this chapter is subject to the penalties in § 54.1-517.

1987, c. 579, § 54-145.10:9; 1988, c. 765; 1993, cc. 499, 660.

§ 54.1-516. Disciplinary actions.

A. The Board may reprimand, fine, suspend or revoke (i) the license of a lead contractor, lead inspector, lead risk assessor, lead project designer, lead supervisor, lead worker, asbestos contractor, asbestos supervisor, asbestos inspector, asbestos analytical laboratory, asbestos management planner, asbestos project designer, asbestos project monitor, asbestos worker, renovator, dust sampling technician, renovation contractor, or home inspector or (ii) the approval of an accredited asbestos training program, accredited lead training program, accredited renovation training program, training manager or principal instructor, if the licensee or approved person or program:

1. Fraudulently or deceptively obtains or attempts to obtain a license or approval;

2. Fails at any time to meet the qualifications for a license or approval or to comply with the requirements of this chapter or any regulation adopted by the Board; or

3. Fails to meet any applicable federal or state standard when performing an asbestos project or service, performing lead-based paint activities, or performing renovations.

B. The Board may reprimand, fine, suspend or revoke the license of (i) any asbestos contractor who employs or permits an individual without an asbestos supervisor's or worker's license to work on an asbestos project, (ii) any lead contractor who employs or permits an individual without a lead supervisor's or lead worker's license to work on a lead abatement project, or (iii) any renovation contractor who employs or permits an individual without a renovator's license to perform or to direct others who perform renovations.

C. The Board may reprimand, fine, suspend or revoke the license of a home inspector.

1987, c. 579, § 54-145.10:10; 1988, cc. 765, 802; 1989, c. 397; 1990, c. 823; 1993, c. 660; 1994, cc. 185, 911; 1996, cc. 180, 846; 1997, c. 885; 1998, c. 739; 2001, c. 723; 2009, cc. 358, 819; 2012, cc. 803, 835; 2016, cc. 161, 436.

§ 54.1-516.1. Summary suspension of licenses or approvals; allegations to be in writing.

The Board may suspend the license or the approval of any (i) accredited training program, (ii) training manager or (iii) principal instructor of any person holding a license issued by it without a hearing simultaneously with the institution of proceedings for a hearing or an informal fact finding conference, if the relevant board finds that there is a substantial danger to the public health or safety that warrants this action. The Board may meet by telephone conference call when summarily suspending a license or the approval of an accredited training program, training manager or principal instructor if a good faith effort to assemble a quorum of the Board has failed and, in the judgment of a majority of the members of the Board, the continued practice by the licensee or approved individual or training program constitutes a substantial danger to the public health or safety. Institution of proceedings for a hearing or an informal fact finding conference shall be provided simultaneously with the summary suspension. Such hearing or conference shall be scheduled within a reasonable time of the date of the summary suspension. Allegations of violations of this section shall be made in accordance with § 54.1-307.1.

2004, c. 222.

§ 54.1-517. Penalties for willful violations.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any person who willfully violates any provision of this chapter or any regulation related to licensure or training adopted pursuant to this chapter shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor for the first two violations and a Class 6 felony for a third and each subsequent violation within a three-year period.

In addition, licensed asbestos contractors, asbestos supervisors, asbestos inspectors, asbestos management planners, asbestos project designers, asbestos project monitors, asbestos analytical laboratories and asbestos workers, lead contractors, lead inspectors, lead risk assessors, lead project designers, lead supervisors, lead workers, renovators, dust sampling technicians, renovation contractors, and accredited asbestos training programs, accredited lead training programs, accredited renovator training programs, training managers or principal instructors may be assessed a civil penalty by the Board of not more than $1,000 for an initial violation and $5,000 for each subsequent violation within a three-year period arising from a willful violation of standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of Labor and Industry, or the Divisions of Air Pollution Control and Waste Management of the Department of Environmental Quality in a three-year period.

1987, c. 579, § 54-145.10:11; 1988, cc. 765, 802; 1989, c. 397; 1990, c. 823; 1993, c. 660; 1994, cc. 185, 911; 1996, cc. 180, 846; 1997, c. 885; 1998, c. 739; 2009, c. 819.

Article 2. Home Inspectors.

§ 54.1-517.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts cc. 161 and 436, cl. 2, effective July 1, 2017.

§ 54.1-517.2. Requirements for licensure.

A. The Board shall issue a license to practice as a home inspector in the Commonwealth to:

1. An individual who holds an unexpired certificate as a home inspector issued prior to June 30, 2017; or

2. An applicant who has successfully:

a. Completed the educational requirements as required by the Board;

b. Completed the experience requirements as required by the Board; and

c. Passed the examination approved by the Board.

B. The Board shall issue a license with the new residential structure endorsement to any applicant who completes a training module developed by the Board in conjunction with the Department of Housing and Community Development based on the International Residential Code component of the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code.

2001, c. 723; 2015, c. 411; 2016, cc. 161, 436.

§ 54.1-517.2:1. Home inspection; required statement related to the presence of yellow shaded corrugated stainless steel tubing.

A. As used in this section:

"Bonding" means connecting metallic systems to establish electrical continuity and conductivity.

"Corrugated stainless steel tubing" or "CSST" means a flexible stainless steel pipe used to supply natural gas or propane in residential, commercial, and industrial structures.

"Grounding" means connecting to the ground or to a conductive body that extends to ground connection.

B. If a home inspector observes the presence of any shade of yellow corrugated stainless steel tubing during a home inspection in a home that was built prior to the adoption of the 2006 Virginia Construction Code, effective May 1, 2008, he shall include that observation in the report along with the following statement: "Manufacturers believe that this product is safer if properly bonded and grounded as required by the manufacturer's installation instructions. Proper bonding and grounding of the product should be determined by a contractor licensed to perform the work in the Commonwealth of Virginia."

2017, c. 805.

Article 3. Mold Inspectors and Remediators.

§ 54.1-517.3. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2012, cc. 803 and 835, cl. 56.

Chapter 5.1. Athlete Agents [Repealed].

§ 54.1-518. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1992, c. 282.

Chapter 6. Auctioneers.

§ 54.1-600. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Absolute auction" means an auction where at the time of the auction sale the real or personal property to be sold will pass to the highest bidder regardless of the amount of the highest and last bid.

"Auction" means the sale of goods or real estate by means of exchanges between an auctioneer and members of his audience, the exchanges consisting of a series of invitations for offers made by the auctioneer, offers made by members of the audience, and acceptance by the auctioneer of the highest or most favorable offer.

"Auction firm" means any corporation, partnership or entity, except a sole proprietorship, performing any of the acts of an auctioneer as defined in this section.

"Auctioneer" means any person who conducts or offers to conduct an auction.

"Board" means the Auctioneers Board.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Goods" means any chattels, merchandise, real or personal property, or commodities of any form or type which may be lawfully kept or offered for sale.

"Person" means any natural person, association, partnership, or corporation, and the officers, directors, and employees of a corporation.

"Virginia licensed auctioneer" means any auctioneer who meets the requirements for licensure as prescribed by the Board.

1982, c. 538, § 54-824.2; 1983, c. 522; 1986, c. 61; 1988, c. 765; 1991, c. 299; 2003, c. 367.

§ 54.1-601. Exemptions.

The provisions of this chapter and the terms "Virginia licensed auctioneer," "auctioneer" or "auction firm," as defined in § 54.1-600, shall not apply to:

1. Any person who auctions his own property, whether owned or leased, provided his regular business is not as an auctioneer;

2. Any person who is acting as a receiver, trustee in bankruptcy, guardian, conservator, administrator, or executor, or any person acting under order of a court;

3. A trustee acting under a trust agreement, deed of trust, or will;

4. An attorney-at-law licensed to practice in the Commonwealth of Virginia acting pursuant to a power of attorney;

5. Sales at auction conducted by or under the direction of any public authority, or pursuant to any judicial order or decree;

6. Sale of livestock at a public livestock market authorized by the Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Services;

7. Leaf tobacco sales conducted in accordance with the provisions of § 3.1-336;

8. Sale at auction of automobiles conducted under the provisions of § 46.2-644.03 or by a motor vehicle dealer licensed under the provisions of Chapter 15 (§ 46.2-1500 et seq.) of Title 46.2;

9. Sale at auction of a particular brand of livestock conducted by an auctioneer of a livestock trade association;

10. Sales conducted by and on behalf of any charitable, religious, civic club, fraternal, or political organization if the person conducting the sale receives no compensation, either directly or indirectly, therefor and has no ownership interest in the merchandise being sold or financial interest in the entity providing such merchandise;

11. Sales, not exceeding one sale per year, conducted by or on behalf of (i) a civic club or (ii) a charitable organization granted tax-exempt status under § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code; or

12. Sales of collateral, sales conducted to enforce carriers' or warehousemen's liens, bulk sales, sales of goods by a presenting bank following dishonor of a documentary draft, resales of rightfully rejected goods, resales of goods by an aggrieved seller, or other resales conducted pursuant to Titles 8.1A through 8.10 and Chapter 23 (§ 55-416 et seq.) of Title 55.

1982, c. 538, § 54-824.3; 1983, cc. 261, 522; 1986, c. 61; 1988, c. 765; 1991, c. 299; 1995, c. 227; 1997, c. 801; 2009, c. 664; 2014, cc. 21, 684.

§ 54.1-602. Auctioneers Board; membership, meetings and powers.

A. The Auctioneers Board shall be composed of five members as follows: three shall be Virginia licensed auctioneers and two shall be citizen members. Board members shall serve four-year terms.

The Board shall meet at least once each year for the purpose of transacting business. Special meetings of the Board may be held at the discretion of the Director.

B. The Board shall have the following authority and responsibilities:

1. Establish regulations to obtain and retain licensure of auctioneers.

2. Make all case decisions regarding eligibility for initial licensure and renewal thereof.

3. To fine, suspend, deny renewal or revoke for cause, as defined in regulation, any license.

4. To examine auctioneers for licensure.

1982, c. 538, §§ 54-824.4, 54-824.7; 1983, c. 522, § 54-824.9:3; 1988, cc. 42, 765; 1991, c. 299; 2012, c. 522.

§ 54.1-603. License required; requirements for licensure; nonresident applicants.

A. Unless exempted by § 54.1-601, no person or firm shall sell at auction without being licensed by the Board.

B. Any auctioneer desiring to obtain a license may apply to the Board and shall establish to the satisfaction of the Board that he:

1. Is a resident of Virginia and meets the application fee requirements set by the Board;

2. Is covered by a surety bond, executed by a surety company authorized to do business in this Commonwealth, in a reasonable amount to be fixed by the Board, conditioned upon the faithful and honest conduct of his business or employment;

3. Has successfully completed a course of study at a school of auctioneering which has obtained course approval from the Board or an equivalent course; and

4. Has passed the Virginia Licensed Auctioneer's Examination, administered by the Auctioneers Board.

C. A nonresident of the Commonwealth may be licensed as an auctioneer by meeting one of the following requirements: (i) conform to the provisions of this chapter and regulations of the Board with reference to resident auctioneers or (ii) hold a valid auctioneer's license or certificate in another state with which reciprocity has been established by the Board. Nonresident applicants shall also file with the Board an irrevocable consent that service of process upon the Director is as valid and binding as service of process upon the applicant.

Any process or pleading served upon the Director shall be filed by the Director in his office and a copy thereof immediately forwarded by registered mail to the main office of the auctioneer at the last known address.

1983, c. 522, § 54-824.9:1; 1986, c. 61; 1988, c. 765; 1991, c. 299; 1996, cc. 438, 822; 1997, c. 281; 2010, c. 91.

§ 54.1-603.1. Continuing education.

A. The Board shall promulgate regulations governing continuing education requirements for auctioneers licensed by the Board. Such regulations shall require the completion of the equivalent of at least six hours of Board-approved continuing education courses for any license renewal or reinstatement, except that no continuing education shall be required for any auctioneer licensed by the Board for 25 years or more and who is 70 years of age or older. The Board shall establish criteria for continuing education courses, including but not limited to (i) content and subject matter of continuing education courses; (ii) curriculum of required continuing education courses; (iii) standards and procedures for the approval of courses, course sponsors, and course instructors; (iv) methods of instruction for continuing education courses; and (v) the computation of course credit. Any continuing education courses completed by an auctioneer pursuant to a requirement of the Certified Auctioneers Institute or participation in the educational programs sponsored by the National Auctioneers Association or Virginia Auctioneers Association shall satisfy the continuing education requirement of this section.

B. The Board may grant exemptions or waive or reduce the number of continuing education hours required in cases of certified illness or undue hardship.

2004, c. 956; 2016, c. 504.

§ 54.1-604. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1991, c. 299.

§ 54.1-605. Taxation of auctioneer.

An auctioneer may not have a local license tax imposed by any county, city, or town except that in which his office is maintained. If a branch office is maintained elsewhere in Virginia, a local license tax may be imposed by the county, city or town in which the branch office is located, pursuant to §§ 58.1-3707 and 58.1-3709.

1982, c. 538, § 54-824.15; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-606. Unlawful to advertise as an auctioneer.

It shall be unlawful for any person not licensed under the provisions of this chapter to advertise that he is in the auction business or to hold himself out to the public as an auctioneer.

1982, c. 538, § 54-824.19; 1983, c. 522; 1988, c. 765; 1991, c. 299.

§ 54.1-607. Advertising; absolute auctions involving real property.

A. No advertisements for any auction sale of personal or real property shall contain false, misleading, or deceptive statements, with respect to types or conditions of merchandise offered at auction, why merchandise is being sold, who has ownership, where the merchandise was obtained, or the terms and conditions of the auction and sale.

B. No auctioneer shall advertise an auction sale of real property as "absolute" unless all lots included in the sale meet that criteria.

2003, c. 367.

Chapter 7. Barbers and Cosmetologists.

§ 54.1-700. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Barber" means any person who shaves, shapes or trims the beard; cuts, singes, or dyes the hair or applies lotions thereto; applies, treats or massages the face, neck or scalp with oils, creams, lotions, cosmetics, antiseptics, powders, clays or other preparations in connection with shaving, cutting or trimming the hair or beard, and practices barbering for compensation and when such services are not performed for the treatment of disease.

"Barbering" means any one or any combination of the following acts, when done on the human body for compensation and not for the treatment of disease, shaving, shaping and trimming the beard; cutting, singeing, or dyeing the hair or applying lotions thereto; applications, treatment or massages of the face, neck or scalp with oils, creams, lotions, cosmetics, antiseptics, powders, clays, or other preparations in connection with shaving, cutting or trimming the hair or a beard. The term "barbering" shall not apply to the acts described hereinabove when performed by any person in his home if such service is not offered to the public.

"Barber instructor" means any person who has been certified by the Board as having completed an approved curriculum and who meets the competency standards of the Board as an instructor of barbering.

"Barbershop" means any establishment or place of business within which the practice of barbering is engaged in or carried on by one or more barbers.

"Board" means the Board for Barbers and Cosmetology.

"Body-piercer" means any person who for remuneration penetrates the skin of a person to make a hole, mark, or scar, generally permanent in nature.

"Body-piercing" means the act of penetrating the skin of a person to make a hole, mark, or scar, generally permanent in nature.

"Body-piercing salon" means any place in which a fee is charged for the act of penetrating the skin of a person to make a hole, mark, or scar, generally permanent in nature.

"Body-piercing school" means a place or establishment licensed by the Board to accept and train students in body-piercing.

"Cosmetologist" means any person who administers cosmetic treatments; manicures or pedicures the nails of any person; arranges, dresses, curls, waves, cuts, shapes, singes, waxes, tweezes, shaves, bleaches, colors, relaxes, straightens, or performs similar work, upon human hair, or a wig or hairpiece, by any means, including hands or mechanical or electrical apparatus or appliances unless such acts as adjusting, combing, or brushing prestyled wigs or hairpieces do not alter the prestyled nature of the wig or hairpiece, and practices cosmetology for compensation. The term "cosmetologist" shall not include hair braiding upon human hair, or a wig or hairpiece.

"Cosmetology" includes, but is not limited to, the following practices: administering cosmetic treatments; manicuring or pedicuring the nails of any person; arranging, dressing, curling, waving, cutting, shaping, singeing, waxing, tweezing, shaving, bleaching, coloring, relaxing, straightening, or similar work, upon human hair, or a wig or hairpiece, by any means, including hands or mechanical or electrical apparatus or appliances, but shall not include hair braiding upon human hair, or a wig or hairpiece, or such acts as adjusting, combing, or brushing prestyled wigs or hairpieces when such acts do not alter the prestyled nature of the wig or hairpiece.

"Cosmetology instructor" means a person who has been certified by the Board as having completed an approved curriculum and who meets the competency standards of the Board as an instructor of cosmetology.

"Cosmetology salon" means any commercial establishment, residence, vehicle or other establishment, place or event wherein cosmetology is offered or practiced on a regular basis for compensation and may include the training of apprentices under regulations of the Board.

"Esthetician" means a person who engages in the practice of esthetics for compensation.

"Esthetics" includes, but is not limited to, the following practices of administering cosmetic treatments to enhance or improve the appearance of the skin: cleansing, toning, performing effleurage or other related movements, stimulating, exfoliating, or performing any other similar procedure on the skin of the human body or scalp by means of cosmetic preparations, treatments, or any nonlaser device, whether by electrical, mechanical, or manual means, for care of the skin; applying make-up or eyelashes to any person, tinting or perming eyelashes and eyebrows, and lightening hair on the body except the scalp; and removing unwanted hair from the body of any person by the use of any nonlaser device, by tweezing, or by use of chemical or mechanical means. However, "esthetics" is not a healing art and shall not include any practice, activity, or treatment that constitutes the practice of medicine, osteopathic medicine, or chiropractic. The terms "healing arts," "practice of medicine," "practice of osteopathic medicine," and "practice of chiropractic" shall mean the same as those terms are defined in § 54.1-2900.

"Esthetics instructor" means a licensed esthetician who has been certified by the Board as having completed an approved curriculum and who meets the competency standards of the Board as an instructor of esthetics.

"Esthetics spa" means any commercial establishment, residence, vehicle, or other establishment, place, or event wherein esthetics is offered or practiced on a regular basis for compensation under regulations of the Board.

"Master barber" means a licensed barber who, in addition to the practice of barbering, performs waving, shaping, bleaching, relaxing, or straightening upon human hair; performs similar work on a wig or hairpiece; or performs waxing limited to the scalp.

"Master esthetician" means a licensed esthetician who, in addition to the practice of esthetics, offers to the public for compensation, without the use of laser technology, lymphatic drainage, chemical exfoliation, or microdermabrasion, and who has met such additional requirements as determined by the Board to practice lymphatic drainage, chemical exfoliation with products other than Schedules II through VI controlled substances as defined in the Drug Control Act (§ 54.1-3400 et seq.), and microdermabrasion of the epidermis.

"Nail care" means manicuring or pedicuring natural nails or performing artificial nail services.

"Nail salon" means any commercial establishment, residence, vehicle or other establishment, place or event wherein nail care is offered or practiced on a regular basis for compensation and may include the training of apprentices under regulations of the Board.

"Nail school" means a place or establishment licensed by the board to accept and train students in nail care.

"Nail technician" means any person who for compensation manicures or pedicures natural nails, or who performs artificial nail services for compensation, or any combination thereof.

"Nail technician instructor" means a licensed nail technician who has been certified by the Board as having completed an approved curriculum and who meets the competency standards of the Board as an instructor of nail care.

"Physical (wax) depilatory" means the wax depilatory product or substance used to remove superfluous hair.

"School of cosmetology" means a place or establishment licensed by the Board to accept and train students and which offers a cosmetology curriculum approved by the Board.

"School of esthetics" means a place or establishment licensed by the Board to accept and train students and which offers an esthetics curriculum approved by the Board.

"Tattoo parlor" means any place in which tattooing is offered or practiced.

"Tattoo school" means a place or establishment licensed by the Board to accept and train students in tattooing.

"Tattooer" means any person who for remuneration practices tattooing.

"Tattooing" means the placing of designs, letters, scrolls, figures, symbols or any other marks upon or under the skin of any person with ink or any other substance, resulting in the permanent coloration of the skin, including permanent make-up or permanent jewelry, by the aid of needles or any other instrument designed to touch or puncture the skin.

"Wax technician" means any person licensed by the Board who removes hair from the hair follicle using a physical (wax) depilatory or by tweezing.

"Wax technician instructor" means a licensed wax technician who has been certified by the Board as having completed an approved curriculum and who meets the competency standards of the Board as an instructor of waxing.

"Waxing" means the temporary removal of superfluous hair from the hair follicle on any area of the human body through the use of a physical (wax) depilatory or by tweezing.

"Waxing salon" means any commercial establishment, residence, vehicle or other establishment, place or event wherein waxing is offered or practiced on a regular basis for compensation and may include the training of apprentices under regulations of the Board.

"Waxing school" means a place or establishment licensed by the Board to accept and train students in waxing.

1962, c. 639, § 1, § 54-83.2; 1966, c. 610; 1973, c. 86; 1974, c. 534; 1988, c. 765; 2000, c. 726; 2002, cc. 797, 869; 2003, c. 600; 2005, c. 829; 2012, cc. 803, 835; 2017, c. 390; 2018, cc. 219, 231, 237, 404.

§ 54.1-701. Exemptions.

The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to:

1. Persons authorized by the laws of the Commonwealth to practice medicine and surgery or osteopathy or chiropractic;

2. Registered nurses licensed to practice in the Commonwealth;

3. Persons employed in state or local penal or correctional institutions, rehabilitation centers, sanatoria, or institutions for care and treatment of individuals with mental illness or intellectual disability, or for care and treatment of geriatric patients, as barbers, cosmetologists, wax technicians, nail technicians, estheticians, barber instructors, cosmetology instructors, wax technician instructors, nail technician instructors, or esthetics instructors who practice only on inmates of or patients in such sanatoria or institutions;

4. Persons licensed as funeral directors or embalmers in the Commonwealth;

5. Gratuitous services as a barber, nail technician, cosmetologist, wax technician, tattooer, body-piercer, or esthetician;

6. Students enrolled in an approved school taking a course in barbering, nail care, cosmetology, waxing, tattooing, body-piercing, or esthetics;

7. Persons working in a cosmetology salon whose duties are expressly confined to the blow drying, arranging, dressing, curling, or cleansing of human hair;

8. Apprentices serving in a barbershop, nail salon, waxing salon, cosmetology salon, or esthetics spa licensed by the Board in accordance with the Board's regulations;

9. Schools of barbering, nail care, waxing, or cosmetology in public schools; and

10. Persons whose activities are confined solely to applying make-up, including such activities that are ancillary to applying make-up.

1962, c. 639, § 4, § 54-83.5; 1968, c. 622; 1988, c. 765; 2000, c. 726; 2002, cc. 797, 869; 2003, c. 600; 2005, c. 829; 2012, cc. 476, 507, 803, 835; 2018, c. 404.

§ 54.1-702. Board for Barbers and Cosmetology; membership; officers; quorum.

The Board for Barbers and Cosmetology shall be composed of 10 members as follows: two members shall be licensed barbers, one of whom may be an owner or operator of a barber school; two members shall be licensed cosmetologists, at least one of whom shall be a salon owner and one of whom may be an owner or operator of a cosmetology school; one member shall be a licensed nail technician or a licensed cosmetologist engaged primarily in the practice of nail care, each of whom shall have been licensed in their respective professions for at least three years immediately prior to appointment; one member shall be either a licensed tattooer or a licensed body-piercer; two members shall be licensed estheticians, at least one of whom shall be an esthetics salon owner and one of whom may be an owner, operator, or designated representative of a licensed esthetics school; and two citizen members. The terms of Board members shall be four years. No member shall serve for more than two full successive terms. The Board shall elect a chairman and a vice-chairman. A majority of the Board shall constitute a quorum.

1962, c. 639, § 21, § 54-83.22; 1974, c. 534; 1979, c. 327; 1981, c. 447; 1988, cc. 42, 765; 2000, c. 726; 2002, c. 869; 2004, c. 945; 2005, c. 829; 2010, c. 91.

§ 54.1-703. License required.

No person shall offer to engage in or engage in barbering, cosmetology, nail care, waxing, tattooing, body-piercing, or esthetics without a valid license issued by the Board, except as provided in § 54.1-701.

1979, c. 408, § 54-83.22:1; 1988, c. 765; 2000, c. 726; 2002, cc. 797, 869; 2003, c. 600; 2005, c. 829; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 54.1-703.1. Waiver of examination; wax technicians.

The Board shall waive the examination requirements for licensure as a wax technician for any individual who (i) makes application for licensure between July 1, 2002, and July 1, 2003; (ii) otherwise complies with Board regulations relating to moral turpitude; and (iii) meets any of the following conditions:

1. Has at least three years of documented work experience as a wax technician that is deemed satisfactory by the Board;

2. Has completed a training program that is deemed satisfactory by the Board; or

3. Holds an unexpired certificate of registration, certification, or license as a wax technician issued to him on the basis of comparable requirements by a proper authority of a state, territory, or possession of the United States or the District of Columbia.

2002, c. 797.

§ 54.1-703.2. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2012, cc. 803 and 835, cl. 54.

§ 54.1-703.3. Waiver of examination; estheticians.

The Board shall waive the examination requirements for licensure as an esthetician or master esthetician for any individual who (i) makes application for licensure by July 31, 2009; (ii) otherwise complies with Board regulations relating to moral turpitude; and (iii) meets any of the following conditions:

1. Has at least three years of documented work experience as an esthetician or a master esthetician completed prior to July 1, 2008, that is deemed satisfactory by the Board;

2. Has completed a training program prior to July 1, 2008, that is deemed satisfactory by the Board; or

3. Holds an unexpired certificate of registration, certification, or license as an esthetician or a master esthetician issued to him prior to July 1, 2008, on the basis of comparable requirements by a proper authority of a state, territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia.

2005, c. 829; 2009, cc. 166, 328.

§ 54.1-704. Temporary licenses.

The Board may issue a temporary license to any person who is eligible for examination. Persons issued a temporary license shall be subject to the regulations of the Board.

The Board shall promulgate regulations consistent with this section to permit individuals to be granted temporary licenses for a specified period of time.

1984, c. 220, § 54-83.22:2; 1988, c. 765; 2000, c. 726.

§ 54.1-704.1. License required for barbershop, cosmetology salon, nail care salon, waxing salon, tattoo parlor, body-piercing salon, and esthetics spa.

No individual or entity shall operate a barbershop, cosmetology salon, nail care salon, waxing salon, tattoo parlor, body-piercing salon, or esthetics spa without a valid license issued by the Board.

The provisions of this section shall not apply to a licensed barber, cosmetologist, nail technician, waxing technician, tattooer, body-piercer, or esthetician who does not have an ownership interest in a licensed barbershop, cosmetology salon, nail care salon, waxing salon, tattoo parlor, body-piercing salon, or esthetics spa in which he is employed.

2000, c. 726; 2002, cc. 797, 869; 2003, c. 600; 2005, c. 829; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 54.1-704.2. License required for schools of barbering, cosmetology, nail care, waxing, tattooing, body-piercing, or esthetics.

Except as provided in § 54.1-701, no person, firm or corporation shall operate or attempt to operate a school of barbering, cosmetology, nail care, waxing, tattooing, body-piercing, or esthetics unless licensed by the Board pursuant to its regulations.

2000, c. 726; 2002, cc. 797, 869; 2003, c. 600; 2005, c. 829; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 54.1-705. Inspections.

A. Inspectors and sanitarians of the State Department of Health, or an affiliated local health department, may inspect each barbershop, cosmetology salon, waxing salon, nail care salon, tattoo parlor, body-piercing salon, and esthetics spa in the Commonwealth regularly. Any infractions shall be immediately reported to the Health Department and the Director of the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation for disciplinary action.

B. The Board may inspect barbershops, barber schools, cosmetology salons and schools, waxing salons and schools, nail care salons and schools, tattoo parlors and schools, body-piercing salons and schools, and esthetics spas and schools for compliance with regulations promulgated by the Board.

C. The Board shall specify procedures for enforcement of compliance with the disease control and disclosure requirements of § 18.2-371.3, including unannounced inspections by appropriate personnel.

D. The Board or the Virginia Department of Health, or an affiliated local health department, may regulate the sanitary condition of the personnel, equipment and premises of tattoo parlors and body-piercing salons.

1962, c. 639, § 26, § 54-83.27; 1974, c. 534; 1988, c. 765; 1993, c. 499; 2000, c. 726; 2002, cc. 797, 869; 2003, c. 600; 2005, c. 829; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 54.1-706. Different requirements for licensure.

A. The Board shall have the discretion to impose different requirements for licensure for the practice of barbering, cosmetology, nail care, waxing, tattooing, body-piercing, and esthetics.

B. The Board shall issue a license to practice as a master barber in the Commonwealth to:

1. An individual who holds a valid, unexpired license as a barber issued by the Board prior to December 8, 2017; or

2. An applicant who has successfully (i) completed the educational requirements as required by the Board, (ii) completed the experience requirements as required by the Board, and (iii) passed the examination approved by the Board.

2000, c. 726; 2002, cc. 797, 869; 2003, c. 600; 2005, c. 829; 2012, cc. 803, 835; 2018, cc. 231, 237.

Chapter 8. Boxing and Wrestling Matches [Repealed].

§ 54.1-800. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1998, c. 895.

Chapter 8.1. Boxing and Wrestling Events.

§ 54.1-828. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Amateur" means an individual who has never participated in a boxing, martial arts, or professional wrestling event for money, compensation, or reward other than a suitably inscribed memento.

"Boxer" means a person competing in the sport of boxing.

"Boxing" means the contact sport of attack or defense using fists.

"Cable television system" means any facility consisting of a set of closed transmission paths and associated equipment designed to provide video programming to multiple subscribers when subscriber interaction is required to select a specific video program for an access fee established by the cable television system for that specific video program.

"Contractor" means any person who has been recognized by the Director, through a contract pursuant to § 54.1-832, as an appropriate responsible party to provide services to assist the Commonwealth in complying with the provisions of this chapter.

"Department" means the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation or its successor.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Event" means any boxing, martial arts, or professional wrestling show that includes one or more bouts, contests, or matches.

"Exhibition" means any occurrence in which boxers or martial artists show or display skills without striving to win.

"Manager" means any person who serves as a representative or agent of a boxer, martial artist, or professional wrestler to arrange for his participation in an event.

"Martial artist" means a person competing in the sport of martial arts.

"Martial arts" or "mixed martial arts" means any of several Asian arts of combat or self-defense, alone or in combination, including but not limited to aikido, karate, judo, muay thai, or tae kwon do, usually practiced as sport and which may involve the use of striking weapons.

"Matchmaker" means any person who proposes, selects, arranges for, or in any manner procures specific individuals to be contestants in an event.

"Person" means a natural person, corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship, firm, enterprise, franchise, association or any other entity.

"Professional" means a person who participates or has ever participated for money, compensation, or reward other than a suitably inscribed memento in any boxing, martial arts, or professional wrestling event.

"Professional wrestler" means any professional participating in professional wrestling.

"Professional wrestling" means an event in which contestants incorporate the sport of wrestling into choreographed performances.

"Promote" or "promotion" means to organize, arrange, publicize, or conduct an event or exhibition in the Commonwealth.

"Promoter" means any person who undertakes to promote an event or exhibition.

"Regulant" means any person required by this chapter to obtain a prior authorization from the Department.

"Sanctioning organization" means an entity approved by the Director pursuant to § 54.1-829.1.

"Trainer," "second" or "cut man" means an individual who undertakes to assure the well-being of a boxer or martial artist by providing instruction or advice concerning techniques or strategies of boxing or martial arts, and who may work in the corner with a boxer or martial artist between the rounds of a match to assure his well-being and provide necessary equipment and advice concerning match participation.

"Wrestler" means any person competing or participating as an opponent in wrestling.

"Wrestling" means any of several styles of physical competition in which individuals attempt to subdue or unbalance an opponent, including Greco-Roman, freestyle, grappling, or submission, usually practiced as a sport.

1998, c. 895; 2005, c. 287; 2015, cc. 216, 264; 2016, c. 756.

§ 54.1-829. Authorization from Director required; bond; physical examination; emergency medical services vehicles; physician; and health insurance.

A. No person shall act as a promoter, matchmaker, trainer, boxer, martial artist, or professional wrestler in the Commonwealth without first having obtained authorization for such activity from the Department or sanctioning organization approved by the Director pursuant to § 54.1-829.1 and such authorization remains in full force and effect.

B. No authorization to act as a promoter shall be granted unless the applicant executes and files with the Department a bond, in such penalty as the Department shall determine through regulation, conditioned on the payment of the fees and penalties imposed by this chapter and for the fulfillment of contracts made with professional contestants in accordance with Department regulations. This subsection shall not apply to a promoter applying to conduct an amateur-only event under the authority of a sanctioning organization approved by the Director pursuant to § 54.1-829.1.

C. Each boxer and martial artist shall, and each professional wrestler may, be examined prior to entering the ring by a physician who has been licensed to practice medicine in the Commonwealth for at least five years. The physician shall be appointed by the Department or sanctioning organization and shall certify in writing that the contestant's physical condition is such that he is physically able to engage in the contest.

D. No event in which boxers or martial artists are contestants shall be conducted without the continuous presence at ringside of a physician who has been licensed to practice medicine in the Commonwealth for at least five years, and unless an emergency medical services vehicle is at the site of the event.

E. No boxer or martial artist shall participate in any event unless covered by a health insurance policy with minimum coverage in an amount determined by Department regulation.

1998, c. 895; 2007, c. 853; 2015, cc. 216, 264, 502, 503; 2016, c. 756.

§ 54.1-829.1. Sanctioning organization; amateur martial arts events.

A. No event in which amateur participants compete in martial arts shall be authorized in the Commonwealth unless the amateur event is conducted by a sanctioning organization approved by the Director. Only the results of amateur events conducted by a sanctioning organization in good standing and in compliance with this section shall be recognized for purposes of reporting bout results to a national database or official registry. Every sanctioning organization, insofar as practicable, shall observe and apply the unified rules adopted by the Association of Boxing Commissions. Notwithstanding any other provision of law or regulation, for purposes of amateur martial arts events, weight classes and bout rules governing round length, judging, and scoring shall conform with the Association of Boxing Commissions unified rules.

B. No amateur martial artist shall compete in an event who has:

1. Not attained the age of 18 years;

2. Been knocked out in the 60 days immediately preceding the date of the event;

3. Been technically knocked out in the 30 days preceding the date of the event;

4. Been a contestant in an event consisting of (i) more than six rounds during the 15 days preceding the date of the event or (ii) six or fewer rounds during the seven days preceding the event;

5. Suffered a cerebral hemorrhage or other serious physical injury;

6. Been found to be blind or vision impaired in one or both eyes;

7. Been denied a license or approval to compete by another jurisdiction for medical reasons;

8. Failed to provide negative test results, dated within 180 days preceding the date of the event, for the following: (i) antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus; (ii) hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); and (iii) antibodies to the hepatitis C virus; or

9. Failed to provide written certification from a licensed physician, dated within 180 days preceding the date of the event, attesting to the contestant's good physical health and absence of any preexisting conditions or observed abnormalities that would prevent participation in the event. The examination performed by the ringside physician at the event pursuant to clause (ii) of subdivision C 3 shall not satisfy this requirement.

C. For each amateur martial arts event, the sanctioning organization shall:

1. Review the records, experience, and consecutive losses for each amateur martial artist prior to each event to determine, to the extent possible, that contestants scheduled to compete are substantially equal in skills and ability;

2. Verify that each amateur martial artist scheduled to compete is covered by health insurance;

3. Appoint a physician licensed to practice medicine in the Commonwealth for at least five years to remain at ringside on a continuous basis. Duties of the ringside physician shall include (i) conducting a physical examination of each referee immediately prior to the event to assure his fitness to act in such capacity, (ii) conducting a physical examination and taking a medical history of each amateur martial artist prior to the contestant's entering the ring and certifying the contestant's physical condition, (iii) signaling the referee immediately in the event that an injury is observed, (iv) rendering immediate medical aid to any amateur martial artist injured during an event, and (v) ensuring that all substances in the possession of seconds, trainers, or cut men are appropriate for use on amateur martial artists during the course of the event;

4. Assign a sufficient number of qualified officials, including locker room inspectors, judges, timekeepers, and referees, to protect the health and safety of amateur martial artists and the public. Duties of the referee shall include (i) providing prefight instructions to the contestants; (ii) ensuring that each amateur martial artist is wearing gloves supplied by the sanctioning organization or event promoter that are in new or good condition, weighing between four and six ounces; (iii) exercising supervision over the conduct of the bout and taking immediate corrective action when necessary; (iv) immediately stopping any bout when, in his judgment, one contestant is outclassed by the other, injured, or otherwise unable to continue safely; (v) striving to perform his duties in a manner that does not impede the fair participation of either contestant; (vi) consulting, when he deems appropriate, with the ringside physician on the advisability of stopping the bout if either contestant appears injured or unable to continue; (vii) counting for knockdowns and knockouts, determining fouls and stopping contests, and immediately stopping any bout if one or both contestants are not putting forth their best effort; and (viii) ensuring the health and well-being of the amateur martial artists to the greatest extent possible; and

5. Require a fully equipped emergency medical services vehicle with a currently trained ambulance crew at the site of every amateur event for its entire duration.

D. Any sanctioning organization seeking approval under this section shall make a written application on a form prescribed by the Director. The application shall be accompanied by a fee of $500. The Director shall annually approve sanctioning organizations whose applications satisfactorily demonstrate evidence of standards and operations in place that are at least as rigorous as and limited to those required by this section. Following an informal fact-finding proceeding conducted pursuant to § 2.2-4019, the Director may withdraw his approval of any sanctioning organization that has failed to comply with this section based on (i) the review of the annual report submitted by the sanctioning organization or (ii) review of a complaint received pursuant to subdivision A 8 of § 54.1-201 or § 54.1-307.1.

E. A sanctioning organization seeking approval from the Director shall provide documented evidence (i) of operation as a business for at least the immediately preceding three years; (ii) of at least five years of experience as a sanctioning organization representing at least two different promotions during such five-year period or that the principal officers have at least eight years of experience working as a referee or head official for an established sanctioning organization without adverse financial or disciplinary action in any jurisdiction; (iii) indicating that none of its officers, employees, or agents, directly or indirectly, has any pecuniary interest in, or holds any position with, any business associated with a promoter or otherwise operates for the sole benefit of a single promoter; and (iv) of assurance that events will be conducted in a fair and impartial manner with avoidance of any impropriety or appearance of impropriety.

F. Each approved sanctioning organization shall submit an annual report to the Director on or before February 1, with a summary of the events conducted for the preceding calendar year. The Director may address any operational or compliance issues with the sanctioning organization consistent with and in furtherance of the objectives of this section. The Director shall not intervene in the internal activities of a sanctioning organization except to the extent necessary to prevent or cure violations of this section or any statute governing the persons or activities regulated pursuant to this chapter.

G. The Commonwealth, the Director, the Department, and any employee or representative shall be indemnified and held harmless from any liability resulting from or caused by a sanctioning organization or persons conducting activities on behalf of such regulant.

2015, cc. 216, 264; 2016, c. 756.

§ 54.1-830. Exemptions.

The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to:

1. Amateur wrestling bouts;

2. Amateur exhibitions and the amateur participants therein;

3. Engagements involving amateur martial arts that are conducted by or held under the sponsorship of (i) any elementary or secondary school or public or private institution of higher education located in the Commonwealth, (ii) the Department of Corrections involving inmates of any state correctional institution, or (iii) the United States Olympic Committee; or

4. Amateur boxing.

1998, c. 895; 2015, cc. 216, 264; 2016, c. 756.

§ 54.1-831. Powers and duties of the Department.

The Department shall administer and enforce the provisions of this chapter. In addition to the powers and duties otherwise conferred by law, the Director shall have the powers and duties of a regulatory board as contained in §§ 54.1-201 and 54.1-202, and shall have the power and duty to:

1. Promulgate regulations in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) which implement the federal Professional Boxing Safety Act of 1996 (15 U.S.C. § 6301 et seq.) and protect the public against incompetent, unqualified, unscrupulous or unfit persons engaging in the activities regulated by this chapter.

The regulations shall include requirements for (i) initial authorization and renewal of the authorization; (ii) authorization and conduct of events; (iii) standards of practice for persons arranging, promoting, conducting, supervising, and participating in events; (iv) grounds for disciplinary actions against regulants; (v) records to be kept and maintained by regulants; (vi) the manner in which fees are to be accounted for and submitted to the Department, provided, however, that no gate fee shall be required for amateur-only events conducted by a sanctioning organization approved by the Director pursuant to § 54.1-829.1; and (vii) minimum health coverage for injuries sustained in a boxing or martial arts match. The Department shall have direct oversight of professional events to assure the safety and well-being of boxers, martial artists, and professional wrestlers, except that those portions of an event containing amateur bouts shall be conducted under the oversight of a sanctioning organization. Sanctioning organizations shall have sole responsibility for direct oversight of amateur-only events in which martial artists compete.

2. Charge each applicant for authorization and for renewals of authorization a nonrefundable fee subject to the provisions of § 54.1-113 and subdivision A 4 of § 54.1-201. A sanctioning organization shall be subject to the application fee provisions of subsection C of § 54.1-829.1.

3. Conduct investigations to determine the suitability of applicants for authorization and to determine the regulant's compliance with applicable statutes and regulations.

4. Conduct investigations as to whether monopolies, combinations, or other circumstances exist to restrain matches or exhibitions of boxing, martial arts, or professional wrestling anywhere in the Commonwealth. The Attorney General may assist investigations at the request of the Department.

5. Exercise jurisdiction over all boxing, martial arts, and professional wrestling conducted within the Commonwealth by any person, except where otherwise exempted.

1998, c. 895; 2010, c. 764; 2012, c. 769; 2015, cc. 216, 264; 2016, c. 756.

§ 54.1-831.01. Boxing, Martial Arts, and Professional Wrestling Advisory Board.

A. The Boxing, Martial Arts, and Professional Wrestling Advisory Board (the Board) is established as an advisory board, within the meaning of § 2.2-2100, in the executive branch of state government to advise the Director on matters relating to boxing, martial arts, and professional wrestling events in the Commonwealth.

B. The Board shall consist of seven members appointed by the Director as follows: one representative of the sport of boxing; one representative of the sport of professional wrestling; one representative of the sport of martial arts; one representative of either the sport of boxing, martial arts, or professional wrestling; one member who is a martial arts instructor who has obtained the rank of black belt or higher; and two citizen members. All members shall be residents of the Commonwealth. All appointments shall be for terms of four years, except that appointments to fill vacancies shall be for the unexpired terms. No person shall be eligible to serve for more than two successive full terms.

C. The Board shall elect its chairman and vice-chairman from among its members. The Board shall meet at least once each year to conduct its business and upon the call of the Director or chair of the Board. Four members shall constitute a quorum.

D. Members of the Board shall receive no compensation for their services, but shall be reimbursed for all reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in the discharge of their duties as provided in § 2.2-2825.

E. Such staff support as is necessary for the conduct of the Board's business shall be furnished by the Department.

2007, c. 853; 2012, c. 522; 2015, cc. 216, 264.

§ 54.1-831.1. Summary suspension of boxing license.

When required in order to comply with applicable federal law, the Department may suspend the license of any person holding a license as a boxer on medical grounds or when there is substantial danger to the public health or safety without a hearing or informal fact-finding conference. Institution of a proceeding for a hearing or conference shall be provided simultaneously with the summary suspension. The hearing or conference shall be scheduled within a reasonable time of the date of the summary suspension. The suspension shall remain in effect only so long as the medical grounds or danger to the public health or safety shall exist.

2002, c. 33.

§ 54.1-832. Director authorized to contract for certain services; award of contract; authority when no contract is in effect.

A. The Director may contract with a private person, firm, corporation or association to provide any or all of the following services on behalf of the Department: examining and recommending licensure, investigating and ensuring that events are conducted in compliance with statutes and regulations, performing clerical duties, collecting fees, maintaining records, developing proposed regulations in accordance with Article 2 (§ 2.2-4006 et seq.) of the Administrative Process Act, and recommending enforcement actions in accordance with Article 3 (§ 2.2-4018 et seq.) of the Administrative Process Act.

B. The Director shall procure any or all of such services in accordance with the provisions of the Virginia Public Procurement Act (§ 2.2-4300 et seq.). Prior to the award of such contract, a proposer shall demonstrate, to the satisfaction of the Director:

1. Personnel and financial resources necessary to carry out the provisions of the contract;

2. Adequate indemnification to protect the Commonwealth and its agencies and instrumentalities from all claims and losses incurred as a result of the contract;

3. Compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local laws;

4. Ability to develop, implement, and maintain the internal operations necessary to carry out the provisions of the contract; and

5. Ability to meet any other qualifications the Director deems appropriate in the procurement process.

C. Any contract awarded in accordance with this section shall not exceed a three-year term, but may be renewed annually upon the approval of the Director. The Director shall be the signatory to the contract on behalf of the Commonwealth.

D. Nothing herein is intended to deprive the contractor or the Commonwealth of the benefits of any law limiting exposure to liability or setting a limit on damages.

E. Nothing herein is intended to deprive the Director of his authority to carry out the requirements of this chapter when no contract is in effect.

1998, c. 895.

§ 54.1-833. Reports; cable television systems; fee on receipts.

A. Each promoter shall furnish to the Department, within twenty-four hours after the completion of each event, a written and verified report on the form provided by the Department showing the number of tickets sold, unsold and given away and the amount of gross proceeds thereof for such events originating in the Commonwealth, and its total gross receipts from the sale of rights to distribute in any manner such event by any video, telephonic or other communication method involving the control of electrons or other charge carriers for such live events originating in the Commonwealth. Within the twenty-four-hour period, the promoter shall pay to the Department a fee of (i) five percent of the first $100,000 of its total gross receipts; and (ii) two and one-half percent of the remainder of its total gross receipts. Records of the promoter shall be subject to audit by the Department.

B. Each cable television system or other multichannel video programming service shall report to the Department in writing the name and address of each person from whom it obtains the rights to provide a live event originating in the Commonwealth.

C. The Department shall hold all license fees in a special fund of the state treasury subject to appropriation of the General Assembly. Payments from this fund shall be made to the contractors for their services on behalf of the Commonwealth. No payment shall exceed the balance of the fund. The Department shall draw from the fund to cover any expenses associated with the provisions of this chapter.

1998, c. 895; 2015, cc. 216, 264.

§ 54.1-834. Prohibited activities; penalties.

A. No betting or wagering shall be permitted at an event or exhibition before, during, or after the event in the building where the event is held.

