Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 58.1. Taxation
2/28/2020

Chapter 3. Income Tax.

Article 1. General Provisions.

§ 58.1-300. Incomes not subject to local taxation.

No county, city, town or other political subdivision of this Commonwealth shall impose any tax or levy upon incomes, incomes being hereby segregated for state taxation only.

Code 1950, § 58-151.04; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 1989, c. 245; 2013, c. 766.

§ 58.1-301. Conformity to Internal Revenue Code.

A. Any term used in this chapter shall have the same meaning as when used in a comparable context in the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes, unless a different meaning is