B. No person shall participate in a sham or fake boxing or martial arts contest. The Department shall have the authority to order, without a hearing, the person controlling the purse to hold the distribution to contestants, promoters, and trainers pending a public hearing by the Department. The Department shall, simultaneously with the issuance of such order to retain the share or purse, institute proceedings for a hearing to determine whether a sham or fake boxing or martial arts contest has occurred.

C. It shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor for any person to violate this section or any statute or regulation governing the persons or activities regulated pursuant to this chapter.

D. The third or any subsequent conviction for violating any provision of this section during a 36-month period shall constitute a Class 6 felony.

1998, c. 895; 2015, cc. 216, 264; 2016, c. 756.

§ 54.1-835. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2015, cc. 216 and 264, cl. 2, effective October 1, 2015.

Chapter 9. Branch Pilots.

Article 1. Board for Branch Pilots.

§ 54.1-900. Definitions.

For the purposes of this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Board" means the Board for Branch Pilots.

"Branch pilots" means pilots who have qualified and been licensed in accordance with the provisions of § 54.1-905.

"Limited branch pilots" means pilots who have qualified and been licensed in accordance with the provisions of § 54.1-909.

"Pilot" means branch pilot and limited branch pilot.

Code 1950, § 54-525; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-901. Appointment and removal of members; quorum; clerk.

The Board for Branch Pilots shall consist of nine members to be appointed as follows: the Circuit Court of the City of Hampton shall appoint three persons, only one of whom shall be a branch pilot, and the Circuit Court of the City of Norfolk shall appoint four persons, only two of whom shall be branch pilots, and the Circuit Court of the City of Portsmouth shall appoint two persons, only one of whom shall be a branch pilot. The court which appointed a member may remove him for incapacity, neglect of duty or misconduct and may fill the vacancy.

Four members of the Board shall constitute a quorum. The Board shall appoint a clerk, who shall keep a record of the Board's proceedings.

Code 1950, §§ 54-527, 54-528, 54-530, 54-531; 1978, c. 834; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-902. Regulations; suspension or revocation of license; penalty for violation.

A. The Board is authorized to promulgate regulations necessary for the proper government and regulation of pilots and to prescribe penalties for the violation of regulations in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Regulations may include the right to suspend or revoke the branch of any pilot. Such suspension or revocation may be in addition to any other penalty imposed by law for the violation.

Reasonable notice and an opportunity to be heard in accordance with the Administrative Process Act shall be given before the Board shall take any action to revoke or suspend the license of any licensee.

B. The Board may suspend a license of any person without a hearing, simultaneously with the institution of proceedings for a hearing, if it finds that there is substantial danger to the public health or safety which warrants such action. The Board may meet by telephone conference call when summarily suspending a license, if a good faith effort to assemble a quorum of the Board has failed and in the judgment of a majority of the members of the Board, the continued practice of the licensee constitutes a substantial danger to the public health or safety. Institution of proceeding for a hearing shall be provided simultaneously with the summary suspension. The hearing shall be scheduled within a reasonable time of the date of the summary suspension.

C. Before any penalty for violation of the regulations may be imposed, a printed copy of the regulations shall be furnished to each pilot.

Code 1950, § 54-529; 1988, c. 765; 1989, c. 584.

§ 54.1-903. Decisions of controversies between pilots and masters, etc.; judgment of Board.

The Board may decide any controversy between pilots or between a pilot and the master, owner, or consignee of any vessel, which may arise under any law concerning pilots in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). If the decision requires the payment of money, the Board shall enter a judgment therefor on the record of its proceedings. When an authorized officer receives a copy of the judgment, he shall enforce the payment as if it were an execution against the property of the debtor.

Code 1950, §§ 54-533, 54-534; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-904. Limitation of powers of Board.

Nothing in this chapter shall authorize the Board to decide upon the liability of a pilot or his apprentice to any person injured by his negligence or misconduct, or to prevent such person from recovering for any damage occasioned thereby.

Code 1950, § 54-535; 1988, c. 765.

Article 2. Examination and Licensure.

§ 54.1-905. Examination of pilots; issuance of license; bonds and oath of office.

Applicants for examination shall submit to the Board a certificate from the circuit court in the county or city of their residence stating that the applicant is of good character and a resident of the Commonwealth. The applicant shall also submit proof that he has served as an apprentice for five years, including three years as a limited branch pilot. If the Board finds the applicant qualified to act as a branch pilot it shall issue him a license, and he shall thereupon become a state officer, to be known as a branch pilot and shall hold office as such for one year next ensuing. Before he may perform any of the duties of his office he shall give bond before the clerk of the circuit court of the county or city in which he resides in the penalty of $500, conditioned for the faithful performance of his duties and he shall take the oath of office required by § 49-1.

Branch pilots may conduct and pilot any vessel.

Code 1950, §§ 54-536, 54-555; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-906. Expiration and renewal of licenses.

All licenses issued by the Board shall expire on December 31 of the year in which issued. Every pilot who holds a license as a branch pilot shall appear before the Board every twelve months, and, if the Board deems him qualified, it shall renew his license, which shall continue his term of office for one year following each renewal. Upon each renewal he shall appear before the clerk before whom he originally qualified, and renew his oath of office, but the bond given by him shall remain in force.

Code 1950, §§ 54-537, 54-538; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-907. Fee for original license and license renewal.

Upon the application for license as a branch pilot and each renewal thereof, the applicant for license or license renewal shall pay a fee established by the Board pursuant to § 54.1-113.

Code 1950, §§ 54-539, 54-540; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 72.

§ 54.1-908. State and local licenses prohibited.

No state, city, town or county licenses shall be assessed against any branch pilot.

Code 1950, § 54-541; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-909. License as limited branch pilot.

Any apprentice may apply to the Board for a license as a limited branch pilot. The Board may grant him a license after proper examination if in the opinion of the Board the applicant is qualified. The Board may endorse on the license such limitations as it deems proper, and a limited branch pilot shall perform his duties of piloting and conducting vessels within the limitations imposed by his license.

Code 1950, §§ 54-542, 54-543, 54-556; 1988, c. 765; 2007, cc. 326, 559.

Article 3. Duties and Liabilities of Master, Etc.

§ 54.1-910. What vessels to take pilots and where.

The master of every vessel, other than vessels exclusively engaged in the coastwise trade and those made exempt by United States statutes, inward bound from sea to any port in Virginia or any intermediate or other point in Hampton Roads, the Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay, or in any navigable river in Virginia which flows into Chesapeake Bay or Hampton Roads, shall take the first Virginia pilot that offers his services. Any such vessel outward bound, or bound from one port or point in Virginia to another port or point, shall take the first Virginia pilot that offers his services at the port, point, or place of departure or sailing. Any master refusing to do so shall immediately pay to such pilot full pilotage from the point where the services are offered to the point of destination of the vessel.

Code 1950, § 54-544; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-911. Notice to pilot officers.

The master, agent or consignee of any vessel requiring a pilot shall give at least two hours' notice of the need for a pilot to the pilot officers.

Code 1950, § 54-547; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-912. Employing unlicensed pilots.

No master shall employ any person who is not licensed as a pilot to act as a pilot of his vessel.

Code 1950, § 54-548; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-913. Concealing name of vessel.

The master of a vessel shall not conceal or obscure or refuse to disclose the name of his vessel when spoken to by a pilot.

Code 1950, § 54-549; 1988, c. 765.

Article 4. Duties, Rights and Powers of Pilots.

§ 54.1-914. Keeping pilot boat.

Every pilot, or the company to which he belongs, shall keep one sufficient boat of at least thirty feet keel.

Code 1950, § 54-550; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-915. Pilot first meeting vessel at sea to have preference.

The first pilot who meets a vessel coming in, which his branch entitles him to conduct, shall have the right to take charge of and conduct her into port.

Code 1950, § 54-554; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-916. Discretion of pilot piloting vessel.

Any pilot piloting a vessel shall have full discretion as to when the vessel shall be piloted to or from sea, or to or from any port or place within the Commonwealth or situated within any of the waters referred to in § 54.1-910. The pilot's discretion shall be exercised in a reasonable way, with a view to the vessel's safety as well as with a view to the safety of the Commonwealth's waters and ports.

Code 1950, § 54-558; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-917. Enforcement of suspension.

If any individual whose pilot's license has been suspended is found on board any vessel as a pilot, or offers to conduct any vessel, he may be dismissed from the vessel by any licensed pilot, to whom all the pilotage shall be paid. The Board may proceed against the individual under the provisions of § 54.1-924 as if the individual had never been licensed. An individual whose pilot's license has been suspended may also be proceeded against under § 54.1-111.

Code 1950, § 54-561; 1988, c. 765.

Article 5. Fees and Charges.

§ 54.1-918. State Corporation Commission to prescribe and enforce rates of pilotage and other charges.

The State Corporation Commission shall prescribe and enforce the rates of pilotage and other charges to be observed in the business of pilotage, but before the Commission fixes or prescribes rates or charges it shall give ten days' notice of the time and place of a hearing by publication in a newspaper of general circulation in each of the Cities of Norfolk, Portsmouth and Newport News. For the purpose of determining the fair basis of such rates and charges, the Commission shall, for the two years next preceding, have access to the books and records of the individual pilots who have no organized association, and of any association of pilots who have an organized association whose rates are to be fixed by the Commission, and shall have the same powers given by law in fixing rates and charges of transportation companies.

The Commission shall fix amounts that will be a fair charge for the service rendered. The Commission shall have due regard for necessary operating expenses, maintenance of, depreciation on, and return on investment in properties used and useful in the business of pilotage, and the rates and charges of pilotage at comparable and competing ports of the United States.

When such rates and charges have been fixed and prescribed by the Commission, they shall be the legal rates and charges of pilotage in Virginia, and shall be enforced as provided by law, and the Commission shall have the power to change or alter rates or charges after notice and hearing as provided in this section.

Code 1950, § 54-562; 1988, c. 765; 1992, c. 10.

§ 54.1-919. Appeal from action of Commission.

From any action of the State Corporation Commission under § 54.1-918, an appeal may be taken by the individual pilots, company or association affected, or by any other person, firm or corporation aggrieved by such action, in the manner prescribed in Article IX, Section 4 of the Constitution of Virginia.

Code 1950, § 54-563; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 37; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-920. Detention on seagoing vessel.

If a pilot is detained on board any seagoing vessel he shall be paid by the master, owner, or consignee of the vessel the rate prescribed by the State Corporation Commission for a day's detention for each day detained. If any pilot is carried beyond the limits of the Commonwealth against his will, he shall be entitled to recover $300 from the master or owner of the vessel upon which he has been carried away.

Code 1950, § 54-564; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-921. Quarantine detention.

If any pilot is permitted to go on board a vessel without being informed of a contagious or infectious disease on board, and is obligated to remain on board, or perform quarantine in consequence thereof he shall be paid for each day's detention in accordance with the rate prescribed for a day's detention by the State Corporation Commission.

Code 1950, § 54-565; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-922. Liability for pilotage and other allowances.

The master and the owner of every vessel shall each be liable to the pilot for his pilotage and other allowances, and also the consignee or supercargo of any vessel not owned by a resident of the Commonwealth. If the consignee or supercargo refuses to become responsible to the pilot for his fees, the master or owner of the vessel shall, before she leaves her port of departure, deposit with some responsible person, subject to the order of the pilot, the amount of the pilotage due him.

Code 1950, § 54-566; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-923. When pilot to produce branch.

Every pilot shall, if required, produce his branch at the time of demanding his fees, before he shall be entitled to receive the same.

Code 1950, § 54-569; 1988, c. 765.

Article 6. Offenses and Penalties Generally.

§ 54.1-924. Piloting, etc., vessel without license; how offenders proceeded against.

No person shall conduct or pilot a vessel to or from sea, or to or from any port or place in Virginia unless he is licensed under this chapter.

Warrants for persons violating this section may be issued by any magistrate, upon the oath of any party complaining, and shall be returnable to the Circuit Court of the City of Norfolk. After a bond hearing held pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 19.2-119 et seq.) of Title 19.2, the bond shall be returned by the judicial officer to the circuit court of the City of Norfolk, which shall have jurisdiction for trial of such misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 54-571; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-925. Exception as to vessels in distress.

Section 54.1-924 shall not prevent any person from assisting a vessel in distress.

Code 1950, § 54-572; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-926. Pilot receiving unlawful fees.

No pilot shall demand or receive other than the lawful fee for any service. Any pilot who violates this section may be suspended by the Board for up to six months.

Code 1950, § 54-573; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-927. Violation of chapter a misdemeanor.

Any person who violates any of the provisions of this chapter shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

1988, c. 765.

Chapter 10. Commercial Driver Training Schools [Repealed].

§ 54.1-1000. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1990, c. 466.

Chapter 11. Contractors.

Article 1. Regulation of Contractors.

§ 54.1-1100. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Board" means the Board for Contractors.

"Class A contractors" perform or manage construction, removal, repair, or improvements when (i) the total value referred to in a single contract or project is $120,000 or more, or (ii) the total value of all such construction, removal, repair, or improvements undertaken by such person within any 12-month period is $750,000 or more.

"Class B contractors" perform or manage construction, removal, repair, or improvements when (i) the total value referred to in a single contract or project is $10,000 or more, but less than $120,000, or (ii) the total value of all such construction, removal, repair or improvements undertaken by such person within any 12-month period is $150,000 or more, but less than $750,000.

"Class C contractors" perform or manage construction, removal, repair, or improvements when (i) the total value referred to in a single contract or project is over $1,000 but less than $10,000, or (ii) the total value of all such construction, removal, repair, or improvements undertaken by such person within any 12-month period is less than $150,000. The Board shall require a master tradesmen license as a condition of licensure for electrical, plumbing and heating, ventilation and air conditioning contractors.

"Contractor" means any person, that for a fixed price, commission, fee, or percentage undertakes to bid upon, or accepts, or offers to accept, orders or contracts for performing, managing, or superintending in whole or in part, the construction, removal, repair or improvement of any building or structure permanently annexed to real property owned, controlled, or leased by him or another person or any other improvements to such real property. For purposes of this chapter, "improvement" shall include (i) remediation, cleanup, or containment of premises to remove contaminants or (ii) site work necessary to make certain real property usable for human occupancy according to the guidelines established pursuant to § 32.1-11.7.

"Department" means the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Designated employee" means the contractor's full-time employee, or a member of the contractor's responsible management, who is at least 18 years of age and who has successfully completed the oral or written examination required by the Board on behalf of the contractor.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Owner-developer" means any person who, for a third party purchaser, orders or supervises the construction, removal, repair, or improvement of any building or structure permanently annexed to real property owned, controlled, or leased by the owner-developer, or any other improvement to such property and who contracts with a person licensed in accordance with this chapter for the work undertaken.

"Person" means any individual, firm, corporation, association, partnership, joint venture, or other legal entity.

"Value" means fair market value. When improvements are performed or supervised by a contractor, the contract price shall be prima facie evidence of value.

Code 1950, § 54-113; 1954, c. 428; 1970, c. 319; 1972, c. 771; 1977, c. 640; 1978, c. 521; 1980, c. 634; 1984, c. 434; 1987, c. 358; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 911; 1992, cc. 330, 713, 715, 812; 1993, cc. 499, 815; 1994, cc. 601, 754; 1995, c. 581; 1997, c. 885; 1998, c. 754; 2005, c. 348; 2010, c. 62; 2016, c. 527.

§ 54.1-1101. Exemptions; failure to obtain certificate of occupancy; penalties.

A. The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to:

1. Any governmental agency performing work with its own forces;

2. Work bid upon or undertaken for the armed services of the United States under the Armed Services Procurement Act;

3. Work bid upon or undertaken for the United States government on land under the exclusive jurisdiction of the federal government either by statute or deed of cession;

4. Work bid upon or undertaken for the Department of Transportation on the construction, reconstruction, repair or improvement of any highway or bridge;

5. Any other persons who may be specifically excluded by other laws but only to such an extent as such laws provide;

6. Any material supplier who renders advice concerning use of products sold and who does not provide construction or installation services;

7. Any person who performs or supervises the construction, removal, repair or improvement of no more than one primary residence owned by him and for his own use during any 24-month period;

8. Any person who performs or supervises the construction, removal, repair or improvement of a house upon his own real property as a bona fide gift to a member of his immediate family provided such member lives in the house. For purposes of this section, "immediate family" includes one's mother, father, son, daughter, brother, sister, grandchild, grandparent, mother-in-law and father-in-law;

9. Any person who performs or supervises the repair or improvement of industrial or manufacturing facilities, or a commercial or retail building, for his own use;

10. Any person who performs or supervises the repair or improvement of residential dwelling units owned by him that are subject to the Virginia Residential Landlord and Tenant Act (§ 55-248.2 et seq.);

11. Any owner-developer, provided that any third-party purchaser is made a third-party beneficiary to the contract between the owner-developer and a licensed contractor whereby the contractor's obligation to perform the contract extends to both the owner-developer and the third party;

12. Work undertaken by students as part of a career and technical education project as defined in § 22.1-228 established by any school board in accordance with Article 5 (§ 22.1-228 et seq.) of Chapter 13 of Title 22.1 for the construction of portable classrooms or single family homes;

13. Any person who performs the removal of building detritus or provides janitorial, cleaning, or sanitizing services incidental to the construction, removal, repair, or improvement of real property;

14. Any person who is performing work directly under the supervision of a licensed contractor and is (i) a student in good standing and enrolled in a public or private institution of higher education, (ii) a student enrolled in a career training or technical education program, or (iii) an apprentice as defined in § 40.1-120; and

15. Work undertaken by a person providing construction, remodeling, repair, improvement, removal, or demolition valued at $5,000 or less per project on behalf of a properly licensed contractor, provided that such contractor holds a valid license in the (i) residential building, (ii) commercial building, or (iii) home improvement building contractor classification. However, any construction services that require an individual license or certification shall be rendered only by an individual licensed or certified in accordance with this chapter.

All other contractors performing work for any government or for any governmental agency are subject to the provisions of this chapter and are required to be licensed as provided herein.

B. Any person who is exempt from the provisions of this chapter as a result of subdivision A 7, 10, 11, or 12 shall obtain a certificate of occupancy for any building constructed, repaired or improved by him prior to conveying such property to a third-party purchaser, unless such purchaser has acknowledged in writing that no certificate of occupancy has been issued and that such purchaser consents to acquire the property without a certificate of occupancy.

C. Any person who is exempt from the provisions of this chapter as a result of subdivision 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, or 14 of subsection A shall comply with the provisions of the Uniform Statewide Building Code (§ 36-97 et seq.).

D. Any person who violates the provisions of subsection B or C shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. The third or any subsequent conviction of violating subsection B or C during a 36-month period shall constitute a Class 6 felony.

Code 1950, § 54-141; 1970, c. 319; 1980, c. 634; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 911; 1998, c. 754; 2003, c. 1025; 2004, c. 189; 2005, c. 348; 2007, c. 332; 2016, c. 527; 2017, cc. 132, 135; 2018, c. 767.

§ 54.1-1102. Board for Contractors membership; offices; meetings; seal; record.

A. The Board for Contractors shall be composed of 16 members as follows: one member shall be a licensed Class A general contractor; the larger part of the business of one member shall be the construction of utilities; the larger part of the business of one member shall be the construction of commercial and industrial buildings; the larger part of the business of one member shall be the construction of single-family residences; the larger part of the business of one member shall be the construction of home improvements; one member shall be a subcontractor as generally regarded in the construction industry; one member shall be in the business of sales of construction materials and supplies; one member shall be a local building official; one member shall be a licensed plumbing contractor; one member shall be a licensed electrical contractor; one member shall be a licensed heating, ventilation and air conditioning contractor; one member shall be a certified elevator mechanic or a licensed elevator contractor; one member shall be a certified water well systems provider; one member shall be a professional engineer licensed in accordance with Chapter 4 (§ 54.1-400 et seq.); and two members shall be nonlegislative citizen members. The terms of the Board members shall be four years.

The Board shall meet at least once each year and at such other times as may be deemed necessary. Annually, the Board shall elect from its membership a chairman and a vice-chairman to serve for a one-year term. Nine members of the Board shall constitute a quorum.

The Board shall promulgate regulations not inconsistent with statute necessary for the licensure of contractors and tradesmen and the certification of backflow prevention device workers, and for the relicensure of contractors and tradesmen and for the recertification of backflow prevention device workers, after license or certificate suspension or revocation. The Board shall include in its regulations a requirement that as a condition for initial licensure as a contractor, the designated employee or a member of the responsible management personnel of the contractor shall have successfully completed a Board-approved basic business course, which shall not exceed eight hours of classroom instruction.

The Board may adopt regulations requiring all Class A, B, and C residential contractors, excluding subcontractors to the contracting parties and those who engage in routine maintenance or service contracts, to use legible written contracts including the following terms and conditions:

1. General description of the work to be performed;

2. Fixed price or an estimate of the total cost of the work, the amounts and schedule of progress payments, a listing of specific materials requested by the consumer and the amount of down payment;

3. Estimates of time of commencement and completion of the work; and

4. Contractor's name, address, office telephone number and license or certification number and class.

In transactions involving door-to-door solicitations, the Board may require that a statement of protections be provided by the contractor to the homeowner, consumer or buyer, as the case may be.

The Board shall adopt a seal with the words "Board for Contractors, Commonwealth of Virginia." The Director shall have charge, care and custody of the seal.

B. The Director shall maintain a record of the proceedings of the Board.

Code 1950, §§ 54-114, 54-115, 54-119, 54-120, 54-121, 54-123, 54-124; 1954, c. 415; 1970, c. 319; 1977, c. 640; 1979, c. 408; 1980, c. 634; 1981, c. 447; 1988, cc. 42, 765; 1991, c. 659; 1994, c. 895; 1995, c. 771; 1996, cc. 380, 934, 1006; 1997, c. 885; 2006, cc. 454, 475; 2009, cc. 184, 586; 2010, c. 83; 2012, c. 522; 2017, c. 579.

§ 54.1-1103. Necessity for license; requirements for water well drillers and landscape irrigation contractors; exemption.

A. No person shall engage in, or offer to engage in, contracting work in the Commonwealth unless he has been licensed under the provisions of this chapter. The Board may waive any provision of this chapter for Habitat for Humanity, its local affiliates or subsidiaries, and any other nonprofit organization exempt from taxation under § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. § 501(c)(3)) for the purpose of constructing or rehabilitating single-family dwellings that will be given to or sold below the appraised value to low-income persons. Prior to a joint venture engaging in, or offering to engage in, contracting work in the Commonwealth, (i) each contracting party of the joint venture shall be licensed under the provisions of this chapter or (ii) a license shall be obtained in the name of the joint venture under the provisions of this chapter.

B. Except as provided in § 54.1-1117, the issuance of a license under the provisions of this chapter shall not entitle the holder to engage in any activity for which a special license is required by law.

C. When the contracting work is for the purpose of landscape irrigation or the construction of a water well as defined in § 32.1-176.3, the contractor shall be licensed, regardless of the contract amount, as follows:

1. A Class C license is required when the total value referred to in a single contract or project is no more than $10,000, or the total value of all such water well or landscape irrigation contracts undertaken within any 12-month period is no more than $150,000;

2. A Class B license is required when the total value referred to in a single contract is $10,000 or more, but less than $120,000, or the total value of all such water well or landscape irrigation contracts undertaken within any 12-month period is $150,000 or more, but less than $750,000; and

3. A Class A license is required when the total value referred to in a single contract or project is $120,000 or more, or when the total value of all such water well or landscape irrigation contracts undertaken within any 12-month period is $750,000 or more.

D. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, an architect or professional engineer who is licensed pursuant to Chapter 4 (§ 54.1-400 et seq.) shall not be required to be licensed or certified to engage in, or offer to engage in, contracting work or operate as an owner-developer in the Commonwealth in accordance with this chapter when bidding upon or negotiating design-build contracts or performing services other than construction services under a design-build contract. However, the construction services offered or rendered in connection with such contracts shall only be rendered by a contractor licensed or certified in accordance with this chapter.

E. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, any person licensed under the provisions of Article 4 (§ 9.1-138 et seq.) of Chapter 1 of Title 9.1 as a private security services business shall not be required to be licensed or certified to engage in, or offer to engage in, contracting work in the Commonwealth in accordance with this chapter when bidding upon or performing services to install, service, maintain, design or consult in the design of any electronic security equipment as defined in § 9.1-138 including but not limited to, low voltage cabling, network cabling and computer or systems integration.

F. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, persons bidding upon or performing services to design or undertake public works of art commissioned by the Commonwealth; a political subdivision of the Commonwealth, including any county, city, or town; or a nonprofit corporation exempt from taxation under § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code shall not be required to be licensed or certified in accordance with this chapter. However, the installation of the artwork and related construction services offered or rendered in connection with such commission shall only be rendered by a contractor licensed or certified in accordance with this chapter.

Code 1950, § 54-128; 1972, c. 16; 1980, c. 634; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 911; 1992, c. 713; 1994, cc. 601, 754; 1995, cc. 581, 771; 1997, c. 885; 1998, cc. 271, 754; 1999, cc. 959, 977, 991; 2002, c. 653; 2004, c. 190; 2005, c. 348; 2010, c. 62; 2012, c. 308; 2013, c. 298.

§ 54.1-1104. Register of applicants.

The Director shall keep a register of all applicants showing their date of application, name, qualifications, place of business, place of residence, and whether such application was approved or refused. The books and register of the Board shall be prima facie evidence of all matters recorded therein.

Code 1950, § 54-125; 1977, c. 640; 1980, c. 634; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-1105. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1991, c. 151.

§ 54.1-1106. Application for Class A license; fees; examination; issuance.

A. Any person desiring to be licensed as a Class A contractor shall file with the Department a written application on a form prescribed by the Board. The application shall be accompanied by a fee set by the Board pursuant to § 54.1-201. The application shall contain the name, place of employment, and business address of the proposed designated employee, and information on the knowledge, skills, abilities, and financial position of the applicant. The Board shall determine whether the past performance record of the applicant, including his reputation for paying material bills and carrying out other contractual obligations, satisfies the purposes and intent of this chapter. The Board shall also determine whether the applicant has complied with the laws of the Commonwealth pertaining to the domestication of foreign corporations and all other laws affecting those engaged in the practice of contracting as set forth in this chapter.

B. As proof of financial responsibility, the applicant shall demonstrate compliance with the minimum net worth requirement fixed by the Board in regulation by providing either:

1. A financial statement on a form prescribed by the Board, subject to additional verification if the Board determines that sufficient questions or ambiguities exist in the applicant's presentation of financial information; or

2. A balance sheet reviewed by a certified public accountant licensed in accordance with § 54.1-4409.1.

C. In lieu of compliance with subsection B, an applicant may demonstrate financial responsibility by electing to obtain and maintain a bond in the amount of $50,000. Proof of current bond shall come from a corporate surety licensed to do business in the Commonwealth and approved by the Attorney General and shall be filed with the Department.

D. In addition, if the applicant is a sole proprietor, he shall furnish to the Board his name and address. If the applicant is a member of a partnership, he shall furnish to the Board the names and addresses of all of the general partners of the partnership. If the applicant is a member of an association, he shall furnish to the Board the names and addresses of all of the members of the association. If the applicant is a corporation, it shall furnish to the Board the names and addresses of all officers of the corporation. If the applicant is a joint venture, it shall furnish to the Board the names and addresses of (i) each member of the joint venture and (ii) any sole proprietor, general partner of any partnership, member of any association, or officer of any corporation who is a member of the joint venture. The applicant shall thereafter keep the Board advised of any changes in the above information.

E. If the application is satisfactory to the Board, the proposed designated employee shall be required by Board regulations to take an oral or written examination to determine his general knowledge of contracting, including the statutory and regulatory requirements governing contractors in the Commonwealth. If the proposed designated employee successfully completes the examination and the applicant meets or exceeds the other entry criteria established by Board regulations, a Class A contractor license shall be issued to the applicant. The license shall permit the applicant to engage in contracting only so long as the designated employee is in the full-time employment of the contractor or is a member of the contractor's responsible management. No examination shall be required where the licensed Class A contractor changes his form of business entity provided he is in good standing with the Board. In the event the designated employee leaves the full-time employ of the licensed contractor or is no longer a member of the contractor's responsible management, no additional examination shall be required of such designated employee, except in accordance with § 54.1-1110.1, and the contractor shall within 90 days of that departure provide to the Board the name of the new designated employee.

F. The Board may grant a Class A license in any of the following classifications: (i) residential building contractor, (ii) commercial building contractor, (iii) highway/heavy contractor, (iv) electrical contractor, (v) plumbing contractor, (vi) heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor, and (vii) specialty contractor.

1980, c. 634, § 54-129.1; 1984, c. 45; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 911; 1992, c. 713; 1994, c. 601; 1996, c. 707; 1998, c. 754; 1999, c. 393; 2003, c. 892; 2005, c. 348; 2007, c. 804; 2013, c. 116; 2017, c. 572.

§ 54.1-1106.1. Violations of certain State Board of Health regulations; penalty.

The Board for Contractors shall consider violations of regulations of the State Board of Health relating to water wells as violations of this chapter, punishable by a fine of not more than $1,000 or suspension or revocation of license. No contractor shall be subject to the monetary penalties provided by this section if he has been assessed a civil penalty for such violation pursuant to § 32.1-27.

1989, c. 241; 1990, c. 911.

§ 54.1-1106.2. Additional monetary penalty for certain violations.

A. If the Board finds any person licensed under the provisions of this chapter to be in violation of a statute or regulation involving fraudulent or improper or dishonest conduct as defined in § 54.1-1118, which violation occurred while engaged in a transaction initiated arising from a declared state of emergency as defined in § 44-146.16, the Board shall impose a monetary penalty of up to $10,000 for each such violation.

B. The penalty imposed pursuant to this section shall be in addition to that provided in § 54.1-202.

2014, c. 508.

§ 54.1-1107. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1990, c. 911, effective January 1, 1991.

§ 54.1-1108. Application for Class B license; fees; examination; issuance.

A. Any person desiring to be licensed as a Class B contractor shall file with the Department a written application on a form prescribed by the Board. The application shall be accompanied by a fee set by the Board pursuant to § 54.1-201. The application shall contain the name, place of employment, and business address of the proposed designated employee; information on the knowledge, skills, abilities, and financial position of the applicant; and evidence of holding a current local license pursuant to local ordinances adopted pursuant to § 54.1-1117. The Board shall determine whether the past performance record of the applicant, including his reputation for paying material bills and carrying out other contractual obligations, satisfies the purpose and intent of this chapter. The Board shall also determine whether the applicant has complied with the laws of the Commonwealth pertaining to the domestication of foreign corporations and all other laws affecting those engaged in the practice of contracting as set forth in this chapter.

B. As proof of financial responsibility, the applicant shall demonstrate compliance with the minimum net worth requirement fixed by the Board in regulation by providing either:

1. A financial statement on a form prescribed by the Board, subject to additional verification if the Board determines that sufficient questions or ambiguities exist in the applicant's presentation of financial information; or

2. A balance sheet reviewed by a certified public accountant licensed in accordance with § 54.1-4409.1.

C. In lieu of compliance with subsection B, an applicant may demonstrate financial responsibility by electing to obtain and maintain a bond in the amount of $50,000. Proof of current bond shall come from a corporate surety licensed to do business in the Commonwealth and approved by the Attorney General and shall be filed with the Department.

D. In addition, if the applicant is a sole proprietor, he shall furnish to the Board his name and address. If the applicant is a member of a partnership, he shall furnish to the Board the names and addresses of all of the general partners of that partnership. If the applicant is a member of an association, he shall furnish to the Board the names and addresses of all of the members of the association. If the applicant is a corporation, it shall furnish to the Board the name and address of all officers of the corporation. If the applicant is a joint venture, it shall furnish to the Board the names and addresses of (i) each member of the joint venture and (ii) any sole proprietor, general partner of any partnership, member of any association, or officer of any corporation who is a member of the joint venture. The applicant shall thereafter keep the Board advised of any changes in the above information.

E. If the application is satisfactory to the Board, the proposed designated employee shall be required by Board regulations to take an oral or written examination to determine his general knowledge of contracting, including the statutory and regulatory requirements governing contractors in the Commonwealth. If the proposed designated employee successfully completes the examination and the applicant meets or exceeds the other entry criteria established by Board regulations, a Class B contractor license shall be issued to the applicant. The license shall permit the applicant to engage in contracting only so long as the designated employee is in the full-time employment of the contractor and only in the counties, cities, and towns where such person has complied with all local licensing requirements and for the type of work to be performed. No examination shall be required where the licensed Class B contractor changes his form of business entity provided he is in good standing with the Board. In the event the designated employee leaves the full-time employ of the licensed contractor, no additional examination shall be required of such designated employee, except in accordance with § 54.1-1110.1, and the contractor shall within 90 days of that departure provide to the Board the name of the new designated employee.

F. The Board may grant a Class B license in any of the following classifications: (i) residential building contractor, (ii) commercial building contractor, (iii) highway/heavy contractor, (iv) electrical contractor, (v) plumbing contractor, (vi) HVAC contractor, and (vii) specialty contractor.

1980, c. 634, § 54-129.3; 1987, c. 110; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 911; 1994, c. 601; 1996, c. 707; 2003, c. 892; 2013, c. 116; 2017, c. 572.

§ 54.1-1108.1. Waiver of examination; designated employee.

Any Class A contractor licensed in the Commonwealth of Virginia prior to January 1, 1991, and in business on December 31, 1990, shall provide to the Board in writing the name of one full-time employee or member of the contractor's responsible management who is at least 18 years of age and that employee shall be deemed to have fulfilled the requirement for examination in § 54.1-1106, so long as he remains a full-time employee of the contractor or remains a member of the contractor's responsible management. The designated employee shall not be required to take an examination if the Class A contractor changes his form of business entity and is in good standing with the Board. Upon his leaving the employ of the contractor or his leaving as a member of the contractor's responsible management, the contractor shall name another full-time employee or member of the contractor's responsible management in accordance with § 54.1-1106.

Any Class B contractor registered in the Commonwealth prior to January 1, 1991, and in business on December 31, 1990, shall, within its current period of registration, provide on a form prescribed by the Board satisfactory information on the financial position, and knowledge, skills and abilities of the registered firm; and the name of a full-time employee who is at least 18 years of age and that employee shall be deemed to have fulfilled the requirement for examination in § 54.1-1108, so long as he remains a full-time employee of the contractor. The designated employee shall not be required to take an examination if the Class B contractor changes his form of business entity and is in good standing with the Board. If such employee leaves the employ of the contractor, the contractor shall name another full-time employee in accordance with § 54.1-1108.

1990, c. 911; 1996, c. 707; 2003, c. 892; 2005, c. 348.

§ 54.1-1108.2. Application for Class C license; fees; issuance.

A. Any person desiring to be licensed as a Class C contractor shall file with the Department a written application on a form prescribed by the Board. The application shall be accompanied by a fee set by the Board pursuant to § 54.1-201. The application shall contain information concerning the name, location, nature, and operation of the business, and information demonstrating that the applicant possesses the character and minimum skills to properly engage in the occupation of contracting.

B. The Board may grant a Class C license in any of the following classifications: (i) residential building contractor, (ii) commercial building contractor, (iii) highway/heavy contractor, (iv) electrical contractor, (v) plumbing contractor, (vi) heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor, and (vii) specialty contractor.

1995, c. 771; 1997, c. 885; 1998, c. 754; 2003, c. 892; 2013, c. 116.

§ 54.1-1109. Expiration and renewal of license or certificate.

A. A license or certificate issued pursuant to this chapter shall expire as provided in Board regulations. Application for renewal of a license or certificate may be made as provided by Board regulations. The application shall be accompanied by a fee set by the Board pursuant to § 54.1-201.

B. With respect to a contractor electing continuous bonding under § 54.1-1106 or 54.1-1108, proof of current bond is required in order to renew the license or certificate. The bond shall commence no later than the effective date of the license and shall expire no sooner than the date of expiration of the license or certificate.

Code 1950, § 54-131; 1970, c. 319; 1977, c. 640; 1980, c. 634; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 911; 1995, c. 771; 1996, c. 1014; 2017, c. 572.

§ 54.1-1110. Grounds for denial or revocation of license or certificate.

The Board shall have the power to require remedial education, suspend, revoke, or deny renewal of the license or certificate of any contractor who is found to be in violation of the statutes or regulations governing the practice of licensed or certified contractors in the Commonwealth.

The Board may suspend, revoke, or deny renewal of an existing license or certificate, or refuse to issue a license or certificate, to any contractor who is shown to have a substantial identity of interest with a contractor whose license or certificate has been revoked or not renewed by the Board. A substantial identity of interest includes but is not limited to (i) a controlling financial interest by the individual or corporate principals of the contractor whose license or certificate has been revoked or nonrenewed, (ii) substantially identical principals or officers, or (iii) the same designated employee as the contractor whose license or certificate has been revoked or not renewed by the Board.

Additionally, the Board may suspend, revoke or deny renewal of an existing license or certificate, or refuse to issue a license or certificate to any contractor who violates the provisions of Chapter 5 (§ 60.2-500 et seq.) of Title 60.2 and Chapter 8 (§ 65.2-800 et seq.) of Title 65.2.

Any person whose license is suspended or revoked by the Board shall not be eligible for a license or certificate under any circumstances or under any name, except as provided by regulations of the Board pursuant to § 54.1-1102.

1980, c. 634, § 54-132.1; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 911; 1992, c. 243; 1995, c. 771; 1996, c. 380.

§ 54.1-1110.1. Re-examination of designated employee.

The Board shall have the power to require remedial education or may require a designated employee to retake the examination required by this chapter, in any case where the conduct of the designated employee, while in the employ of a licensed Class A or Class B contractor, has resulted in any disciplinary action by the Board against such contractor.

1996, c. 707.

§ 54.1-1111. Prerequisites to obtaining business license; building, etc., permit.

A. Any person applying to the building official or any other authority of a county, city, or town in this Commonwealth, charged with the duty of issuing building or other permits for the construction of any building, highway, sewer, or structure, or any removal, grading or improvement shall furnish prior to the issuance of the permit, either (i) satisfactory proof to such official or authority that he is duly licensed or certified under the terms of this chapter to carry out or superintend the same, or (ii) file a written statement that he is not subject to licensure or certification as a contractor or subcontractor pursuant to this chapter. The applicant shall also furnish satisfactory proof that the taxes or license fees required by any county, city, or town have been paid so as to be qualified to bid upon or contract for the work for which the permit has been applied.

It shall be unlawful for the building official or other authority to issue or allow the issuance of such permits unless the applicant has furnished his license or certificate number issued pursuant to this chapter or evidence of being exempt from the provisions of this chapter.

The building official, or other such authority, violating the terms of this section shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor.

B. Any contractor applying for or renewing a business license in any locality in accordance with Chapter 37 (§ 58.1-3700 et seq.) of Title 58.1 shall furnish prior to the issuance or renewal of such license either (i) satisfactory proof that he is duly licensed or certified under the terms of this chapter or (ii) a written statement, supported by an affidavit, that he is not subject to licensure or certification as a contractor or subcontractor pursuant to this chapter.

No locality shall issue or renew or allow the issuance or renewal of such license unless the contractor has furnished his license or certificate number issued pursuant to this chapter or evidence of being exempt from the provisions of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 54-138; 1970, c. 319; 1980, c. 634; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 911; 1991, c. 151; 1992, c. 713; 1995, c. 771; 1998, c. 754; 2010, cc. 82, 755; 2018, cc. 37, 88.

§ 54.1-1112. Invitations to bid and specifications to refer to law.

All architects and engineers preparing plans and specifications for work to be contracted in Virginia shall include in their invitations to the bidder and in their specifications a reference to this chapter so as to convey to the invited bidder prior to the consideration of the bid (i) whether such person is a resident or nonresident of the Commonwealth, (ii) whether the proper license or certificate has been issued to the bidder, and (iii) the information required of the bidder to show evidence of proper licensure or certification under the provisions of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 54-139; 1980, c. 634; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 911; 1995, c. 771.

§ 54.1-1113. Nonresident bidders to appoint statutory agent for service of process.

Before any nonresident person or any foreign corporation bids on any work in this Commonwealth, the nonresident person or foreign corporation, by written power of attorney, shall appoint the Director as his agent upon whom all lawful process against or notice to such nonresident person or foreign corporation may be served, and authorize the Director to enter an appearance on his behalf. Upon the filing of the power of attorney the provisions of §§ 13.1-763 through 13.1-766, with reference to service of process and notice, and judgments, decrees and orders, shall be applicable as to such nonresident person or foreign corporation.

Code 1950, § 54-140; 1970, c. 319; 1980, c. 634; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-1114. Filing and hearing of charges.

Any person may file complaints against any contractor licensed or certified pursuant to this chapter. The Director shall investigate complaints and the Board may take appropriate disciplinary action if warranted. Disciplinary proceedings shall be conducted in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). The Board shall immediately notify the Director and the clerk and building official of each city, county or town in the Commonwealth of its findings in the case of the revocation of a license or certificate, or of the reissuance of a revoked license or certificate.

Code 1950, § 54-133; 1970, c. 319; 1975, c. 421; 1977, c. 640; 1980, c. 634; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 911; 1995, c. 771.

§ 54.1-1115. Prohibited acts.

A. The following acts are prohibited and shall constitute the commission of a Class 1 misdemeanor:

1. Contracting for, or bidding upon the construction, removal, repair or improvements to or upon real property owned, controlled or leased by another person without a license or certificate, or without the proper class of license as defined in § 54.1-1100 for the value of work to be performed.

2. Attempting to practice contracting in the Commonwealth, except as provided for in this chapter.

3. Presenting or attempting to use the license or certificate of another.

4. Giving false or forged evidence of any kind to the Board or any member thereof in an application for the issuance or renewal of a license or certificate.

5. Impersonating another or using an expired or revoked license or certificate.

6. Receiving or considering as the awarding authority a bid from anyone whom the awarding authority knows is not properly licensed or certified under this chapter. The awarding authority shall require a bidder to submit his license or certificate number prior to considering a bid.

B. Any person who undertakes work without (i) any valid Virginia contractor's license or certificate when a license or certificate is required by this chapter or (ii) the proper class of license as defined in § 54.1-1100 for the work undertaken, shall be fined an amount not to exceed $500 per day for each day that such person is in violation, in addition to the authorized penalties for the commission of a Class 1 misdemeanor. Any violation of clause (i) of this subsection shall also constitute a prohibited practice in accordance with § 59.1-200, provided that the violation involves a consumer transaction as defined in the Virginia Consumer Protection Act (§ 59.1-196 et seq.), and shall be subject to any and all of the enforcement provisions of the Virginia Consumer Protection Act.

C. A construction contract entered into by a person undertaking work without a valid Virginia contractor's license shall not be enforceable by the unlicensed contractor undertaking the work unless the unlicensed contractor (i) gives substantial performance within the terms of the contract in good faith and (ii) did not have actual knowledge that a license or certificate was required by this chapter to perform the work for which he seeks to recover payment.

Failure to renew a license or certificate issued in accordance with this chapter shall create a rebuttable presumption of actual knowledge of such licensing or certification requirements.

Code 1950, § 54-142; 1956, c. 397; 1970, c. 319; 1980, c. 634; 1985, c. 356; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 911; 1994, c. 79; 1995, c. 771; 1998, c. 691; 2000, c. 33; 2003, cc. 429, 430; 2004, c. 131; 2008, c. 294; 2018, cc. 43, 653.

§ 54.1-1115.01. Responsibility for contracting with persons lacking the proper credential.

Any contractor that directly employs or otherwise contracts with a person who is not credentialed by the Board for work requiring a credential under this chapter shall be solely responsible for any monetary penalty or other sanction resulting from the act of employing or contracting with a person who lacks the proper credential based upon such person's failure to obtain or maintain the required credential.

2017, cc. 132, 135.

§ 54.1-1115.1. Evidence of violation of the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code.

In any proceeding pursuant to § 54.1-1114, the Board shall consider any written documentation of a violation of the Uniform Statewide Building Code (§ 36-97 et seq.) provided by a local building official as evidence of a violation of such building code. Such written documentation shall not be prima facie evidence of a building code violation.

1993, c. 942.

§ 54.1-1116. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1993, c. 717.

§ 54.1-1117. Licensing of certain contractors by localities; qualifications and procedure; registration of certain persons engaged in business of home improvement; civil penalty.

A. Except as to contractors currently licensed under the provisions of § 54.1-1106, any locality shall have the power and authority to adopt ordinances, not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter, requiring every person who engages in, or offers to engage in, the business of home improvement or the business of constructing single-family or multi-family dwellings, in such locality, to obtain a license from such locality.

B. The locality adopting ordinances pursuant to this section may require every applicant for such license, other than those currently licensed under the provisions of § 54.1-1106, (i) to furnish evidence of his ability and proficiency; and (ii) to successfully complete an examination to determine his qualifications. The locality may designate or establish an agent or board and establish the procedures for an examination according to the standards set forth in this chapter and in the regulations of the Board for Contractors. Except contractors currently licensed under the provisions of § 54.1-1106, licensure may be refused to any person found not to be qualified. Persons not currently licensed pursuant to § 54.1-1106 may be required to furnish bond in a reasonable penal sum, with reasonable condition, and with surety as the governing body deems necessary. The governing body may provide for the punishment of violations of such ordinances, provided that no such punishment shall exceed that provided for misdemeanors generally.

C. A locality may by ordinance establish a civil penalty that may be assessed when a person or business falsely represents to a customer or prospective customer that such person or business has a valid contractor's license issued pursuant to the provisions of § 54.1-1106. Such civil penalty shall not exceed $2,500.

D. For the purpose of this section the business of home improvement shall mean the contracting for and/or providing labor and material or labor only for repairs, improvements, and additions to residential buildings or structures accessory thereto where any payment of money or other thing of value is required.

1958, c. 522, § 54-145.2; 1964, c. 479; 1970, c. 319; 1972, c. 438; 1977, c. 476; 1979, c. 439; 1980, c. 634; 1988, c. 765; 1994, c. 895; 2012, c. 552.

Article 2. Virginia Contractor Transaction Recovery Act.

§ 54.1-1118. Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Act" means the Virginia Contractor Transaction Recovery Act.

"Biennium" means a two-year period beginning on July 1 of an even-numbered year and continuing through June 30 of the next even-numbered year.

"Claimant" means any person with an unsatisfied judgment involving residential construction against a regulant, who has filed a verified claim under this Act.

"Fund" means the Virginia Contractor Transaction Recovery Fund.

"Improper or dishonest conduct" includes only the wrongful taking or conversion of money, property or other things of value which involves fraud, material misrepresentation or conduct constituting gross negligence, continued incompetence, or intentional violation of the Uniform Statewide Building Code (§ 36-97 et seq.). The term "improper or dishonest conduct" does not include mere breach of contract.

"Judgment" includes an order of a United States Bankruptcy Court (i) declaring a claim against a regulant who is in bankruptcy to be a "Debt Nondischargeable in Bankruptcy," (ii) extinguishing a claim against a regulant who is in bankruptcy and for which claim no distribution was made from the regulant's bankruptcy estate but excluding any such claim disallowed by order of the bankruptcy court, or (iii) extinguishing a claim against a regulant who is in bankruptcy and for which claim only partial distribution was made from the regulant's bankruptcy estate. An order of dismissal shall not be considered a judgment.

"Regulant" means any individual, person, firm, corporation, association, partnership, joint venture or any other legal entity licensed by the Board for Contractors. "Regulant" shall not include contractors holding only the commercial building contractor classification or individuals licensed or certified in accordance with Article 3 (§ 54.1-1128 et seq.) or Article 4 (§ 54.1-1140 et seq.).

"Verified claim" means a completed application, on a form designed by the Board, the truthfulness of which has been attested to by the claimant before a notary public, along with all required supporting documentation, that has been properly received by the Department in accordance with this chapter.

1980, c. 635, § 54-145.3:1; 1984, c. 270; 1987, c. 555; 1988, cc. 393, 765; 1990, cc. 437, 911; 1994, c. 895; 1995, cc. 771, 784; 1996, cc. 934, 1006; 1997, c. 885; 1999, c. 55; 2013, c. 343; 2015, c. 409.

§ 54.1-1119. Assessments by Director; assignment to Fund; minimum balance; notice; penalties; costs of administration.

A. Each initial regulant, at the time of application, shall be assessed twenty-five dollars, which shall be specifically assigned to the Fund. Initial payments may be incorporated in any application fee payment and transferred to the Fund by the Director within thirty days.

All assessments, except initial assessments, for the Fund shall be deposited within three work days after their receipt by the Director, in one or more federally insured banks, savings and loan associations or savings banks located in the Commonwealth. Funds deposited in banks, savings institutions or savings banks, to the extent in excess of insurance afforded by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or other federal insurance agency, shall be secured under the Security for Public Deposits Act (§ 2.2-4400 et seq.). The deposit of these funds in federally insured banks, savings and loan associations or savings banks located in the Commonwealth shall not be considered investment of such funds for purposes of this section. Funds maintained by the Director may be invested in securities that are legal investments for fiduciaries under the provisions of § 64.2-1502.

B. The minimum balance of the Fund shall be $400,000. Whenever the Director determines that the balance of the Fund is or will be less than this minimum balance, the Director shall immediately inform the Board, which shall assess each regulant at the time of his license renewal a sum sufficient to bring the balance of the Fund to an amount of not less than $400,000, when combined with similar assessments of other regulants. No regulant shall be assessed a total amount of more than fifty dollars during any biennium.

Notice to regulants of these assessments shall be by first-class mail, and payment of such assessments shall be made by first-class mail addressed to the Director within forty-five days after the mailing of the notice to regulants.

C. If any regulant fails to remit the required assessment mailed in accordance with subsection B within forty-five days of such mailing, the Director shall notify such regulant by first-class mail at the latest address of record filed with the Board. If no payment has been received by the Director within thirty days after mailing the second notice, the license of the regulant shall be automatically suspended and shall be restored only upon the actual receipt by the Director of the delinquent assessment.

Interest earned on the deposits constituting the Fund shall be used for administering the Fund. The remainder of this interest may be used for the purposes of providing educational programs about the Uniform Statewide Building Code (§ 36-97 et seq.), for providing education on subjects of benefit to licensees or members of the public relating to contracting, or shall accrue to the Fund.

1980, c. 635, § 54-145.3:2; 1984, c. 270; 1987, c. 555; 1988, c. 765; 1990, cc. 3, 437, 911; 1992, c. 810; 1995, c. 771; 1996, c. 96; 1997, c. 885.

§ 54.1-1120. Recovery from Fund generally.

A. The claimant shall be (i) an individual whose contract with the regulant involved contracting for the claimant's residence located in the Commonwealth or (ii) a property owners' association as defined in § 55-509 whose contract with the regulant involved contracting for improvements to the common areas owned by the association.

The claimant shall not himself be (a) an employee of such judgment debtor, (b) a vendor of such judgment debtor, (c) another licensee, (d) the spouse or child of such judgment debtor or the employee of such spouse or child, or (e) a financial or lending institution or any person whose business involves the construction or development of real property.

B. Whenever any person is awarded a judgment in a court of competent jurisdiction in the Commonwealth of Virginia against any individual or entity which involves improper or dishonest conduct occurring (i) during a period when such individual or entity was a regulant and (ii) in connection with a transaction involving contracting, the claimant may file a verified claim with the Director to obtain a directive ordering payment from the Fund of the amount unpaid upon the judgment, subject to the following conditions:

1. If any action is instituted against a regulant by any person, such person shall serve a copy of the complaint upon the Board by certified mail or the equivalent.

2. A copy of any pleading or document filed subsequent to the initial service of process in the action against a regulant shall be provided to the Board. The claimant shall submit such copies to the Board by certified mail, or the equivalent, upon his receipt of the pleading or document.

3. A verified claim shall be filed with the Director no later than 12 months after the date of entry of the final judgment from which no further right of appeal exists.

4. Prior to submitting the verified claim, the claimant shall:

a. Conduct or make a reasonable attempt to conduct debtor's interrogatories to determine whether the judgment debtor has any assets that may be sold or applied in whole or partial satisfaction of the judgment; and

b. Take all legally available actions for the sale or application of any assets disclosed in the debtor's interrogatories.

C. If the regulant has filed bankruptcy, the claimant shall file a claim with the proper bankruptcy court. If no distribution is made, or the distribution ordered fails to satisfy the claim, the claimant may then file a claim with the Board. The verified claim shall be received by the Board within 12 months of the date of bankruptcy discharge or dismissal. In the event the judgment is silent as to the conduct of the regulant, the Board shall determine (i) whether the conduct of the regulant that gave rise to the claim was improper or dishonest and (ii) what amount, if any, such claimant is entitled to recover from the Fund.

1980, c. 635, § 54-145.3:3; 1984, c. 270; 1987, c. 555; 1988, cc. 393, 765; 1990, cc. 215, 437, 911; 1995, c. 784; 1996, c. 96; 1997, c. 885; 1999, cc. 55, 261; 2013, c. 343; 2015, c. 409.

§ 54.1-1120.1. Recovery on bond.

A. If a contractor who elected continuous bonding under § 54.1-1106 or 54.1-1108 fails to satisfy a judgment awarded by a court of competent jurisdiction for improper or dishonest conduct, the judgment creditor shall have a claim against the surety bond for such damages. In order to recover the amount of any unpaid judgment, up to but not exceeding the maximum liability as set forth in § 54.1-1106 or 54.1-1108, the judgment creditor shall meet the eligibility requirements of subsection A of § 54.1-1120 and bring suit directly on the surety bond no later than 12 months after the judgment becomes final.

B. The liability of such surety shall be limited to actual monetary loss, court costs, and attorney fees assessed against the contractor as part of the underlying judgment. The liability of such surety shall not include any sums representing interest or punitive damages assessed against the contractor.

C. The surety company shall notify the Board when a claim is made against a contractor's bond, when a claim is paid, and when the bond is cancelled. Such notification shall include the amount of claim and the circumstances surrounding the claim. Notification of cancellation shall include the effective date and reason for cancellation. The bond may be cancelled as to future liability by the contractor's surety upon 30 days' notice to the Board.

2017, c. 572.

§ 54.1-1121. Investigations.

Upon receipt of the notice of proceedings against the regulant, the Department may cause its own investigation to be conducted pursuant to § 54.1-306.

1987, c. 555, § 54-145.3:3.1; 1988, c. 765; 2013, c. 343.

§ 54.1-1122. Consideration of applications for payment.

A. The claimant shall submit the following supporting documentation with the claim:

1. Copies of the contract with the regulant and all written change orders to the contract. If no written contract between the regulant and the claimant is available, the claimant may submit an affidavit attesting to the terms of the agreement, promise, or other contractual obligation;

2. All pleadings or other documents filed with the court from which judgment was obtained;

3. All orders and opinions of the court from which judgment was obtained, including the final judgment order;

4. The transcript of the debtor's interrogatories, if conducted, or if no transcript is available, a sworn affidavit affirming that debtor's interrogatories were conducted, or evidence that debtor's interrogatories were attempted if not conducted; a description of assets of the judgment debtor disclosed in the debtor's interrogatories; and a description of all steps taken for the sale or application of those disclosed assets in whole or partial satisfaction of the judgment, or a statement why no means are legally available for the sale or application of those disclosed assets, or a statement that the value of the disclosed assets is less than the cost of levying upon and selling such assets including reasonable estimates of the fair market value of the disclosed assets and costs of levying upon selling such assets;

5. A statement of the balance of the judgment remaining unpaid at the time the claim is submitted to the Department, and a statement that the claimant agrees to notify the Department of any additional payment that may be received in whole or partial satisfaction of the judgment during the pendency of the claim before the Board; and

6. Any other documentary evidence or exhibits the claimant wishes the Board to consider with the claim.

B. The Department shall promptly consider the verified claim of the claimant administratively. If the claim form is incomplete or not properly notarized, or if all required supporting documentation is not included with the claim, then the Department may provide the claimant with notice of any deficiency and an additional opportunity to submit a corrected verified claim. The burden shall be on the claimant to comply with all claim requirements and to submit the necessary documentation within 12 months of the initial claim submission. Once the Department confirms that the verified claim is complete, it shall present such verified claim, along with a recommendation regarding payment, to the Board for the Board's consideration and shall notify the claimant of the Board's recommendation.

C. The Department's and Board's consideration of the claim shall be based solely on the contents of the verified claim. Neither an informal fact-finding conference pursuant to § 2.2-4019 nor a formal hearing pursuant to § 2.2-4020 shall be required, unless requested by the claimant.

D. A claimant shall not be denied recovery from the Fund due to the fact that order for judgment filed with the verified claim does not contain a specific finding of "improper or dishonest conduct." Any language in the order that supports the conclusion that the court found that the conduct of the regulant meets the definition of "improper or dishonest conduct" in § 54.1-1118 shall be used by the Board to determine eligibility for recovery from the Fund. To the extent the judgment order is silent as to the court's findings on the conduct of the regulant, the Board may determine whether the conduct of the regulant meets the definition of improper or dishonest conduct by substantial evidence in the verified claim.

E. If the Board finds there has been compliance with the required conditions, the Board shall issue a directive ordering payment from the fund to the claimant the amount remaining unpaid on the judgment, subject to the limitations set forth in § 54.1-1123. The claimant shall be notified in writing of the findings of the Board. The Board's findings shall be considered a "case decision" and judicial review of these findings shall be in accordance with § 2.2-4025 of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Board shall have the right to appeal a decision of any court which is contrary to any distribution recommended or authorized by it.

1980, c. 635, § 54-145.3:4; 1984, c. 270; 1987, c. 555; 1988, c. 765; 2006, c. 723; 2013, c. 343; 2017, c. 572.

§ 54.1-1123. Limitations upon recovery from Fund; certain actions not a bar to recovery.

A. The maximum claim of one claimant against the Fund based upon an unpaid judgment arising out of the improper or dishonest conduct of one regulant in connection with a single transaction involving contracting is limited to $20,000, including any amount paid from a contractor's surety bond under § 54.1-1120.1, regardless of the amount of the unpaid judgment of the claimant.

B. The aggregate of claims against the Fund based upon unpaid judgments arising out of the improper or dishonest conduct of any one regulant involving contracting, is limited by the Board to $40,000 during any biennium. If a claim has been made against the Fund, and the Board has reason to believe there may be additional claims against the Fund from other transactions involving the same regulant, the Board may withhold any payment(s) from the Fund involving such regulant for a period of not more than one year from the date on which the claimant is awarded in a court of competent jurisdiction in the Commonwealth the final judgment on which his claim against the Fund is based. After this one-year period, if the aggregate of claims against the regulant exceeds $40,000, during a biennium, $40,000 shall be prorated by the Board among the claimants and paid from the Fund, less the amount of any applicable contractor's bond, in proportion to the amounts of their judgments against the regulant remaining unpaid. Claims shall be prorated only after any applicable contractor's bond has been exhausted.

C. Excluded from the amount of any unpaid judgment upon which a claim against the Fund is based shall be any sums representing interest, or punitive damages, or any amounts that do not constitute actual monetary loss to the claimants. Such claim against the Fund may include court costs and attorney fees.

D. If, at any time, the amount of the Fund is insufficient to fully satisfy any claims or claim filed with the Board and authorized by this Act, the Board shall pay such claims, claim, or portion thereof to the claimants in the order that the claims were filed with the Board.

E. Failure of a claimant to comply with the provisions of subdivisions B 1 and 2 and subsection C of § 54.1-1120 and the provisions of § 54.1-1124 shall not be a bar to recovery under this Act if the claimant is otherwise entitled to such recovery.

F. The Board shall have the authority to deny any claim which otherwise appears to meet the requirements of the Act if it finds by clear and convincing evidence that the claimant has presented false information or engaged in collusion to circumvent any of the requirements of the Act.

1980, c. 635, § 54-145.3:5; 1984, c. 270; 1987, cc. 555, 562; 1988, c. 765; 1990, cc. 437, 911; 1997, c. 885; 1999, c. 262; 2005, c. 252; 2015, cc. 409, 710; 2017, c. 572.

§ 54.1-1124. Participation by Board or Director in proceeding.

Upon service of the complaint as provided in subdivision B 1 of § 54.1-1120, the Board, the Director, or duly authorized representatives of the Board shall then have the right to request leave of court to intervene.

1980, c. 635, § 54-145.3:6; 1984, c. 270; 1987, c. 555; 1988, c. 765; 2015, c. 409.

§ 54.1-1125. Assignment of claimant's rights to Board; payment of claim.

A. Subject to the provisions of § 54.1-1123 upon the claimant's execution and delivery to the Director of an assignment to the Board of his rights against the regulant, to the extent he received satisfaction from the Fund, the Director shall pay the claimant from the Fund the amount ordered by the Board.

B. The Board may consider any amount owed to the Board for repayment of the Fund by an applicant for a license under this chapter when determining whether to grant such license.

1980, c. 635, § 54-145.3:7; 1987, c. 555; 1988, c. 765; 1997, c. 885; 2013, c. 343.

§ 54.1-1126. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2013, c. 343, cl. 2.

§ 54.1-1127. No waiver by Board of disciplinary action against regulant.

This article shall not limit the authority of the Board to take disciplinary action against any regulant for any violation of this title or the regulations of the Board. Full repayment of the amount paid from the Fund on a regulant's account shall not nullify or modify the effect of any disciplinary proceeding against that regulant for any violation.

1980, c. 635, § 54-145.3:9; 1988, c. 765; 1997, c. 885.

Article 3. Tradesmen, Backflow Prevention Device Workers, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Fitters.

§ 54.1-1128. Definitions.

"Backflow prevention device worker" means any individual who engages in, or offers to engage in, the maintenance, repair, testing, or periodic inspection of cross connection control devices, including but not limited to reduced pressure principle backflow preventors, double check-valve assemblies, double-detector check-valve assemblies, pressure type vacuum breaker assemblies, and other such devices designed, installed, and maintained in such a manner so as to prevent the contamination of the potable water supply by the introduction of nonpotable liquids, solids, or gases, thus ensuring that the potable water supply remains unaltered and free from impurities, odor, discoloration, bacteria, and other contaminants which would make the potable water supply unfit or unsafe for consumption and use.

"Board" means the Board for Contractors.

"Liquefied petroleum gas fitter" means any individual who engages in, or offers to engage in, work for the general public for compensation in work that includes the installation, repair, improvement, alterations or removal of piping, liquefied petroleum gas tanks and appliances (excluding hot water heaters, boilers and central heating systems which require a heating, ventilation and air conditioning or plumbing certification) annexed to real property.

"Natural gas fitter provider" means any individual who engages in or offers to engage in work for the general public for compensation in the incidental repair, testing, or removal of natural gas piping or fitting annexed to real property, excluding new installation of gas piping for hot water heaters, boilers, central heating systems, or other natural gas equipment which requires heating, ventilation and air conditioning or plumbing certification.

"Tradesman" means any individual who engages in, or offers to engage in, work for the general public for compensation in the trades of electrical, plumbing and heating, ventilation and air conditioning.

"Water well systems provider" means any individual who is certified by the Board in accordance with this article and who is engaged in drilling, installation, maintenance, or repair of water wells, water well pumps, ground source heat exchangers, and other equipment associated with the construction, removal, or repair of water wells, water well systems, and ground source heat pump exchangers to the point of connection to the ground source heat pump.

1994, c. 895; 1996, cc. 934, 1006; 1997, c. 403; 1999, c. 343; 2005, c. 792; 2011, cc. 743, 744.

§ 54.1-1129. Necessity for licensure.

A. Beginning July 1, 1995, no individual shall engage in, or offer to engage in, work as a tradesman as defined in § 54.1-1128 unless he has been licensed under the provisions of this article. Individuals shall not be subject to licensure as a tradesman when working under the supervision of a tradesman who is licensed in the specialty for which work is being performed. Individuals holding a license in one specialty shall not be required to have a tradesman license in another specialty when performing work which is incidental to work being performed under their own specialty license.

B. Beginning July 1, 1998, no individual shall present himself as a certified backflow prevention device worker as defined in § 54.1-1128 unless he has been certified under the provisions of this article. Individuals certified as backflow prevention device workers shall not be required to hold any other professional or occupational license or certification; however, nothing in this subsection shall prohibit an individual from holding more than one professional or occupational license or certification. The certification program set forth in this article concerning backflow prevention device workers shall be voluntary and shall not be construed to prevent or affect the practice of backflow prevention device workers by those not certified by the Board, so long as any requirements of the applicable local governing body's programs relating to backflow prevention device workers are met. All local governing bodies shall accept certification by the Board of backflow prevention device workers as proof of experience and training without requiring additional examination.

C. Beginning one year after the effective date of the Board's final regulations, no individual shall engage in, or offer to engage in, work as a liquefied petroleum gas fitter or natural gas fitter provider as defined in § 54.1-1128 unless he has been licensed under the provisions of this article.

D. Beginning July 1, 2007, no individual shall engage in the drilling, installation, maintenance, or repair of a water well or water well system unless a certified water well systems provider is onsite at all times. Until June 30, 2012, any level of certification shall satisfy this requirement. Beginning July 1, 2012, only a certified individual shall engage in the drilling, installation, maintenance, or repair of a water well or water well system and a then certified master water well systems provider shall be available at all times. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit licensed plumbing tradesman from (i) completing work contained in the applicable plumbing code, or (ii) performing normal maintenance and repair on large-diameter bored or hand-dug water table wells provided such wells are 100 feet or less in depth and the work is being performed for an entity granted tax-exempt status under § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.

1994, c. 895; 1996, cc. 934, 1006; 1997, cc. 403, 885; 1999, c. 343; 2000, c. 406; 2005, c. 792; 2008, c. 631.

§ 54.1-1129.1. Certification of water well systems providers; continuing education.

A. The Board shall establish three levels of certification as follows: (i) trainee, which shall require proof of at least one year of full-time practical experience in the drilling, installation, maintenance, or repair of water wells or water well systems under the supervision of a certified master water well systems provider; (ii) journeyman, which shall require proof of at least three years of practical experience in the drilling, installation, maintenance, or repair of water wells or water well systems under the supervision of a certified master water well systems provider; and (iii) master, which shall require proof of at least six years of practical experience in the drilling, installation, maintenance, or repair of water wells or water well systems, under the supervision of a certified master water well systems provider.

B. A certified water well systems provider, as a condition of renewal or reinstatement and as part of the renewal or reinstatement application, shall certify to the Board that the applicant has completed at least eight hours of continuing education, approved by the Board, in the specialty of technical aspects of water well construction, applicable statutory and regulatory provisions, and business practices related to water well construction. The Board may establish requirements for approval of training instructors, criteria for continuing education, and other regulations it deems necessary to protect the public health, safety or welfare. In addition, the Board may require continuing education for renewal or reinstatement for any individual found to be in violation of the statutes or regulations governing the licensing or certification of water well system providers.

2005, c. 792.

§ 54.1-1130. Application for licensure; fees; examinations; issuance; waiver of examination for water well systems providers.

A. Any individual desiring to be licensed as a tradesman, liquefied petroleum gas fitter or natural gas fitter provider, or certified as a backflow prevention device worker or water well systems provider shall file a written application on a form prescribed by the Board. The application shall be accompanied by a fee set by the Board pursuant to § 54.1-201. The application shall contain, at a minimum, the applicant's name, place of employment, and business address; and information on the knowledge, skills, abilities and education or training of the applicant.

If the application is satisfactory to the Board, the applicant shall be required by Board regulations to take an oral or written examination to determine his general knowledge of the trade in which he desires licensure or of backflow prevention devices if he desires voluntary certification unless he is exempt pursuant to § 54.1-1131. If the applicant successfully completes the examination, a license as a tradesman, liquefied petroleum gas fitter, or natural gas fitter provider, or a certificate as a backflow prevention device worker, shall be issued.

B. The Board shall require an applicant for certification as a water well systems provider, unless otherwise exempt, to take an oral or written examination to determine the applicant's general knowledge of water well systems, including relevant statutory and regulatory requirements. If the applicant successfully completes a required examination, a certificate shall be issued.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, unless an applicant is found by the Board to have engaged in any act that would constitute grounds for disciplinary action, the Board shall issue a certificate without examination to any applicant who provides satisfactory proof to the Board of having been actively and continuously engaged in water well construction activities immediately prior to July 1, 2007, as follows: (i) at least one year for trainee certification; (ii) at least three years for journeyman certification; and (iii) at least six years for master certification. This subsection shall apply only to individuals who have been employed by a properly licensed water well contractor during such period of active and continuous engagement in water well construction activities.

1994, c. 895; 1996, cc. 934, 1006; 1997, cc. 403, 885; 1999, c. 343; 2003, c. 892; 2005, c. 792.

§ 54.1-1131. Exemptions.

A. An individual certified or licensed by any one of the following agencies shall not be required to fulfill the examination requirement specified in § 54.1-1130 for a tradesman license:

1. The Board of Housing and Community Development prior to July 1, 1995.

2. Any local governing body prior to July 1, 1978.

3. An apprenticeship program which is approved by the Commissioner of Labor and Industry.

Individuals applying for a tradesman license between July 1, 1995, and July 1, 1998, shall be deemed to have fulfilled the examination requirement if they are able to demonstrate that they have the required number of years of discipline-free experience set forth in Board regulations.

B. Upon satisfactory evidence to the Board, the following individuals shall not be required to fulfill the examination requirement specified in § 54.1-1130 to be certified as a backflow prevention device worker or licensed as a liquefied petroleum gas fitter:

1. Individuals approved, or recognized as having expertise, by a local governing body prior to July 1, 1998, to perform backflow prevention device work;

2. Individuals applying for certification as a backflow prevention device worker between July 1, 1998 and July 1, 1999, who are able to demonstrate that they have the required number of years of discipline-free experience and education or training set forth in Board regulations; or

3. Individuals applying for licensure as a liquefied petroleum gas fitter within one year of the effective date of the Board's final regulations, who are able to demonstrate that they have at least five years' experience as a liquefied petroleum gas fitter.

C. The provisions of this article shall not apply to any individual who is performing work on (i) any ship, boat, barge or other floating vessel or (ii) a single-family residence where the value of the work performed is less than $250 and such individual does not hold himself out to the general public as a tradesman.

D. Individuals applying for a natural gas fitter provider license within one year of the effective date of the Board's final regulations, shall be deemed to have fulfilled the examination requirement if they are able to demonstrate that they have five years' prior experience as a natural gas fitter provider.

E. Individuals applying for a natural gas fitter provider license between July 1, 1999 and July 1, 2004, shall be deemed to have fulfilled the examination requirement if they are able to demonstrate that they have at least five years' experience in an apprenticeship capacity under the direct supervision of a gas fitter.

F. Individuals applying for licensure as a liquefied petroleum gas fitter between July 1, 2000 and July 1, 2005, shall be deemed to have fulfilled the examination requirements if they are able to demonstrate that they have at least five years' experience in an apprenticeship capacity under the direct supervision of a gas fitter.

1994, c. 895; 1995, c. 581; 1996, cc. 934, 1006; 1997, cc. 403, 885; 1999, cc. 343, 817, 833; 2000, c. 406; 2014, c. 734.

§ 54.1-1132. Expiration and renewal of license or certificate.

A license as a tradesman, liquefied petroleum gas fitter, or natural gas fitter provider, or a certificate as a backflow prevention device worker, issued pursuant to this article shall expire as provided in Board regulations and shall become invalid on that date unless renewed, subject to approval of the Board. A license for a tradesman shall be valid for three years from the date of issuance. Application for renewal of any certificate or license issued pursuant to this article shall be made as provided by Board regulations and shall be accompanied by a fee set by the Board pursuant to § 54.1-201.

1994, c. 895; 1996, cc. 934, 1006; 1997, cc. 403, 885; 1999, c. 343; 2018, c. 750.

§ 54.1-1133. Continuing education.

The Board may establish in the regulations requirements for continuing education as a prerequisite to renewal of any certificate or license issued under this article. The Board shall require evidence of knowledge of code changes as a prerequisite to renewal of any certificate or license issued under this article. In addition, the Board may require continuing education for any individual who is found to be in violation of the statutes or regulations governing the practice of licensed tradesmen or certificate holders issued under this article.

1994, c. 895; 1996, cc. 934, 1006; 1997, cc. 403, 885; 1999, c. 817.

§ 54.1-1134. Grounds for denial or revocation of certification or license; reports of building officials and others.

The Board shall have the power to require remedial education and to suspend, revoke or deny renewal of the certification or license of any individual who is found to be in violation of the statutes or regulations governing the practice of licensed tradesmen, liquefied petroleum gas fitters or natural gas fitter providers or certified backflow prevention device workers in the Commonwealth.

Any building official who finds that an individual is practicing as a tradesman, elevator mechanic, liquefied petroleum gas fitter or natural gas fitter provider without a license as required by this article shall file a report to such effect with the Board. Any water purveyor or building official who finds that an individual is practicing as a backflow prevention device worker without a certificate, if a certificate is required by the locality in which an individual is engaging in backflow prevention device worker activities, shall file a report to such effect with the Board.

Any building official who has reason to believe that (i) a tradesman, liquefied petroleum gas fitter or natural gas fitter provider is performing incompetently as demonstrated by an egregious or repeated violation of the Uniform Statewide Building Code (§ 36-97 et seq.) or (ii) a certified backflow prevention device worker is performing incompetently as demonstrated by an egregious or repeated violation of the standards adopted by the American Society of Sanitary Engineering referenced in the plumbing code adopted by the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code shall file a report to such effect with the Board. Any water purveyor who has reason to believe that a certified backflow prevention device worker is performing incompetently as demonstrated by an egregious or repeated violation of the standards adopted by the American Society of Sanitary Engineering referenced in the plumbing code adopted by the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code shall file a report to such effect with the Board and local building official.

1994, c. 895; 1996, cc. 934, 1006; 1997, cc. 403, 885; 1999, c. 343; 2009, cc. 184, 586.

§ 54.1-1135. Prohibited acts.

A. Practicing or attempting to practice as a tradesman, liquefied petroleum gas fitter or natural gas fitter provider in the Commonwealth, except as provided for in this article, is prohibited and shall constitute the commission of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

B. No person shall represent himself as a certified backflow prevention device worker unless he has been certified by the Board. Any person engaging or offering to engage in backflow prevention device worker activities within the meaning of this chapter who, through verbal claim, sign, advertisement, or letterhead, represents himself as a certified backflow prevention device worker without holding such a certificate from the Board shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

C. No person shall be entitled to assert the lack of licensure as required by this article as a defense to any action at law or suit in equity if the party who seeks to recover from such person gives substantial performance within the terms of the contract in good faith and without actual knowledge of the licensure requirements of this article.

D. In any locality which requires state certification to engage in backflow prevention device worker activities, no person shall be entitled to assert a lack of certification as a defense to any action at law or suit in equity if the party who seeks to recover from such person gives substantial performance within the terms of the contract in good faith and without actual knowledge of the locality's certification requirements.

1994, c. 895; 1996, cc. 934, 1006; 1997, cc. 403, 885; 1999, cc. 343, 833.

Article 4. Certification of Elevator Mechanics.

§ 54.1-1140. Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Accessibility mechanic" means an individual who is engaged in erecting, constructing, installing, altering, servicing, repairing, testing or maintaining wheelchair lifts, incline chairlifts, dumbwaiters with a capacity limit of 300 pounds, and private residence elevators, in accordance with the Uniform Statewide Building Code (§ 36-97 et seq.).

"Certified accessibility mechanic" means an individual who is certified by the Board in accordance with this article to engage in work as an accessibility mechanic.

"Elevator mechanic" means an individual who is certified by the Board in accordance with this article to engage in erecting, constructing, installing, altering, servicing, repairing, testing or maintaining elevators, escalators, or related conveyances in accordance with the Uniform Statewide Building Code.

"Limited use/limited application endorsement" means an addition to the certification record of a certified accessibility mechanic authorizing the certificate holder to erect, construct, install, alter, service, repair, test, or maintain limited use/limited application elevators as defined by the Uniform Statewide Building Code.

2004, c. 188; 2007, c. 424; 2009, cc. 184, 586; 2010, cc. 81, 207.

§ 54.1-1141. Certification required; exemption.

A. No person shall engage in, or offer to engage in, work as an elevator mechanic or accessibility mechanic in the Commonwealth unless he has been certified under the provisions of this article. Individuals certified as elevator mechanics or accessibility mechanics shall not be required to hold any other professional or occupational license or certification; however, nothing in this subsection shall prohibit an individual from holding more than one professional or occupational license or certification.

B. Any individual desiring to be certified as an elevator mechanic or accessibility mechanic shall file a written application on a form prescribed by the Board. The application shall be accompanied by a fee set by the Board pursuant to § 54.1-201. The application shall contain, at a minimum, the applicant's name, place of employment, business address, and information on the knowledge, skills, abilities and education or training of the applicant.

C. Accessibility mechanics desiring to work on limited use/limited application elevators, as defined by the Uniform Statewide Building Code, shall obtain a limited use/limited application endorsement on their certification.

D. Nothing in this article shall be construed to prevent a person who is not certified as an elevator mechanic or accessibility mechanic from performing maintenance that is not related to the operating integrity of an elevator, escalator, or related conveyance.

2004, c. 188; 2007, c. 424; 2010, cc. 81, 207.

§ 54.1-1142. Issuance of certification; emergency certification.

A. The Board shall issue a certificate to practice as an elevator mechanic or certified accessibility mechanic in the Commonwealth to any applicant who has submitted satisfactory evidence that he has successfully:

1. Completed the educational requirements as required by the Board, which shall at a minimum include such requirements as the Board determines will establish minimum competency on the part of the applicant;

2. Completed the experience requirements as required by the Board, which shall at a minimum consist of at least three years in the elevator industry; and

3. Passed an examination offered or approved by the Board.

B. The Board may issue a certificate to practice as an elevator mechanic or a certified accessibility mechanic to any applicant who has completed a training and education program approved by the Board that is equal to or exceeds the requirements established by the Board for all applicants.

2004, c. 188; 2007, c. 424; 2009, cc. 184, 586; 2010, cc. 81, 207.

§ 54.1-1142.1. Certifications in event of declared emergency.

A. Whenever the Governor declares a state of emergency in accordance with § 44-146.17 or in the event of a work stoppage by elevator mechanics and the Board determines that the number of elevator mechanics is insufficient to meet the demands of the emergency or work stoppage, the Board shall issue an emergency certificate to practice as an elevator mechanic under the following conditions:

1. A contractor licensed under the provisions of this chapter (a) attests to the Board, in a form prescribed by the Board, that an applicant has an acceptable combination of documented experience and education to perform work as an elevator mechanic without direct and immediate supervision of an elevator mechanic and (b) provides such proof thereof as required by the Board; and

2. The applicant attested to the Board by the licensed contractor applies to the Board for emergency certification as an elevator mechanic.

As used in this subsection, "direct and immediate supervision" means proper supervision but does not include line of sight supervision.

B. Each such certification shall be valid for a period of 45 days from the date of issuance and for such geographic areas or such elevators, escalators, or related conveyances as the Board may designate. Such certification shall entitle the certificate holder to engage in work as an elevator mechanic. The Board shall renew such certification as often as necessary to ensure that there is a sufficient number of elevator mechanics to meet the demands of the emergency. No fee shall be charged for application for such certification or any renewal thereof.

C. The Board may delegate to the Director of the Department the authority to issue such emergency certifications. The Director shall inform the Board of the issuance of any certifications.

2007, c. 424; 2009, cc. 184, 586.

§ 54.1-1142.2. Certifications in event of shortage of elevator mechanics.

A. Whenever a contractor licensed under the provisions of this chapter demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Board that there is a shortage of elevator mechanics, the Board shall issue temporary certifications under the following conditions:

1. The licensed contractor attests to the Board, in a form prescribed by the Board, that after due diligence, the licensed contractor is unable to find an elevator mechanic from the list of elevator mechanics maintained by the Board to perform elevator work;

2. The applicant has an acceptable combination of documented experience and education to perform work as an elevator mechanic without direct and immediate supervision of an elevator mechanic and provides such proof thereof as required by the Board;

3. The applicant applies for such temporary certification as an elevator mechanic; and

4. The applicant pays an application fee as set by the Board.

As used in this subsection, "direct and immediate supervision" means proper supervision but does not include line of sight supervision.

B. Each such temporary certification shall be valid for a period of up to 45 days from the date of issuance, provided the applicant continues at all times to be employed by the licensed contractor. The Board shall renew such certification as often as necessary to ensure that there is a sufficient number of elevator mechanics to meet the shortage.

C. The Board may delegate to the Director of the Department the authority to issue such temporary certifications or renewals thereof. The Director shall inform the Board of the issuance of any such certifications or renewals.

2009, cc. 184, 586.

§ 54.1-1143. Continuing education.

A. The Board shall establish in the regulations requirements for continuing education as a prerequisite to renewal of any certificate issued under this article. The Board shall require evidence of knowledge of the Uniform Statewide Building Code changes as a prerequisite to renewal of any certificate issued under this article. In addition, the Board may require continuing education for any individual who is found to be in violation of law or regulations governing the practice of an elevator mechanic certified under this article.

B. An elevator mechanic or a certified accessibility mechanic, as a condition of recertification and as part of the recertification application, shall attest to the Board that he has completed at least eight hours of continuing education, approved by the Board, in the specialty of elevator/escalator contracting. The Board may establish such requirements for approval of training instructors, the criteria for the continuing education and such other regulations to ensure the protection of the public interest. Such criteria shall include approval of curriculum sponsored by national or state professional elevator industry associations approved by the Board.

C. The provisions of this section shall not apply to certifications issued by the Board under § 54.1-1142.1 or 54.1-1142.2.

2004, c. 188; 2007, c. 424; 2009, cc. 184, 586; 2010, cc. 81, 207.

Article 5. Residential Building Energy Analysts.

§ 54.1-1144. Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Accredited residential building energy analyst training program" means a training program that has been approved by the Board to provide training for individuals to engage in blower door, duct blaster, or similar testing to measure energy efficiency, conduct energy modeling, prepare a residential building energy analysis report, and provide recommendations for improvements with return on investment or third-party verification for nationally accredited energy efficiency programs.

"Licensed residential building energy analyst" means an individual who has successfully completed an accredited residential building energy analyst training program or meets the criteria of experience required by this article and regulations of the Board and who has been licensed by the Board.

"Residential building energy analysis" means (i) an inspection, investigation, or survey of a dwelling or other structure to evaluate, measure, or quantify its energy consumption and efficiency, including lighting, HVAC, electronics, appliances, water heaters, insulation, and water conservation, and (ii) recommendations to reduce energy consumption and improve efficiency of a dwelling or other structure, including lighting, HVAC, electronics, appliances, water heaters, insulation, and water conservation for compensation conducted or made by a licensed residential building energy analyst.

2011, c. 865.

§ 54.1-1145. License required.

A. No person shall engage in, or offer to engage in, work as a residential building energy analyst in the Commonwealth unless he has been licensed under the provisions of this article.

B. The Board may issue a license to perform residential building energy analysis in the Commonwealth to any applicant who has submitted satisfactory evidence that he has successfully:

1. Completed an accredited residential building energy analyst training program;

2. Completed at least five residential building energy analyses under the supervision of a licensed residential building energy analyst;

3. Remains in good standing with any certifying organization approved by the Board, provided that the requirements for the applicant's class of membership in such association are equal to or exceed the requirements established by the Board for all applicants;

4. Maintains the necessary insurance coverage as determined by the Board; and

5. Demonstrates the financial capability, as determined by the Board, to perform residential building energy analysis.

C. Individuals applying for a license as a residential building energy analyst between July 1, 2011, and July 1, 2012, who submit satisfactory evidence to the Board of having been actively and continuously engaged in residential building energy analysis for the immediately preceding three years shall be licensed by the Board, unless an applicant is found by the Board to have engaged in any act that would constitute grounds for disciplinary action.

2011, c. 865.

§ 54.1-1146. Additional powers of the Board.

The Board shall adopt regulations necessary to establish procedures and requirements for the (i) approval of accredited residential building energy analyst training programs, (ii) licensing of individuals and firms to engage in residential building energy analysis, and (iii) establishment of standards for performing residential building energy analysis consistent with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines and recognized by the Energy Star Program.

2011, c. 865.

Chapter 12. Cosmetologists [Repealed].

§ 54.1-1200. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2000, c. 726, cl. 2.

Chapter 13. Employment Agencies [Repealed].

§ 54.1-1300. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1996, cc. 61 and 179.

Chapter 14. Geologists [Repealed].

§ 54.1-1400. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2012, cc. 803 and 835, cl. 39.

Chapter 15. Hearing Aid Specialists and Opticians.

Article 1. General Provisions.

§ 54.1-1500. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Audiologist" means the same as that term is defined in § 54.1-2600.

"Board" means the Board for Hearing Aid Specialists and Opticians.

"Hearing aid" means any wearable instrument or device designed or offered to aid or compensate for impaired human hearing and any parts, attachments, or accessories, including earmolds, but excluding batteries and cords.

"Licensed hearing aid specialist" means any person who is the holder of a hearing aid specialist license issued by the Board for Hearing Aid Specialists and Opticians.

"Licensed optician" means any person who is the holder of an optician license issued by the Board for Hearing Aid Specialists and Opticians.

"Licensed optometrist" means any person authorized by Virginia law to practice optometry.

"Licensed physician" means any person licensed by the Board of Medicine to practice medicine and surgery.

"Optician" means any person not exempted by § 54.1-1506 who prepares or dispenses eyeglasses, spectacles, lenses, or related appurtenances, for the intended wearers or users, on prescriptions from licensed physicians or licensed optometrists, or as duplications or reproductions of previously prepared eyeglasses, spectacles, lenses, or related appurtenances; or who, in accordance with such prescriptions, duplications or reproductions, measures, adapts, fits, and adjusts eyeglasses, spectacles, lenses, or appurtenances, to the human face.

"Practice of audiology" means the same as that term is defined in § 54.1-2600.

"Practice of fitting or dealing in hearing aids" means (i) the measurement of human hearing by means of an audiometer or by any other means solely for the purpose of making selections, adaptations or sale of hearing aids, (ii) the sale of hearing aids, or (iii) the making of impressions for earmolds. A practitioner, at the request of a physician or a member of a related profession, may make audiograms for the professional's use in consultation with the hard-of-hearing.

"Sell" or "sale" means any transfer of title or of the right to use by lease, bailment, or any other contract, excluding wholesale transactions with distributors or practitioners.

"Temporary permit" means a permit issued while an applicant is in training to become a licensed hearing aid specialist.

1970, c. 571, § 54-524.110; 1988, c. 765; 2005, c. 599; 2012, cc. 803, 835; 2018, c. 458.

§ 54.1-1500.1. Board for Hearing Aid Specialists and Opticians; qualifications and terms of members; officers.

A. The Board for Hearing Aid Specialists and Opticians shall consist of 15 members, as follows: four licensed hearing aid specialists, of which at least one shall be licensed as an audiologist by the Board of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, six licensed opticians, one otolaryngologist, one ophthalmologist, and three citizen members.

B. One of the citizen members shall be a hearing aid user or a person who has a family member who is or has been a hearing aid user. Each hearing aid specialist and the otolaryngologist shall have at least five years of experience in their respective fields immediately prior to appointment. Each of the opticians shall have at least five years of experience prior to appointment and the ophthalmologist shall have practiced ophthalmology for at least five years prior to appointment.

C. The terms of Board members shall be four years.

D. The Board shall elect a chairman and vice-chairman from its membership.

2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 54.1-1500.2. Nominations for Board appointments.

A. The appointment of the otolaryngologist member may be made from a list of at least three names submitted to the Governor by the Medical Society of Virginia. The appointment of one of the hearing aid specialist members may be made from a list of at least three names submitted to the Governor by the Speech-Language Hearing Association of Virginia. The appointment of the remaining hearing aid specialist members may be made from a list of at least three names for each vacancy submitted to the Governor by the Virginia Society of Hearing Aid Specialists. Nominations for appointments to regular terms shall be submitted to the Governor on or before June 1 of each year. The Governor may notify the Society or Association, respectively, of any vacancy other than by expiration, and like nominations may be made for the filling of the vacancy. In no case shall the Governor be bound to make any appointment from among the nominees.

B. The appointment of the licensed optician members may be made from a list of at least three names for each vacancy submitted to the Governor by the Opticians Association of Virginia for each appointee who is an optician, and by the Medical Society of Virginia for each appointee who is a physician. Nominations for appointments to regular terms shall be submitted to the Governor on or before June 1 of each year. The Governor may notify the Society or Association, respectively, of any vacancy other than by expiration and like nominations may be made for the filling of the vacancy. In no case shall the Governor be bound to make any appointment from among the nominees.

2012, cc. 803, 835.

Article 2. Hearing Aids and Hearing Aid Specialists.

§ 54.1-1501. Exemptions; sale of hearing aids by corporations, etc., measuring hearing.

A. Physicians licensed to practice in Virginia and certified by the American Board of Otolaryngology or eligible for such certification shall not be required to pass an examination as a prerequisite to obtaining a license under this chapter.

B. Nothing in this chapter shall prohibit a corporation, partnership, trust, association or other like organization maintaining an established business address from engaging in the business of selling or offering for sale hearing aids at retail without a license, provided that it employs only licensed practitioners in the direct sale and fitting of such products.

C. Nothing in this chapter shall prohibit any person who does not sell hearing aids or accessories or who is not employed by an organization which sells hearing aids or accessories from engaging in the practice of measuring human hearing for the purpose of selection of hearing aids.

D. Audiologists licensed to practice in Virginia who have earned a doctoral degree in audiology shall not be required to pass an examination as a prerequisite to obtaining a license under this chapter.

1970, c. 571, §§ 54-524.111, 54-524.112; 1974, c. 534; 1986, c. 279; 1988, c. 765; 1996, c. 741; 2018, c. 458.

§ 54.1-1502. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2012, cc. 803 and 835, cl. 35.

§ 54.1-1504. License required.

No person shall engage in the practice of fitting or dealing in hearing aids or display a sign or in any other way advertise or represent himself as a person who practices the fitting or dealing of hearing aids unless he holds a license as provided in this chapter.

1970, c. 571, § 54-524.111; 1974, c. 534; 1986, c. 279; 1988, c. 765; 2005, c. 599.

§ 54.1-1505. Return of hearing aid by purchaser or lessee.

A. Within thirty days of the date of delivery, any purchaser or lessee of a hearing aid shall be entitled to return the hearing aid for any reason, provided such aid is returned in satisfactory condition. Such purchaser or lessee shall be entitled to a replacement or a refund of all charges paid, less a reasonable charge for medical, audiological, and hearing aid evaluation services provided by the hearing aid specialist.

B. The right of a purchaser or lessee to return a hearing aid and the charges to be imposed upon the return of such hearing aid, as provided in subsection A of this section, shall be explained and given in writing in at least ten-point, bold-faced type to such purchaser or lessee by the hearing aid specialist.

C. The provisions of this section shall be subject to the provisions of the Virginia Consumer Protection Act (§ 59.1-196 et seq.).

1990, c. 584.

Article 3. Opticians.

§ 54.1-1506. Exemptions.

The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to:

1. Any licensed physician or licensed optometrist;

2. Any individual, partnership, or corporation engaged in supplying ophthalmic prescriptions and supplies exclusively to licensed physicians, licensed optometrists, licensed opticians, or optical scientists;

3. Any person who does not hold himself out to the public as an "optician," and who works exclusively under the direct supervision and control of a licensed physician or licensed optometrist or licensed optician, and in the same location;

4. The sale of spectacles, eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, goggles, sunglasses, telescopes, or binoculars that are completely preassembled and sold as merchandise; or

5. Any optician who (i) does not regularly practice in Virginia; (ii) holds a current valid license or certificate to practice as an optician in another state, territory, district, or possession of the United States; (iii) volunteers to provide free health care to an underserved area of the Commonwealth under the auspices of a publicly supported all volunteer, nonprofit organization with no paid employees that sponsors the provision of health care to populations of underserved people throughout the world; (iv) files a copy of the license or certificate issued in such other jurisdiction with the Board; (v) notifies the Board, within 15 days prior to the voluntary provision of services of the dates and location of such services; and (vi) acknowledges, in writing, that such licensure exemption shall only be valid, in compliance with the Board's regulations, during the limited period that such free health care is made available through the volunteer, nonprofit organization on the dates and at the location filed with the Board.

1954, c. 237, §§ 54-398.1, 54-398.3; 1974, c. 534; 1988, c. 765, § 54.1-1701; 2002, c. 740; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 54.1-1507. Practice of opticians restricted.

No person shall practice or offer to practice as an optician in the Commonwealth unless he holds a license issued under this chapter.

1954, c. 237, § 54-398.3; 1974, c. 534; 1988, c. 765, § 54.1-1704; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 54.1-1508. Optical prescriptions, ocular refraction, etc.

Nothing in this chapter shall authorize an optician, or anyone else not otherwise authorized by law, to make, issue, or alter optical prescriptions, or to practice ocular refraction, orthoptics, or visual training, or to fit contact lenses except on the prescription of an ophthalmologist or optometrist and under his direction, or to advertise or offer to do so in any manner.

1954, c. 237, § 54-398.27; 1964, c. 101; 1988, c. 765, § 54.1-1705; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 54.1-1509. Permissible practices.

Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivisions 7 and 8 of § 54.1-3204, a licensed optician is authorized to prepare and dispense eyeglasses, spectacles, lenses, or related appurtenances, for the intended wearers or users, on prescriptions from licensed physicians or licensed optometrists; duplicate and reproduce previously prepared eyeglasses, spectacles, lenses, or related appurtenances; and, in accordance with such prescriptions, duplications, or reproductions, measure, adapt, fit, and adjust eyeglasses, spectacles, lenses, or appurtenances to the human face. A licensed optician shall not, however, duplicate a contact lens solely from a previously prepared contact lens.

1990, c. 718, § 54.1-1706; 1993, c. 206; 2009, cc. 353, 761; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

Chapter 16. Librarians [Repealed].

§ 54.1-1600. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, c. 716.

Chapter 17. Opticians [Repealed].

§ 54.1-1700. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2012, cc. 803 and 835, cl. 35.

Chapter 18. Polygraph Examiners.

§ 54.1-1800. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Course of instruction" means a formal course of instruction in the detection of deception and the verification of truth in an institution approved by the Director.

"Department" means the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Other detection device" or "device" means any mechanical or electronic instrument or device, other than a polygraph, used to test or question individuals for the purpose of detecting deception or verifying truthfulness.

"Person" means any natural person, partnership, association, corporation or trust.

"Polygraph" means any mechanical or electronic instrument or device used to test or question individuals for the purpose of determining truthfulness.

"Polygraph examiner" means any person who uses a polygraph to test or question individuals for the purpose of determining truthfulness.

"Polygraph examiner intern" means any person engaged in the study of polygraphy and the administration of polygraph examinations under the personal supervision and control of a polygraph examiner.

1975, c. 522, § 54-916; 1988, c. 765; 1993, c. 499; 2010, c. 625.

§ 54.1-1801. Licenses.

A. All polygraph examiners shall be licensed pursuant to this chapter.

B. All persons who operate any other detection device shall be licensed pursuant to this chapter.

1975, c. 522, § 54-918; 1988, c. 765; 2010, c. 625.

§ 54.1-1802. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2010, c. 578, cl. 2.

§ 54.1-1802.1. Powers and duties of the Department.

The Department shall administer and enforce the provisions of this chapter. In addition to the powers and duties otherwise conferred by the law, the Director shall have the powers and duties of a regulatory board as contained in §§ 54.1-201 and 54.1-202 and shall have the power and duty to:

1. Promulgate regulations necessary for the reasonable administration of this chapter in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Such regulations shall include, but not be limited to, the establishment of minimum qualifications for the operators of polygraphs and other detection devices;

2. Charge each applicant for licensure and for renewals of licensure a nonrefundable fee subject to the provisions of § 54.1-113 and subdivision A 4 of § 54.1-201; and

3. Conduct investigations to determine the suitability of applicants for licensure and to determine the licensee's compliance with applicable statutes and regulations.

2010, cc. 578, 625; 2012, c. 769.

§ 54.1-1803. Approval of schools to teach courses of instruction.

The Director shall promulgate regulations for the approval of schools in which courses of instruction for polygraph examiners and persons who operate other detection devices approved pursuant to § 54.1-1805 are taught.

1975, c. 522, § 54-920; 1988, c. 765; 2010, c. 625.

§ 54.1-1804. Submission of fingerprints.

Each applicant for licensure as a polygraph examiner, each polygraph examiner intern, and each applicant for licensure to operate any other detection device shall submit his fingerprints to the Department on a form provided by the Department.

1975, c. 522, § 54-921; 1988, c. 765; 2010, c. 625.

§ 54.1-1805. Instrument to be used.

A. Each polygraph examiner shall use an instrument that records permanently and simultaneously the subject's cardiovascular and respiratory patterns as minimum standards, but such an instrument may record additional physiological changes pertinent to the determination of truthfulness.

B. 1. The use of any other detection device that does not meet the instrumentation requirements set forth in subsection A shall be approved by the Director. The Director shall approve such other detection device only when the data collected by such device is deemed to be reliable and valid in detecting deception or verifying truth, based upon the preponderance of available scientific evidence. The voluntary, written consent of any individual to be tested using a detection device approved pursuant to this subsection shall be obtained prior to the administration of any such test or questioning using the device.

2. Any such approved device shall be subject to regulations promulgated by the Director regarding its use in the Commonwealth.

3. The Director shall establish standards of practice related to the use of any such other detection device approved pursuant to this subsection.

1975, c. 522, § 54-922; 1988, c. 765; 2010, c. 625.

§ 54.1-1806. Prohibition of use of certain questions on polygraph tests for employment.

No licensed polygraph operator shall, during a polygraph examination required as a condition of employment, ask any question concerning the sexual activities of the person being examined if the question violates state or federal law. A violation of this section shall constitute grounds for disciplinary action pursuant to § 54.1-1802.1.

1989, c. 693; 2010, c. 578.

Chapter 19. Private Security Services Businesses [Repealed].

§ 54.1-1900. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1992, c. 578, effective July 1, 1993.

Chapter 20. Public Accountancy [Repealed].

§ 54.1-2000. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, ch. 832, cl. 2.

Chapter 20.1. Real Estate Appraisers.

§ 54.1-2009. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Appraisal" means an analysis, opinion, or conclusion relating to the nature, quality, value, or utility of specified interests in, or aspects of, identified real estate or identified real property. An appraisal may be classified by subject matter into either a valuation or analysis. A "valuation" is an estimate of the value of real estate or real property. An "analysis" is a study of real estate or real property other than estimating value. The term "appraiser" or "appraisal" may be used only by a person licensed or certified by the Board.

"Appraisal report" means any communications, written or oral, of an appraisal.

"Board" means the Real Estate Appraiser Board.

"Certified general real estate appraiser" means an individual who meets the requirements for licensure that relate to the appraisal of all types of real estate and real property and is licensed as a certified general real estate appraiser. This designation is identified in Title 11, § 1116 (a) of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 (12 U.S.C. § 3345 (a)) as a "state certified real estate appraiser."

"Certified residential real estate appraiser" means an individual who meets the requirements for licensure for the appraisal of (i) all types of real estate and real property that a licensed residential real estate appraiser is permitted to appraise and (ii) such other real estate and real property as the Board, by regulation, may permit.

To the extent permitted by federal law and regulation, a certified residential real estate appraiser shall be considered a state certified real estate appraiser within the meaning of Title 11, § 1116 (a) of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 (12 U.S.C. § 3345 (a)).

"Department" means the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Evaluation" means an opinion of the market value of real property or real estate that may be utilized in connection with a real estate-related financial transaction where an appraisal by a state-certified or state-licensed appraiser is not required by the state or federal financial institution's regulatory agency engaging in, contracting for, or regulating such real estate-related financial transaction or regulating the financial institution or lender engaged in or about to engage in such real estate-related financial transaction. An evaluation is limited in its scope and development to the requirements for evaluations as set forth in the Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines promulgated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency et al. (75 F.R. 77450).

"Federal financial institutions regulatory agencies" means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Office of Thrift Supervision, the National Credit Union Administration, the Resolution Trust Corporation, the Federal National Mortgage Association, and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation.

"Federally related transaction" means any real estate-related financial transaction which:

1. A federal financial institutions regulatory agency engages in, contracts for or regulates; and

2. Requires the services of an appraiser.

"General real estate appraisal" means an appraisal conducted by an individual licensed as a certified general real estate appraiser.

"Licensed residential real estate appraiser" means an individual who meets the requirements for licensure for the appraisal of any residential real estate or real property of one to four family residential units as the Board, by regulation, may permit, and such other real estate and real property as the Board, by regulation, may permit.

This designation is identified in Title 11, § 1116 (c) of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 (12 U.S.C. § 3345 (c)) as a "state-licensed appraiser."

"Real estate" means an identified parcel or tract of land, including improvements thereon, if any.

"Real estate-related financial transaction" means any transaction involving:

1. The sale, lease, purchase, investment in or exchange of real property, including interests in property, or the financing thereof;

2. The refinancing of real property or interests in real property; or

3. The use of real property or interests in real property as security for a loan or investment, including mortgage-backed securities.

"Real property" means one or more defined interests, benefits or rights inherent in the ownership of real estate.

"Regulation" means any regulations promulgated by the Real Estate Appraiser Board pursuant to the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

"Residential real estate appraisal" means an appraisal conducted by a licensed residential real estate appraiser or a certified residential real estate appraiser.

1990, c. 459; 1995, c. 327; 2018, c. 644.

§ 54.1-2010. Exemptions from licensure.

A. The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to:

1. A real estate broker or salesperson licensed in the Commonwealth who, in the ordinary course of business, provides a valuation or analysis of real estate for a fee; however, such person shall not hold himself out as a real estate appraiser, and the valuation shall not be referred to as an appraisal and shall not be used in lieu of an appraisal performed by a licensed appraiser.

2. An officer or employee of the United States of America, or of the Commonwealth or a political subdivision thereof, where the employee or officer is performing his official duties, provided that such individual does not furnish advisory service for compensation to the public or act as an independent contracting party in the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof in connection with the appraisal of real estate or real property.

3. Any person who, in the ordinary course of business, provides consulting services or consultative brokerage for a fee, which services may include a valuation or analysis of real estate or standing or severed timber; provided such consulting services or consultative brokerage shall not be referred to as an appraisal and shall not be used in connection with obtaining a loan to finance or refinance real property or standing or severed timber or in connection with any federally related transaction.

4. Any person who, in the regular course of business, provides services to his employer, which services may include a valuation or analysis of real estate, provided such services shall not be referred to as an appraisal and shall not be used in lieu of an appraisal performed by an appraiser licensed hereunder.

5. Any person, including (i) a licensed residential real estate appraiser, certified residential real estate appraiser, or certified general real estate appraiser or (ii) an employee of a financial institution or lender, who provides an evaluation of real estate or real property in connection with a real estate-related financial transaction where an appraisal by a state-certified or state-licensed appraiser is not required by the state or federal financial institution's regulatory agency engaging in, contracting for or regulating such real estate-related financial transaction or regulating the financial institution or lender engaged in or about to engage in such real estate-related financial transaction. The evaluations provided by such persons shall comply with any standards imposed by the state or federal financial institution's or lender's regulatory agencies for evaluations prepared by nonstate-certified or nonstate-licensed appraisers.

B. Nothing contained herein shall proscribe the powers of a judge to determine who may qualify as an expert witness to testify in any legal proceeding.

1990, c. 459; 1992, c. 68; 1995, c. 327; 1999, c. 259; 2017, cc. 258, 269.

§ 54.1-2011. Necessity for license.

A. After December 31, 1992, except as provided in § 54.1-2010 and in subsections C and E of this section, it shall be unlawful to engage in the appraisal of real estate or real property for compensation or valuable consideration in this Commonwealth without first obtaining a real estate appraiser's license in accordance with Board regulations promulgated pursuant to the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

B. After December 31, 1992, except as provided in § 54.1-2010, it shall be unlawful for any person who is not licensed pursuant to this chapter to perform an appraisal in connection with a federally related transaction.

C. Notwithstanding subsections A and B of this section, an individual who is not a licensed residential real estate appraiser, a certified residential real estate appraiser, or a certified general real estate appraiser may assist in the preparation of and sign an appraisal if:

1. The assistant is under the direct supervision of a licensed residential real estate appraiser, a certified residential real estate appraiser, or a certified general real estate appraiser; and

2. The appraisal is reviewed, attested to be accurate and complete, and signed by such licensed residential real estate appraiser, certified residential real estate appraiser, or certified general real estate appraiser in accordance with this chapter.

D. This chapter shall not prevent or affect the practice of any profession or trade for which licensing, certification, or registration is required under any other Virginia law.

E. A corporation, partnership, or other business entity may provide appraisal services if each appraisal is prepared and signed by an individual licensed in accordance with this chapter and such corporation, partnership, or other business entity has registered with the Board. However, any appraisal management company that is required to be licensed under § 54.1-2021.1 shall not be required to have an additional license under this section.

F. An appraiser engaged by an appraisal management company to perform appraisal services shall disclose the actual fee paid to the appraiser by the appraisal management company as part of the appraisal report. The disclosure of such fee shall not be prohibited by the appraisal management company as otherwise provided in § 54.1-2022.

1990, c. 459; 1992, c. 338; 2012, c. 405.

§ 54.1-2012. Real Estate Appraiser Board; membership; chairman; meetings; seal.

A. The Real Estate Appraiser Board shall be composed of 10 members as follows: (i) six members shall be licensed as real estate appraisers, provided that, at all times, at least two of the appraiser members on the Board shall be certified general real estate appraisers and one shall be a certified residential real estate appraiser, and provided further, that all six appraiser members have been licensed for a period of at least five years prior to their appointment; (ii) one member shall be an officer or employee familiar with mortgage lending of a financial institution as defined in § 6.2-100 or an affiliate or subsidiary thereof; (iii) one member shall be an officer or employee of an appraisal management company; and (iv) two members shall be citizen members. The terms of Board members shall be four years.

The appointment of appraiser members may be made from lists of at least three names each, submitted by Virginia affiliates of professional appraisal organizations that are members of the Appraisal Foundation. The appointment of the bank or savings institution member may be made from lists of at least three names each, submitted by the Virginia Bankers Association and the Virginia Association of Community Banks. The appointment of the appraisal management company member may be made from lists of at least three names each, submitted by the Virginia Bankers Association. Nominations for appointments to regular terms shall be submitted to the Governor on or before June 1 of each year. The Governor may notify the above organizations of any vacancy other than by expiration and like nominations may be made for the filling of the vacancy. In no case shall the Governor be bound to make any appointment from among the nominees.

Notwithstanding § 54.1-200, all members of the Board, including the citizen members, shall be eligible to participate in all matters, including decisions regarding the examination of applicants for licensure and decisions regarding the professional competence of licensees.

The Board shall elect a chairman and a vice-chairman from its membership, provided that the chairman shall be an appraiser member.

The Board shall meet at least once each year, and additional meetings may be called by the chairman or, if the chairman is incapacitated, by the vice-chairman, as deemed necessary.

The Board shall adopt a seal by which it shall authenticate its proceedings.

B. As soon as practicable, the Board shall determine the anticipated availability of licensed and certified appraisers to perform appraisals in Virginia. If, at any time, the Board determines that there is, or will be, a scarcity of certified general real estate appraisers, certified residential real estate appraisers, or licensed residential real estate appraisers to perform appraisals in connection with federally related transactions in any part of Virginia that leads, or will lead, to significant delays in the performance of such appraisals, the Board, subject to federal approval, shall extend the effective date of the licensing requirements of this chapter to the extent permitted under any temporary waiver granted under the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989, as amended (12 U.S.C. § 3301 et seq.).

1990, c. 459; 1992, c. 68; 1999, cc. 208, 505; 2010, c. 91; 2012, cc. 405, 522.

§ 54.1-2013. General powers of Real Estate Appraiser Board; regulations; educational requirements for licensure.

The Board shall have all of the powers of a regulatory board under Chapter 2 (§ 54.1-200 et seq.). The Board may do all things necessary and convenient for carrying into effect the provisions of this chapter, Chapter 20.2 (§ 54.1-2020 et seq.), and all things required or expected of a state appraiser certifying and licensing agency under Title 11 of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 (12 U.S.C. § 3331 et seq.). The Board shall promulgate necessary regulations.

The Board shall include in its regulations educational and experience requirements as conditions for licensure, provisions for the supervision of appraiser practices, provisions for the enforcement of standards of professional appraiser practice, and provisions for the disposition of referrals of improper appraiser conduct from any person or any federal agency or instrumentality. This paragraph shall not be construed to limit the powers and authority of the Board.

The Board may set different education and experience requirements for licensed residential real estate appraisers, certified residential real estate appraisers, and certified general real estate appraisers. All applicants for licensure under this chapter shall meet applicable educational and experience requirements prior to licensure.

Applicants for licensure as a certified residential real estate appraiser or a certified general real estate appraiser shall successfully complete an examination administered or approved by the Board prior to licensure. The Board may set different examination requirements for certified residential real estate appraisers and certified general real estate appraisers. The Board may require that licensed residential real estate appraisers successfully complete an examination administered or approved by the Board prior to licensure or prior to the renewal of an initial license.

All regulations established by the Board shall satisfy any minimum criteria that are necessary in order that the federal financial institution's regulatory agencies recognize and accept licenses for licensed residential real estate appraisers, certified residential real estate appraisers, certified general real estate appraisers, and appraisal management companies issued by the Board.

1990, c. 459; 1992, c. 68; 1993, c. 539; 2010, c. 91; 2014, c. 210.

§ 54.1-2013.1. Expired.

Expired.

§ 54.1-2014. Continuing education.

The Board may establish in regulations requirements for continuing education as a prerequisite to renewal of a license issued under this chapter.

1990, c. 459.

§ 54.1-2015. Subpoena power.

In addition to all other authority to issue subpoenas, the Board or its designees shall have the authority to subpoena the records of any bank, savings institution, or credit union relating to real estate appraisals.

1990, c. 459.

§ 54.1-2016. Additional licenses.

A. The Board may establish in regulations other categories of licensure, as well as the conditions required for such licensure, in order to safeguard the public interest or as may be required to satisfy any additional qualification criteria adopted by any federal agency or instrumentality.

B. Unless expressly prohibited by federal law or regulation, an individual who is certified or licensed as a real estate appraiser in another jurisdiction may obtain a Virginia real estate appraiser's license if (i) the Board determines that the requirements for certification or licensure, as the case may be, in such jurisdiction are substantially equivalent to the requirements for licensure under this chapter, and (ii) the applicant meets such other requirements as may be established by the Board.

C. In accordance with Title 11, § 1122 (a) of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 (12 U.S.C. § 3351 (a)), the Board shall adopt regulations that provide for temporary practice in Virginia by appraisers licensed or certified by another state.

1990, c. 459.

§ 54.1-2017. Use of terms "Licensed Residential Real Estate Appraiser," "Certified Residential Real Estate Appraiser," and "Certified General Real Estate Appraiser"; authentication of reports.

An individual who is not licensed by the Board as a certified general real estate appraiser, a certified residential real estate appraiser, or a licensed residential real estate appraiser shall not represent himself as being so licensed or use in connection with his name or place of business the term "real estate appraiser," "general real estate appraiser," "certified general real estate appraiser," "licensed residential real estate appraiser," "certified residential real estate appraiser," "state certified real estate appraiser," "state licensed real estate appraiser," or any words, letters, abbreviations, or insignia indicating or implying that he is licensed as a certified general real estate appraiser, a licensed residential real estate appraiser, or a certified residential real estate appraiser in this Commonwealth.

Each licensed residential real estate appraiser, certified residential real estate appraiser, and certified general real estate appraiser shall comply with the standards of professional appraisal practice and code of ethics adopted by the Board and shall authenticate all written appraisal reports with his signature, license designation and license number.

All appraisal reports rendered in connection with federally related transactions shall be written.

1990, c. 459; 1999, c. 57.

§ 54.1-2017.1. Evaluation requirements; report.

A. Any evaluation, as defined in § 54.1-2009, shall contain the statement: "This is not an appraisal performed in accordance with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice."

B. The evaluation report may be prepared in any reporting format, provided that (i) the reporting format meets the requirements as set forth in the Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines promulgated by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency et al. (75 F.R. 77450) and (ii) the evaluation report contains sufficient information in clear and understandable language to allow a person to understand the opinion of the market value of real property or real estate.

2018, c. 644.

§ 54.1-2018. Roster of appraisers.

A roster showing the names and addresses of all licensed residential real estate appraisers, certified residential real estate appraisers, and certified general real estate appraisers shall be published annually and made available to all interested parties at a cost, as determined by the Director.

1990, c. 459.

§ 54.1-2019. Consent to suits and service of process of nonresidents; manner of service.

A. Every nonresident applicant shall file with the Board an irrevocable consent that suits and actions may be commenced against such applicant in the proper court of any county or city of this Commonwealth in which a cause of action may arise or in which the plaintiff may reside, by the service of any process or pleading authorized by the laws of this Commonwealth on the Director of the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation. The consent shall stipulate that such service of process or pleadings on the Director shall be taken and held in all courts to be as valid and binding as if due service has been made upon the applicant in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

B. Any process or pleading served upon the Director shall be filed by the Director in his office and a copy thereof immediately forwarded by registered mail to the main office of the licensee at the last known address.

1990, c. 459; 1993, c. 499.

Chapter 20.2. Real Estate Appraisal Management Companies.

§ 54.1-2020. Definitions.

A. As used in this chapter, unless the context clearly requires otherwise:

"Appraisal management company" means a person or entity that (i) provides appraisal management services to creditors or to secondary mortgage market participants, including affiliates; (ii) provides such services in connection with valuing a consumer's principal dwelling as security for a consumer credit transaction or incorporating such transactions into securitizations; and (iii) within a 12-month calendar year, oversees an appraiser panel of more than 15 state-certified or state-licensed appraisers in a state or 25 or more state-certified or state-licensed appraisers in two or more states. "Appraisal management company" does not include a department or division of an entity that provides appraisal management services only to that entity.

"Appraisal management services" means one or more of the following: (i) recruiting, selecting, and retaining appraisers; (ii) contracting with state-certified or state-licensed appraisers to perform appraisal assignments; (iii) managing the process of having an appraisal performed, including providing administrative services such as receiving appraisal orders and appraisal reports, submitting completed appraisal reports to creditors and secondary mortgage market participants, collecting fees from creditors and secondary mortgage market participants for services provided, and paying appraisers for services performed; and (iv) reviewing and verifying the work of appraisers.

"Appraisal services" means acting as an appraiser to provide an appraisal or appraisal review.

"Appraiser" means a person licensed or certified under § 54.1-2017 and as otherwise provided in Chapter 20.1 (§ 54.1-2009 et seq.).

"Appraiser panel" means a network, list, or roster of licensed or certified appraisers approved by an appraisal management company to perform appraisals as independent contractors for the appraisal management company. Appraisers on an appraisal management company's appraiser panel include both appraisers accepted by the appraisal management company for consideration for future appraisal assignments in covered transactions or for secondary mortgage market participants in connection with covered transactions and appraisers engaged by the appraisal management company to perform one or more appraisals in covered transactions or for secondary mortgage market participants in connection with covered transactions. An appraiser is an independent contractor for purposes of this chapter if the appraiser is treated as an independent contractor by the appraisal management company for purposes of federal income taxation.

"Board" means the Virginia Real Estate Appraiser Board.

"Employee" means an individual who has an employment relationship acknowledged by both the individual and the company and is treated as an employee for purposes of compliance with federal income tax laws.

"Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice" means the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice adopted by the Appraisal Standards Board of the Appraisal Foundation.

B. The definitions contained in § 54.1-2009 shall be applicable except to the extent inconsistent with the definitions contained in this chapter.

2010, c. 508; 2012, c. 405; 2018, cc. 229, 230.

§ 54.1-2021. Exemptions.

The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to:

1. Any agency of the federal government or any agency of the Commonwealth or local government;

2. Any person or entity that exclusively employs persons on an employer and employee basis for the performance of appraisal services;

3. Any person or entity licensed pursuant to § 54.1-2017 that has as its primary business the performance of appraisal services in the Commonwealth in accordance with Chapter 20.1 (§ 54.1-2009 et seq.) and with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice;

4. Any person or entity licensed pursuant to § 54.1-2017 that has as its primary business the performance of appraisal services in the Commonwealth but that in the normal course of business enters into an agreement with an independent contract appraiser for the performance of appraisal services that the contracting entity cannot complete either because of the location or type of property in question;

5. Any licensed real estate broker performing activities in accordance with Chapter 21 (§ 54.1-2100 et seq.);

6. Any officer or employee of an exempt entity described in this chapter when acting in the scope of employment for the exempt entity;

7. An appraisal management company that is a subsidiary owned and controlled by a financial institution that is subject to appraisal independence standards at least as stringent as those under the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. § 1601 et seq.); or

8. A department or unit within a financial institution that is subject to direct regulation by an agency of the United States government that is a member of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council or its successor, or to regulation by an agency of this state, that receives a request for the performance of an appraisal from one employee of the financial institution, and another employee of the same financial institution assigns the request for the appraisal to an appraiser that is an independent contractor to the institution, except that an appraisal management company that is a wholly owned subsidiary of a financial institution shall not be considered a department or unit within a financial institution for the purposes of this subdivision.

2010, c. 508; 2012, c. 405.

§ 54.1-2021.1. Appraisal management companies; license required; posting of bond or letter of credit.

A. No person shall engage in business as an appraisal management company without a license issued by the Board.

B. The Board may issue a license to do business as an appraisal management company in the Commonwealth to any applicant who has submitted a complete application and provides satisfactory evidence that he has successfully:

1. Completed all requirements established by the Board that are consistent with this chapter and are reasonably necessary to implement, administer, and enforce the provisions of this chapter; and

2. Certified to the Board the following information, and such other information as may be reasonably required by the Board, regarding the person or entity seeking licensure:

a. The name of the person or entity;

b. The business address of the person or entity;

c. Phone contact information for the person or entity, and email address;

d. If the entity is not an entity domiciled in the Commonwealth, the name and contact information for the entity's agent for service of process in the Commonwealth;

e. If the entity is not an entity domiciled in the Commonwealth, proof that the entity is properly and currently registered with the Virginia State Corporation Commission;

f. The name, address, and contact information for any person or any entity that owns 10 percent or more of the appraisal management company;

g. The name, address, and contact information for a responsible person for the appraisal management company located in the Commonwealth, who shall be a person or entity licensed under Chapter 20.1 (§ 54.1-2009 et seq.);

h. That any person or entity that owns any part of the appraisal management company has never had a license to act as an appraiser refused, denied, canceled, surrendered in lieu of revocation, or revoked by the Commonwealth or any other state;

i. That the entity has a system in place to review the work of all appraisers that may perform appraisal services for the appraisal management company on a periodic basis to ensure that the appraisal services are being conducted in accordance with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice;

j. That the entity maintains a detailed record of the following: (i) each request for an appraisal service that the appraisal management company receives; (ii) the name of each independent appraiser that performs the appraisal; (iii) the physical address or legal identification of the subject property; (iv) the name of the appraisal management company's client for the appraisal; (v) the amount paid to the appraiser; and (vi) the amount paid to the appraisal management company; and

k. That the entity has a system in place to ensure compliance with § 129E of the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. § 1601 et seq.).

C. Any person that owns 10 percent or more of an appraisal management company and any controlling person of an appraisal management company seeking to be licensed pursuant to this chapter shall be of good moral character, as determined by the Board, and shall submit to a background investigation, as determined by the Board.

D. In addition to the filing fee, each applicant for licensure shall post either a bond or a letter of credit as follows:

1. If a bond is posted, the bond shall (i) be in the amount of $100,000 or any other amount as set by regulation of the Board, (ii) be in a form prescribed by regulation of the Board, and (iii) accrue to the Commonwealth for the benefit of (a) a claimant against the licensee to secure the faithful performance of the licensee's obligations under this chapter or (b) an appraiser who has performed an appraisal for the licensee for which the appraiser has not been paid. The aggregate liability of the surety shall not exceed the principal sum of the bond. A party having a claim against the licensee may bring suit directly on the surety bond. When a claimant or an appraiser is awarded a final judgment in a court of competent jurisdiction against a licensee of this section for the licensee's failure to faithfully perform its obligations under this chapter or failure to pay an appraiser who performed an appraisal, the claimant or the appraiser may file a claim with the Board for a directive ordering payment from the bond issuer of the amount of the judgment, court costs and reasonable attorney fees as awarded by the court. Such claim shall be filed with the Board no later than 12 months after the judgment becomes final. Upon receipt of the claim against the licensee, the Board may cause its own investigation to be conducted. The amount of the bond shall be restored by the licensee to the full amount required within 15 days after the payment of any claim on the bond. If the licensee fails to restore the full amount of the bond, the Board shall immediately revoke the license of the licensee whose conduct resulted in payment from the bond.

2. If a letter of credit is posted, the letter of credit shall (i) be in the amount of $100,000 or any other amount as set by regulation of the Board, (ii) be irrevocable and in a form approved by the Board, payable to the Department of Professional Occupational Regulation, and (iii) be for the use and the benefit of (a) a claimant against the licensee to secure the faithful performance of the licensee's obligations under this chapter or (b) an appraiser who has performed an appraisal for the licensee for which the appraiser has not been paid. The aggregate liability on the letter of credit shall not exceed the principal sum of the letter of credit. When a claimant or an appraiser is awarded a final judgment in a court of competent jurisdiction against a licensee of this section for the licensee's failure to faithfully perform its obligations under this chapter or failure to pay an appraiser who performed an appraisal, the claimant or the appraiser may file a claim with the Board for a directive ordering payment from the issuer of the letter of credit of the amount of the judgment, court costs and reasonable attorney fees as awarded by the court. Such claim shall be filed with the Board no later than 12 months after the judgment becomes final. Upon receipt of the claim against the licensee, the Board may cause its own investigation to be conducted. Upon a draw against a letter of credit, the licensee shall provide a new letter of credit in the amount required by this subdivision within 15 days after payment of any claim on the letter of credit. If the licensee fails to restore the full amount of the letter of credit, the Board shall immediately revoke the license of the licensee whose conduct resulted in payment from the bond.

2012, c. 405; 2014, c. 210; 2018, cc. 229, 230.

§ 54.1-2022. Appraisal management companies.

A. An appraisal management company shall not enter into any contracts or agreements with an independent appraiser for the performance of real estate appraisal services unless the independent appraiser is licensed to provide that service under § 54.1-2017 and as otherwise provided in Chapter 20.1 (§ 54.1-2009 et seq.).

B. The appraisal management company shall not prohibit an appraiser from disclosing in the appraisal report the actual fees charged by an appraiser for appraisal services, and shall otherwise comply with any applicable requirements of federal law including the requirements of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.

C. No employee, director, officer, or agent of an appraisal management company shall influence or attempt to influence the development, reporting, result, or review of a real estate appraisal through coercion, extortion, collusion, compensation, inducement, intimidation, bribery, or in any other manner, including:

1. Withholding or threatening to withhold timely payment for a real estate appraisal report;

2. Withholding or threatening to withhold future business from a real estate appraiser or demoting or terminating or threatening to demote or terminate a real estate appraiser;

3. Expressly or impliedly promising future business, promotions, or increased compensation for a real estate appraiser;

4. Conditioning the ordering of a real estate appraisal report or the payment of a real estate appraisal fee, salary, or bonus on the opinion, conclusion, or valuation to be reached or on a preliminary estimate requested from a real estate appraiser;

5. Requesting or requiring that a real estate appraiser provide an estimated, predetermined, or desired valuation in a real estate appraisal report or provide estimated values or comparable sales at any time before the appraiser's completion of the appraisal report;

6. Providing to a real estate appraiser an anticipated, estimated, encouraged, or desired value for a subject property or a proposed or targeted amount to be loaned to the borrower. However, a real estate appraiser may be provided with a copy of the sales contract for purchase transactions;

7. Allowing the removal of a real estate appraiser from a list of qualified appraisers used by any entity without prior written notice to the appraiser. The notice shall include written evidence of the appraiser's illegal conduct, substandard performance, or otherwise improper or unprofessional behavior or any violation of the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice or licensing standards for appraisers in the Commonwealth; or

8. Any other act or practice that impairs or attempts to impair a real estate appraiser's independence, objectivity, or impartiality.

D. The appraisal management company shall not engage in any of the following:

1. Requesting or requiring a real estate appraiser to collect a fee from the borrower, homeowner, or any other person in the provision of real estate appraisal services;

2. Altering, modifying, or otherwise changing a completed appraisal report submitted by an independent appraiser without the appraiser's written knowledge and consent;

3. Use an appraisal report submitted by an independent appraiser for any other transaction, purpose or use other than for that which the appraisal was prepared; however, nothing in this section shall be construed as prohibiting an appraisal management company from providing a copy of the appraisal to a federal or state agency in the normal course of business or when providing a copy of the appraisal is otherwise required by law;

4. Requesting or requiring an appraiser to sign any indemnification agreement that would require the appraiser to defend and hold harmless the appraisal management company or any of its agents, employees or independent contractors for any liability, damage, losses, or claims arising out of the services performed by the appraisal management company or its agents, employees or independent contractors and not the services performed by the appraiser; or

5. Requesting or requiring an appraiser to provide the company with the appraiser's digital signature or seal.

E. Nothing in this section shall be construed as prohibiting an appraisal management company from requesting that a real estate appraiser:

1. Consider additional appropriate property information;

2. Provide further detail, substantiation, or explanation for the real estate appraiser's value conclusion; or

3. Correct errors in the real estate appraisal report.

2010, c. 508; 2012, c. 405; 2013, c. 353.

§ 54.1-2022.1. Appraiser compensation.

A. An appraisal management company shall compensate appraisers in compliance with § 129E(i) of the federal Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. § 1601 et seq.) and regulations promulgated thereunder.

B. Except in the case of breach of contract or noncompliance with the conditions of the engagement or performance of services that violates the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice, an appraisal management company shall compensate the appraiser within 30 days of the initial delivery by the appraiser of the completed appraisal report.

2015, c. 422; 2017, c. 666.

§ 54.1-2023. Penalty.

In addition to the powers vested in the Board, in any action brought under this chapter, if a court finds that a person has willfully engaged in an act or practice in violation of this chapter, the Attorney General, the attorney for the Commonwealth, or the attorney for the locality may recover for the Literary Fund, upon petition to the court, a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 per violation. For purposes of this section, prima facie evidence of a willful violation may be shown when the Attorney General, the attorney for the Commonwealth, or the attorney for the locality notifies the alleged violator by certified mail that an act or practice is a violation of this chapter and the alleged violator, after receipt of the notice, continues to engage in the act or practice.

Violations of this chapter shall constitute separate and distinct offenses. If the acts or activities violating this chapter also violate another provision of law, an action brought under this chapter shall not prohibit or bar any prosecution or proceeding under such other provision or the imposition or any penalties provided for thereby.

2010, c. 508; 2012, c. 405.

Chapter 21. Real Estate Brokers, Sales Persons and Rental Location Agents.

Article 1. Regulation of Real Estate Brokers, Salespersons and Rental Location Agents.

§ 54.1-2100. (Effective until January 1, 2019) Definitions.

As used in this chapter:

"Distance learning" means instruction delivered by an approved provider through a medium other than a classroom setting. Such courses shall be those offered by an accredited institution of higher education, high school offering adult distributive education courses, other school or educational institution, or real estate professional association or related entities.

"Real estate broker" means any person or business entity, including, but not limited to, a partnership, association, corporation or limited liability company, who, for compensation or valuable consideration (i) sells or offers for sale, buys or offers to buy, or negotiates the purchase or sale or exchange of real estate, including units or interest in condominiums, cooperative interest as defined in § 55-426, or time-shares in a time-share program even though they may be deemed to be securities, or (ii) leases or offers to lease, or rents or offers for rent, any real estate or the improvements thereon for others.

Code 1950, § 54-730; 1974, c. 409; 1982, c. 440; 1984, c. 283; 1988, c. 765; 1996, c. 993; 2001, c. 548; 2007, c. 809.

§ 54.1-2100. (Effective January 1, 2019) Definitions.

As used in this chapter:

"Distance learning" means instruction delivered by an approved provider through a medium other than a classroom setting. Such courses shall be those offered by an accredited institution of higher education, high school offering adult distributive education courses, other school or educational institution, or real estate professional association or related entities.

"Real estate broker" means any individual or business entity, including a partnership, association, corporation, or limited liability company, who, for compensation or valuable consideration, (i) sells or offers for sale, buys or offers to buy, or negotiates the purchase or sale or exchange of real estate, including units or interest in condominiums, cooperative interest as defined in § 55-426, or time-shares in a time-share program even though they may be deemed to be securities or (ii) leases or offers to lease, or rents or offers for rent, any real estate or the improvements thereon for others.

"Real estate team" means two or more individuals, one or more of whom is a real estate salesperson or broker, who (i) work together as a unit within the same brokerage firm, (ii) represent themselves to the public as working together as one unit, and (iii) designate themselves by a fictitious name.

"Supervising broker" means a real estate broker who has been designated by a principal broker to supervise the provision of real estate brokerage services by associate brokers and salespersons assigned to a branch office or a real estate team.

Code 1950, § 54-730; 1974, c. 409; 1982, c. 440; 1984, c. 283; 1988, c. 765; 1996, c. 993; 2001, c. 548; 2007, c. 809; 2018, cc. 223, 224.

§ 54.1-2101. (Effective until January 1, 2019) Real estate salesperson defined.

For the purposes of this chapter, "real estate salesperson" means any person, or business entity of not more than two persons unless related by blood or marriage, who for compensation or valuable consideration is employed either directly or indirectly by, or affiliated as an independent contractor with, a real estate broker, to sell or offer to sell, or to buy or offer to buy, or to negotiate the purchase, sale or exchange of real estate, or to lease, rent or offer for rent any real estate, or to negotiate leases thereof, or of the improvements thereon.

Code 1950, § 54-731; 1974, c. 685; 1978, c. 138; 1984, c. 201; 1988, c. 765; 1992, c. 84; 1996, c. 993.

§ 54.1-2101. (Effective January 1, 2019) Real estate salesperson defined.

For the purposes of this chapter, "real estate salesperson" means any individual, or business entity, who for compensation or valuable consideration is employed either directly or indirectly by, or affiliated as an independent contractor with, a real estate broker, to sell or offer to sell, or to buy or offer to buy, or to negotiate the purchase, sale or exchange of real estate, or to lease, rent or offer for rent any real estate, or to negotiate leases thereof, or of the improvements thereon.

Code 1950, § 54-731; 1974, c. 685; 1978, c. 138; 1984, c. 201; 1988, c. 765; 1992, c. 84; 1996, c. 993; 2018, cc. 223, 224.

§ 54.1-2101.1. Preparation of real estate contracts by real estate licensees; translation.

Notwithstanding any rule of court to the contrary, any person licensed under this chapter may prepare written contracts for the sale, purchase, option, exchange, or rental of real estate, provided that the preparation of such contracts is incidental to a real estate transaction in which the licensee (i) is involved and (ii) does not charge a separate fee for preparing the contracts.

If a party to a real estate transaction requests translation of a contract or other real estate document from the English language to another language, a licensee may assist such party in obtaining a translator or may refer such party to an electronic translation service. The licensee shall not charge a fee for such assistance or referral. In doing so, the licensee shall not be deemed to have breached any of his obligations under this chapter or otherwise become liable for any inaccuracies in the translation.

1997, cc. 200, 231; 2018, cc. 39, 87.

§ 54.1-2102. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1992, c. 84.

§ 54.1-2103. Exemptions from chapter.

A. The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to:

1. Any person, partnership, association, corporation, entity, or their regular employees, who as owner or lessor perform any of the acts enumerated in §§ 54.1-2100 and 54.1-2101 with reference to property owned or leased by them, where the acts are performed in the regular course of or incident to the management of the property and the investment therein. For property governed by Chapter 21 (§ 55-360 et seq.) of Title 55, the term "owner" for purposes of this subdivision shall include affiliated entities, provided that (i) the owner has a controlling interest in the affiliated entity or (ii) the affiliated entity and the owner have a common parent company;

2. Any person acting without compensation as attorney-in-fact under a power of attorney issued by a property owner solely for the purpose of authorizing the final performance required of such owner under a contract for the sale, lease, purchase, or exchange of real estate;

3. Service rendered by an attorney-at-law in the performance of his duties as such;

4. A person acting as a receiver, trustee in bankruptcy, administrator or executor, or any person selling real estate under order of any court;

5. A trustee acting under a trust agreement, deed of trust, or will, or the regular salaried employees thereof;

6. Any corporation managing rental housing when the officers, directors, and members in the ownership corporation and the management corporation are the same and the management corporation manages no other property for other persons, partnerships, associations, or corporations;

7. Any existing tenant of a residential dwelling unit who refers a prospective tenant to the owner of the unit or to the owner's duly authorized agent or employee and for the referral receives, or is offered, a referral fee from the owner, agent or employee;

8. Any auctioneer licensed in accordance with Chapter 6 (§ 54.1-600 et seq.) of this title selling real estate at public auction when employed for such purpose by the owner of the real estate and provided the bidding at such auction is held open for no longer than forty-eight hours. An auctioneer shall not advertise that he is authorized to sell real estate. An auctioneer may advertise for sale at public auction any real estate when employed to do so as herein provided, and may advertise that he is authorized to auction real estate at public auction;

9. [Expired.]

10. Any person who is licensed and is in good standing as a real estate broker or salesperson in another state, and who assists a prospective purchaser, tenant, optionee, or licensee located in another state to purchase, lease, option, or license an interest in commercial real estate, as defined in § 55-526, in the Commonwealth. Such real estate licensee from another state may be compensated by a real estate broker in the Commonwealth. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to permit any person not licensed and in good standing as a real estate broker or salesperson in the Commonwealth to otherwise act as a real estate broker or salesperson under this chapter.

B. The provisions of this chapter shall not prohibit the selling of real estate (i) by an attorney-at-law in the performance of his duties as such, (ii) by a receiver, trustee in bankruptcy, administrator or executor, a special commissioner or any person selling real estate under order of court, or (iii) by a trustee acting under the trust agreement, deed of trust or will, or the regular salaried employees thereof.

C. The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to any salaried person employed by a licensed real estate broker for and on behalf of the owner of any real estate or the improvements thereon which the licensed broker has contracted to manage for the owner if the actions of such salaried employee are limited to (i) exhibiting residential units on such real estate to prospective tenants, if the employee is employed on the premises of such real estate; (ii) providing prospective tenants with factual information about the lease of residential real estate; (iii) accepting applications for lease of such real estate; and (iv) accepting security deposits and rentals for such real estate. Such deposits and rentals shall be made payable to the owner or the broker employed by such owner. The salaried employee shall not negotiate the amounts of such security deposits or rentals and shall not negotiate any leases on behalf of such owner or broker.

D. A licensee of the Board shall comply with the Board's regulations, notwithstanding the fact that the licensee would be otherwise exempt from licensure under subsection A. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require a person to be licensed in accordance with this chapter if he would be otherwise exempt from such licensure.

E. An attorney-at-law referring a client to a licensee shall not be entitled to receive any compensation from a listing firm or offered by a common source information company to cooperating brokers, unless the attorney is also licensed under this chapter as a real estate broker or salesperson.

Code 1950, § 54-734; 1972, c. 324; 1973, cc. 487, 527; 1975, c. 238; 1980, c. 127; 1982, cc. 633, 682; 1988, c. 765; 1992, c. 84; 1993, cc. 816, 899; 1995, c. 227; 1998, cc. 261, 262; 2009, cc. 88, 262; 2015, cc. 24, 272.

§ 54.1-2104. Real Estate Board; membership; chairman; seal.

The Real Estate Board shall be composed of nine members as follows: seven members who have been licensed real estate brokers or salespersons for at least five consecutive years before their appointment and two citizen members. The terms of Board members shall be four years.

The Board shall elect a chairman from its membership.

The Board shall adopt a seal by which it shall authenticate its proceedings.

Code 1950, §§ 54-737, 54-738, 54-739, 54-744; 1956, c. 145; 1981, c. 447; 1984, c. 201; 1985, c. 448; 1988, cc. 42, 765; 1992, c. 809; 2010, c. 91.

§ 54.1-2105. General powers of Real Estate Board; regulations; educational and experience requirements for licensure.

A. The Board may do all things necessary and convenient for carrying into effect the provisions of this chapter and may promulgate necessary regulations.

B. The Board shall adopt regulations establishing minimum educational requirements as conditions for licensure. Board regulations relating to initial licensure shall include the following requirements:

1. Every applicant for an initial license as a real estate salesperson shall have:

a. At a minimum, a high school diploma or its equivalent; and

b. Completed a course in the principles of real estate that carried an academic credit of at least four semester hours, but not less than 60 hours of classroom, correspondence, or other distance learning instruction, offered by an accredited institution of higher education, high school offering adult distributive education courses, or other school or educational institution offering an equivalent course.

2. Every applicant for an initial license as a real estate broker shall have:

a. At a minimum, a high school diploma or its equivalent; and

b. Completed not less than 12 semester hours of classroom or correspondence or other distance learning instruction in real estate courses offered by an accredited institution of higher education or other school or educational institution offering equivalent courses.

3. Every applicant for a license by reciprocity as a real estate salesperson or real estate broker shall have:

a. Completed a course in the principles of real estate that is comparable in content and duration and scope to that required in subdivision 1 or 12 semester hours of classroom or correspondence or other distance learning instruction in real estate courses that are comparable in content and duration and scope to that required in subdivision 2; and

b. If currently licensed by another state as a real estate salesperson or broker, passed Virginia's examination.

C. The Board may waive any requirement under the regulations relating to education or experience when the broker or salesperson is found to have education or experience equivalent to that required. No regulation imposing educational requirements for initial licensure beyond those specified by law shall apply to any person who was licensed prior to July 1, 1975, and who has been continuously licensed since that time, except that licensure as a salesperson prior to such time shall not exempt a salesperson who seeks to be licensed as a broker from the educational requirements established for brokers.

D. The Board shall establish criteria to ensure that prelicensure and broker licensure courses meet the standards of quality deemed by the Board to be necessary to protect the public interests. For correspondence and other distance learning instruction offered by an approved provider, such criteria may include appropriate testing procedures. The Board may establish procedures to ensure the quality of the courses.

Noncollegiate institutions shall not be authorized to grant collegiate semester hours for academic credit.

The specific content of the real estate courses shall be in real estate brokerage, real estate finance, real estate appraisal, real estate law, and such related subjects as are approved by the Board.

E. The Board may establish criteria delineating the permitted activities of unlicensed individuals employed by real estate licensees or under the supervision of a real estate broker.

F. The Board may take a disciplinary case against a licensee under advisement, defer a finding in such case, and dismiss such action upon terms and conditions set by the Board.

Code 1950, § 54-740; 1974, c. 663; 1977, c. 3; 1980, c. 571; 1981, c. 117; 1984, cc. 201, 283; 1985, c. 116; 1988, cc. 9, 765; 1989, c. 244; 1991, c. 576; 1992, cc. 65, 446, 624, 717; 1995, c. 125; 1996, cc. 890, 903; 1997, c. 389; 1998, c. 268; 2000, c. 759; 2003, cc. 998, 1027; 2006, cc. 61, 627; 2007, c. 809; 2010, cc. 373, 637; 2012, c. 750; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2105.01. (Effective until January 1, 2019) Educational requirements for all salespersons within one year of licensure.

A. The Board shall establish guidelines for an educational curriculum of at least 30 hours of classroom, or correspondence or other distance learning, instruction, in specified areas, which shall be required of all salespersons within one year of issuance of a license by the Board. Failure of a new licensee to complete the 30-hour curriculum within one year of obtaining a real estate salesperson's license shall result in the license being placed on inactive status by the Board until the curriculum has been completed.

B. To establish the guidelines required by this section, the Board shall establish an industry advisory group composed of representatives of the practices of (i) residential real estate, (ii) commercial real estate, and (iii) property management. The industry advisory group shall consist of licensed real estate salespersons and real estate brokers who shall be appointed by and shall meet at the direction of the Board, at least annually, to update the guidelines. The Board shall review and may approve educational curricula developed by an approved school or other provider of real estate education authorized by this chapter. The industry advisory group shall serve at no cost to the Board.

C. The curricula for new licensees shall include topics that new licensees need to know in their practices, including contract writing, handling customer deposits, listing property, leasing property, agency, current industry issues and trends, flood hazard areas and the National Flood Insurance Program, property owners' and condominium association law, landlord-tenant law, Board regulations, and such other topics as designated by the Board. The continuing education requirements of this section for new licensees shall be in lieu of the continuing education requirements otherwise specified in this chapter and Board regulations.

2007, c. 809; 2011, c. 461; 2015, c. 692.

§ 54.1-2105.01. (Effective January 1, 2019) Educational requirements for all salespersons within one year of licensure.

A. The Board shall establish guidelines for a post-license educational curriculum of at least 30 hours of classroom, or correspondence or other distance learning, instruction, in specified areas, which shall be required of all salespersons within the initial year of licensure. Failure of a new licensee to complete the 30-hour post-licensure curriculum within one year from the last day of the month in which his license was issued shall result in the license being placed on inactive status by the Board until the curriculum has been completed.

B. To establish the guidelines required by this section, the Board shall establish an industry advisory group composed of representatives of the practices of (i) residential real estate, (ii) commercial real estate, and (iii) property management. The industry advisory group shall consist of licensed real estate salespersons and real estate brokers who shall be appointed by and shall meet at the direction of the Board to update the guidelines. The Board shall review and may approve educational curricula developed by an approved school or other provider of real estate education authorized by this chapter. The industry advisory group shall serve at no cost to the Board.

C. The curricula for new licensees shall include topics that new licensees need to know in their practices, including contract writing, handling customer deposits, listing property, leasing property, agency, current industry issues and trends, flood hazard areas and the National Flood Insurance Program, property owners' and condominium association law, landlord-tenant law, Board regulations, real estate-related finance, and such other topics as designated by the Board. The post-licensure education requirements of this section for new licensees shall be in lieu of the continuing education requirements otherwise specified in this chapter and Board regulations.

2007, c. 809; 2011, c. 461; 2015, c. 692; 2018, cc. 60, 86.

§ 54.1-2105.02. Regulation of real estate education providers and courses.

A. The Board may regulate any school that is established to offer real estate courses except such schools as are regulated by another state agency. Such authority shall include, but not be limited to, qualification of instructors, approval of course curricula, and requirement that such schools submit evidence of financial responsibility to ensure that these schools protect the public health, safety, and welfare.

B. Board regulations shall include a procedure for processing applications of educational institutions, real estate professional associations, or related entities, to provide continuing education courses, which procedure, at a minimum, shall (i) provide for a broad range of subject matters suitable for the continuing education of licensed professionals in a multifamily residential and commercial office, as well as single-family residential, sales, leasing and property management; (ii) acknowledge, in writing, receipt of such applications within 10 calendar days after receipt; and (iii) provide written notification to the applicant, within 75 calendar days of receipt of the application, whether the application has been approved or disapproved, and if disapproved, the reasons therefor. In addition, the Board shall prepare a comprehensive listing of courses, pre-approved by the Board, related to the professional competency requirements for the multifamily residential and commercial office industries.

Board regulations shall include criteria for evaluating and approving continuing education course credits and for awarding credit hours for such courses, as well as procedures for ensuring the quality of real estate courses. The Board shall approve recommended course titles, content, and hours of continuing education credit developed and published by national professional real estate trade associations, unless the Board determines in writing that such titles, content, or credit hours should not be approved and specifies the reasons therefor.

2007, c. 809.

§ 54.1-2105.03. Continuing education; relicensure of brokers and salespersons.

A. Board regulations shall include educational requirements as a condition for relicensure of brokers and salespersons to whom active licenses have been issued by the Board beyond those now specified by law as conditions for licensure.

1. Brokers to whom active licenses have been issued by the Board shall be required to satisfactorily complete courses of not less than 24 hours of classroom or correspondence or other distance learning instruction during each licensing term. Of the total 24 hours, the curriculum shall consist of:

a. A minimum of eight required hours to include at least three hours of ethics and standards of conduct, two hours of fair housing, and the remaining three hours of legal updates and emerging trends, flood hazard areas and the National Flood Insurance Program, real estate agency, and real estate contracts;

b. (Effective until January 1, 2019) A minimum of eight hours of courses relating to supervision and management of real estate agents and the management of real estate brokerage firms as are approved by the Board; and

b. (Effective January 1, 2019) A minimum of eight hours of courses relating to supervision and management of real estate agents and the management of real estate brokerage firms as are approved by the Board, two hours of which shall include an overview of the broker supervision requirements under this chapter and the Board regulations; and

c. Eight hours of general elective courses as are approved by the Board.

The Board may, on a year-by-year basis, adjust the required hours and course topics specified in this subdivision for the next succeeding year, applicable to a licensee in the next renewal period for his license, including the addition of topics deemed by the Board to be essential. Such designation or adjustment by the Board shall be made prior to September 1 of any given calendar year. The action of the Board in making such adjustment shall be subject to § 2.2-4012.1.

The fair housing requirements shall include an update on current cases and administrative decisions under fair housing laws. If the licensee submits a notarized affidavit to the Board that certifies that he does not practice residential real estate and shall not do so during the licensing term, training in fair housing shall not be required; instead, such licensee shall receive training in other applicable federal and state discrimination laws and regulations.

2. Salespersons to whom active licenses have been issued by the Board shall be required to satisfactorily complete courses of not less than 16 hours of classroom or correspondence or other distance learning instruction during each licensing term. Of the total 16 hours, the curriculum shall consist of:

a. A minimum of eight required hours to include at least three hours of ethics and standards of conduct, two hours of fair housing, and the remaining three hours of legal updates and emerging trends, real estate agency, real estate contracts, and flood hazard areas and the National Flood Insurance Program; and

b. Eight hours of general elective courses as are approved by the Board.

The Board may, on a year-by-year basis, readjust the required hours and course topics specified in this subdivision for the next succeeding year, applicable to a licensee in the next renewal period for his license, including the addition of topics deemed by the Board to be essential. Such designation or adjustment by the Board shall be made prior to September 1 of any given calendar year. The action of the Board in making such adjustment shall be subject to § 2.2-4012.1.

3. The Board shall approve a continuing education curriculum of not less than three hours, and as of July 1, 2012, every applicant for relicensure as an active broker or salesperson shall complete at a minimum one three-hour continuing education course on the changes to residential standard agency effective as of July 1, 2011, to Article 3 (§ 54.1-2130 et seq.) prior to renewal or reinstatement of his license. If the licensee submits a notarized affidavit to the Board that certifies that he does not practice residential real estate and shall not do so during the licensing term, training in residential representation shall not be required. A licensee who takes one three-hour continuing education class on residential representation shall satisfy the requirements for continuing education and may, but shall not be required to, take any further continuing education on residential standard agency.

The fair housing requirements shall include an update on current cases and administrative decisions under fair housing laws. If the licensee submits a notarized affidavit to the Board that certifies that he does not practice residential real estate and shall not do so during the licensing term, training in fair housing shall not be required; instead, such licensee shall receive training in other applicable federal and state discrimination laws and regulations.

4. For correspondence and other distance learning instruction offered by an approved provider, the Board shall establish the appropriate testing procedures to verify completion of the course and require the licensee to file a notarized affidavit certifying compliance with the course requirements. The Board may establish procedures to ensure the quality of the courses. The Board shall not require testing for continuing education courses completed through classroom instruction.

B. Every applicant for relicensure as an active salesperson or broker shall complete the continuing education requirements prior to each renewal or reinstatement of his license. The continuing education requirement shall also apply to inactive licensees who make application for an active license. Notwithstanding this requirement, military personnel called to active duty in the armed forces of the United States may complete the required continuing education within six months of their release from active duty.

C. The Board shall establish procedures for the carryover of continuing education credits completed by licensees from the licensee's current license period to the licensee's next renewal period.

D. The Board may grant exemptions or waive or reduce the number of continuing education hours required in cases of certified illness or undue hardship as demonstrated to the Board.

2007, c. 809; 2011, c. 461; 2012, c. 750; 2015, c. 692; 2016, c. 334; 2018, cc. 60, 86.

§ 54.1-2105.04. Education requirements; reactivation of licenses; waiver.

A. Board regulations shall include remedial educational requirements for any salesperson or broker who has been inactive for more than three years. The regulations shall require the applicant to meet the educational requirements for a salesperson or broker in effect at the time either becomes active.

B. When the license has been inactive for more than three years, the Board may waive the educational requirements for reactivation of a license under the following conditions: (i) during the time the license has been inactive, the holder of such inactive license has been engaged in an occupation whereby the knowledge of real estate would be retained or (ii) the holder of such license is a member or the spouse of a member of the armed forces of the United States who has been permanently assigned outside Virginia for a portion of the time the license has been inactive, and the holder of the inactive license remained current in the field of real estate and demonstrates this fact to the satisfaction of the Board.

C. The Board or its agent shall require proof of identity prior to an applicant taking the state examination.

2007, c. 809.

§ 54.1-2105.1. Other powers and duties of the Real Estate Board.

In addition to the provisions of §§ 54.1-2105.01 through 54.1-2105.04, the Board shall:

1. Develop a residential property disclosure statement form for use in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 27 (§ 55-517 et seq.) of Title 55 and maintain such statement on its website. The Board shall also develop and maintain on its website a one-page form to be signed by the parties acknowledging that the purchaser has been advised to review the residential property disclosure statement on the Board's website; and

2. Inform licensed brokers, in a manner deemed appropriate by the Board, of the broker's ability to designate an agent pursuant to § 54.1-2109 in the event of the broker's death or disability.

1993, c. 958; 2000, c. 759; 2007, cc. 265, 809; 2008, cc. 851, 871; 2011, c. 461; 2014, cc. 24, 705; 2018, cc. 60, 86.

§ 54.1-2105.2. Cease and desist orders for unlicensed activity; civil penalty.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Board may issue an order requiring any person to cease and desist from acting as a real estate broker or salesperson when such person is not licensed by the Board in accordance with this chapter. The order shall be effective upon its entry and shall become final unless such person files an appeal with the Board in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) within 21 days of the date of entry of the order.

B. If the person fails to cease and desist the unlicensed activity after entry of an order in accordance with subsection A, the Board may refer the matter for enforcement pursuant to § 54.1-306.

C. Any person engaging in unlicensed activity shall be subject to further proceedings before the Board and the Board may impose a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000 for any real estate transaction or the compensation received from any such real estate transaction, whichever is greater. Any penalties collected under this section shall be paid to the Literary Fund after deduction of the administrative costs of the Board in furtherance of this section.

2005, c. 437.

§ 54.1-2106. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1996, c. 993.

§ 54.1-2106.1. (Effective until January 1, 2019) Licenses required.

A. No business entity, other than a sole proprietorship, shall act, offer to act, or advertise to act, as a real estate firm without a real estate firm license from the Board. Such firm may be granted a license in a fictitious name. No business entity shall be granted a firm license unless (i) every managing member of a limited liability company, officer of a corporation, partner within a partnership, or associate within an association who actively participates in the firm brokerage business holds a license as a real estate broker; and (ii) every employee or independent contractor who acts as a salesperson for such business entity holds a license as a real estate salesperson or broker. An individual holding a broker's license may operate a real estate brokerage firm which he owns as a sole proprietorship without any further licensure by the Board, although such individual shall not operate the brokerage firm in a fictitious name. However, nothing herein shall be construed to prohibit a broker operating a brokerage firm from having a business entity separate from the brokerage firm for such broker's own real estate business, provided that such separate business entity otherwise complies with this section. A non-broker-owned sole proprietorship shall obtain a license from the Board.

B. No individual shall act as a broker without a real estate broker's license from the Board. An individual who holds a broker's license may act as a salesperson for another broker. A broker may be an owner, member, or officer of a business entity salesperson as defined in subsection C.

C. No individual shall act as a salesperson without a salesperson's license from the Board. A business entity may act as a salesperson with a separate business entity salesperson's license from the Board. No business entity shall be granted a business entity salesperson's license unless every owner or officer who actively participates in the brokerage business of such entity holds a license as a salesperson or broker from the Board. The Board shall establish standards in its regulations for the names of business entity salespersons when more than one licensee is an owner or officer.

1996, c. 993; 1998, c. 265; 1999, cc. 82, 105; 2008, c. 319; 2012, c. 750.

§ 54.1-2106.1. (Effective January 1, 2019) Licenses required.

A. No business entity, other than a sole proprietorship, shall act, offer to act, or advertise to act, as a real estate firm without a real estate firm license from the Board. Such firm may be granted a license in a fictitious name. No business entity shall be granted a firm license unless (i) every managing member of a limited liability company, officer of a corporation, partner within a partnership, or associate within an association who actively participates in the firm brokerage business holds a license as a real estate broker; and (ii) every employee or independent contractor who acts as a salesperson for such business entity holds a license as a real estate salesperson or broker. An individual holding a broker's license may operate a real estate brokerage firm which he owns as a sole proprietorship without any further licensure by the Board, although such individual shall not operate the brokerage firm in a fictitious name. However, nothing herein shall be construed to prohibit a broker operating a brokerage firm from having a business entity separate from the brokerage firm for such broker's own real estate business, provided that such separate business entity otherwise complies with this section. A non-broker-owned sole proprietorship shall obtain a license from the Board.

B. No individual shall act as a broker without a real estate broker's license from the Board. An individual who holds a broker's license may act as a salesperson for another broker. A broker may be an owner, member, or officer of a business entity salesperson as defined in subsection C.

C. No individual shall act as a salesperson without a salesperson's license from the Board. A business entity may act as a salesperson with a separate business entity salesperson's license from the Board. No business entity shall be granted a business entity salesperson's license unless every owner or officer who actively participates in the brokerage business of such entity holds a license as a salesperson or broker from the Board. The Board shall establish standards in its regulations for the names of business entity salespersons when more than one licensee is an owner or officer.

D. No group of individuals consisting of one or more real estate brokers or real estate salespersons, or a combination thereof, shall act as a real estate team without first obtaining a business entity salesperson's license from the Board. A real estate team may hire one or more unlicensed assistants as otherwise provided by law.

E. If any principal broker maintains more than one place of business within the Commonwealth, such principal broker shall be required to obtain a branch office license from the Board for each place of business maintained. A copy of the branch office license shall be kept on the premises of the branch office.

1996, c. 993; 1998, c. 265; 1999, cc. 82, 105; 2008, c. 319; 2012, c. 750; 2018, cc. 223, 224.

§ 54.1-2106.2. Certification of audit on renewal of firm or sole proprietorship license.

When submitting a renewal of any firm or sole proprietorship license, the principal broker or supervising broker of the firm shall certify that he has audited or has caused to be audited the operations, policies, and procedures of the firm to assure compliance with the provisions of this chapter and with regulations adopted by the Board. Such audit shall be conducted at least once during each term of licensure, and the completed audit form developed by the Board, signed by the principal or supervising broker, shall be kept on the premises of the firm or sole proprietorship and shall be produced for inspection or copying upon request by an authorized agent of the Board.

2012, c. 750.

§ 54.1-2107. Certain action to constitute real estate broker or salesperson.

One act for compensation or valuable consideration of buying or selling real estate of or for another, or offering for another to buy or sell or exchange real estate, or leasing, or renting, or offering to rent real estate, except as specifically excepted in § 54.1-2103, shall constitute the person, firm, partnership, copartnership, association or corporation, performing, offering or attempting to perform any of the acts enumerated above, a real estate broker or real estate salesperson.

Code 1950, § 54-732; 1984, c. 201; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-2108. Protection of escrow funds, etc., held by broker.

No licensee or any agent of the licensee shall divert or misuse any funds held in escrow or otherwise held by him for another. Where escrow funds or other funds are held by the licensee or his agents and the Real Estate Board or its agents have reason to believe that the licensee is not able to adequately protect the interests of persons involved, or his conduct threatens their interests, the Board shall file a petition with any court of record having equity jurisdiction over the licensee or any of the funds held by him stating the facts upon which it relies. The court may temporarily enjoin further activity by the licensee and take such further action as shall be necessary to conserve, protect and disburse the funds involved, including the appointment of a receiver. If a receiver is appointed his expenses and a reasonable fee as determined by the court shall be paid by the licensee. If the court finds him unable to make such payment, the Board shall determine whether the expenses and fees shall be paid from the Virginia Real Estate Transaction Recovery Fund or from funds received by the Board. Such determination shall be made within thirty days of the Board's receipt of the court-approved receiver invoices. If the court finds that the licensee was without fault and that he is found not to have violated any provisions of this chapter or of the regulations of the Board, then the receiver's expenses and fees shall be paid by the Board. Such payments shall be paid from funds received by the Board.

1973, c. 487, § 54-764.5; 1988, c. 765; 1997, c. 82; 1998, c. 29.

§ 54.1-2108.1. Protection of escrow funds, etc., held by a real estate broker in the event of foreclosure of real property; required deposits.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of law:

1. If a licensed real estate broker or an agent of the licensee is holding escrow funds for the owner of real property and such property is foreclosed upon, the licensee or an agent of the licensee shall have the right to file an interpleader action pursuant to § 16.1-77.

2. If there is in effect at the date of the foreclosure sale, a real estate purchase contract to buy the property foreclosed upon and the real estate purchase contract provides that the earnest money deposit held in escrow by a licensee shall be paid to a party to the contract in the event of a termination of the real estate purchase contract, the foreclosure shall be deemed a termination of the real estate purchase contract and the licensee or an agent of the licensee may, absent any default on the part of the purchaser, disburse the earnest money deposit to the purchaser pursuant to such provisions of the real estate purchase contract without further consent from, or notice to, the parties.

3. If there is in effect at the date of the foreclosure sale, a tenant in a residential dwelling unit foreclosed upon and the landlord is holding a security deposit of the tenant, the landlord shall handle the security deposit in accordance with applicable law, which requires the holder of the landlord's interest in the dwelling unit at the time of termination of tenancy to return any security deposit and any accrued interest that is duly owed to the tenant, whether or not such security deposit is transferred with the landlord's interest by law or equity, and regardless of any contractual agreements between the original landlord and his successors in interest. Nothing herein shall be construed to prevent the landlord from making lawful deductions from the security deposit in accordance with applicable law.

4. If there is in effect at the date of the foreclosure sale a tenant in a residential dwelling unit foreclosed upon pursuant to § 55-225.10, the foreclosure acts as a termination of the rental agreement by the landlord and the tenant may remain in possession of such dwelling. If rent is paid to a real estate licensee acting on behalf of the landlord as a managing agent, such property management agreement having been entered into prior to and in effect at the time of the foreclosure sale, the managing agent may collect the rent and shall place it into an escrow account by the end of the fifth business banking day following receipt.

5. If there is in effect at the date of the foreclosure sale a written property management agreement between the landlord and a real estate licensee licensed pursuant to the provisions of § 54.1-2106.1, the foreclosure shall convert the property management agreement into a month-to-month agreement between the successor landlord and the real estate licensee acting as a managing agent, except in the event that the terms of the original property management agreement between the landlord and the real estate licensee acting as a managing agent require an earlier termination date. Unless altered by the parties, the terms of the original property management agreement that existed between the landlord and the real estate licensee acting as a managing agent shall govern the agreement between the successor landlord and the real estate licensee acting as a managing agent. The property management agreement may be terminated by either party upon provision of written notice to the other party at least 30 days prior to the intended termination date. Any funds received or held by the real estate licensee acting as a managing agent shall be disbursed only in accordance with the terms of the property management agreement or as otherwise provided by law.

B. Notwithstanding any other provision of law:

1. Any prepaid rent paid more than one month prior to the rent due date to a real estate licensee acting on behalf of a landlord client in connection with the lease shall be placed in an escrow account by the end of the fifth business banking day following receipt, unless otherwise agreed to in writing by the principals to a lease transaction. Any rent paid less than one month prior to the rent due date shall be current rent and may be deposited into an operating account of the real estate licensee.

2. Any security deposits paid to a real estate licensee acting on behalf of a landlord client in connection with the lease shall be placed in an escrow account by the end of the fifth business banking day following receipt, unless otherwise agreed to in writing by the principals to a lease transaction.

3. Any application deposit as defined by § 55-248.4 paid by a prospective tenant for the purpose of being considered as a tenant for a dwelling unit to a real estate licensee acting on behalf of a landlord client shall be placed in escrow by the end of the fifth business banking day following approval of the rental application by the landlord, unless otherwise agreed to in writing by the principals to a lease transaction.

4. Such funds shall remain in an escrow account until disbursed in accordance with the terms of the lease, the property management agreement, or the applicable statutory provisions, as applicable.

5. Except in the event of foreclosure, if a real estate licensee acting on behalf of a landlord client as a managing agent elects to terminate the property management agreement, the licensee may transfer any funds held in escrow by the licensee on behalf of the landlord client to the landlord client without his consent, provided that the real estate licensee provides written notice to each tenant that the funds have been so transferred. In the event of foreclosure, a real estate licensee shall not transfer any funds to a landlord client whose property has been foreclosed upon.

6. A real estate licensee acting on behalf of a landlord client as a managing agent who complies with the provisions of this section shall have immunity from any liability for such compliance, in the absence of gross negligence or intentional misconduct.

2010, c. 181; 2013, c. 489; 2017, cc. 67, 394.

§ 54.1-2108.2. Protection of escrow funds, etc., held by a real estate broker in the event of termination of a real estate purchase contract.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for purchase transactions:

1. Upon the ratification of a contract, an earnest money deposit received by the principal broker or supervising broker or his associates shall be placed in an escrow account by the end of the fifth business banking day following ratification, unless otherwise agreed to in writing by the principals to the transaction, and shall remain in that account until the transaction has been consummated or terminated.

2. In the event that the transaction is not consummated, the principal broker or supervising broker shall hold such funds in escrow until (i) all principals to the transaction have agreed in a written agreement as to their disposition, upon which the funds shall be returned to the agreed-upon principal as provided in such written agreement; (ii) a court of competent jurisdiction orders such disbursement of the funds; (iii) the funds are successfully interpleaded into a court of competent jurisdiction pursuant to this section; or (iv) the broker releases the funds to the principal to the transaction who is entitled to receive them in accordance with the clear and explicit terms of the contract that established the earnest money deposit.

At the option of a broker, written notice may be sent by the broker that release of such funds shall be made unless a written protest is received from the principal who is not receiving the funds by such broker within 15 calendar days of the date of such notice. Notice of a disbursement shall be given to the parties to the transaction in accordance with the contract, but if the contract does not specify a method of delivery, one of the following methods complies with this section: (a) hand delivery; (b) United States mail, postage prepaid, provided that the sender retains sufficient proof of mailing, which may be either a United States postal certificate of mailing or a certificate of service prepared by the sender confirming such mailing; (c) electronic means, provided that the sender retains sufficient proof of the electronic delivery, which may be an electronic receipt of delivery, a confirmation that the notice was sent by facsimile, or a certificate of service prepared by the sender confirming the electronic delivery; or (d) overnight delivery using a commercial service or the United States Postal Service. Except as provided in the clear and explicit terms of the contract, no broker shall be required to make a determination as to the party entitled to receive the earnest money deposit. A broker who complies with this section shall be immune from liability to any of the parties to the contract.

3. A principal broker or supervising broker holding escrow funds for a principal to the transaction may seek to have a court of competent jurisdiction take custody of disputed or unclaimed escrow funds via an interpleader action pursuant to § 16.1-77.

4. If a principal broker or supervising broker is holding escrow funds for the owner of real property and such property is foreclosed upon by a lender, the principal broker or supervising broker shall have the right to file an interpleader action pursuant to § 16.1-77 and otherwise comply with the provisions of § 54.1-2108.1.

2018, cc. 60, 86.

§ 54.1-2109. Death or disability of a broker.

Upon the death or disability of a licensed real estate broker who was engaged in a proprietorship or who was the only licensed broker in a corporation or partnership, the Real Estate Board shall grant approval to carry on the business of the deceased or disabled broker for 180 days following the death or disability of the broker solely for the purpose of concluding the business of the deceased or disabled broker in the following order:

1. A personal representative qualified by the court to administer the deceased broker's estate.

2. If there is no personal representative qualified pursuant to subdivision 1, then an agent designated under a power of attorney of the disabled or deceased broker, which designation expressly references this section.

3. If there is no agent designated pursuant to subdivision 2, the executor nominated in the deceased broker's will.

4. If there is no executor nominated pursuant to subdivision 3, then an adult family member of the disabled or deceased broker.

5. If there is no adult family member nominated pursuant to subdivision 4, then an employee of the disabled or deceased broker.

In the event none of the foregoing is available or suitable, the Board may appoint any other suitable person to terminate the business within 180 days.

1984, c. 283, § 54-731.3; 1988, c. 765; 2014, cc. 24, 705.

§ 54.1-2110. Resident broker to maintain place of business in Virginia.

Every resident real estate broker shall maintain a place of business in this Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 54-733; 1981, c. 34; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-2110.1. (Effective until January 1, 2019) Duties of supervising broker.

A. Each place of business and each branch office shall be supervised by a supervising broker. The supervising broker shall exercise reasonable and adequate supervision of the provision of real estate brokerage services by associate brokers and salespersons assigned to the branch office. The supervising broker may designate another broker to assist in administering the provisions required by this section, but such designation shall not relieve the supervising broker of responsibility for the supervision of the acts of all licensees assigned to the branch office.

B. As used in this section, "reasonable and adequate supervision" by the supervising broker shall include the following:

1. Being available to all licensees under his supervision at reasonable times to review and approve all documents, including leases, contracts, brokerage agreements, and advertising as may affect the firm's clients and business;

2. Ensuring the availability of training opportunities and that the office has written procedures and policies that provide clear guidance in the following areas:

a. Handling of escrow deposits in compliance with law and regulation;

b. Complying with federal and state fair housing laws and regulations if the firm engages in residential brokerage, residential leasing, or residential property management;

c. Advertising and marketing of the brokerage firm;

d. Negotiating and drafting of contracts, leases, and brokerage agreements;

e. Exercising appropriate oversight and limitations on the use of unlicensed assistants, whether as part of a team arrangement or otherwise;

f. Creating agency or independent contractor relationships and elements thereof;

g. Distributing information on new or amended laws or regulations; and

h. Disclosing required information relating to the physical condition of real property;

3. Ensuring that the brokerage services are carried out competently and in accordance with the provisions of this chapter; and

4. Maintaining the records required by this subsection for three years. The records shall be furnished to the Board's agent upon request.

C. Any supervising broker who resides more than 50 miles from a branch office under his supervision, having licensees who regularly conduct business assigned to such branch office, shall certify in writing quarterly on a form provided by the Board that the supervising broker has complied with the requirements of this section.

D. No later than January 1, 2017, the supervising broker for a branch office shall provide to the Board the name and license number of the supervising broker for the branch office. Thereafter, upon the renewal of the license of each licensee working in such branch office or upon the transfer of a licensee to such office, the broker shall provide to the Board the name and license number of each real estate licensee working in the branch office on the broker acknowledgement form created by the Board.

2012, c. 750; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2110.1. (Effective January 1, 2019) Duties of supervising broker.

A. Each place of business, each branch office, and each real estate team shall be supervised by a supervising broker. The supervising broker shall exercise reasonable and adequate supervision of the provision of real estate brokerage services by associate brokers and salespersons assigned to the branch office or real estate team. The supervising broker may designate another broker to assist in administering the provisions required by this section, but such designation shall not relieve the supervising broker of responsibility for the supervision of the acts of all licensees assigned to the branch office or real estate team.

B. As used in this section, "reasonable and adequate supervision" by the supervising broker shall include the following:

1. Being available to all licensees under his supervision at reasonable times to review and approve all documents, including leases, contracts, brokerage agreements, and advertising as may affect the firm's clients and business;

2. Ensuring the availability of training opportunities and that the office has written procedures and policies that provide clear guidance in the following areas:

a. Handling of escrow deposits in compliance with law and regulation;

b. Complying with federal and state fair housing laws and regulations if the firm engages in residential brokerage, residential leasing, or residential property management;

c. Advertising and marketing of the brokerage firm and any affiliated real estate teams or business entities;

d. Negotiating and drafting of contracts, leases, and brokerage agreements;

e. Exercising appropriate oversight and limitations on the use of unlicensed assistants, whether as part of a team arrangement or otherwise;

f. Creating agency or independent contractor relationships and elements thereof;

g. Distributing information on new or amended laws or regulations; and

h. Disclosing required information relating to the physical condition of real property;

3. Ensuring that the brokerage services are carried out competently and in accordance with the provisions of this chapter;

4. Undertaking reasonable steps to ensure compliance by all licensees assigned to a branch office with the provisions of this chapter and applicable Board regulations, including ensuring that licensees possess a current license issued by the Board;

5. Ensuring that affiliated real estate teams or business entities are operating in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and applicable Board regulations;

6. Ensuring that brokerage agreements include the name and contact information of the supervising broker; and

7. Maintaining the records required by this subsection for three years. The records shall be furnished to the Board's agent upon request.

C. Any supervising broker who resides more than 50 miles from a branch office under his supervision, having licensees who regularly conduct business assigned to such branch office, shall certify in writing quarterly on a form provided by the Board that the supervising broker has complied with the requirements of this section.

D. As a condition of the renewal of a branch office license, the supervising broker shall provide to the Board the name and license number of each real estate licensee affiliated with the branch office at the time of the renewal in a format deemed acceptable by the Board.

2012, c. 750; 2016, c. 334; 2018, cc. 223, 224.

§ 54.1-2111. Consent to suits and service of process by nonresidents; manner of service.

A. Every nonresident applicant shall file with the Real Estate Board an irrevocable consent that suits and actions may be commenced against such applicant in the proper court of any county or city of this Commonwealth in which a cause of action may arise or in which the plaintiff may reside, by the service of any process or pleading authorized by the laws of this Commonwealth on the Director of the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation. The consent shall stipulate that such service of process or pleadings on the Director shall be taken and held in all courts to be as valid and binding as if due service had been made upon the applicant in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

B. Any process or pleadings served upon the Director shall be filed by the Director in his office and a copy thereof immediately forwarded by registered mail to the main office of the licensee at the last known address.

Code 1950, §§ 54-773, 54-774; 1988, c. 765; 1993, c. 499.

§ 54.1-2111.1. Voluntary compliance program; real estate brokers.

A. The Board shall promulgate regulations to allow the audit of the practices, policies, and procedures of a real estate broker licensed by the Board, either through a third party retained by the real estate broker or through a self-audit, and if the broker is determined by such audit to not be in compliance with the provisions of this chapter or applicable regulations of the Board, to allow for the broker to enter into a voluntary compliance program to bring the broker's practices, policies, and procedures into compliance with applicable laws and regulations. The broker shall notify the Board of the discovery of any noncompliance within 30 days after discovery and shall submit a written statement with a plan to bring the practices, policies, and procedures into voluntary compliance, which completion of such voluntary compliance shall not exceed a period of 90 days from the date that the plan is submitted to the Board.

B. Certification by the broker or auditor of such broker shall constitute immunity from an enforcement action under this chapter or under the applicable regulations of the Board.

C. The provisions of this section do not apply if the noncompliance by the broker was intentional or a result of gross negligence of the broker.

2010, cc. 373, 637.

Article 2. Virginia Real Estate Transaction Recovery Act.

§ 54.1-2112. Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Act" means the Virginia Real Estate Transaction Recovery Act.

"Balance of the fund" means cash, securities that are legal investments for fiduciaries under the provisions of subdivisions A 1, 2, and 4 of § 2.2-4519, and repurchase agreements secured by obligations of the United States government or any agency thereof, and shall not mean accounts receivable, judgments, notes, accrued interest, or other obligations payable to the fund.

"Board" means the Real Estate Board.

"Claimant" means any person with an unsatisfied judgment against a regulant, who has filed a verified claim under this act.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Fund" means the Virginia Real Estate Transaction Recovery Fund.

"Improper or dishonest conduct" includes only the wrongful and fraudulent taking or conversion of money, property or other things of value or material misrepresentation or deceit.

"Judgment" includes an order of a United States Bankruptcy Court (i) declaring a claim against a regulant who is in bankruptcy to be a "Debt Nondischargeable in Bankruptcy," (ii) extinguishing a claim against a regulant who is in bankruptcy and for which claim no distribution was made from the regulant's bankruptcy estate but excluding any such claim disallowed by order of the bankruptcy court, or (iii) extinguishing a claim against a regulant who is in bankruptcy and for which claim only partial distribution was made from the regulant's bankruptcy estate. An order of dismissal shall not be considered a judgment.

"Regulant" means a person, partnership, association, corporation, agency, firm or any other entity licensed by the Real Estate Board as a real estate broker or real estate salesperson.

"Verified claim" means a completed application, on a form designed by the Board, the truthfulness of which has been attested to by the claimant before a notary public, along with all required supporting documentation, that has been properly received by the Department in accordance with this chapter.

1977, c. 69, § 54-765.2; 1984, cc. 266, 283; 1985, c. 448; 1987, c. 555; 1988, c. 765; 1992, c. 348; 1993, c. 499; 2015, c. 409.

§ 54.1-2113. Establishment and maintenance of fund, duty of Director, assessments of regulants.

A. Each initial regulant at the time of licensure shall be assessed $20, which shall be specifically assigned to the fund. Initial payments may be incorporated in any application fee payment and transferred to the fund by the Director within 30 days.

B. All assessments, except initial assessments, for the fund shall be deposited, within three work days after their receipt by the Director, in one or more federally insured banks, savings and loan associations or savings banks located in the Commonwealth. Funds deposited in banks, savings and loan associations or savings banks, to the extent in excess of insurance afforded by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or other federal insurance agency, shall be secured under the Security for Public Deposits Act (§ 2.2-4400 et seq.). The deposit of these funds in federally insured banks, savings institutions or savings banks located in the Commonwealth shall not be considered investment of such funds for purposes of this section. Funds maintained by the Director may be invested in securities that are legal investments for fiduciaries under the provisions of § 64.2-1502. The Director shall maintain in his office an accurate record of all transactions involving the fund, which records shall be open for inspection and copying by the public during the normal business hours of the Director.

C. The minimum balance of the fund shall be $400,000. Whenever the Director determines that the balance of the fund is or will be less than such minimum balance, the Director shall immediately inform the Board. At the same time, the Director may recommend that the Board transfer a fixed amount of interest earnings to the fund to bring the balance of the fund to the amount required by this subsection. Such transfer of interest shall be considered by the Board within 30 days of the notification of the Director.

D. If available interest earnings are insufficient to bring the balance of the fund to the minimum amount required by this section, or if a transfer of available interest earnings to the fund has not occurred, the Board shall assess each regulant within 30 days of notification by the Director, a sum sufficient to bring the balance of the fund to the required minimum amount. The Board may order an assessment of regulants at any time in addition to any required assessment. No regulant shall be assessed a total amount of more than $20 during any biennial license period or part thereof, the biennial period expiring on June 30 of each even-numbered year. Assessments of regulants made pursuant to this subsection may be issued by the Board (i) after a determination made by it or (ii) at the time of license renewal.

E. At the close of each fiscal year, whenever the balance of the fund exceeds $2 million, the amount in excess of $2 million shall be transferred to the Virginia Housing Trust Fund established pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 36-141 et seq.) of Title 36. Except for transfers pursuant to this subsection, there shall be no transfers out of the fund, including transfers to the general fund, regardless of the balance of the fund.

F. If the Board determines that all regulants will be assessed concurrently, notice to the regulants of such assessments shall be by first-class mail, and payment of such assessments shall be made by first-class mail to the Director within 45 days after the mailing to regulants of such notice.

If the Board determines that all regulants will be assessed in conjunction with license renewal, notice to the regulants may be included with the license renewal notice issued by the Board. The assessment shall be due with the payment of the license renewal fees. No license shall be renewed or reinstated until any outstanding assessments are paid.

G. If any regulant fails to remit the required payment mailed in accordance with subsection F within 45 days of the mailing, the Director shall notify the regulant by first-class mail at the latest address of record filed with the Board. If no payment has been received by the Director within 30 days after mailing the second notice, the license shall be automatically suspended. The license shall be restored only upon the actual receipt by the Director of the delinquent assessment.

H. The costs of administering the act shall be paid out of interest earned on deposits constituting the fund. The remainder of the interest, at the discretion of the Board, may (i) be used for providing research and education on subjects of benefit to real estate regulants or members of the public, (ii) be transferred to the Virginia Housing Trust Fund, or (iii) accrue to the fund in accordance with subsection C.

1977, c. 69, § 54-765.3; 1982, c. 6; 1984, c. 266; 1987, c. 555; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 3; 1992, cc. 348, 810; 1997, c. 82; 2007, c. 791; 2013, c. 754.

§ 54.1-2114. Recovery from fund generally.

A. The claimant shall not himself be (i) a regulant, (ii) the personal representative of a regulant, (iii) the spouse or child of the regulant against whom the judgment was awarded or the personal representative of such spouse or child, or (iv) a lending or financial institution or any person whose business involves the construction or development of real property.

B. Whenever any person is awarded a final judgment in any court of competent jurisdiction in the Commonwealth of Virginia against any individual or entity for improper or dishonest conduct as defined in the act, and the improper or dishonest conduct occurred during a period when the individual or entity was a regulant and occurred in connection with a transaction involving the sale, lease, or management of real property by the regulant acting in the capacity of a real estate broker or real estate salesperson and not in the capacity of a principal, or on his own account, the person to whom such judgment was awarded may file a verified claim with the Director for a directive ordering payment from the fund of the amount unpaid upon the judgment, subject to the following conditions:

1. If any action is instituted against a regulant by any person, such person shall serve a copy of the complaint upon the Board by certified mail or the equivalent.

2. A copy of any pleading or document filed subsequent to the initial service of process in the action against a regulant shall be provided to the Board. The claimant shall submit such copies to the Board by certified mail, or the equivalent, upon his receipt of the pleading or document.

3. A verified claim shall be filed with the Director no later than 12 months after the date of entry of the final judgment from which no further right of appeal exists.

4. Prior to submitting a verified claim, the claimant shall:

a. Conduct or make a reasonable attempt to conduct debtor's interrogatories to determine whether the judgment debtor has any assets, including any listings held by the regulant and any commissions due thereby; and

b. Take all legally available actions for the sale or application of any assets disclosed in the debtor's interrogatories.

5. If the judgment debtor has filed bankruptcy, the claimant shall file a claim with the proper bankruptcy court. If no distribution is made, or the distribution ordered fails to satisfy the claim, the claimant may then file a claim with the Board. The verified claim shall be received by the Board within 12 months of the date of bankruptcy discharge or dismissal. In the event the judgment is silent as to the conduct of the regulant, the Board shall determine (i) whether the conduct of the regulant that gave rise to the claim was improper or dishonest as defined in § 54.1-2112 and (ii) what amount, if any, such claimant is entitled to recover from the Fund.

C. The Department shall promptly consider the verified claim. If it appears that a prima facie case has been made for payment of the claim, the Department shall provide the regulant with a notice offering the opportunity to be heard at an informal fact-finding conference pursuant to § 2.2-4019 of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Such notice shall state that if the regulant does not request an informal fact-finding conference within 30 days, with three days added in instances where the notice is sent by mail, the Department shall present the claim to the Board with a recommendation to pay the verified claim.

D. A claimant shall not be denied recovery from the Fund due to the fact that the order for judgment filed with the verified claim does not contain a specific finding of improper or dishonest conduct. Any language in the order that supports the conclusion that the court found that the conduct of the regulant meets the definition of improper or dishonest conduct in § 54.1-2112 shall be used by the Board to determine eligibility for recovery from the Fund. To the extent the judgment order is silent as to the court's findings on the conduct of the regulant, the Board may determine whether the conduct of the regulant meets the definition of improper or dishonest conduct by substantial evidence in the verified claim.

E. If the Board finds that there has been compliance with the statutory conditions to which reference is made in this section, the Board shall issue a directive ordering payment to the claimant from the fund the amount unpaid on the judgment, subject to the limitations set forth in § 54.1-2116. The claimant shall be notified in writing of the findings of the Board. The Board's findings shall be considered a "case decision" and judicial review of these findings shall be in accordance with § 2.2-4025 of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Board shall have the right to appeal a decision of any court which is contrary to any distribution recommended or authorized by it.

1977, c. 69, § 54-765.4; 1984, c. 266; 1987, c. 555; 1988, c. 765; 1996, c. 115; 2006, c. 723; 2015, c. 409.

§ 54.1-2115. Investigations.

Upon receipt of the notice of proceedings against the regulant, the Department may cause its own investigation to be conducted pursuant to § 54.1-306.

1987, c. 555, § 54-765.4:1; 1988, c. 765; 2015, c. 409.

§ 54.1-2116. Limitations upon recovery from fund; certain actions not a bar to recovery.

A. The aggregate of claims by claimants against the fund based upon unpaid judgments arising out of the improper or dishonest conduct of one regulant in connection with a single transaction involving the sale, lease, or management of real property, is limited to $50,000. If a claim has been made against the fund, and the Board has reason to believe that there may be additional claims against the fund arising out of the same transaction, the Board may withhold any payment(s) from the fund for a period of not more than one year. After such one-year period, if the aggregate of claims arising out of the same transaction exceeds $50,000, such $50,000 shall be prorated by the Board among the claimants and paid from the fund in proportion to the amounts of their judgments against the regulant remaining unpaid.

B. The maximum claim of one claimant against the fund based upon an unpaid judgment arising out of the improper or dishonest conduct of one regulant in connection with a single transaction involving the sale, lease, or management of real property, shall be limited to $20,000, regardless of the number of claimants and regardless of the amount of the unpaid judgment of the claimant.

C. The aggregate of claims against the fund based upon unpaid judgments arising out of the improper or dishonest conduct of one regulant in connection with more than a single transaction involving the sale, lease, or management of real property is limited to $100,000 during any biennial license period, the biennial periods expiring on June 30 of each even-numbered year. If a claim has been made against the fund, and the Board has reason to believe that there may be additional claims against the fund from other transactions involving the same regulant, the Board may withhold any payment(s) from the fund involving such regulant for a period of not more than one year. After the one-year period, if the aggregate of claims against the regulant exceeds $100,000, such $100,000 shall be prorated by the Board among the claimants and paid from the fund in proportion to the amounts of their judgments against the regulant remaining unpaid.

D. Excluded from the amount of any unpaid judgment upon which a claim against the fund is based shall be any sums included in the judgment which represent interest, or punitive damages. The claim against the fund may include court costs and attorney fees.

E. If, at any time, the amount of the fund is insufficient to satisfy any claims, claim, or portion thereof filed with the Board and authorized by the act, the Board shall, when the amount of the fund is sufficient to satisfy some or all of such claims, claim, or portion thereof, pay the claimants in the order that such claims were filed with the Board.

F. Failure of a claimant to comply with the provisions of subdivisions B 1 and 2 of § 54.1-2114 and the provisions of § 54.1-2117 shall not be a bar to recovery under this act if the claimant is otherwise entitled to such recovery.

1977, c. 69, § 54-765.5; 1987, c. 555; 1988, c. 765; 2015, cc. 409, 710.

§ 54.1-2117. Participation by Board in proceedings.

Upon service of the complaint as provided in subdivision B 1 of § 54.1-2114, the Board, the Director, or duly authorized representatives of the Board shall then have the right to request leave of court to intervene.

1977, c. 69, § 54-765.6; 1987, c. 555; 1988, c. 765; 2015, c. 409.

§ 54.1-2118. Payment of claim; assignment of claimant's rights to Board.

The Director shall, subject to the provisions of § 54.1-2116, pay to the claimant from the fund such amount as shall be directed by the Board upon the execution and delivery to the Director by such claimant of an assignment to the Board of the claimant's rights against the regulant to the extent that such rights were satisfied from the fund.

1977, c. 69, § 54-765.7; 1987, c. 555; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-2119. Revocation of license of regulant upon payment from fund.

Upon payment by the Director to a claimant from the fund as provided in § 54.1-2118, the Board shall immediately revoke the license of the regulant whose improper or dishonest conduct, as defined in the act, resulted in payment from the fund. The regulant whose license was so revoked shall not be eligible to apply for a license as a real estate broker or real estate salesperson until he has repaid in full the amount paid from the fund on his account, plus interest at the judgment rate of interest from the date of payment from the fund.

1977, c. 69, § 54-765.8; 1984, c. 266; 1987, c. 555; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-2120. No waiver by Board of disciplinary action against regulant.

Nothing contained in this article shall limit the authority of the Board to take disciplinary action against any regulant for any violation of this chapter or Board regulations, nor shall the repayment in full by a regulant of the amount paid from the fund on such regulant's account nullify or modify the effect of any disciplinary proceeding against such regulant for any such violation.

1977, c. 69, § 54-765.9; 1978, c. 129; 1987, c. 555; 1988, c. 765.

Article 3. Duties of Real Estate Brokers and Salespersons.

§ 54.1-2130. Definitions.

As used in this article:

"Agency" means every relationship in which a real estate licensee acts for or represents a person as an agent by such person's express authority in a commercial or residential real estate transaction, unless a different legal relationship is intended and is agreed to as part of the brokerage agreement. Nothing in this article shall prohibit a licensee and a client from agreeing in writing to a brokerage relationship under which the licensee acts as an independent contractor or which imposes on a licensee obligations in addition to those provided in this article. If a licensee agrees to additional obligations, however, the licensee shall be responsible for the additional obligations agreed to with the client in the brokerage agreement. A real estate licensee who enters into a brokerage relationship based upon a written brokerage agreement that specifically states that the real estate licensee is acting as an independent contractor and not as an agent shall have the obligations agreed to by the parties in the brokerage agreement, and such real estate licensee and its employees shall comply with the provisions of subdivisions A 3 through 7 and subsections B and E of § 54.1-2131; subdivisions A 3 through 7 and subsections B and E of § 54.1-2132; subdivisions A 3 through 7 and subsections B and E of § 54.1-2133; subdivisions A 3 through 7 and subsections B and E of § 54.1-2134; and subdivisions A 2 through 6 and subsections C and D of § 54.1-2135 but otherwise shall have no obligations under §§ 54.1-2131 through 54.1-2135. Any real estate licensee who acts for or represents a client in an agency relationship in a residential real estate transaction shall either represent such client as a standard agent or a limited service agent.

"Agent" means a real estate licensee who is acting as (i) a standard agent in a residential real estate transaction, (ii) a limited service agent in a residential real estate transaction, or (iii) an agent in a commercial real estate transaction.

"Brokerage agreement" means the written agreement creating a brokerage relationship between a client and a licensee. The brokerage agreement shall state whether the real estate licensee will represent the client as an agent or an independent contractor.

"Brokerage relationship" means the contractual relationship between a client and a real estate licensee who has been engaged by such client for the purpose of procuring a seller, buyer, option, tenant, or landlord ready, able, and willing to sell, buy, option, exchange or rent real estate on behalf of a client.

"Client" means a person who has entered into a brokerage relationship with a licensee.

"Commercial real estate" means any real estate other than (i) real estate containing one to four residential units or (ii) real estate classified for assessment purposes under § 58.1-3230. Commercial real estate shall not include single family residential units, including condominiums, townhouses, apartments, or homes in a subdivision when leased on a unit by unit basis even though these units may be part of a larger building or parcel of real estate containing more than four residential units.

"Common source information company" means any person, firm, or corporation that is a source, compiler, or supplier of information regarding real estate for sale or lease and other data and includes, but is not limited to, multiple listing services.

"Customer" means a person who has not entered into a brokerage relationship with a licensee but for whom a licensee performs ministerial acts in a real estate transaction. Unless a licensee enters into a brokerage relationship with such person, it shall be presumed that such person is a customer of the licensee rather than a client.

"Designated agent" or "designated representative" means a licensee who has been assigned by a principal or supervising broker to represent a client when a different client is also represented by such principal or broker in the same transaction. A designated representative shall only act as an independent contractor.

"Dual agent" or "dual representative" means a licensee who has a brokerage relationship with both seller and buyer, or both landlord and tenant, in the same real estate transaction. A dual agent has an agency relationship under brokerage agreements with the clients. A dual representative has an independent contractor relationship under brokerage agreements with the clients. A dual representative shall only act as an independent contractor.

"Independent contractor" means a real estate licensee who (i) enters into a brokerage relationship based upon a brokerage agreement that specifically states that the real estate licensee is acting as an independent contractor and not as an agent; (ii) shall have the obligations agreed to by the parties in the brokerage agreement; and (iii) shall comply with the provisions of subdivisions A 3 through 7 and subsections B and E of § 54.1-2131; subdivisions A 3 through 7 and subsections B and E of § 54.1-2132; subdivisions A 3 through 7 and subsections B and E of § 54.1-2133; subdivisions A 3 through 7 and subsections B and E of § 54.1-2134; and subdivisions A 2 through 6 and subsections C and D of § 54.1-2135 but otherwise shall have no obligations under §§ 54.1-2131 through 54.1-2135.

"Licensee" means real estate brokers and salespersons as defined in Article 1 (§ 54.1-2100 et seq.).

"Limited service agent" means a licensee who acts for or represents a client in a residential real estate transaction pursuant to a brokerage agreement that provides that the limited service agent will not provide one or more of the duties set forth in subdivision A 2 of §§ 54.1-2131, 54.1-2132, 54.1-2133, and 54.1-2134, inclusive. A limited service agent shall have the obligations set out in the brokerage agreement, except that a limited service agent shall provide the client, at the time of entering the brokerage agreement, copies of any and all disclosures required by federal or state law, or local disclosures expressly authorized by state law, and shall disclose to the client the following in writing: (i) the rights and obligations of the client under the Virginia Residential Property Disclosure Act (§ 55-517 et seq.); (ii) if the client is selling a condominium, the rights and obligations of the client to deliver to the purchasers, or to receive as purchaser, the condominium resale certificate required by § 55-79.97; and (iii) if the client is selling a property subject to the Property Owners' Association Act (§ 55-508 et seq.), the rights and obligations of the client to deliver to the purchasers, or to receive as purchaser, the association disclosure packet required by § 55-509.5.

"Ministerial acts" means those routine acts which a licensee can perform for a person which do not involve discretion or the exercise of the licensee's own judgment.

"Property management agreement" means the written agreement between a property manager and the owner of real estate for the management of the real estate.

"Residential real estate" means real property containing from one to four residential dwelling units and the sale of lots containing one to four residential dwelling units.

"Standard agent" means a licensee who acts for or represents a client in an agency relationship in a residential real estate transaction. A standard agent shall have the obligations as provided in this article and any additional obligations agreed to by the parties in the brokerage agreement.

1995, cc. 741, 813; 2006, c. 627; 2008, cc. 851, 871; 2011, c. 461; 2012, c. 750; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2131. Licensees engaged by sellers.

A. A licensee engaged by a seller shall:

1. Perform in accordance with the terms of the brokerage agreement;

2. Promote the interests of the seller by:

a. Conducting marketing activities on behalf of the seller in accordance with the brokerage agreement. In so doing, the licensee shall seek a sale at the price and terms agreed upon in the brokerage agreement or at a price and terms acceptable to the seller; however, the licensee shall not be obligated to seek additional offers to purchase the property while the property is subject to a contract of sale, unless agreed to as part of the brokerage agreement or as the contract of sale so provides;

b. Assisting in the drafting and negotiating of offers and counteroffers, amendments, and addenda to the real estate contract pursuant to § 54.1-2101.1 and in establishing strategies for accomplishing the seller's objectives;

c. Receiving and presenting in a timely manner written offers and counteroffers to and from the seller and purchasers, even when the property is already subject to a contract of sale; and

d. Providing reasonable assistance to the seller to satisfy the seller's contract obligations and to facilitate settlement of the purchase contract;

3. Maintain confidentiality of all personal and financial information received from the client during the brokerage relationship and any other information that the client requests during the brokerage relationship be maintained confidential, unless otherwise provided by law or the seller consents in writing to the release of such information;

4. Exercise ordinary care;

5. Account in a timely manner for all money and property received by the licensee in which the seller has or may have an interest;

6. Disclose to the seller material facts related to the property or concerning the transaction of which the licensee has actual knowledge; and

7. Comply with all requirements of this article, all fair housing statutes and regulations for residential real estate transactions as applicable, and all other applicable statutes and regulations which are not in conflict with this article.

B. Licensees shall treat all prospective buyers honestly and shall not knowingly give them false information. A licensee engaged by a seller shall disclose to prospective buyers all material adverse facts pertaining to the physical condition of the property which are actually known by the licensee. If a licensee has actual knowledge of the existence of defective drywall in a residential property, the licensee shall disclose the same to the prospective buyer. For purposes of this section, "defective drywall" means all defective drywall as defined in § 36-156.1. As used in this section, the term "physical condition of the property" shall refer to the physical condition of the land and any improvements thereon, and shall not refer to (i) matters outside the boundaries of the land or relating to adjacent or other properties in proximity thereto, (ii) matters relating to governmental land use regulations, or (iii) matters relating to highways or public streets. Such disclosure shall be made in writing. No cause of action shall arise against any licensee for revealing information as required by this article or applicable law. Nothing in this article shall limit in any way the provisions of the Virginia Residential Property Disclosure Act (§ 55-517 et seq.) applicable to residential real estate transactions.

C. A licensee engaged by a seller in a real estate transaction may, unless prohibited by law or the brokerage agreement, provide assistance to a buyer or potential buyer by performing ministerial acts. Performing such ministerial acts that are not inconsistent with subsection A shall not be construed to violate the licensee's brokerage agreement with the seller unless expressly prohibited by the terms of the brokerage agreement, nor shall performing such ministerial acts be construed to form a brokerage relationship with such buyer or potential buyer.

D. A licensee engaged by a seller does not breach any duty or obligation owed to the seller by showing alternative properties to prospective buyers, whether as clients or customers, or by representing other sellers who have other properties for sale.

E. Licensees in residential real estate transactions shall disclose brokerage relationships pursuant to the provisions of this article.

F. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a licensee to disclose whether settlement services under Chapter 27.3 (§ 55-525.16 et seq.) of Title 55 will be provided by an attorney or a nonattorney settlement agent.

1995, cc. 741, 813; 2006, c. 627; 2008, c. 741; 2011, cc. 34, 46, 461; 2012, c. 750; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2132. Licensees engaged by buyers.

A. A licensee engaged by a buyer shall:

1. Perform in accordance with the terms of the brokerage agreement;

2. Promote the interests of the buyer by:

a. Seeking a property of a type acceptable to the buyer and at a price and on terms acceptable to the buyer; however, the licensee shall not be obligated to seek other properties for the buyer while the buyer is a party to a contract to purchase property unless agreed to as part of the brokerage relationship;

b. Assisting in the drafting and negotiating of offers and counteroffers, amendments, and addenda to the real estate contract pursuant to § 54.1-2101.1 and in establishing strategies for accomplishing the buyer's objectives;

c. Receiving and presenting in a timely manner all written offers or counteroffers to and from the buyer and seller, even when the buyer is already a party to a contract to purchase property; and

d. Providing reasonable assistance to the buyer to satisfy the buyer's contract obligations and to facilitate settlement of the purchase contract;

3. Maintain confidentiality of all personal and financial information received from the client during the brokerage relationship and any other information that the client requests during the brokerage relationship be maintained confidential unless otherwise provided by law or the buyer consents in writing to the release of such information;

4. Exercise ordinary care;

5. Account in a timely manner for all money and property received by the licensee in which the buyer has or may have an interest;

6. Disclose to the buyer material facts related to the property or concerning the transaction of which the licensee has actual knowledge; and

7. Comply with all requirements of this article, all fair housing statutes and regulations for residential real estate transactions as applicable, and all other applicable statutes and regulations which are not in conflict with this article.

B. Licensees shall treat all prospective sellers honestly and shall not knowingly give them false information. If a licensee has actual knowledge of the existence of defective drywall in a residential property, the licensee shall disclose the same to the buyer. For purposes of this section, "defective drywall" means all defective drywall as defined in § 36-156.1. No cause of action shall arise against any licensee for revealing information as required by this article or applicable law. In the case of a residential transaction, a licensee engaged by a buyer shall disclose to a seller whether or not the buyer intends to occupy the property as a principal residence. The buyer's expressions of such intent in the contract of sale shall satisfy this requirement and no cause of action shall arise against any licensee for the disclosure or any inaccuracy in such disclosure, or the nondisclosure of the buyer in this regard.

C. A licensee engaged by a buyer in a real estate transaction may, unless prohibited by law or the brokerage agreement, provide assistance to the seller, or prospective seller, by performing ministerial acts. Performing such ministerial acts that are not inconsistent with subsection A shall not be construed to violate the licensee's brokerage agreement with the buyer unless expressly prohibited by the terms of the brokerage agreement, nor shall performing such ministerial acts be construed to form a brokerage relationship with such seller.

D. A licensee engaged by a buyer does not breach any duty or obligation to the buyer by showing properties in which the buyer is interested to other prospective buyers, whether as clients or customers, by representing other buyers looking at the same or other properties, or by representing sellers relative to other properties.

E. Licensees in residential real estate transactions shall disclose brokerage relationships pursuant to the provisions of this article.

F. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a licensee to disclose whether settlement services under Chapter 27.3 (§ 55-525.16 et seq.) of Title 55 will be provided by an attorney or a nonattorney settlement agent.

G. Notwithstanding any other provision of law requiring written brokerage agreements or governing the duties of licensees, nothing in this chapter shall be construed to require that a written agreement between a licensee and a prospective buyer be executed prior to the licensee's showing properties to the prospective buyer.

1995, cc. 741, 813; 2006, c. 627; 2011, cc. 34, 46; 2012, c. 750; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2133. Licensees engaged by landlords to lease property.

A. A licensee engaged by a landlord shall:

1. Perform in accordance with the terms of the brokerage agreement;

2. Promote the interests of the landlord by:

a. Conducting marketing activities on behalf of the landlord pursuant to the brokerage agreement with the landlord. In so doing, the licensee shall seek a tenant at the rent and terms agreed in the brokerage agreement or at a rent and terms acceptable to the landlord; however, the licensee shall not be obligated to seek additional offers to lease the property while the property is subject to a lease or a letter of intent to lease under which the tenant has not yet taken possession, unless agreed as part of the brokerage agreement, or unless the lease or the letter of intent to lease so provides;

b. Assisting the landlord in drafting and negotiating leases and letters of intent to lease, and presenting in a timely manner all written leasing offers or counteroffers to and from the landlord and tenant pursuant to § 54.1-2101.1, even when the property is already subject to a lease or a letter of intent to lease; and

c. Providing reasonable assistance to the landlord to finalize the lease agreement;

3. Maintain confidentiality of all personal and financial information received from the client during the brokerage relationship and any other information that the client requests during the brokerage relationship be maintained confidential, unless otherwise provided by law or the landlord consents in writing to the release of such information;

4. Exercise ordinary care;

5. Account in a timely manner for all money and property received by the licensee in which the landlord has or may have an interest;

6. Disclose to the landlord material facts related to the property or concerning the transaction of which the licensee has actual knowledge; and

7. Comply with all requirements of this article, fair housing statutes and regulations for residential real estate transactions as applicable, and all other applicable statutes and regulations which are not in conflict with this article.

B. Licensees shall treat all prospective tenants honestly and shall not knowingly give them false information. A licensee engaged by a landlord shall disclose to prospective tenants all material adverse facts pertaining to the physical condition of the property which are actually known by the licensee. If a licensee has actual knowledge of the existence of defective drywall in a residential property, the licensee shall disclose the same to the prospective tenant. For purposes of this section, "defective drywall" means all defective drywall as defined in § 36-156.1. As used in this section, the term "physical condition of the property" shall refer to the physical condition of the land and any improvements thereon, and shall not refer to: (i) matters outside the boundaries of the land or relating to adjacent or other properties in proximity thereto, (ii) matters relating to governmental land use regulations, and (iii) matters relating to highways or public streets. Such disclosure shall be made in writing. No cause of action shall arise against any licensee for revealing information as required by this article or applicable law. Nothing in this subsection shall limit the right of a prospective tenant to inspect the physical condition of the property.

C. A licensee engaged by a landlord in a real estate transaction may, unless prohibited by law or the brokerage agreement, provide assistance to a tenant, or potential tenant, by performing ministerial acts. Performing such ministerial acts that are not inconsistent with subsection A shall not be construed to violate the licensee's brokerage relationship with the landlord unless expressly prohibited by the terms of the brokerage agreement, nor shall performing such ministerial acts be construed to form a brokerage relationship with such tenant or potential tenant.

D. A licensee engaged by a landlord does not breach any duty or obligation owed to the landlord by showing alternative properties to prospective tenants, whether as clients or customers, or by representing other landlords who have other properties for lease.

E. Licensees in residential real estate transactions shall disclose brokerage relationships pursuant to the provisions of this article.

1995, cc. 741, 813; 2006, c. 627; 2008, c. 741; 2011, cc. 34, 46, 461; 2012, c. 750; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2134. Licensees engaged by tenants.

A. A licensee engaged by a tenant shall:

1. Perform in accordance with the terms of the brokerage agreement;

2. Promote the interests of the tenant by:

a. Seeking a lease at a rent and with terms acceptable to the tenant; however, the licensee shall not be obligated to seek other properties for the tenant while the tenant is a party to a lease or a letter of intent to lease exists under which the tenant has not yet taken possession, unless agreed to as part of the brokerage agreement, or unless the lease or the letter of intent to lease so provides;

b. Assisting in the drafting and negotiating of leases, letters of intent to lease, and rental applications, and presenting, in a timely fashion, all written offers or counteroffers to and from the tenant and landlord pursuant to § 54.1-2101.1, even when the tenant is already a party to a lease or a letter of intent to lease; and

c. Providing reasonable assistance to the tenant to finalize the lease agreement;

3. Maintain confidentiality of all personal and financial information received from the client during the brokerage relationship and any other information that the client requests during the brokerage relationship be maintained confidential unless otherwise provided by law or the tenant consents in writing to the release of such information;

4. Exercise ordinary care;

5. Account in a timely manner for all money and property received by the licensee in which the tenant has or may have an interest;

6. Disclose to the tenant material facts related to the property or concerning the transaction of which the licensee has actual knowledge; and

7. Comply with all requirements of this article, fair housing statutes and regulations for residential real estate transactions as applicable, and all other applicable statutes and regulations which are not in conflict with this article.

B. Licensees shall treat all prospective landlords honestly and shall not knowingly give them false information. If a licensee has actual knowledge of the existence of defective drywall in a residential property, the licensee shall disclose the same to the prospective tenant. For purposes of this section, "defective drywall" means all defective drywall as defined in § 36-156.1. No cause of action shall arise against any licensee for revealing information as required by this article or applicable law.

C. A licensee engaged by a tenant in a real estate transaction may provide assistance to the landlord or prospective landlord by performing ministerial acts. Performing such ministerial acts that are not inconsistent with subsection A shall not be construed to violate the licensee's brokerage relationship with the tenant unless expressly prohibited by the terms of the brokerage agreement, nor shall performing such ministerial acts be construed to form a brokerage relationship with the landlord or prospective landlord.

D. A licensee engaged by a tenant does not breach any duty or obligation to the tenant by showing properties in which the tenant is interested to other prospective tenants, whether as clients or customers, by representing other tenants looking for the same or other properties to lease, or by representing landlords relative to other properties.

E. Licensees in residential real estate transactions shall disclose brokerage relationships pursuant to the provisions of this article.

F. Notwithstanding any other provision of law requiring written brokerage agreements or governing the duties of licensees, nothing in this chapter shall be construed to require that a written agreement between a licensee and a prospective tenant be executed prior to the licensee's showing properties to the prospective tenant.

1995, cc. 741, 813; 2006, c. 627; 2011, cc. 34, 46; 2012, c. 750; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2135. Licensees engaged to manage real estate.

A. A licensee engaged to manage real estate shall:

1. Perform in accordance with the terms of the property management agreement;

2. Exercise ordinary care;

3. Disclose in a timely manner to the owner material facts of which the licensee has actual knowledge concerning the property;

4. Maintain confidentiality of all personal and financial information received from the client during the brokerage relationship and any other information that the client requests during the brokerage relationship be maintained confidential unless otherwise provided by law or the owner consents in writing to the release of such information;

5. Account for, in a timely manner, all money and property received in which the owner has or may have an interest; and

6. Comply with all requirements of this article, fair housing statutes and regulations for residential real estate transactions as applicable, and all other applicable statutes and regulations which are not in conflict with this article.

B. Except as provided in the property management agreement, a licensee engaged to manage real estate does not breach any duty or obligation to the owner by representing other owners in the management of other properties.

C. A licensee may also represent the owner as seller or landlord if they enter into a brokerage relationship that so provides; in which case, the licensee shall disclose such brokerage relationships pursuant to the provisions of this article.

D. If a licensee has actual knowledge of the existence of defective drywall in a residential property, the licensee shall disclose the same to the owner. For purposes of this section, "defective drywall" means all defective drywall as defined in § 36-156.1.

E. Property management agreements in residential real estate transactions shall be in writing and shall:

1. Have a definite termination date or duration; however, if a property management agreement does not specify a definite termination date or duration, the agreement shall terminate 90 days after the date of the agreement;

2. State the amount of the management fees and how and when such fees are to be paid;

3. State the services to be rendered by the licensee; and

4. Include such other terms as have been agreed to by the owner and the property manager.

F. The provisions of this section shall not apply to licensees engaged in commercial real estate transactions.

1995, cc. 741, 813; 2011, cc. 34, 46, 461; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2136. Preconditions to brokerage relationship.

Prior to entering into any brokerage relationship provided for in this article, a licensee shall advise the prospective client of (i) the type of brokerage relationship proposed by the broker and (ii) the broker's compensation and whether the broker will share such salary or compensation with another broker who may have a brokerage relationship with another party to the transaction.

1995, cc. 741, 813.

§ 54.1-2137. Commencement and termination of brokerage relationships.

A. The brokerage relationships set forth in this article shall commence at the time that a client engages a licensee and shall continue until (i) completion of performance in accordance with the brokerage agreement or (ii) the earlier of (a) any date of expiration agreed upon by the parties as part of the brokerage agreement or in any amendments thereto, (b) any mutually agreed upon termination of the brokerage agreement, (c) a default by any party under the terms of the brokerage agreement, or (d) a termination as set forth in subsection G of § 54.1-2139.

B. Brokerage agreements shall be in writing and shall:

1. Have a definite termination date; however, if a brokerage agreement does not specify a definite termination date, the brokerage agreement shall terminate 90 days after the date of the brokerage agreement;

2. State the amount of the brokerage fees and how and when such fees are to be paid;

3. State the services to be rendered by the licensee;

4. Include such other terms of the brokerage relationship as have been agreed to by the client and the licensee; and

5. In the case of brokerage agreements entered into in conjunction with the client's consent to a dual representation, the disclosures set out in subsection A of § 54.1-2139.

C. Except as otherwise agreed to in writing, a licensee owes no further duties to a client after termination, expiration, or completion of performance of the brokerage agreement, except to (i) account for all moneys and property relating to the brokerage relationship and (ii) keep confidential all personal and financial information received from the client during the course of the brokerage relationship and any other information that the client requests during the brokerage relationship be maintained confidential, unless otherwise provided by law or the client consents in writing to the release of such information.

1995, cc. 741, 813; 2011, c. 461; 2012, c. 750; 2018, cc. 60, 86.

§ 54.1-2138. Disclosure of brokerage relationship in residential real estate transactions.

A. Upon having a substantive discussion about a specific property or properties in a residential real estate transaction with an actual or prospective buyer or seller who is not the client of the licensee and who is not represented by another licensee, a licensee shall disclose any broker relationship the licensee has with another party to the transaction. Further, except as provided in § 54.1-2139 or 54.1-2139.1, such disclosure shall be made in writing at the earliest practical time, but in no event later than the time when specific real estate assistance is first provided. Such disclosure may be given in combination with other disclosures or provided with other information, but if so, the disclosure must be conspicuous, printed in bold lettering, all capitals, underlined, or within a separate box. Any disclosure which complies substantially in effect with the following shall be deemed in compliance with this disclosure requirement:

DISCLOSURE OF BROKERAGE RELATIONSHIP IN A RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE TRANSACTION

The undersigned do hereby acknowledge disclosure that:

The licensee.....................… (name of broker or salesperson)

associated with.........................…

(Name of Brokerage Firm)

represents the following party in a residential real estate transaction:

....… Seller(s)or
....… Buyer(s)

....… Landlord(s) -13m or
....… Tenant(s)

................…
..........................…

DateName

................…
..........................…

DateName

B. A licensee shall disclose to an actual or prospective landlord or tenant, who is not the client of the licensee and who is not represented by another licensee, that the licensee has a brokerage relationship with another party or parties to the transaction. Such disclosure shall be in writing and included in all applications for lease or in the lease itself, whichever occurs first. If the terms of the lease do not provide for such disclosure, disclosure shall be made in writing no later than the signing of the lease. Such disclosure requirement shall not apply to lessors or lessees in single or multifamily residential units for lease terms of less than two months.

C. If a licensee's relationship to a client or customer changes, the licensee shall disclose that fact in writing to all clients and customers already involved in the specific contemplated transaction.

D. Copies of any disclosures relative to fully executed purchase contracts shall be kept by the licensee for a period of three years as proof of having made such disclosure, whether or not such disclosure is acknowledged in writing by the party to whom such disclosure was shown or given.

E. A limited service agent shall also make the disclosure required by § 54.1-2138.1.

1995, cc. 741, 813; 1997, cc. 86, 119; 2006, c. 627; 2012, c. 750; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2138.1. Limited service agent in a residential real estate transaction, contract disclosure required.

A. A licensee may act as a limited service agent in a residential real estate transaction only pursuant to a written brokerage agreement in which the limited service agent (i) discloses that the licensee is acting as a limited service agent; (ii) provides a list of the specific services that the licensee will provide to the client; and (iii) provides a list of the specific duties of a standard agent set out in subdivision A 2 of § 54.1-2131, subdivision A 2 of § 54.1-2132, subdivision A 2 of § 54.1-2133, or subdivision A 2 of § 54.1-2134, as applicable, that the limited service agent will not provide to the client. Such disclosure shall be conspicuous and printed either in bold lettering or all capitals, and shall be underlined or in a separate box. In addition, a disclosure that contains language that complies substantially in effect with the following shall be deemed in compliance with this disclosure requirement:

"By entering into this brokerage agreement, the undersigned do hereby acknowledge their informed consent to the limited service agent in a residential real estate transaction by the licensee and do further acknowledge that neither the other party to the transaction nor any real estate licensee representing the other party is under any legal obligation to assist the undersigned with the performance of any duties and responsibilities of the undersigned not performed by the limited service agent."

A limited service agent shall disclose dual agency in accordance with § 54.1-2139.

B. A licensee engaged by one client to a residential real estate transaction and dealing with an unrepresented party or with a party represented by a limited service agent and who, without additional compensation, provides such other party information relative to the transaction or undertakes to assist such other party in securing a contract or with such party's obligations thereunder, shall not incur liability for such actions except in the case of gross negligence or willful misconduct. A licensee does not create a brokerage relationship by providing such assistance or information to the other party to the transaction. A licensee dealing with a client of a limited service agent may enter into an agreement with that party for payment of a fee for services performed or information provided by that licensee. Such payment shall not create a brokerage relationship; however, the licensee providing such services or information for a fee shall be held to the ordinary standard of care in the provision of such services or information.

2006, c. 627; 2012, c. 750; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2139. Disclosed dual agency and dual representation authorized in a residential real estate transaction.

A. A licensee may not act as a dual agent or dual representative in a residential real estate transaction unless he has first obtained the written consent of all parties to the transaction given after written disclosure of the consequences of such dual agency or dual representation. A dual agent has an agency relationship under the brokerage agreements with the clients. A dual representative has an independent contractor relationship under the brokerage agreements with the clients. Such disclosure shall be in writing and given to both parties prior to the commencement of such dual agency or dual representation.

B. If the licensee is currently representing a party as an agent or independent contractor representative and that party desires to engage in a real estate transaction with another existing client represented by the licensee, the licensee may engage in dual representation provided that prior to commencement thereof the disclosure required by this section is given to both of the licensee's existing clients.

C. If the licensee is currently representing a party as an agent or independent contractor representative and the licensee proposes to represent a new client in a dual representation, the licensee may only engage in such dual representation if prior to commencement thereof, the disclosure required by this section is given to the licensee's one existing client and one new client.

D. Such disclosures shall not be deemed to comply with the requirements in this section if (i) not signed by the client or (ii) given in a purchase agreement, lease, or any other document related to a transaction. However, such written consent and disclosure of the brokerage relationship as required by this article shall be presumed to have been given as against any client who signs a disclosure as required in this section.

E. The obligation to make the disclosures required by this section shall not relieve the licensee of the obligations set out in subsection B of § 54.1-2137 requiring all brokerage relationships to be set out in a written agreement between the licensee and the client.

F. No cause of action shall arise against a dual agent or dual representative for making disclosures of brokerage relationships as provided by this article. A dual agent or dual representative does not terminate any brokerage relationship by the making of any such allowed or required disclosures of dual agency or dual representation.

G. In any real estate transaction, a licensee may withdraw, without liability, from representing a client who refuses to consent to a disclosed dual agency or dual representation hereby terminating the brokerage relationship with such client. Such withdrawal shall not prejudice the ability of the licensee to continue to represent the other client in the transaction nor to limit the licensee from representing the client who refused the dual agency or dual representation in other transactions not involving the dual agency or dual representation.

H. The dual agency or dual representation disclosure in a residential transaction shall contain the following provisions and disclosure that substantially complies with the following shall be deemed in compliance with this disclosure requirement:

DISCLOSURE OF DUAL AGENCY OR DUAL REPRESENTATION IN A RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE TRANSACTION

The undersigned do hereby acknowledge disclosure that:

The licensee ____________________ (name of broker or salesperson) associated with ____________________ (Brokerage Firm) represents more than one party in this residential real estate transaction as follows:

A. Brokerage Firm represents the following party (select one):

[ ] Seller(s) [ ] Buyer(s) [ ] Landlord(s) [ ] Tenant(s)

As a (select one):

[ ] standard agent [ ] limited service agent [ ] independent contractor

Brokerage Firm represents another party (select one):

[ ] Seller(s) [ ] Buyer(s) [ ] Landlord(s) [ ] Tenant(s)

As a (select one):

[ ] standard agent [ ] limited service agent [ ] independent contractor

B. Brokerage Firm disclosure and client acknowledgement of the following (select one):

[ ] Brokerage Firm represents two existing clients in the transaction and the undersigned acknowledge the following:

The undersigned understand that the foregoing dual agent or dual representative may not disclose to either client any information that has been given to the dual agent or representative by the other client within the confidence and trust of the brokerage relationship except for that information which is otherwise required or permitted by Article 3 (§ 54.1-2130 et seq.) of Chapter 21 of Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia to be disclosed.

[ ] Brokerage Firm represents one existing client and one new client in the transaction and the undersigned acknowledge the following:

The undersigned understand:

1. That following the commencement of dual agency or representation, the licensee cannot advise either party as to the terms to offer or accept in any offer or counteroffer; however, the licensee may have advised one party as to such terms prior to the commencement of dual agency or representation;

2. That the licensee cannot advise the buyer client as to the suitability of the property, its condition (other than to make any disclosures as required by law of any licensee representing a seller), and cannot advise either party as to what repairs of the property to make or request;

3. That the licensee cannot advise either party in any dispute that arises relating to the transaction;

4. That the licensee may be acting without knowledge of the client's needs, client's knowledge of the market, or client's capabilities in dealing with the intricacies of real estate transactions; and

5. That either party may engage another licensee at additional cost to represent their respective interests.

The undersigned by signing this notice do hereby acknowledge their informed consent to the disclosed dual representation by the licensee.

a____________________________________________________________
bDateName (One Party)
c____________________________________________________________
dDateName (One Party)
e____________________________________________________________
fDateName (One Party)
g____________________________________________________________
hDateName (One Party)

1995, cc. 741, 813; 2011, c. 461; 2012, c. 750.

§ 54.1-2139.01. Disclosed dual agency and dual representation in commercial real estate transactions authorized.

A. A licensee may act as a dual agent or dual representative in a commercial real estate transaction only with the written consent of all clients to the transaction. A dual agent has an agency relationship under the brokerage agreements with the clients. A dual representative has an independent contractor relationship under the brokerage agreements with the clients. Such written consent and disclosure of the brokerage relationship as required by this article shall be presumed to have been given as against any client who signs a disclosure as provided in this section.

B. Such disclosure may be given in combination with other disclosures or provided with other information, but if so, the disclosure shall be conspicuous, printed in bold lettering, all capitals, underlined, or within a separate box. Any disclosure which complies substantially in effect with the following shall be deemed in compliance with this disclosure requirement:

DISCLOSURE OF DUAL AGENCY OR DUAL REPRESENTATION IN A COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE TRANSACTION

The undersigned do hereby acknowledge disclosure that:
The licensee..............................................................…
(name of broker or salesperson)
associated with...........................................................…
(Brokerage Firm)
represents more than one party in this commercial real estate transaction as
follows:
Brokerage Firm represents the following party (select one):
[ ] Seller(s) [ ] Buyer(s) [ ] Landlord(s) [ ] Tenant(s)
As a (select one):
[ ] agent [ ] independent contractor
Brokerage Firm represents another party (select one):
[ ] Seller(s) [ ] Buyer(s) [ ] Landlord(s) [ ] Tenant(s)
As a (select one):
[ ] agent [ ] independent contractor

The undersigned understand that the foregoing dual agent or dual
representative may not disclose to either client any information that has been
given to the dual agent or representative by the other client within the
confidence and trust of the brokerage relationship except for that information
which is otherwise required or permitted by Article 3 (§ 54.1-2130 et seq.) of
Chapter 21 of Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia to be disclosed.

The undersigned by signing this notice do hereby acknowledge their informed
consent to the disclosed dual representation by the licensee.
................…
....................................…
DateName (One Party)
................…
....................................…
DateName (One Party)
................…
....................................…
DateName (Other Party)
................…
....................................…
DateName (Other Party)

C. The obligation to make the disclosures required by this section shall not relieve the licensee of the obligations set out in subsection B of § 54.1-2137 requiring all brokerage relationships to be set out in a written agreement between the licensee and the client.

D. No cause of action shall arise against a dual representative for making disclosures of brokerage relationships as provided by this article. A dual representative does not terminate any brokerage relationship by the making of any such allowed or required disclosures of dual representation.

E. In any real estate transaction, a licensee may withdraw, without liability, from representing a client who refuses to consent to a disclosed dual representation thereby terminating the brokerage relationship with such client. Such withdrawal shall not prejudice the ability of the licensee to continue to represent the other client in the transaction or to limit the licensee from representing the client who refused the dual representation in other transactions not involving dual representation.

2012, c. 750; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2139.1. Designated standard agency or designated representation authorized in a residential real estate transaction.

A. A principal or supervising broker may assign different licensees affiliated with the broker as designated agent or representative to represent different clients in the same residential real estate transaction to the exclusion of all other licensees in the firm. Use of such designated agents or representatives shall not constitute dual agency or representation if a designated agent or representative is not representing more than one client in a particular real estate transaction; however, the principal or broker who is supervising the transaction shall be considered a dual agent or representative as provided in this article. Designated agents or representatives may not disclose, except to the affiliated licensee's broker, personal or financial information received from the clients during the brokerage relationship and any other information that the client requests during the brokerage relationship be kept confidential, unless otherwise provided for by law or the client consents in writing to the release of such information.

B. Use of designated agents or representatives in a residential real estate transaction shall be disclosed in accordance with the provisions of this article. Such disclosure may be given in combination with other disclosures or provided with other information, but if so, the disclosure shall be conspicuous, printed in bold lettering, all capitals, underlined, or within a separate box. Any disclosure that complies substantially in effect with the following shall be deemed in compliance with such disclosure requirement:

DISCLOSURE OF DESIGNATED AGENTS OR REPRESENTATIVES IN A RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE TRANSACTION

The undersigned do hereby acknowledge disclosure that:

The licensee...........................................................…
(Name of Broker and Firm)
represents more than one party in this residential real estate transaction as
indicated below:

....… Seller(s) and Buyer(s)

....… Landlord(s) and Tenant(s).

The undersigned understand that the foregoing dual agent or representative
may not disclose to either client or such client's designated agent or
representative any information that has been given to the dual agent or
representative by the other client within the confidence and trust of the
brokerage relationship except for that information which is otherwise required
or permitted by Article 3 (§ 54.1-2130 et seq.) of Chapter 21 of Title 54.1 of
the Code of Virginia to be disclosed.

The principal or supervising broker has assigned
...................................to act as Designated Agent or Representative
(broker or salesperson)
for the one party as indicated below:
[ ] Seller(s) [ ] Buyer(s) [ ] Landlord(s) [ ] Tenant(s)
As a (select one):
[ ] standard agent [ ] limited service agent [ ] independent contractor
..............................… to act as Designated Agent or Representative
(broker or salesperson)
for the other party as indicated below:
[ ] Seller(s) [ ] Buyer(s) [ ] Landlord(s) [ ] Tenant(s)

As a (select one):
[ ] standard agent [ ] limited service agent [ ] independent contractor

The undersigned by signing this notice do hereby acknowledge their consent
to the disclosed dual representation by the licensee.
................…
....................................…
DateName (One Party)
................…
....................................…
DateName (One Party)
................…
....................................…
DateName (Other Party)
................…
....................................…
DateName (Other Party)

C. The obligation to make the disclosures required by this section shall not relieve the licensee of the obligations set out in subsection B of § 54.1-2137 requiring all brokerage relationships to be set out in a written agreement between the licensee and the client.

D. No cause of action shall arise against a designated agent or representative for making disclosures of brokerage relationships as provided by this article. A designated agent or representative does not terminate any brokerage relationship by the making of any such allowed or required disclosures of dual representation.

E. In any residential real estate transaction, a licensee may withdraw, without liability, from representing a client who refuses to consent to a disclosed designated agency or representation agreement thereby terminating the brokerage relationship with such client. Such withdrawal shall not prejudice the ability of the licensee to continue to represent the other client in the transaction or to limit the licensee from representing the client who refused the designated agency or representation relationship in other transactions not involving designated representation.

2011, c. 461; 2012, c. 750; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2139.2. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2012, c. 750, cl. 2.

§ 54.1-2140. Compensation shall not imply brokerage relationship.

The payment or promise of payment or compensation to a real estate broker does not create a brokerage relationship between any broker, seller, landlord, buyer or tenant.

1995, cc. 741, 813.

§ 54.1-2141. Brokerage relationship not created by using common source information company.

No licensee representing a buyer or tenant shall be deemed to have a brokerage relationship with a seller, landlord or other licensee solely by reason of using a common source information company. However, nothing contained in this article shall be construed to prevent a common source information company from requiring, as a condition of participation in or use of such common source information, that licensees providing information through such company disclose the nature of the brokerage relationship with the client, including, but not limited to, whether the licensee is acting as (i) an independent contractor, (ii) a limited service agent, (iii) a standard agent, or (iv) an agent as provided in the brokerage agreement. A common source information company may, but shall not be obligated to, require disclosure of a standard agency relationship, and may adopt rules providing that absent any disclosure, a licensee providing information through such company may be assumed to be acting as a standard agent. A common source information company shall have the right, but not the obligation, to make information about the nature of brokerage relationships available to its participants and to settlement service it provides including, without limitation, title insurance companies, lenders, and settlement agents.

1995, cc. 741, 813; 2006, c. 627; 2012, c. 750; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2142. Liability; knowledge not to be imputed.

A. A client is not liable for (i) a misrepresentation made by a licensee in connection with a brokerage relationship, unless the client knew or should have known of the misrepresentation and failed to take reasonable steps to correct the misrepresentation in a timely manner, or (ii) the negligence, gross negligence or intentional acts of any broker or broker's licensee.

B. A broker who has a brokerage relationship with a client and who engages another broker to assist in providing brokerage services to such client shall not be liable for (i) a misrepresentation made by the other broker, unless the broker knew or should have known of the other broker's misrepresentation and failed to take reasonable steps to correct the misrepresentation in a timely manner, or (ii) the negligence, gross negligence or intentional acts of the assisting broker or assisting broker's licensee.

C. Clients and licensees shall be deemed to possess actual knowledge and information only. Knowledge or information among or between clients and licensees shall not be imputed.

D. Nothing in this article shall limit the liability between or among clients and licensees in all matters involving unlawful discriminatory housing practices.

E. Except as expressly set forth in this section, nothing in this article shall affect a person's right to rescind a real estate transaction or limit the liability of (i) a client for the misrepresentation, negligence, gross negligence or intentional acts of such client in connection with a real estate transaction, or (ii) a licensee for the misrepresentation, negligence, gross negligence or intentional acts of such licensee in connection with a real estate transaction. However, nothing in this article shall create a civil cause of action against a licensee.

1995, cc. 741, 813; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2142.1. Liability for false information.

A licensee shall not be liable for providing false information if the information was (i) provided to the licensee by the licensee's client; (ii) obtained from a governmental entity; (iii) obtained from a nongovernmental person or entity that obtained the information from a governmental entity; or (iv) obtained from a person licensed, certified, or registered to provide professional services in the Commonwealth, upon which the licensee relies, and the licensee did not (a) have actual knowledge that the information was false or (b) act in reckless disregard of the truth. This includes any regulatory action brought under this chapter and any civil actions filed. However, nothing in this article shall create a civil cause of action against a licensee.

2011, c. 461; 2013, c. 499; 2016, c. 334.

§ 54.1-2143. Real estate board regulations to be consistent.

Any regulations adopted by the Virginia Real Estate Board shall be consistent with this article, and any such regulations existing as of the effective date of this article shall be modified to comply with the provisions of this article.

1995, cc. 741, 813.

§ 54.1-2144. Common law abrogated.

The common law of agency relative to brokerage relationships in real estate transactions to the extent inconsistent with this article shall be expressly abrogated.

1995, cc. 741, 813.

§ 54.1-2145. Article does not limit antitrust laws.

Nothing in this article shall be construed to limit, modify, impair, or supercede the applicability of any federal or state antitrust laws.

2006, c. 627.

§ 54.1-2146. Licensee maintenance of records.

Any document or record required to be maintained by a licensee under this chapter may be an electronic record in accordance with the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (§ 59.1-479 et seq.).

2011, c. 461.

Chapter 22. Soil Scientists, Wetland Professionals, and Geologists.

Article 1. General Provisions.

§ 54.1-2200. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Board" means the Board for Professional Soil Scientists, Wetland Professionals, and Geologists.

"Department" means the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Eligible soil scientist" means a person who possesses the qualifications specified in this chapter to become licensed.

"Eligible wetland professional" means a person who possesses the qualifications specified in this chapter to become certified.

"Geologist" means a person engaged in the public practice of geology.

"Geology" means the science dealing with (i) the earth and its history in general; (ii) the investigation, prediction, evaluation, and location of materials and structures which compose the earth; (iii) the natural processes that cause changes in the earth; and (iv) the application of knowledge of the earth, its processes, and its constituent rocks, minerals, liquids, gases, and other natural materials.

"Practice of geology" means the performance of any service or work for the general public wherein the principles and methods of geology are applied.

"Practice of soil evaluation" means the evaluation of soil by accepted principles and methods including, but not limited to, observation, investigation, and consultation on measured, observed and inferred soils and their properties; analysis of the effects of these properties on the use and management of various kinds of soil; and preparation of soil descriptions, maps, reports and interpretive drawings.

"Practice of wetland delineation" means the delineation of wetlands by accepted principles and methods including, but not limited to, observation, investigation, and consultation on soil, vegetation, and hydrologic parameters; and preparation of wetland delineations, descriptions, reports and interpretive drawings.

"Qualified geologist" means an uncertified person who possesses all the qualifications specified in this chapter for certification.

"Soil" means the groups of natural bodies occupying the unconsolidated portion of the earth's surface which are capable of supporting plant life and have properties caused by the combined effects, as modified by topography and time, of climate and living organisms upon parent materials.

"Soil evaluation" means plotting soil boundaries, describing and evaluating the kinds of soil and predicting their suitability for and response to various uses.

"Soil science" means the science dealing with the physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological properties of soils as natural bodies.

"Soil scientist" means a person having special knowledge of soil science and the methods and principles of soil evaluation as acquired by education and experience in the formation, description and mapping of soils.

"Virginia certified professional geologist" means a person who possesses all qualifications specified in this chapter for certification and whose competence has been attested by the Board through certification.

"Virginia certified professional wetland delineator" means a person who possesses the qualifications required for certification by the provisions of this chapter and the regulations of the Board and who is granted certification by the Board.

"Virginia licensed professional soil scientist" means a person who possesses the qualifications required for licensure by the provisions of this chapter and the regulations of the Board and who has been granted a license by the Board.

"Wetland delineation" means delineating wetland limits in accordance with prevailing state and federal regulatory guidance and describing wetland types.

"Wetland professional" means a person having special knowledge of wetland science and the methods and principles of wetland delineation as acquired by education and experience in the formation, description and mapping of wetlands.

"Wetland science" means the science dealing with the physical, chemical, and biological properties of wetland systems integrated through ecological and morphological relationships.

"Wetlands" means the same as that term is defined in §§ 28.2-1300 and 62.1-44.3.

1987, c. 626, § 54-969; 1988, c. 765; 1993, c. 499; 2002, c. 784; 2011, cc. 777, 859; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 54.1-2200.1. Expired.

Expired.

§ 54.1-2200.2. Board for Professional Soil Scientists, Wetland Professionals, and Geologists; membership; quorum.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 54.1-200, the Board for Professional Soil Scientists, Wetland Professionals, and Geologists shall be composed of 13 members as follows: three licensed professional soil scientists, three certified professional wetland delineators, three geologists, and three citizen members. The State Geologist shall serve as an ex officio member of the Board. The geologist members shall be of varied backgrounds. The professional soil scientist members shall have experience in at least one of the following areas: (i) soil mapping and classification, (ii) soil suitability and land use, (iii) teaching and research in soil science, and (iv) environmental protection regulations. Of the wetland professional members, one shall have experience in wetland delineation and description, one shall have experience in teaching and research in wetland science, and one shall have experience with natural resource regulations. Terms of the members shall be for four years.

B. The Board shall annually elect a chairman from its membership. Seven board members, consisting of at least two soil scientists, two professional wetland delineators, two geologists, and one citizen, shall constitute a quorum.

C. The Governor may select the professional soil scientist members from a list of at least three names for each vacancy submitted by the Virginia Association of Professional Soil Scientists. The Governor may notify the Virginia Association of Professional Soil Scientists of any professional vacancy other than by expiration among the professional soil scientist members of the Board and nominations may be made for the filling of the vacancy.

D. The Governor may select the wetland professionals from a list of at least three names for each vacancy submitted by the Virginia Association of Wetland Professionals. The Governor may notify and request nominations from the Virginia Association of Wetland Professionals of any professional vacancy other than by expiration among the wetland professional members.

2012, cc. 803, 835.

Article 2. Soil Scientists and Wetland Professionals.

§ 54.1-2201. Exceptions.

A. The certification program for wetland delineation set forth in this chapter shall be voluntary and shall not be construed to prohibit:

1. The practice of wetland delineation by individuals who are not certified professional wetland delineators as defined in this chapter;

2. The work of an employee or a subordinate of a certified professional wetland delineator or of an individual who is practicing wetland delineation without being certified;

3. The work of any professional engineer, landscape architect, or land surveyor as defined by § 54.1-400 in rendering any of the services that constitute the practice of wetland delineation or the practice of soil evaluation; or

4. The practice of any profession or occupation that is regulated by another regulatory board within the Department.

B. The licensing program for professional soil scientists shall not be construed to prohibit:

1. The work of an employee or a subordinate of a licensed soil scientist;

2. The work of any professional engineer, landscape architect, or land surveyor as defined in § 54.1-400 in rendering any services that constitute the practice of soil evaluation; or

3. The practice of any profession or occupation that is regulated by another regulatory board within the Department.

C. Nothing in this chapter shall authorize an individual to engage in the practice of engineering, the practice of land surveying or the practice of landscape architecture, unless such individual is licensed or certified pursuant to Chapter 4 (§ 54.1-400 et seq.).

1987, c. 626, § 54-970; 1988, c. 765; 1993, c. 499; 2002, c. 784; 2009, c. 309; 2011, cc. 777, 859.

§ 54.1-2202. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2012, cc. 803 and 835, cl. 39.

§ 54.1-2203. Certification as wetland delineator.

A. Any person practicing or offering to practice as a wetland professional in the Commonwealth may submit to the Board evidence of qualification to be a certified professional wetland delineator as provided in this chapter. The Board may certify any applicant who has satisfactorily met the requirements of this chapter and its regulations and shall specify on the certificate the appropriate endorsement.

B. Any individual who allows his certification to lapse by failing to renew the certificate or failing to meet professional activity requirements stipulated in the regulations may be reinstated by the Board upon submission of satisfactory evidence that he is practicing in a competent manner and upon payment of the prescribed fee.

1987, c. 626, § 54-973; 1988, c. 765; 2002, c. 784; 2011, cc. 777, 859.

§ 54.1-2204. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2011, cc. 777 and 859, cl. 3, effective July 1, 2013.

§ 54.1-2205. License required; application; requirements for licensure; continuing education.

A. No person shall engage in, or offer to engage in, the practice of soil evaluation in the Commonwealth unless he has been licensed under the provisions of this chapter.

B. In order to be licensed as a professional soil scientist, an applicant shall:

1. Submit satisfactory evidence verified by affidavits that the applicant:

a. Is 18 years of age or older;

b. Is of good moral character; and

c. Has successfully completed such educational and experiential requirements as are required by this chapter and the regulations of the Board.

2. Achieve a score acceptable to the Board on an examination in the principles and practice of soil evaluation and satisfy one of the following criteria:

a. Hold a bachelor's degree from an accredited institution of higher education in a soils curriculum which has been approved by the Board and have at least four years of experience in soil evaluation, the quality of which demonstrates to the Board that the applicant is competent to practice as a professional soil scientist; or

b. Hold a bachelor's degree in one of the natural sciences and have at least five years of experience in soil evaluation, the quality of which demonstrates to the Board that the applicant is competent to practice as a professional soil scientist; or

c. Have a record of at least eight years of experience in soil evaluation, the quality of which demonstrates to the Board that the applicant is competent to practice as a professional soil scientist; or

d. Have at least four years of experience in soil science research or as a teacher of soils curriculum in an accredited institution of higher education which offers an approved four-year program in soils and at least two years of soil evaluation experience, the quality of which demonstrates to the Board that the applicant is competent to practice as a professional soil scientist.

C. The Board shall establish by regulation requirements for continuing education as a prerequisite to the maintenance and renewal of a license issued under this chapter, not to exceed eight contact hours per year.

D. Individuals applying for a license as a professional soil scientist between July 1, 2013, and July 1, 2015, who (i) have been certified as professional soil scientists by the Board or (ii) have achieved a score set by the Board on the examination required by this section shall be licensed by the Board if all other requirements of this chapter or Board regulations have been met, unless an applicant is found by the Board to have engaged in any act that would constitute grounds for disciplinary action.

1987, c. 626, § 54-975; 1988, c. 765; 1991, c. 181; 2011, cc. 777, 859.

§ 54.1-2206. Waiver of examination.

A. The Board may waive the requirement for examination pursuant to § 54.1-2205 upon written application from an individual who holds an unexpired certificate or license, or its equivalent, issued by a regulatory body of another state, territory or possession of the United States and is not the subject of any disciplinary proceeding before such regulatory body which could result in the suspension or revocation of his certificate or license, if such other state, territory or possession recognizes the license issued by the Board.

B. The Board shall waive the requirement for examination pursuant to § 54.1-2206.2 upon the written application from an individual who holds an unexpired certificate or its equivalent issued by a regulatory body of another state, territory or possession of the United States or has been provisionally certified under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineator Certification Program of 1993 and is not the subject of any disciplinary proceeding before such regulatory body, which could result in the suspension or revocation of his certificate.

1987, c. 626, § 54-976; 1988, c. 765; 1991, c. 181; 2002, c. 784; 2003, c. 447; 2010, c. 91; 2011, cc. 777, 859.

§ 54.1-2206.1. Requirements for application for professional wetland delineator certification.

The Board may certify any applicant as a Virginia certified professional wetland delineator who has submitted satisfactory evidence verified by affidavits that the applicant:

1. Is eighteen years of age or older;

2. Is of good moral character; and

3. Has successfully completed such educational and experiential requirements as are required by this chapter and the regulations of the Board.

2002, c. 784.

§ 54.1-2206.2. Requirements for professional wetland delineator certification.

In order to be certified as a professional wetland delineator, an applicant shall achieve a score acceptable to the Board on an examination, which may include a field practicum, in the principles and practice of wetland delineation, provide three written references from wetland professionals with at least one from a certified professional wetland delineator, and satisfy one of the following criteria:

1. Hold a bachelor's degree from an accredited institution of higher education in a wetland science, biology, biological engineering, civil and environmental engineering, ecology, soil science, geology, hydrology or any similar biological, physical, natural science or environmental engineering curriculum that has been approved by the Board; have successfully completed a course of instruction, in state and federal wetland delineation methods, that has been approved by the Board; and have at least four years of experience in wetland delineation, the quality of which demonstrates to the Board that the applicant is competent to practice as a certified professional wetland delineator;

2. Have a record of at least six years of experience in wetland delineation, the quality of which demonstrates to the Board that the applicant is competent to practice as a certified professional wetland delineator; or

3. Have a record of at least four years of experience in wetland science research or as a teacher of wetlands curriculum in an accredited institution of higher education, the quality of which demonstrates to the Board that the applicant is competent to practice as a certified professional wetland delineator.

2002, c. 784; 2007, c. 334; 2013, c. 546.

§ 54.1-2207. Unprofessional conduct.

Any professional soil scientist who is licensed or any wetland delineator who is certified, as provided in this chapter, shall be considered guilty of unprofessional conduct and subject to disciplinary action by the Board, if he:

1. Obtains his certification or license through fraud or deceit;

2. Violates or cooperates with others in violating any provision of this chapter, the Code of Professional Ethics and Conduct or any regulation of the Board;

3. Performs any act likely to deceive, defraud or harm the public;

4. Demonstrates gross negligence, incompetence or misconduct in the practice of soil evaluation or wetland delineation; or

5. Is convicted of a felony.

1987, c. 626; 1988, c. 765; 2002, c. 784; 2011, cc. 777, 859.

§ 54.1-2208. Unlawful representation as a licensed professional soil scientist or certified wetland delineator.

A. No person shall represent himself as a licensed professional soil scientist unless he has been so licensed by the Board. Any person practicing or offering to practice soil evaluation within the meaning of this chapter who, through verbal claim, sign, advertisement, or letterhead, represents himself as a licensed professional soil scientist without holding a license from the Board shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

B. No person shall represent himself as a certified professional wetland delineator unless he has been so certified by the Board. Any person practicing or offering to practice wetland delineation within the meaning of this chapter who, through verbal claim, sign, advertisement, or letterhead, represents himself as a certified professional wetland delineator without holding such a certificate from the Board shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

1987, c. 626, § 54-971; 1988, c. 765; 2002, c. 784; 2011, cc. 777, 859.

Article 3. Geologists.

§ 54.1-2208.1. Exemptions.

A. The certification program set forth in this article is voluntary and shall not be construed to prevent or affect the practice of geology by uncertified geologists; however, no person may represent himself as a Virginia certified professional geologist unless he has been so certified by the Board.

B. This article shall not prevent or affect the practice of any profession or trade for which licensing, certification, or registration is required under any other Virginia law, including the practice of licensed professional engineers lawfully practicing engineering in its various specialized branches.

1981, c. 132, § 54-968; 1988, c. 765, § 54.1-1401; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 54.1-2208.2. Certification; minimum qualifications.

A. Any person practicing or offering to practice as a geologist or in a geological specialty in this Commonwealth may submit reasonable evidence to the Board that he is qualified to practice and to be certified as provided in this article. The Board shall approve the application for certification of any person who, in the opinion of the Board, has satisfactorily met the requirements of this article and who has paid any applicable fees fixed by the Board.

Certifications shall expire at intervals as designated by the Board. A certification may be renewed by the Board upon receipt of a formal request accompanied by any applicable fees.

B. To be eligible for certification as a professional geologist, an applicant shall meet each of the following minimum qualifications:

1. Be of ethical character.

2. Have a baccalaureate or higher degree from an accredited institution of higher education with either a major in geology, engineering geology, geological engineering, or related geological sciences; or have completed at least 30 semester hours or the equivalent in geological science courses leading to a major in geology.

3. Have at least seven years of geological work that shall include either a minimum of three years of geological work under the supervision of a qualified or certified professional geologist or a minimum of three years of experience in responsible charge of geological work. The adequacy of the position and the required supervision and experience shall be determined by the Board in accordance with standards set forth in its regulations. The following criteria of education and experience qualify toward the required seven years of geological work:

a. Each year of full-time undergraduate study in the geological sciences shall count as one-half year of experience up to a maximum of two years, and each year of full-time graduate study shall count as a year of experience up to a maximum of three years. Credit for undergraduate and graduate study shall in no case exceed a total of four years toward meeting the requirements for at least seven years of geological work.

b. The Board may consider, in lieu of the above-described geological work, the cumulative total of geological work or geological research of persons occupying research or post-graduate positions as well as those teaching geology courses at an institution of higher education, provided such work or research can be demonstrated to be of a sufficiently responsible nature to be equivalent to the geological work required in this section.

4. Have successfully passed an appropriate examination approved by the Board and designed to demonstrate that the applicant has the necessary knowledge and skill to exercise the responsibilities of the public practice of geology.

At the discretion of the Board, separate examinations may be prepared for various subspecialities of geology; however, there will be no specialty certification, only certification as a professional geologist.

1981, c. 132, §§ 54-964, 54-965; 1984, c. 51; 1988, c. 765, § 54.1-1403; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 54.1-2208.3. Waiver of examination.

The Board may waive the examination requirement for certification as a professional geologist for an applicant who otherwise meets the requirements of this article and who also meets any of the following conditions:

1. Makes written application to the Board and has at least 12 years of geological work that includes the geological work as specified in subsection B of § 54.1-2208.2.

2. Makes written application to the Board and holds an unexpired certificate of registration, certification, or license to engage in the practice of geology issued to him on the basis of comparable requirements by a proper authority of a state, territory, or possession of the United States or the District of Columbia.

1981, c. 132, § 54-966; 1988, c. 765, § 54.1-1404; 1994, c. 247; 1996, c. 49; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 54.1-2208.4. Professional ethics and conduct.

A. The Board, in coordination with an ad hoc panel of certified professional geologists convened by the Board and representing various geological interests in Virginia, shall have prepared and adopted a Code of Professional Ethics and Conduct that shall be published and made known in writing to every Virginia certified professional geologist and applicant for certification under this article. The Board may revise and amend this code as needed and shall forthwith notify each certified professional geologist in writing of such revisions or amendments.

B. The full Board, by majority vote, shall have the power to suspend, revoke, or refuse to renew the certification of any professional geologist who, after an appropriate formal hearing, is found to have been involved in:

1. Any fraud or deceit in obtaining certification;

2. Any violation of the Code of Professional Ethics and Conduct or other regulations of the Board;

3. Demonstrated gross negligence, incompetence, or misconduct in the practice of geology as a professional geologist; or

4. Any conviction of a felony which, in the opinion of the Board, would adversely affect the practice of geology.

C. The Board, by majority vote of the quorum, may reinstate a revoked or suspended certification to any professional geologist who makes written application to the Board showing good cause for such action.

1981, c. 132, § 54-967; 1988, c. 765, § 54.1-1405; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

Chapter 22.1. Waste Management Facility Operators.

§ 54.1-2209. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Board" means the Board for Waste Management Facility Operators.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, partnership, association, governmental body, municipal corporation or any other legal entity.

"Waste management facility" means a site used for planned treatment, storage or disposal of nonhazardous solid waste.

"Waste management facility operator" means any person, including an owner, who is in charge of the actual, on-site operation of a waste management facility during any period of operation.

1991, c. 551.

§ 54.1-2210. Board for Waste Management Facility Operators; membership; terms.

The Board for Waste Management Facility Operators shall consist of seven members appointed by the Governor as follows: a representative from the Department of Environmental Quality, a representative from a local government that owns a sanitary landfill, a representative from a local government that owns a waste management facility other than a sanitary landfill, a representative of a private owner of a sanitary landfill, a representative of a private owner of a waste management facility other than a sanitary landfill, and two citizen members, one of whom shall be a representative of a commercial waste generator. No owner shall be represented by more than one representative or employee. The terms of Board members shall be four years, except that vacancies shall be filled for the unexpired term. No member shall serve more than two consecutive four-year terms.

1991, c. 551; 1996, cc. 78, 824; 2010, c. 91.

§ 54.1-2211. Duties; licensing.

A. The Board shall promulgate regulations and standards for the training and licensing of waste management facility operators. The Board may establish classes of training and licensing based upon the type of waste management facility for which a waste management facility operator seeks a license. Training and licensing requirements may vary for the classes of license established by the Board based upon the type of facility and the type of waste managed at the facility. The Board shall consider an applicant's prior experience in determining whether the applicant meets the training requirements imposed by this chapter.

B. Any person may apply to the Board for approval of the training programs it administers to waste management facility operators. Such training programs shall be approved by the Board if they meet the requirements established by the Board. Any person successfully completing a training program approved by the Board shall be deemed to have met the training requirements imposed by this chapter.

1991, c. 551; 1997, c. 885.

§ 54.1-2212. License required.

Effective January 1, 1993, no person shall be a waste management facility operator or represent himself as a waste management facility operator without a license from the Board.

1991, c. 551; 1997, c. 885.

Chapter 23. Waterworks and Wastewater Works Operators.

§ 54.1-2300. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Board" means the Board for Waterworks and Wastewater Works Operators and Onsite Sewage System Professionals.

"Onsite sewage system" means a conventional onsite sewage system or alternative onsite sewage system as defined in § 32.1-163.

"Operator" means any individual employed or appointed by any owner, and who is designated by such owner to be the person in responsible charge, such as a supervisor, a shift operator, or a substitute in charge, and whose duties include testing or evaluation to control waterworks or wastewater works operations or to operate and maintain onsite sewage systems. Not included in this definition are superintendents or directors of public works, city engineers, or other municipal or industrial officials whose duties do not include the actual operation or direct supervision of waterworks or wastewater works.

"Owner" means the Commonwealth of Virginia, or any political subdivision thereof, any public or private institution, corporation, association, firm or company organized or existing under the laws of this Commonwealth or of any other state or nation, or any person or group of persons acting individually or as a group, who own, manage, or maintain waterworks or wastewater works.

"Person" means any individual, group of individuals, a corporation, a partnership, a business trust, an association or other similar legal entity engaged in operating waterworks or wastewater works.

"Wastewater works" means each system of (i) sewerage systems or sewage treatment works, serving more than 400 persons, as set forth in § 62.1-44.18; (ii) sewerage systems or sewage treatment works serving fewer than 400 persons, as set forth in § 62.1-44.18, if so certified by the State Water Control Board; and (iii) facilities for discharge to state waters of industrial wastes or other wastes, if certified by the State Water Control Board.

"Waterworks" means each system of structures and appliances used in connection with the collection, storage, purification, and treatment of water for drinking or domestic use and the distribution thereof to the public, except distribution piping. Systems serving fewer than 400 persons shall not be considered to be a waterworks unless certified by the Board to be such.

1970, c. 768, § 54-573.2; 1972, c. 682; 1988, c. 765; 2007, cc. 892, 924.

§ 54.1-2301. Board for Waterworks and Wastewater Works Operators and Onsite Sewage System Professionals; membership; terms; duties.

A. The Board for Waterworks and Wastewater Works Operators and Onsite Sewage System Professionals shall consist of 11 members as follows: the Director of the Office of Water Programs of the State Department of Health, or his designee, the Executive Director of the State Water Control Board, or his designee, a currently employed waterworks operator having a valid license of the highest classification issued by the Board, a currently employed wastewater works operator having a valid license of the highest classification issued by the Board, a faculty member of a public institution of higher education in the Commonwealth whose principal field of teaching is management or operation of waterworks or wastewater works, a representative of an owner of a waterworks, a representative of an owner of a wastewater works, a licensed alternative onsite sewage system operator, a licensed alternative onsite sewage system installer, a licensed onsite soil evaluator, and one citizen member. The alternative onsite sewage system operator, alternative onsite sewage system installer, and onsite soil evaluator shall have practiced for at least five consecutive years immediately prior to appointment. No owner shall be represented on the Board by more than one representative or employee operator. The term of Board members shall be four years.

B. The Board shall examine waterworks and wastewater works operators and issue licenses. The licenses may be issued in specific operator classifications to attest to the competency of an operator to supervise and operate waterworks and wastewater works while protecting the public health, welfare and property and conserving and protecting the water resources of the Commonwealth.

C. The Board shall establish a program for licensing individuals as onsite soil evaluators, onsite sewage system installers, and onsite sewage system operators.

D. The Board, in consultation with the Board of Health, shall adopt regulations for the licensure of (i) onsite soil evaluators; (ii) installers of alternative onsite sewage systems, as defined in § 32.1-163; and (iii) operators of alternative onsite sewage systems, as defined in § 32.1-163. Such regulations shall include requirements for (a) minimum education and training, including approved training courses; (b) relevant work experience; (c) demonstrated knowledge and skill; (d) application fees to cover the costs of the program, renewal fees, and schedules; (e) the division of onsite soil evaluators into classes, one of which shall be restricted to the design of conventional onsite sewage systems; and (f) other criteria the Board deems necessary.

E. The Board shall permit any wastewater works operator to sit for the conventional onsite sewage system operator examination.

1970, c. 768, §§ 54-573.1, 54-573.3; 1981, c. 447; 1988, c. 765; 1989, c. 97; 2007, cc. 892, 924; 2008, c. 67; 2013, c. 731.

§ 54.1-2302. License required.

No person shall operate a waterworks or wastewater works, perform the duties of an onsite soil evaluator, or install or operate an alternative onsite sewage system, without a valid license.

1979, c. 408, § 54-573.18; 1988, c. 765; 2007, cc. 892, 924.

Chapter 23.1. Cemetery Operators, Perpetual Care Trust Funds and Preneed Burial Contracts.

§ 54.1-2310. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Advertisement" means any information disseminated or placed before the public.

"At-need" means at the time of death or while death is imminent.

"Board" means the Cemetery Board.

"Cemetery" means any land or structure used or intended to be used for the interment of human remains. The sprinkling of ashes or their burial in a biodegradable container on church grounds or their placement in a columbarium on church property shall not constitute the creation of a cemetery.

"Cemetery company" means any person engaged in the business of (i) selling or offering for sale any grave or entombment right in a cemetery and representing to the public that the entire cemetery, a single grave, or entombment right therein will be perpetually cared for; (ii) selling property or services, vaults, grave liners, urns, memorials, markers, and monuments used in connection with interring or disposing of the remains or commemorating the memory of a deceased human being, where delivery of the property or performance of the service may be delayed more than 120 days after receipt of the initial payment on account of such sale; or (iii) maintaining a facility used for the interment or disposal of the remains and required to maintain perpetual care or preneed trust funds in accordance with this chapter. Such property or services include but are not limited to burial vaults, mausoleum crypts, garden crypts, lawn crypts, memorials, and marker bases, but shall not include graves or incidental additions such as dates, scrolls, or other supplementary matter representing not more than ten percent of the total contract price.

"Compliance agent" means a natural person who owns or is employed by a cemetery company to assure the compliance of the cemetery company with the provisions of this chapter.

"Cost requirement" means the total cost to the seller of the property or services subject to the deposit requirements of § 54.1-2325 required by that seller's total contracts.

"Department" means the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Garden crypt" means a burial receptacle, usually constructed of reinforced concrete, installed in quantity on gravel or tile underlay. Each crypt becomes an integral part of a given garden area and is considered real property.

"General funds" means the sum total of specific funds put together in a single fund.

"Grave" means a below-ground right of interment.

"In-person communication" means face-to-face communication and telephonic communication.

"Interment" means all forms of final disposal of human remains including, but not limited to, earth burial, mausoleum entombment and niche or columbarium inurnment. The sprinkling of ashes on church grounds shall not constitute interment.

"Lawn crypt" means a burial vault with some minor modifications for the improvement of drainage in and around the receptacle and is considered personal property.

"Licensee" means any person holding a valid license issued by the Board.

"Marker base" means the visible part of the marker or monument upon which the marker or monument rests and is considered personal property.

"Mausoleum crypt" means a burial receptacle usually constructed of reinforced concrete and usually constructed or assembled above the ground and is considered real property.

"Memorials, markers or monuments" means the object used to identify the deceased and is considered personal property.

"Perpetual care trust fund" means a fund created to provide income to a cemetery to provide care, maintenance, administration and embellishment of the cemetery.

"Preneed" means at any time other than either at the time of death or while death is imminent.

"Preneed burial contract" means a contract for the sale of property or services used in connection with interring or disposing of the remains or commemorating the memory of a deceased human being, where delivery of the property or performance of the service may be delayed for more than 120 days after the receipt of initial payment on account of such sale. Such property includes but is not limited to burial vaults, mausoleum crypts, garden crypts, lawn crypts, memorials, and marker bases, but shall not include graves or incidental additions such as dates, scrolls, or other supplementary matter representing not more than ten percent of the total contract price.

"Resale" means the sale of an interment right in a cemetery governed by this chapter to a person other than the cemetery company owning the cemetery in which the right exists by a person other than that cemetery company or its authorized agent. The term "resale" shall not be construed to include the transfer of interment rights upon the death of the owner.

"Retail sales price" means the standard, nondiscounted price as listed on the general price list required by § 54.1-2327.

"Seller" means the cemetery company.

"Seller's trust account" means the total specific trust funds deposited from all of a specific seller's contracts, plus income on such funds allotted to that seller.

"Solicitation" means initiating contact with consumers with the intent of influencing their selection of a cemetery.

"Specific trust funds" means funds identified to a certain contract for personal property or services.

1998, cc. 708, 721; 2000, c. 36; 2011, c. 792.

§ 54.1-2311. Cemetery operators required to be licensed by the Board.

No person shall engage in the business of a cemetery company in the Commonwealth without first being licensed by the Board. The cemetery company shall renew its license as required by the Board. Such license and such renewal of license shall (i) be on forms prescribed by the Board and shall include the name and address of each cemetery in Virginia in which the cemetery company has a business interest, the name and address of all officers and directors of the cemetery company, the registered agent for the cemetery company, the compliance agent, and any such other information as the Board may require consistent with the purposes of this chapter and (ii) include a fee as prescribed by the Board for each cemetery in Virginia in which the cemetery company has a business interest. The cemetery company shall notify the Board of any change in the information required to be filed within thirty days after the change. A new license shall be required if there is a change in the ownership of the cemetery company. If there is a change in the compliance agent designated by the cemetery company, it shall promptly notify the Board in writing. All fees shall be remitted to the State Treasurer and shall be placed to the credit and special fund of the Department to be used in the administration of this chapter.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2312. Exemptions.

A. The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to cemeteries wholly owned and operated by the state or a county, city or town; a church; or a nonstock corporation not operated for profit if the corporation (i) does not compensate any officer or director except for reimbursement of reasonable expenses incurred in the performance of his official duties, (ii) does not sell or construct or directly or indirectly contract for the sale or construction of vaults or lawn, garden or mausoleum crypts, and (iii) uses proceeds from the sale of all graves and entombment rights for the sole purpose of defraying the direct expenses of maintaining the cemetery.

B. The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to any community cemetery not operated for profit if the cemetery (i) does not compensate any officer or director except for reimbursement of reasonable expenses incurred in the performance of his official duties, and uses the proceeds from the sale of the graves and mausoleum spaces for the sole purpose of defraying the direct expenses of maintaining its facilities or (ii) was chartered by the Commonwealth prior to 1857 A.D.

C. The provisions of this chapter regarding preneed burial contracts shall not apply to prearranged funeral plans entered into by licensees of the Board of Funeral Directors and Embalmers.

D. The provisions of the chapter shall not apply to any family cemetery provided that no graves or entombment rights therein are sold or offered for sale to the public.

E. Subject to the requirements of § 54.1-2312.1, the provisions of this chapter shall not apply to the resale of any interment right in a cemetery in the Commonwealth.

1998, cc. 708, 721; 2011, c. 792.

§ 54.1-2312.01. Special interments; definitions; regulations by Board.

A. A cemetery company may have a section in the cemetery devoted to the interment of human remains and the pets of such deceased humans, provided:

1. The section of the cemetery property dedicated for this purpose is segregated entirely from the remainder of the cemetery devoted to the interment of human remains;

2. No pet is interred in the same grave, crypt, or niche as the remains of a human; and

3. The section of the cemetery is clearly marked and advertised as such by the cemetery company.

B. A cemetery company may have a section in the cemetery devoted to the interment of pets, provided:

1. The section of the cemetery property dedicated for this purpose is segregated entirely from the remainder of the cemetery devoted to the interment of human remains; and

2. The section of the cemetery is clearly marked and advertised as such by the cemetery company.

C. As used in the section, "pet" means the same as that term is defined in § 57-39.20.

D. The Board shall adopt such regulations as the Board deems appropriate and necessary to implement the provisions of this section. Regulations of the Board shall be in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

2014, c. 500.

§ 54.1-2312.1. Resale of interment right; conditions for resale transaction; contents of transfer form; approval by cemetery company.

A. No person shall participate as a seller in more than four consummated resale transactions in any calendar year except as authorized by this section or § 54.1-2312.2.

B. Unless exempted by subsection A, no resale transaction shall be valid unless:

1. The resale is at-need;

2. The seller is (i) a funeral director, embalmer, establishment, or service licensed pursuant to Chapter 28 (§ 54.1-2800 et seq.) or (ii) a cemetery company licensed pursuant to this chapter;

3. No more than one interment right is transferred by the transaction;

4. Any merchandise, personal property, or service purchased in the original pre-need transaction is transferred with the interment right;

5. The resale is approved, pursuant to subsection C, by the cemetery company that owns the cemetery in which the interment right exists; and

6. The seller provides written notice to the buyer that the resale transaction is contingent upon (i) approval by the cemetery company that owns the cemetery in which the interment right exists, (ii) payment of the cemetery transfer fee, and (iii) compliance with the provisions of this section.

C. A cemetery company shall approve a resale transaction upon receipt of a valid transfer form that has been acknowledged by the buyer as required by subsection D 6, a reasonable cemetery transfer fee to be set by the cemetery company, and a copy of the bill of sale or other document confirming the resale, provided such approval is consistent with the current rules and regulations of the cemetery company.

D. The transfer form shall be provided by the seller to the buyer at the time of the resale and shall be valid only when signed by the seller, buyer, and cemetery company. At a minimum, the transfer form shall contain the following information:

1. The name and address of each seller and buyer;

2. The valid license number of each seller under Chapter 28 (§ 54.1-2800 et seq.) or under this chapter;

3. A complete description of the location of the property for which the interment right is being sold;

4. A clear disclosure of the cemetery transfer fee;

5. The name, address, and telephone number of the Board and a statement that the Board is the regulatory agency that handles consumer complaints; and

6. An acknowledgement that the buyer has read, understands, and agrees to abide by the current rules and regulations of the cemetery and its current general price list, as applicable.

The information required to be included in the transfer form by subdivisions 1 through 5 shall be provided by the seller.

E. In the event a resale is not approved by the cemetery company under this section, the resale transaction shall be void and within 30 days the seller shall refund to the buyer any and all moneys paid pursuant to the transaction and the buyer shall return to the seller any merchandise or personal property that was transferred to the buyer by the seller as a part of the resale.

2011, c. 792; 2013, c. 395.

§ 54.1-2312.2. Resale of interment right by certain churches and religious organizations.

A. In addition to the provisions of § 54.1-2312.1, a church or religious organization may proceed with a resale transaction of an interment right if (i) the church or religious organization is exempt from income tax under Title 58.1 or from taxation pursuant to § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and (ii) the buyer is a member of the church congregation or religious organization or an immediate family member of such member.

B. Resale transactions under this subsection shall also comply with the following:

1. Any merchandise, personal property, or service purchased in the original preneed transaction is transferred with the interment right;

2. The resale is approved, pursuant to subdivision 4, by the cemetery company that owns the cemetery in which the interment right exists;

3. The seller provides written notice to the buyer that the resale transaction is contingent upon (i) approval by the cemetery company that owns the cemetery in which the interment right exists, (ii) payment of the cemetery transfer fee, and (iii) compliance with the provisions of this section;

4. A cemetery company shall approve a resale transaction upon receipt of a valid transfer form that has been acknowledged by the buyer as required by subdivision 5 e, a reasonable cemetery transfer fee to be set by the cemetery company, and a copy of the bill of sale or other document confirming the resale, provided such approval is consistent with the current rules and regulations of the cemetery company; and

5. The transfer form shall be provided by the seller to the buyer at the time of the resale and shall be valid only when signed by the seller, buyer, and cemetery company. A cemetery company may rely in good faith on the representations and documentation submitted by the buyer and seller. At a minimum, the transfer form shall contain the following information:

a. The name and address of each seller and buyer;

b. A complete description of the location of the property for which the interment right is being sold;

c. A clear disclosure of the cemetery transfer fee;

d. The name, address, and telephone number of the Board and a statement that the Board is the regulatory agency that handles consumer complaints; and

e. An acknowledgment that the buyer has read, understands, and agrees to abide by the current rules and regulations of the cemetery and its current general price list, as applicable.

The information required to be included in the transfer form by subdivisions a through d shall be provided by the seller.

C. In the event a resale is not approved by the cemetery company under this section, the resale transaction shall be void and within 30 days the seller shall refund to the buyer all money paid pursuant to the transaction and the buyer shall return to the seller any merchandise or personal property transferred to the buyer by the seller as a part of the resale.

D. Nothing in this section shall prevent a church or religious organization exempt from income tax under Title 58.1 or from taxation pursuant to § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code from reselling any interment right back to the cemetery company. Subsequent sale of such interment rights by the cemetery company shall not be considered a resale transaction.

E. Nothing in this section shall prevent a cemetery company from reselling an interment right of a natural person.

2013, c. 395.

§ 54.1-2313. Board; appointment; terms; vacancies; meetings; quorum; other powers; regulations.

A. The Cemetery Board shall consist of seven members to be appointed by the Governor as follows: four cemetery operators who have operated a cemetery in the Commonwealth for at least five consecutive years immediately prior to appointment, no more than two of whom shall be affiliated with a cemetery company incorporated in the Commonwealth which is owned, operated or affiliated, directly or indirectly, with a foreign corporation; one representative of local government, and two citizen members. Appointments to the Board shall generally represent the geographical areas of the Commonwealth.

B. All appointments shall be for terms of four years, except that appointment to fill vacancies shall be for the unexpired terms. No person shall be eligible to serve for more than two successive four-year terms.

C. The Board shall annually elect a chairman and a vice-chairman from among its members. The Board shall meet at least once each year and may meet as often as its duties require. Four members shall constitute a quorum.

D. In addition to the general powers and duties conferred in this subtitle, the Board shall have the power and duty to (i) regulate preneed burial contracts and perpetual care trust fund accounts as prescribed by this chapter, including, but not limited to, the authority to prescribe preneed contract forms, disclosure requirements and disclosure forms and to require reasonable bonds to insure performance of preneed contracts, (ii) regulate and register sales personnel employed by a cemetery company, and (iii) regulate and establish qualifications and standards of conduct for compliance agents employed by a cemetery company to assure compliance of the cemetery with the provisions of this chapter.

E. In addition to such other regulations the Board deems appropriate, the Board shall adopt regulations which provide:

1. A method for executing, at-need, a preneed burial contract, including the petitioning a court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a receiver, where a licensee who is a party to such preneed burial contract has had his license to operate a cemetery revoked or suspended for violation of this chapter or Board regulations; and

2. Consumer protections which are consistent with those provisions of the Federal Trade Commission Funeral Rules which the Board finds may be appropriately applied to cemetery companies.

1998, cc. 708, 721; 2004, c. 247; 2010, c. 91; 2012, c. 522.

§ 54.1-2313.1. Protection of preneed burial and perpetual care trust funds; operation of cemetery company; appointment of receiver.

No licensee or any agent of the licensee shall divert or misuse any funds held in trust or otherwise held by him for another. If preneed or perpetual care funds are held in trust and the Board or its agents have reason to believe that (i) the licensee is not able to adequately protect the interest of the person involved, (ii) the licensee has had his license suspended, revoked or surrendered, or (iii) the conduct of the licensee or the operation of the cemetery threatens the interests of the public, the Board may file a petition with any court of record having equity jurisdiction over the licensee or any of the funds held by him stating the facts upon which it relies and the relief requested. The court may temporarily enjoin further activity by the licensee and take such further action as shall be necessary to ensure that the cemetery company is operated in full compliance with this chapter and the Board's regulations, or to conserve, protect, and disburse the funds involved, or both, including the appointment of a receiver to operate the cemetery company. The Board shall not be liable for any expenses or fees of the receiver.

2004, c. 192.

§ 54.1-2314. Refusal, suspension or revocation of license or registration.

The Board may refuse to license or register any applicant, suspend a license or registration for a stated period or indefinitely, revoke any license or registration, censure or reprimand any person licensed or registered by the Board or place such person on probation for such time as it may designate for any of the following causes related to the sale or offering to the public of cemetery vaults, grave liners, urns, memorials, markers or monuments:

1. Conviction of any felony or any crime involving moral turpitude;

2. Unprofessional conduct which is likely to defraud or to deceive the public or clients;

3. Misrepresentation or fraud in the conduct of the cemetery company or its sales personnel, or in obtaining or renewing a license or registration;

4. False or misleading advertising;

5. Solicitation in violation of subsection B of § 54.1-2327;

6. Direct or indirect payment or offer of payment of a commission to others by the licensee, his sales representatives, agents, or employees for the purpose of securing business;

7. Use of alcohol or drugs to the extent that such use renders him unsafe to practice his licensed or registered activity;

8. Aiding or abetting an unlicensed person to engage in the business of a cemetery company;

9. Using profane, indecent or obscene language within the immediate hearing of the family or relatives of a deceased, whose body has been interred or otherwise disposed of;

10. Violation of any statute, ordinance or regulation affecting the handling, custody, care or transportation of dead human bodies;

11. Failure to comply with subsection A of § 54.1-2327 and to keep on file an itemized statement of all retail prices and fees charged related to the sale of property or services as required by Board regulations and this chapter;

12. Charging third-party handling fees, which shall not include installation fees; and

13. Refusing to honor the transfer of preneed contract arrangements to another party. However the licensee shall not be responsible for paying additional costs associated with any actual transfer.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2315. Other prohibited activities.

The following acts shall be prohibited:

1. Employment directly or indirectly of any sales representative, agent, employee or other person, on a part-time or full-time basis, or on a commission, for the purpose of calling upon individuals or institutions by whose influence dead human bodies may be turned over to a particular funeral establishment or cemetery company;

2. Solicitation, offer, payment, or acceptance by a licensee or registered sales personnel of a licensee, of any commission or bonus or rebate in consideration of recommending or causing a dead human body to be disposed of in any crematory, mausoleum or cemetery;

3. Violating or cooperating with others to violate any provision of this chapter or Board regulations;

4. Interfering with the freedom of choice of the general public in the choice of persons or establishments providing funeral services, preneed funeral planning or preneed funeral contracts.

Nothing in this section shall preclude a cemetery company employing or retaining a sales representative, agent, employee or other person, on a part-time or full-time basis, from offering cemetery company goods and services on a commission basis.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2316. Certain representations unlawful; perpetual care trust fund required.

It shall be unlawful to sell or offer for sale in the Commonwealth any grave or entombment right in a cemetery and, in connection therewith, to represent to the public in any manner, express or implied, that the entire cemetery or any grave or entombment right therein will be perpetually cared for, unless adequate provision has been made for the perpetual care of the cemetery and all graves and entombment rights therein as to which such representation has been made.

Each cemetery company shall establish in a Virginia trust company or trust subsidiary or a federally insured bank or savings institution doing business in the Commonwealth, an irrevocable trust fund in the amount of at least $50,000 before the first lot, parcel of land, burial or entombment right is sold. This fund shall be designated the perpetual care trust fund.

1998, cc. 708, 721; 2004, c. 192.

§ 54.1-2317. Who may serve as trustee of perpetual care trust fund.

A. The trustee of the perpetual care trust fund shall be appointed by the person owning, operating, or developing a cemetery company. If the trustee is other than a Virginia trust company or trust subsidiary or a federally insured bank or savings institution doing business in the Commonwealth, the trustee shall be approved by the Board.

A trustee that is not a Virginia trust company or trust subsidiary or a federally insured bank or savings institution doing business in the Commonwealth shall apply to the Board for approval, and the Board shall approve the trustee when it has become satisfied that the applicant:

1. Employs and is directed by persons who are qualified by character, experience, and financial responsibility to care for and invest the funds of others;

2. Will perform its duties in a proper and legal manner and the trust funds and interest of the public generally will not be jeopardized; and

3. Is authorized to do business in the Commonwealth and has adequate facilities to perform its duties as trustee.

B. If the trustee is other than a Virginia trust company or trust subsidiary or a federally insured bank or savings institution doing business in the Commonwealth, the trustee shall furnish a fidelity bond with corporate surety thereon, payable to the trust established, which shall be designated "Perpetual Care Trust Fund for (name of cemetery company)," in a sum equal to not less than 100 percent of the value of the principal of the trust estate at the beginning of each calendar year, which bond shall be deposited with the Board.

C. If the trustee is other than a Virginia trust company or trust subsidiary or a federally insured bank or savings institution doing business in the Commonwealth and if it appears that an officer, director or employee of the trustee is dishonest, incompetent, or reckless in the management of a perpetual care trust fund, the Board may bring an action in the appropriate court to remove the trustee and to impound the property and business of the trustee as may be reasonably necessary to protect the trust funds.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2318. Application of Part A (§ 64.2-1200 et seq.) of Subtitle IV of Title 64.2.

Trustees appointed pursuant to this chapter shall be governed in their investment of trust funds by § 2.2-4519 and §§ 64.2-1502 through 64.2-1506, except as otherwise provided in this chapter.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2319. Deposit in perpetual care trust fund required upon sale of graves, etc.

Each cemetery company shall deposit a minimum of ten percent of the receipts from the sale of graves and above-ground crypts and niches, excluding below-ground burial vaults, in cash in the perpetual care trust fund within thirty days after the close of the month in which such receipts are paid to it. If the purchaser's payment is made on an installment or deferred payment basis, the cemetery company shall have the option of paying ten percent of the amount of principal in each payment received into the perpetual care trust fund. If the cemetery company provides a grave or an above-ground crypt or niche without compensation, ten percent of the retail sales price shall be deposited within thirty days after the close of the month in which the property is provided to the consumer.

1998, cc. 708, 721; 2000, c. 36.

§ 54.1-2320. Additional deposit not required upon subsequent sale of same grave, crypt or niche.

If ten percent of the sales price of a grave or above-ground crypt or niche has been deposited in a perpetual care trust fund, no deposit shall be required on subsequent sales of the same grave, crypt or niche.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2321. Recovery of original perpetual care trust fund deposit.

Once the cemetery company has deposited in the perpetual care trust fund a sum equal to twice the amount of the original deposit, exclusive of the original deposit, the trustee shall allow the cemetery company to recover its original deposit by withholding the money that would otherwise be required to be deposited in the perpetual care trust fund until the amount of the original deposit is recovered. Once the cemetery company has recovered an amount equal to its original deposit, deposits to the perpetual care trust fund shall be resumed.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2322. Use of income from perpetual care trust fund; distributions.

A. The income from the perpetual care trust fund shall be used solely and exclusively for the general care, maintenance, administration, and embellishment of the cemetery. Unless prior approval has been obtained from the Board or a court of competent jurisdiction, the principal of the perpetual care trust fund shall only be used for investment purposes.

B. A cemetery company may request the trustee of a perpetual care trust fund to elect the distribution of either of the following from the perpetual care trust fund:

1. All net income, which for purposes of this section means the collected dividends, interest, and other income of the perpetual care trust fund less any taxes on income, fees, commissions, and costs. A distribution made under this subdivision shall be referred to as a "net income distribution method"; or

2. An amount not to exceed five percent of the fair market value of the perpetual care trust fund at the close of its fiscal year preceding the distribution year. A distribution made under this subdivision shall be referred to as a "total return distribution method."

C. A cemetery company may request the trustee of a perpetual care trust fund to convert from a net income distribution method to a total return distribution method by delivering written or electronic notice to the trustee. Notice of such conversions shall be provided to the Board at least 90 days prior to implementation of the total return distribution method. Such notices may be written or electronic and shall include a copy of the trust instrument, election of distribution method, and an investment and distribution policy pursuant to subdivision D 1. In the event that a distribution method is not elected, distributions shall be limited to the net income distribution method.

D. The trustee of a perpetual care trust fund may reject a cemetery company's request to elect a total return distribution method. If a trustee determines that election of a total return distribution method is proper, he shall:

1. Prior to implementation of the total return distribution method, adopt a written investment and distribution policy under which the amounts of future distributions from the perpetual care trust fund will be calculated under the total return distribution method rather than net income distribution method. The investment goals and objectives of such policy shall be tailored to achieve (i) principal growth through equity investment; (ii) current income through income investment, as necessary; and (iii) an appropriate balance between (a) maintaining purchasing power through principal appreciation and (b) generating income to support the cemetery company's care and maintenance. A copy of such policy shall be sent to the Board with the notice required in subsection C;

2. Ensure that asset allocation under the perpetual care trust fund includes a diversified portfolio and that investment decisions are made in accordance with all other applicable laws of the Commonwealth;

3. Determine the fair market value of the perpetual care trust fund at least annually using generally accepted valuation methods and such valuation date or dates or averages of valuation dates as are readily ascertainable;

4. Make distributions from the perpetual care trust fund on a monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, or annual basis, as agreed upon by the cemetery company and the trustee;

5. Require that both of the following tests be met each fiscal year prior to allowing any distribution from the perpetual care trust fund to the cemetery company: (i) the fair market value of the perpetual care trust fund after the distribution will be greater than the aggregate of 80 percent of the fair market value of the perpetual care trust fund at the close of the preceding fiscal year plus the total contributions made to the trust principal from such date to the date that the method of distribution is elected and (ii) beginning with the third year of using a total return distribution method, a three-year analysis of investment returns and distribution practices indicates that such practices will result in sufficient protection of the trust principal. If either test is not met, distributions for that fiscal year shall be limited to the net income distribution method;

6. In the event that the taxes and fees paid by the perpetual care trust fund are greater than two and one-half percent of the fair market value of the trust at the close of the preceding fiscal year, reduce the distribution by the amount exceeding two and one-half percent; and

7. Maintain records documenting the fair market value of the assets held in the perpetual care trust fund at the end of the accounting period immediately prior to conversion to the total return distribution method.

E. In addition to filing an annual perpetual care trust fund financial report with the Board pursuant to § 54.1-2324, a cemetery company that has elected a total return distribution method shall also file a copy of such financial report at the close of each fiscal year with the commissioner of accounts in a jurisdiction in the Commonwealth in which the cemetery company owns a cemetery. The commissioner of accounts shall review the financial report and forward his finalized accounting to the Board, with all reasonable fees and costs for such filing and review borne by the cemetery company. A trustee shall not make any distribution from a perpetual care trust fund under a total return distribution method until the review by the commissioner of accounts has been finalized. A review shall be deemed finalized if the commissioner of accounts has not responded or communicated any deficiencies within 60 days of the submission of the financial report.

F. The Board shall review all notices of conversion or reversion of perpetual care trust fund distribution method for compliance with this section. The Board may engage the services of a professional to review notices of conversion or reversion to a total return distribution method, with all reasonable costs of such review borne by the cemetery company that submitted such notice.

The Board may limit or prohibit conversion from a net income distribution method to a total return distribution method if the trustee or any investment manager is not able to demonstrate sufficient knowledge and expertise regarding effective implementation of the total return distribution method. The Board may prohibit a reversion from the total return distribution method to the net income distribution method if the trust principal is less than it was at the time the cemetery company converted to the total return distribution method, as adjusted for inflation.

If a conversion to the total return distribution method has already been made, the Board may limit or prohibit distributions from the perpetual care trust fund if the trustee or any investment manager is not able to demonstrate sufficient knowledge and expertise regarding the distribution of trust income for the maintenance of the cemetery using the total return distribution method. In deciding whether a distribution should be limited or prohibited, the Board shall consider the presence and stated value of trust assets that do not have an active market and are not traded on a regular basis, the frequency of appraisals and evaluations of such assets, the asset allocation of the trust, and whether trust principal, as adjusted for inflation, is less than it was at the time the cemetery company converted to the total return distribution method.

The Board may require a cemetery company to restore a distribution to the perpetual care trust fund if (i) the distribution and all other aspects of the trust were not in compliance with the requirements of this section at the time such distribution was made or (ii) the cemetery company has committed fraud against the trust.

G. If a total return distribution method has been elected, the perpetual care trust fund may not be reverted to a net income distribution method absent approval by the Board. A failure by a cemetery company to file a perpetual care trust fund financial report annually with the Board as required by § 54.1-2324 shall automatically prohibit a conversion to or continuation of a total return distribution method pending further action by the Board.

H. No portion of the perpetual care trust fund shall be used to pay any personal obligation or debt of any officer or owner of the cemetery or any tax obligation incurred by the cemetery or for any purpose other than that expressly described in this section. Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the ability of the perpetual care trust fund trustee from paying normal operating expenses and income taxes of the trust itself, the trust being a separate legal entity.

1998, cc. 708, 721; 2004, c. 192; 2012, c. 355; 2017, cc. 12, 65.

§ 54.1-2323. Financial records required.

The cemetery company shall file with the Board detailed accounts of all transactions, receipts and accounts receivable subject to the ten percent trust requirement and of all expenditures of income from the perpetual care trust fund at such times as required by the Board.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2324. Financial report and report of independent certified public accountant required for perpetual care trust funds.

A. Within four months after the close of its fiscal year, the cemetery company shall report the following information to the Board, on forms prescribed by the Board:

1. The total amount of principal in the perpetual care trust fund;

2. The securities in which the perpetual care trust fund is invested and the amount of cash on hand as of the close of the fiscal year;

3. The income received from the perpetual care trust fund, and the sources of such income, during the preceding fiscal year;

4. The method of distribution used for distributions from the perpetual care trust fund and, if a total return distribution method was used, a schedule to verify compliance with the requirements of § 54.1-2322;

5. An affidavit executed by the compliance agent that all applicable provisions of this chapter relating to perpetual care trust funds have been complied with;

6. The total receipts subject to the 10 percent trust requirement;

7. All expenditures from the perpetual care trust fund;

8. If the trustee is other than a Virginia trust company or trust subsidiary or a federally insured bank or savings institution doing business in the Commonwealth, proof that the required fidelity bond has been secured and that it is in effect; and

9. A separate total of expenses incurred for general care and maintenance, embellishment and administration of its cemeteries.

B. The cemetery company shall (i) engage an independent certified public accountant to apply agreed-upon procedures as specified by the Board to the total of all receipts subject to § 54.1-2319, in accordance with standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants or any successor standard authorities, and (ii) provide to the Board the independent certified public accountant's report on the agreed-upon procedures. The information provided by the cemetery company shall provide full disclosure of any transactions between the perpetual care trust fund and any directors, officers, stockholders, or employees of the cemetery company, or relatives of the cemetery company's employees, and shall include a description of the transactions, the parties involved, the dates and amounts of the transactions, and the reasons for the transactions.

C. The information required to be filed hereunder with the Board shall be exempt from the Government Data Collection and Dissemination Practices Act (§ 2.2-3800 et seq.).

1998, cc. 708, 721; 2000, c. 36; 2004, c. 247; 2015, c. 344; 2017, cc. 12, 65.

§ 54.1-2325. Deposit in preneed trust required upon sale of property or services not to be delivered within 120 days.

A. Each cemetery company shall deposit into a trust fund at least forty percent of the receipts from the sale of property or services purchased pursuant to a preneed burial contract, when the delivery thereof will be delayed more than 120 days from the initial payment on said contract. The cemetery company shall establish a special trust fund in a Virginia trust company or trust subsidiary or a federally insured bank or savings institution doing business in the Commonwealth. The trust shall bear the legend "Preneed Trust Account." Deposits are required to be made by the cemetery company within thirty days after the close of the month in which said receipts are paid to it.

B. If the purchaser's payment is made on an installment or deferred payment basis, the seller shall have the option of paying each payment received into the preneed trust account.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2326. Who may serve as trustee of preneed trust fund.

A. The trustee of the preneed trust fund shall be appointed by the person owning, operating, or developing a cemetery company. If the trustee is other than a Virginia trust company or trust subsidiary or a federally insured bank or savings institution doing business in the Commonwealth, the trustee shall be approved by the Board.

A trustee that is not a Virginia trust company or trust subsidiary or a federally insured bank or savings institution doing business in the Commonwealth shall apply to the Board for approval, and the Board shall approve the trustee when the Board has become satisfied that the applicant:

1. Employs and is directed by persons who are qualified by character, experience, and financial responsibility to care for and invest the funds of others;

2. Will perform its duties in a proper and legal manner and that the trust funds and interest of the public generally will not be jeopardized; and

3. Is authorized to do business in the Commonwealth and has adequate facilities to perform its duties as trustee.

B. If the trustee is other than a Virginia trust company or trust subsidiary or a federally insured bank or savings institution doing business in the Commonwealth, the trustee shall furnish a fidelity bond with corporate surety thereon, payable to the trust established, which shall be designated "Preneed Trust Fund for (name of cemetery company)," in a sum equal to but not less than 100 percent of the value of the principal of the trust estate at the beginning of each calendar year, which bond shall be deposited with the Board.

C. If the trustee is other than a Virginia trust company or trust subsidiary or a federally insured bank or savings institution doing business in the Commonwealth, and if it appears that an officer, director or employee of the trustee is dishonest, incompetent, or reckless in the management of a preneed trust fund, the Board may bring an action in the appropriate court to remove the trustee and to impound the property and business of the trustee as may be reasonably necessary to protect the trust funds.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2327. Itemized statement and general price list of burial fees to be furnished; solicitations prohibited.

A. Every cemetery company licensed pursuant to the provisions of this chapter shall furnish a written general price list and a written itemized statement of charges in connection with burial services provided by the cemetery company.

Individuals inquiring in person about burial arrangements or the prices of property or services shall be given the general price list. Upon beginning discussion of burial arrangements or the selection of any property or services, the general price list shall be offered by the cemetery company.

The itemized statement shall include, but not be limited to, the following charges: burial vaults or other burial receptacles, facilities used, and other professional services used, which shall be set forth in a clear and conspicuous manner.

The general price list and itemized statement of burial fees shall comply with forms prescribed by Board regulation, which regulations shall promote the purposes of this section.

B. No cemetery company licensed pursuant to the provisions of this chapter shall make any solicitation at-need or any preneed solicitation using in-person communication by the cemetery company, his agents, assistants or employees, which is false, misleading, or contrary to the stated purpose. However, general advertising and preneed solicitation shall be permitted.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2328. Requirements of preneed burial contracts.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person doing business within the Commonwealth to make, either directly or indirectly by any means, a preneed burial contract unless the contract:

1. Is made on forms prescribed by the Board and is written in clear, understandable language and printed in easy-to-read type, size and style;

2. Identifies the seller, seller's license number, contract buyer and person for whom the contract is purchased if other than the contract buyer;

3. Contains a complete description of the property or services purchased;

4. Clearly discloses whether the price of the property and services purchased is guaranteed;

5. States, for funds required to be trusted pursuant to § 54.1-2325, the amount to be trusted and the name of the trustee;

6. Contains the name, address and telephone number of the Board and lists the Board as the regulatory agency which handles consumer complaints;

7. Provides that any purchaser who makes payment under the contract may terminate the agreement within three days of execution and that such purchaser shall be refunded all consideration paid or delivered, less amounts paid for any property or supplies that have been delivered;

8. Provides that if the particular property or services specified in the contract are unavailable at the time of delivery, the seller shall be required to furnish property or services similar in size and style and at least equal in quality of material and workmanship and that the representative of the deceased shall have the right to choose the property or services to be substituted, which shall be at least equal or reasonably equivalent in quality of material, workmanship, and cost;

9. Discloses any additional costs that the purchaser may be required to pay at-need, including disclosure of the cost of opening and closing the grave;

10. Complies with all disclosure requirements imposed by the Board;

11. Is executed in duplicate and a signed copy given to the buyer; and

12. Provides that the contract buyer shall have the right to change the contract provider at any time prior to the furnishing of the property or services, excluding any mausoleum crypt or garden crypt, contracted for under the preneed burial contract. If the contract seller will not be furnishing the property and services to the purchaser, the contract seller shall attach to the preneed burial contract a copy of the seller's agreement with the provider.

B. Any preneed burial contract sold or offered by any cemetery company or agent with a trust fund deposit of less than 100 percent shall be required to include the following printed statement in capitalized letters, in ten-point, bold-faced type:

THIS PRENEED BURIAL CONTRACT REQUIRES THE PLACEMENT IN TRUST OF A MINIMUM OF 40% OF THE FUNDS INCLUDED IN THIS CONTRACT. THE BALANCE OF FUNDS MAY BE USED FOR CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF THE CEMETERY AND ARE NOT REQUIRED TO BE PLACED IN TRUST.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2329. Identification of specific funds.

Specific funds deposited in the trust account shall be identified in the records of the seller by the contract number and by the name of the buyer. The trustee may commingle the deposits in any preneed trust account for the purposes of the management thereof and the investment of funds therein.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2330. Specific funds and income to remain in preneed trust account; exception.

Specific funds shall remain intact until the property is delivered or services performed as specified in the contract. The net income from the preneed trust account, after payment of any appropriate trustee fees, commissions, and costs, shall remain in the account and be reinvested and compounded. Any trustee fees, commissions, and costs in excess of income shall be paid by the cemetery company and not from the trust. However, the trustee shall, as of the close of the cemetery company's fiscal year, upon written assurance to the trustee of a certified public accountant employed by the seller, return to the seller any income in the seller's account which, when added to the specific funds, is in excess of the current cost requirements for all undelivered property or services included in the seller's preneed burial contracts. The seller's cost requirements shall be certified in its records by an affidavit sworn by the compliance agent and shall be determined by the seller as of the close of the cemetery company's fiscal year.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2331. Disbursement of trust funds upon performance of contract.

A. Upon performance of the preneed burial contract, the seller shall certify to the trustee by affidavit the amount of specific funds in the trust, identified to the contract performed, which the trustee shall pay to the seller. The seller may in its records itemize the property or services and the consideration paid or to be paid therefor, to which the deposit requirements of this chapter apply. In such case, the seller may, upon certification to the trustee of performance or delivery of such property or services and of the amount of specific trust funds identified in its records to such items, request disbursement of that portion of the specific funds deposited pursuant to the contract, which the trustee shall pay to the seller.

B. If the preneed contract provides for two or more persons, the seller may, at its option, designate in its records the consideration paid for each individual in the preneed burial contract. In such case, upon performance of that portion of the contract identified to a particular individual, the seller may request, by certification in the manner described above, the disbursement of trust funds applicable to that portion of the contract, which the trustee shall pay to the seller.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2332. Seller required to keep records.

Each seller of a preneed burial contract shall file with the Board at such time as the Board may prescribe, detailed accounts of all contracts and transactions regarding preneed burial contracts.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2333. Financial report and report of independent certified public accountant required for preneed trust accounts.

A. The cemetery company shall report the following information to the Board within four months following the cemetery company's fiscal year, on forms prescribed by the Board:

1. The total amount of principal in the preneed trust account;

2. The securities in which the preneed trust account is invested;

3. The income received from the trust and the source of that income during the preceding fiscal year;

4. An affidavit executed by the compliance agent that all provisions of this chapter applicable to the seller relating to preneed trust accounts have been complied with;

5. Forty percent of the total receipts required to be deposited in the preneed trust account;

6. All expenditures from the preneed trust account; and

7. If the trustee is other than a Virginia trust company or trust subsidiary or a federally insured bank or savings institution doing business in the Commonwealth, proof that the required fidelity bond has been secured and that it is in effect.

B. The cemetery company shall (i) engage an independent certified public accountant to apply agreed-upon procedures as specified by the Board to the total of all receipts subject to § 54.1-2325, in accordance with standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants or any successor standard authorities, and (ii) provide to the Board the independent certified public accountant's report on the agreed-upon procedures.

The information provided by the cemetery company shall provide full disclosure of any transactions between the preneed trust account and any directors, officers, stockholders, or employees of the cemetery company, or relatives of the cemetery company's employees, and shall include a description of the transactions, the parties involved, the dates and amounts of the transactions, and the reasons for the transactions.

C. The information required to be filed hereunder with the Board shall be exempt from the Government Data Collection and Dissemination Practices Act (§ 2.2-3800 et seq.).

1998, cc. 708, 721; 2000, c. 36; 2004, c. 247; 2015, c. 344.

§ 54.1-2334. Inclusion of property and services to be delivered within 120 days.

Nothing in this chapter shall be deemed to prohibit the sale within the preneed burial contract of property or services to be delivered within 120 days after the receipt of the initial payment on account of such sale. Contracts may specify separately the total consideration paid or to be paid for preneed property or services not to be delivered or provided within 120 days after receipt of initial payment. If a contract does not so specify, the seller shall deposit forty percent of the total consideration for the entire contract.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2335. Breach of contract by seller; trust to be single purpose trust.

If, after a written request, the seller fails to perform its contractual duties, the purchaser, executor or administrator of the estate, or heirs, or assigns or duly authorized representative of the purchaser shall be entitled to maintain a proper legal or equitable action in any court of competent jurisdiction. No other purchaser need be made a party to or receive notice of any proceeding brought pursuant to this section relating to the performance of any other contract.

The trust shall be a single purpose trust, and the trust funds shall not be available to any creditors as assets of the seller.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2336. Trustee may rely on certifications and affidavits.

The trustee may rely upon all certifications and affidavits made pursuant to or required by the provisions of this chapter and shall not be liable to any person for such reasonable reliance.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2337. Transfer of trust funds to another trustee.

The seller may, upon notification in writing to the trustee, and upon such other terms and conditions as the agreement between them may specify, transfer its account funds to another trustee qualified under the provisions of this chapter. The trustee may, upon notification in writing to the seller, and upon such other terms and conditions as the agreement between them may specify, transfer the trust funds to another trustee qualified under the provisions of this chapter. No seller's account funds or trustee's trust funds may be transferred to another trustee unless the seller provides written notice at least five days prior to such transfer to the Board.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2338. Use of trustee's name in advertisements.

No person subject to the provisions of this chapter shall use the name of the trustee in any advertisement or other public solicitation without written permission of the trustee.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2339. Construction and development of mausoleums and garden crypts.

Within four years after the date of the first sale, a cemetery company or other seller of mausoleums and garden crypts shall be required to start construction or development of that undeveloped ground or section of a mausoleum or garden crypt in which sales, contracts for sales, or agreements for sales are being made. The construction or development of such undeveloped mausoleum section or garden crypt shall be completed within five years after the date of the first such sale. Completed construction shall be deemed performance for purposes of this chapter.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2340. Waiver of chapter void.

Any provision of any contract which purports to waive any provision of this chapter shall be void.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2341. Exemption from levy, garnishment and distress.

Any money, personal property or real property paid, delivered or conveyed subject to § 54.1-2325 shall be exempt from levy, garnishment or distress.

1998, cc. 708, 721.

§ 54.1-2342. Penalties.

Any person who violates any of the provisions of this chapter shall be subject to the sanctions provided in Chapter 1 (§ 54.1-100 et seq.) and Chapter 2 (§ 54.1-200 et seq.) and in §§ 54.1-2314, 54.1-2317, and 54.1-2326. Any person who is convicted of willfully violating any of the provisions of this chapter is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. Any person convicted of violating, or failing to comply with, any of the provisions of § 54.1-2317, 54.1-2319, 54.1-2321, 54.1-2322, 54.1-2325 or 54.1-2326 with the intent to defraud is guilty of a Class 6 felony.

For the purposes of this section, "person" includes any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or any other legal or commercial entity and any successor, representative, agent, agency, instrumentality, officer or employee thereof.

1998, cc. 708, 721; 2005, c. 691.

Chapter 23.2. Fair Housing Board.

§ 54.1-2343. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Board" means the Fair Housing Board.

"Fair Housing Law" means the provisions of Chapter 5.1 (§ 36-96.1 et seq.) of Title 36.

"Person in the business or activity of selling or renting dwellings" means any person who is the owner of any combination of residential dwelling units occupied by five or more families. "Person in the business or activity of selling or renting dwellings" shall not include any person involved in the sale of a dwelling or interest therein pursuant to a deed of trust, or in full or partial satisfaction of a debt that was secured by such dwelling or interest therein, or other lien on such property.

2003, c. 575; 2010, cc. 457, 620.

§ 54.1-2344. Fair Housing Board; membership; terms; chairman; powers and duties.

A. The Fair Housing Board shall be composed of 12 members, to be appointed by the Governor, as follows: one representative of local government, one architect licensed in accordance with Chapter 4 (§ 54.1-400 et seq.) of this title, one representative of the mortgage lending industry, one representative of the property and casualty insurance industry, two representatives of the residential property management industry not licensed in accordance with Chapter 21 (§ 54.1-2100 et seq.) of this title, at least one of whom is a member of a property owners' association or condominium unit owners' association, one contractor licensed in accordance with Chapter 11 (§ 54.1-1100 et seq.) of this title, one representative of the disability community, one representative of the residential land lease industry subject to Chapter 13.3 (§ 55-248.41 et seq.) of Title 55, and three citizen members selected in accordance with § 54.1-107. All terms of Board members shall be for terms of four years.

B. The Board shall elect a chairman from its membership.

C. The Board shall adopt a seal by which it shall authenticate its proceedings.

D. The Board shall be responsible for the administration and enforcement of the Fair Housing Law. However, the Board shall have no authority with respect to any of the following respondents who have allegedly violated, or who have in fact violated, the Fair Housing Law: (i) a real estate broker, real estate salesperson, real estate brokerage firm licensed in accordance with Chapter 21 (§ 54.1-2100 et seq.), or their agents or employees or (ii) a property owner or his agent or principal, who has engaged a real estate licensee to perform real estate activities within the purview of Chapter 21 (§ 54.1-2100 et seq.), which licensee has also been charged with a violation of the Fair Housing Law in the same case. In no event shall the jurisdiction be split between the Real Estate Board and the Board on the same such case.

The Board shall have the power and duty to establish, by regulation, an education-based certification or registration program for persons subject to the Fair Housing Law who are involved in the business or activity of selling or renting dwellings. The Board shall also establish, by regulation, educational materials on the Fair Housing Law and require a signed affidavit from persons in the business or activity of selling or renting dwellings, that they have read and understood the provided materials. The Board shall have the authority to approve training courses and instructors in furtherance of the provisions of this chapter.

No education-based program established by the Board shall require Board certification or registration where an individual holds a valid license issued by the Real Estate Board. Any courses approved by the Real Estate Board to meet the fair housing requirement of § 54.1-2105.03 and the instructors approved by the Real Estate Board to teach continuing education courses in accordance with § 54.1-2105.02 shall not require additional approval by the Fair Housing Board to meet any education requirements in this section and in the regulations of the Fair Housing Board.

2003, c. 575; 2007, cc. 809, 874; 2010, cc. 91, 457, 620; 2013, c. 190.

Chapter 23.3. Common Interest Communities.

§ 54.1-2345. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Association" means the same as that term is defined in § 55-528.

"Board" means the Common Interest Community Board.

"Common interest community" means the same as that term is defined in § 55-528; provided that for the purposes of this chapter only, a common interest community shall not include any time-share project registered pursuant to the Virginia Real Estate Time-Share Act (§ 55-360 et seq.) or any additional land that is a part of such registration.

"Common interest community manager" means a person or business entity, including but not limited to a partnership, association, corporation, or limited liability company, who, for compensation or valuable consideration, provides management services to a common interest community.

"Declaration" means the same as that term is defined in § 55-528.

"Governing board" means the governing board of an association, including the executive organ of a condominium unit owners' association, the executive board of a cooperative proprietary lessees' association, and the board of directors or other governing body of a property owners' association.

"Lot" means the same as that term is defined in § 55-528.

"Management services" means (i) acting with the authority of an association in its business, legal, financial, or other transactions with association members and nonmembers; (ii) executing the resolutions and decisions of an association or, with the authority of the association, enforcing the rights of the association secured by statute, contract, covenant, rule, or bylaw; (iii) collecting, disbursing, or otherwise exercising dominion or control over money or other property belonging to an association; (iv) preparing budgets, financial statements, or other financial reports for an association; (v) arranging, conducting, or coordinating meetings of an association or the governing body of an association; (vi) negotiating contracts or otherwise coordinating or arranging for services or the purchase of property and goods for or on behalf of an association; or (vii) offering or soliciting to perform any of the aforesaid acts or services on behalf of an association.

2008, cc. 851, 871.

§ 54.1-2346. License required; certification of employees; renewal; provisional license.

A. Unless exempted by § 54.1-2347, any person, partnership, corporation, or other entity offering management services to a common interest community on or after January 1, 2009, shall hold a valid license issued in accordance with the provisions of this chapter prior to engaging in such management services.

B. Unless exempted by § 54.1-2347, any person, partnership, corporation, or other entity offering management services to a common interest community without being licensed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, shall be subject to the provisions of § 54.1-111.

C. On or after July 1, 2012, it shall be a condition of the issuance or renewal of the license of a common interest community manager that all employees of the common interest community manager who have principal responsibility for management services provided to a common interest community or who have supervisory responsibility for employees who participate directly in the provision of management services to a common interest community shall, within two years after employment with the common interest community manager, hold a certificate issued by the Board certifying the person possesses the character and minimum skills to engage properly in the provision of management services to a common interest community or shall be under the direct supervision of a certified employee of such common interest community manager. A common interest community manager shall notify the Board if a certificated employee is discharged or in any way terminates his active status with the common interest community manager.

D. It shall be a condition of the issuance or renewal of the license of a common interest community manager that the common interest community manager shall obtain and maintain a blanket fidelity bond or employee dishonesty insurance policy insuring the common interest community manager against losses resulting from theft or dishonesty committed by the officers, directors, and persons employed by the common interest community manager. Such bond or insurance policy shall include coverage for losses of clients of the common interest community manager resulting from theft or dishonesty committed by the officers, directors, and persons employed by the common interest community manager. Such bond or insurance policy shall provide coverage in an amount equal to the lesser of $2 million or the highest aggregate amount of the operating and reserve balances of all associations under the control of the common interest community manager during the prior fiscal year. The minimum coverage amount shall be $10,000.

E. It shall be a condition of the issuance or renewal of the license of a common interest community manager that the common interest community manager certifies to the Board (i) that the common interest community manager is in good standing and authorized to transact business in Virginia; (ii) that the common interest community manager has established a code of conduct for the officers, directors, and persons employed by the common interest community manager to protect against conflicts of interest; (iii) that the common interest community manager provides all management services pursuant to written contracts with the associations to which such services are provided; (iv) that the common interest community manager has established a system of internal accounting controls to manage the risk of fraud or illegal acts; and (v) that an independent certified public accountant reviews or audits the financial statements of the common interest community manager at least annually in accordance with standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants or by any successor standard-setting authorities.

F. The Board shall issue a provisional license to any person, partnership, corporation, or other entity offering management services to a common interest community on or before December 31, 2008, who makes application for licensure prior to January 1, 2009. Such provisional license shall expire on June 30, 2012, and shall not be renewed. This subsection shall not be construed to limit the powers and authority of the Board.

2008, cc. 851, 871; 2011, cc. 334, 605.

§ 54.1-2347. Exceptions and exemptions generally.

A. The provisions of this chapter shall not be construed to prevent or prohibit:

1. An employee of a duly licensed common interest community manager from providing management services within the scope of the employee's employment by the duly licensed common interest community manager;

2. An employee of an association from providing management services for that association's common interest community;

3. A resident of a common interest community acting without compensation from providing management services for that common interest community;

4. A resident of a common interest community from providing bookkeeping, billing, or recordkeeping services for that common interest community for compensation, provided the blanket fidelity bond or employee dishonesty insurance policy maintained by the association insures the association against losses resulting from theft or dishonesty committed by such person;

5. A member of the governing board of an association acting without compensation from providing management services for that association's common interest community;

6. A person acting as a receiver or trustee in bankruptcy in the performance of his duties as such or any person acting under order of any court from providing management services for a common interest community;

7. A duly licensed attorney-at-law from representing an association or a common interest community manager in any business that constitutes the practice of law;

8. A duly licensed certified public accountant from providing bookkeeping or accounting services to an association or a common interest community manager;

9. A duly licensed real estate broker or agent from selling, leasing, renting, or managing lots within a common interest community; or

10. An association, exchange agent, exchange company, managing agent, or managing entity of a time-share project registered pursuant to the Virginia Real Estate Time-Share Act (§ 55-360 et seq.) from providing management services for such time-share project.

B. A licensee of the Board shall comply with the Board's regulations, notwithstanding the fact that the licensee would be otherwise exempt from licensure under subsection A. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require a person to be licensed in accordance with this chapter if he would be otherwise exempt from such licensure.

2008, cc. 851, 871; 2010, c. 511; 2011, cc. 334, 605.

§ 54.1-2348. Common Interest Community Board; membership; meetings; quorum.

There is hereby created the Common Interest Community Board (the Board) as a policy board, within the meaning of § 2.2-2100, in the executive branch of state government. Members of the Board shall be appointed by the Governor and consist of eleven members as follows: three shall be representatives of Virginia common interest community managers, one shall be a Virginia attorney whose practice includes the representation of associations, one shall be a representative of a Virginia certified public accountant whose practice includes providing attest services to associations, one shall be a representative of the Virginia time-share industry, two shall be representatives of developers of Virginia common interest communities, and three shall be Virginia citizens, one of whom serves or who has served on the governing board of an association that is not professionally managed at the time of appointment and two of whom reside in a common interest community. Of the initial appointments, one representative of Virginia common interest community managers and one representative of developers of Virginia common interest communities shall serve terms of two years and one representative of Virginia common interest community managers and one representative of developers of Virginia common interest communities shall serve terms of three years; the Virginia attorney shall serve a term of three years; the Virginia certified public accountant shall serve a term of one year; the Virginia citizen who serves or who has served on the governing board of an association shall serve a term of two years, and the two Virginia citizens who reside in a common interest community shall serve terms of one year. All other initial appointments and all subsequent appointments shall be for terms for four years, except that vacancies may be filled for the remainder of the unexpired term. Each appointment of a representative of a Virginia common interest community manager to the Board may be made from nominations submitted by the Virginia Association of Community Managers, who may nominate no more than three persons for each manager vacancy. In no case shall the Governor be bound to make any appointment from such nominees. No person shall be eligible to serve for more than two successive four-year terms.

The Board shall meet at least once each year and at other such times as it deems necessary. The Board shall elect from its membership a chairman and a vice-chairman to serve for a period of one year. A majority of the Board shall constitute a quorum. The Board is vested with the powers and duties necessary to execute the purposes of this chapter.

2008, cc. 851, 871; 2010, c. 511; 2012, c. 522.

§ 54.1-2349. Powers and duties of the Board.

A. The Board shall administer and enforce the provisions of this chapter. In addition to the provisions of §§ 54.1-201 and 54.1-202, the Board shall:

1. Promulgate regulations necessary to carry out the requirements of this chapter in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) to include but not be limited to the prescription of fees, procedures, and qualifications for the issuance and renewal of common interest community manager licenses. The Board shall annually assess each common interest community manager an amount equal to the lesser of (i) $1,000, or such other amount as the Board may establish by regulation, or (ii) five hundredths of one percent (0.05%) of the gross receipts from common interest community management during the preceding year. For the purposes of clause (ii), no minimum payment shall be less than $10. The annual payment shall be remitted to the State Treasurer and shall be placed to the credit of the Common Interest Community Management Fund established pursuant to § 55-529;

2. Establish criteria for the licensure of common interest community managers to ensure the appropriate training and educational credentials for the provision of management services to common interest communities. Such criteria may include experiential requirements and shall include designation as an Accredited Association Management Company by the Community Associations Institute. As an additional alternative to such designation, the Board shall have authority, by regulation, to include one of the following: (i) successful completion of another Board-approved training program and certifying examination, or (ii) successful completion of a Virginia testing program to determine the quality of the training and educational credentials for and competence of common interest community managers;

3. Establish criteria for the certification of the employees of common interest community managers who have principal responsibility for management services provided to a common interest community or who have supervisory responsibility for employees who participate directly in the provision of management services to a common interest community to ensure the person possesses the character and minimum skills to engage properly in the provision of management services to a common interest community. Such criteria shall include designation as a Certified Manager of Community Associations by the National Board of Certification for Community Association Managers, designation as an Association Management Specialist by the Community Associations Institute, or designation as a Professional Community Association Manager by the Community Associations Institute. As an additional alternative to such designations, the Board shall have authority, by regulation, to include one of the following: (i) successful completion of another Board-approved training program as developed by the Virginia Association of Realtors or other organization, and certifying examination, or (ii) successful completion of a Virginia testing program to determine the quality of the training and educational credentials for and competence of the employees of common interest community managers who participate directly in the provision of management services to a common interest community. The fee paid to the Board for the issuance of such certificate shall be paid to the Common Interest Community Management Information Fund established pursuant to § 55-529;

4. Approve the criteria for accredited common interest community manager training programs;

5. Approve accredited common interest community manager training programs;

6. Establish, by regulation, standards of conduct for common interest community managers and for employees of common interest community managers certified in accordance with the provisions of this chapter;

7. Establish, by regulation, an education-based certification program for persons who are involved in the business or activity of providing management services for compensation to common interest communities. The Board shall have the authority to approve training courses and instructors in furtherance of the provisions of this chapter; and

8. Develop and publish best practices for the content of declarations consistent with the requirements of the Property Owners' Association Act (§ 55-508 et seq.).

B. 1. The Board shall have the sole responsibility for the administration of this chapter and for the promulgation of regulations to carry out the requirements thereof.

2. The Board shall also be responsible for the enforcement of this chapter, provided that the Real Estate Board shall have the sole responsibility for the enforcement of this chapter with respect to a real estate broker, real estate salesperson, or real estate brokerage firm licensed in accordance with Chapter 21 (§ 54.1-2100 et seq.) who is also licensed as a common interest community manager.

3. For purposes of enforcement of this chapter or Chapter 4.2 (§ 55-79.39 et seq.), 21 (§ 55-360 et seq.), 24 (§ 55-424 et seq.), or 26 (§ 55-508 et seq.) of Title 55, any requirement for the conduct of a hearing shall be satisfied by an informal fact-finding proceeding convened and conducted pursuant to § 2.2-4019 of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

C. The Board is authorized to obtain criminal history record information from any state or federal law-enforcement agency relating to an applicant for licensure or certification. Any information so obtained is for the exclusive use of the Board and shall not be released to any other person or agency except in furtherance of the investigation of the applicant or with the authorization of the applicant or upon court order.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection E of § 55-530, the Board may receive a complaint directly from any person aggrieved by an association's failure to deliver a resale certificate or disclosure packet within the time period required under § 55-79.97, 55-79.97:1, 55-484, 55-509.5, 55-509.6, or 55-509.7.

2008, cc. 851, 871; 2009, c. 557; 2010, cc. 511, 615; 2011, c. 334; 2012, cc. 481, 797; 2015, c. 268; 2017, cc. 387, 393, 405, 406.

§ 54.1-2350. Annual report; form to accompany resale certificates and disclosure packets.

In addition to the provisions of § 54.1-2349, the Board shall:

1. Administer the provisions of Chapter 29 (§ 55-528 et seq.) of Title 55;

2. Develop and disseminate an association annual report form for use in accordance with §§ 55-79.93:1, 55-504.1, and 55-516.1; and

3. Develop and disseminate a form to accompany resale certificates required pursuant to § 55-79.97 and association disclosure packets required pursuant to § 55-509.5, which form shall summarize the unique characteristics of common interest communities generally that may affect a prospective purchaser's decision to purchase a lot or unit located in a common interest community. The form shall include information on the following, which may or may not be applicable to a particular common interest community: (i) the obligation on the part of an owner to pay regular annual or special assessments to the association; (ii) the penalty for failure or refusal to pay such assessments; (iii) the purposes for which such assessments, if any, may be used; (iv) the importance the declaration of restrictive covenants or condominium instruments, as applicable, and other governing documents play in association living; (v) limitations on an owner's ability to rent his lot or unit; (vi) limitations on an owner's ability to park or store certain types of motor vehicles or boats within the common interest community; (vii) limitations on an owner's ability to maintain an animal as a pet within the lot or unit, or in common areas or common elements; (viii) architectural guidelines applicable to an owner's lot or unit; (ix) limitations on an owner's ability to operate a business within a dwelling unit on a lot or within a unit; (x) the period or length of declarant control; and (xi) that the purchase contract for a lot within an association is a legally binding document once it is signed by the prospective purchaser where the purchaser has not elected to cancel the purchase contract in accordance with law. The form shall also provide that (a) the purchaser remains responsible for his own examination of the materials that constitute the resale certificate or disclosure packet and of any table of contents that may be contained therein; (b) the purchaser shall carefully review the entire resale certificate or disclosure packet; and (c) the contents of the resale certificate or disclosure packet shall control to the extent that there are any inconsistencies between the form and the resale certificate or disclosure packet.

2008, cc. 851, 871; 2017, c. 257; 2018, cc. 70, 733.

§ 54.1-2351. General powers and duties of Board concerning associations.

A. The Board may adopt, amend, and repeal rules and regulations and issue orders consistent with and in furtherance of the objectives of this chapter, but the Board may not intervene in the internal activities of an association except to the extent necessary to prevent or cure violations of this chapter or of the chapter pursuant to which the association is created. The Board may prescribe forms and procedures for submitting information to the Board.

B. If it appears that any governing board has engaged, is engaging, or is about to engage in any act or practice in violation of this chapter, Chapter 4.2 (§ 55-79.39 et seq.), 21 (§ 55-360 et seq.), 24 (§ 55-424 et seq.), or 26 (§ 55-508 et seq.) of Title 55, or any of the Board's regulations or orders, the Board without prior administrative proceedings may bring suit in the appropriate court to enjoin that act or practice or for other appropriate relief. The Board is not required to post a bond or prove that no adequate remedy at law exists.

C. The Board may intervene in any action or suit involving a violation by a declarant or a developer of a time-share project of this chapter, Chapter 4.2 (§ 55-79.39 et seq.), 21 (§ 55-360 et seq.), 24 (§ 55-424 et seq.), or 26 (§ 55-508 et seq.) of Title 55, or any of the Board's regulations or orders.

D. The Board may accept grants-in-aid from any governmental source and may contract with agencies charged with similar functions in this or other jurisdictions in furtherance of the objectives of this chapter.

E. The Board may cooperate with agencies performing similar functions in this and other jurisdictions to develop uniform filing procedures and forms, uniform disclosure standards, and uniform administrative practices, and may develop information that may be useful in the discharge of the Board's duties.

F. In issuing any cease and desist order the Board shall state the basis for the adverse determination and the underlying facts.

G. Without limiting the remedies that may be obtained under this chapter, the Board, without compliance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.), shall have the authority to enforce the provisions of this section and may institute proceedings in equity to enjoin any person, partnership, corporation, or any other entity violating this chapter, Chapter 4.2 (§ 55-79.39 et seq.), 21 (§ 55-360 et seq.), 24 (§ 55-424 et seq.), or 26 (§ 55-508 et seq.) of Title 55, or any of the Board's regulations or orders. Such proceedings shall be brought in the name of the Commonwealth by the Board in the circuit court or general district court of the city or county in which the unlawful act occurred or in which the defendant resides.

H. The Board may assess a monetary penalty to be paid to the Common Interest Community Management Information Fund of not more than $1,000 per violation against any governing board that violates any provision of this chapter, Chapter 4.2 (§ 55-79.39 et seq.), 21 (§ 55-360 et seq.), 24 (§ 55-424 et seq.), or 26 (§ 55-508 et seq.) of Title 55, or any of the Board's regulations or orders. In determining the amount of the penalty, the Board shall consider the degree and extent of harm caused by the violation. No monetary penalty may be assessed under this chapter, Chapter 4.2 (§ 55-79.39 et seq.), 21 (§ 55-360 et seq.), 24 (§ 55-424 et seq.), or 26 (§ 55-508 et seq.) of Title 55, or any of the Board's regulations or orders unless the governing board has been given notice and an opportunity to be heard pursuant to the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). The penalty may be sued for and recovered in the name of the Commonwealth.

2008, cc. 851, 871; 2009, c. 557; 2010, c. 615.

§ 54.1-2352. Cease and desist orders.

A. The Board may issue an order requiring the governing board of the association to cease and desist from the unlawful practice and to take such affirmative action as in the judgment of the Board will carry out the purposes of this chapter, if the Board determines after notice and hearing that the governing board of an association has:

1. Violated any statute or regulation of the Board governing the association regulated pursuant to this chapter, including engaging in any act or practice in violation of this chapter, Chapter 4.2 (§ 55-79.39 et seq.), 21 (§ 55-360 et seq.), 24 (§ 55-424 et seq.), or 26 (§ 55-508 et seq.) of Title 55, or any of the Board's regulations or orders;

2. Failed to register as an association or to file an annual report as required by statute or regulation;

3. Materially misrepresented facts in an application for registration or an annual report; or

4. Willfully refused to furnish the Board information or records required or requested pursuant to statute or regulation.

B. If the Board makes a finding of fact in writing that the public interest will be irreparably harmed by delay in issuing an order, it may issue a temporary cease and desist order. Prior to issuing the temporary cease and desist order, the Board shall give notice of the proposal to issue a temporary cease and desist order to the person. Every temporary cease and desist order shall include in its terms a provision that upon request a hearing will be held promptly to determine whether or not it becomes permanent.

2008, cc. 851, 871; 2009, c. 557.

§ 54.1-2353. Protection of the interests of associations; appointment of receiver for common interest community manager.

A. A common interest community manager owes a fiduciary duty to the associations to which it provides management services with respect to the manager's handling the funds or the records of each association. All funds deposited with the common interest community manager shall be handled in a fiduciary capacity and shall be kept in a separate fiduciary trust account or accounts in an FDIC-insured financial institution separate from the assets of the common interest community manager. The funds shall be the property of the association and shall be segregated for each depository in the records of the common interest community manager in a manner that permits the funds to be identified on an association basis. All records having administrative or fiscal value to the association that a common interest community manager holds, maintains, compiles, or generates on behalf of a common interest community are the property of the association. A common interest community manager may retain and dispose of association records in accordance with a policy contained in the contract between the common interest community manager and the association. Within a reasonable time after a written request for any such records, the common interest community manager shall provide copies of the requested records to the association at the association's expense. The common interest community manager shall return all association records that it retains and any originals of legal instruments or official documents that are in the possession of the common interest community manager to the association within a reasonable time after termination of the contract for management services without additional cost to the association. Records maintained in electronic format may be returned in such format.

B. If the Board has reasonable cause to believe that a common interest community manager is unable to properly discharge its fiduciary responsibilities to an association to which it provides management services, the Board may submit an ex parte petition to the circuit court of the city or county wherein the common interest community manager maintains an office or is doing business for the issuance of an order authorizing the immediate inspection by and production to representatives of the petitioner of any records, documents, and physical or other evidence belonging to the subject common interest community manager. The court may issue such order without notice to the common interest community manager if the petition, supported by affidavit of the petitioner and such other evidence as the court may require, shows reasonable cause to believe that such action is required to prevent immediate loss of property of one or more of the associations to which the subject common interest community manager provides management services. The court may also temporarily enjoin further activity by the common interest community manager and take such further action as shall be necessary to conserve, protect, and disburse the funds involved, including the appointment of a receiver. The papers filed with the court pursuant to this subsection shall be placed under seal.

C. If the Board has reasonable cause to believe that a common interest community manager is unable to properly discharge its fiduciary responsibilities to an association to which it provides management services, the Board may file a petition with the circuit court of the county or city wherein the subject common interest community manager maintains an office or is doing business. The petition may seek the following relief: (i) an injunction prohibiting the withdrawal of any bank deposits or the disposition of any other assets belonging to or subject to the control of the subject common interest community manager; and (ii) the appointment of a receiver for all or part of the funds or property of the subject common interest community manager. The subject common interest community manager shall be given notice of the time and place of the hearing on the petition and an opportunity to offer evidence. The court, in its discretion, may require a receiver appointed pursuant to this section to post bond, with or without surety. The papers filed with the court under this subsection shall be placed under seal until such time as the court grants an injunction or appoints a receiver. The court may issue an injunction, appoint a receiver, or provide such other relief as the court may consider proper if, after a hearing, the court finds that such relief is necessary or appropriate to prevent loss of property of one or more of the associations to which the subject common interest community manager provides management services.

D. In any proceeding under subsection C, any person or entity known to the Board to be indebted to or having in his possession property, real or personal, belonging to or subject to the control of the subject common interest community manager's business and which property the Board reasonably believes may become part of the receivership assets, shall be served with a copy of the petition and notice of the time and place of the hearing.

E. The court shall describe the powers and duties of the receiver in its appointing order, which may be amended from time to time. The receiver shall, unless otherwise ordered by the court in the appointing order, (i) prepare and file with the Board a list of all associations managed by the subject common interest community manager; (ii) notify in writing all of the associations to which the subject common interest community manager provides management services of the appointment, and take whatever action the receiver deems appropriate to protect the interests of the associations until such time as the associations have had an opportunity to obtain a successor common interest community manager; (iii) facilitate the transfer of records and information to such successor common interest community manager; (iv) identify and take control of all bank accounts, including without limitation trust and operating accounts, over which the subject common interest community manager had signatory authority in connection with its management business; (v) prepare and submit an accounting of receipts and disbursements and account balances of all funds under the receiver's control for submission to the court within four months of the appointment and annually thereafter until the receivership is terminated by the court; (vi) attempt to collect any accounts receivable related to the subject common interest community manager's business; (vii) identify and attempt to recover any assets wrongfully diverted from the subject common interest community manager's business, or assets acquired with funds wrongfully diverted from the subject common interest community manager's business; (viii) terminate the subject common interest community manager's business; (ix) reduce to cash all of the assets of the subject common interest community manager; (x) determine the nature and amount of all claims of creditors of the subject common interest community manager, including associations to which the subject common interest community manager provided management services; and (xi) prepare and file with the court a report of such assets and claims proposing a plan for the distribution of funds in the receivership to such creditors in accordance with the provisions of subsection F.

F. Upon the court's approval of the receiver's report referenced in subsection E, at a hearing after such notice as the court may require to creditors, the receiver shall distribute the assets of the common interest community manager and funds in the receivership first to clients whose funds were or ought to have been held in a fiduciary capacity by the subject common interest community manager, then to the receiver for fees, costs, and expenses awarded pursuant to subsection G, and thereafter to the creditors of the subject common interest community manager, and then to the subject common interest community manager or its successors in interest.

G. A receiver appointed pursuant to this section shall be entitled, upon proper application to the court in which the appointment was made, to recover an award of reasonable fees, costs, and expenses. If there are not sufficient nonfiduciary funds to pay the award, then the shortfall shall be paid by the Common Interest Community Management Recovery Fund as a cost of administering the Fund pursuant to § 55-530.1, to the extent that the said Fund has funds available. The Fund shall have a claim against the subject common interest community manager for the amount paid.

H. The court may determine whether any assets under the receiver's control should be returned to the subject common interest community manager.

I. If the Board shall find that any common interest community manager is insolvent, that its merger into another common interest community manager is desirable for the protection of the associations to which such common interest community manager provides management services, and that an emergency exists, and, if the board of directors of such insolvent common interest community manager shall approve a plan of merger of such common interest community manager into another common interest community manager, compliance with the requirements of § 13.1-718 shall be dispensed with as to such insolvent common interest community manager and the approval by the Board of such plan of merger shall be the equivalent of approval by the holders of more than two-thirds of the outstanding shares of such insolvent common interest community manager for all purposes of Article 12 (§ 13.1-715.1 et seq.) of Chapter 9 of Title 13.1. If the Board finds that a common interest community manager is insolvent, that the acquisition of its assets by another common interest community manager is in the best interests of the associations to which such common interest community manager provides management services, and that an emergency exists, it may, with the consent of the boards of directors of both common interest community managers as to the terms and conditions of such transfer, including the assumption of all or certain liabilities, enter an order transferring some or all of the assets of such insolvent common interest community manager to such other common interest community manager, and no compliance with the provisions of §§ 13.1-723 and 13.1-724 shall be required, nor shall §§ 13.1-730 through 13.1-741 be applicable to such transfer. In the case either of such a merger or of such a sale of assets, the Board shall provide that prompt notice of its finding of insolvency and of the merger or sale of assets be sent to the stockholders of record of the insolvent common interest community manager for the purpose of providing such shareholders an opportunity to challenge the finding that the common interest community manager is insolvent. The relevant books and records of such insolvent common interest community manager shall remain intact and be made available to such shareholders for a period of 30 days after such notice is sent. The Board's finding of insolvency shall become final if a hearing before the Board is not requested by any such shareholder within such 30-day period. If, after such hearing, the Board finds that such common interest community manager was solvent, it shall rescind its order entered pursuant to this subsection and the merger or transfer of assets shall be rescinded. But if, after such hearing, the Board finds that such common interest community manager was insolvent, its order shall be final.

J. The provisions of this chapter are declared to be remedial. The purpose of this chapter is to protect the interests of associations adversely affected by common interest community managers who have breached their fiduciary duty. The provisions of this chapter shall be liberally administered in order to protect those interests and thereby the public's interest in the quality of management services provided by Virginia common interest community managers.

2008, cc. 851, 871; 2011, cc. 334, 605.

§ 54.1-2354. Variation by agreement.

Except as expressly provided in this chapter, provisions of this chapter may not be varied by agreement, and rights conferred by this chapter may not be waived. All management agreements entered into by common interest community managers shall comply with the terms of this chapter and the provisions of Chapter 4.2 (§ 55-79.39 et seq.), 21 (§ 55-360 et seq.), 24 (§ 55-424 et seq.), or 26 (§ 55-508 et seq.) of Title 55, as applicable.

2008, cc. 851, 871.

Chapter 23.4. Natural Gas Automobile Mechanics and Technicians.

§ 54.1-2355. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Certified NG automobile mechanic or technician" means a person certified by the Director who offers to the public for compensation services relating to the repair, conversion, or maintenance of motor vehicles that use in whole or in part natural gas as a fuel.

"Department" means the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Motor vehicle" means an automobile, motorcycle, mobile home, truck, van, or other vehicle operated on public highways and streets.

"Natural gas" means a combustible mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons that accumulates in porous sedimentary rocks, especially those yielding petroleum, consisting usually of over 80 percent methane together with minor amounts of ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, and, sometimes, helium used as a fuel.

2014, c. 763.

§ 54.1-2356. Powers and duties of the Department.

The Department shall administer and enforce the provisions of this chapter. In addition to the powers and duties otherwise conferred by law, the Director shall have the powers and duties of a regulatory board as contained in §§ 54.1-201 and 54.1-202 and shall have the power and duty to:

1. Promulgate regulations in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) that implement the provisions of this chapter and protect the public against incompetent, unqualified, unscrupulous, or unfit persons engaging in the activities regulated by this chapter. The regulations shall include requirements for (i) initial and renewal certification, (ii) standards of practice for certified NG automobile mechanics and technicians, (iii) grounds for disciplinary actions against persons certified under this chapter, and (iv) records to be kept and maintained by persons certified under this chapter.

2. Charge each applicant for certification and for renewal of certification a nonrefundable fee subject to the provisions of § 54.1-113.

3. Conduct investigations to determine the suitability of applicants for certification and to determine the certificate holder's compliance with applicable statutes and regulations.

2014, c. 763.

§ 54.1-2357. Certification required.

No person shall use or assume the title "Certified NG Automobile Mechanic" or "Certified NG Automobile Technician" or any words, letters, signs, or devices to indicate that person is a certified NG automobile mechanic or technician unless certified by the Director.

2014, c. 763.

§ 54.1-2358. Issuance of certification; waiver of examination.

The Director shall issue a certification to practice as an NG automobile mechanic or technician in the Commonwealth to every applicant who shall have complied with the requirements of this chapter and the regulations of the Director.

The Director shall certify any person who is a graduate of a program accredited by an accrediting organization or a professional program approved by the Director and who has one year of monitored experience in the performance of services relating to the repair or maintenance of motor vehicles and who has taken and passed the examination for certification.

The Director, in his discretion, shall determine whether an applicant's professional education and professional experience in the field of natural gas automobile mechanics are sufficient to establish eligibility for the examination.

The Director, in lieu of all examinations, may accept satisfactory evidence of licensing or certification in another state or country or the District of Columbia where (i) the qualifications for such licensure or certification are equal, in the opinion of the Director, to the qualifications required by the provisions of this chapter as of the date of application and (ii) the applicant is the holder of a license or certificate in good standing. Upon receipt of such satisfactory evidence and provided all other such requirements of this chapter are complied with, a certificate shall be issued to such applicant.

2014, c. 763.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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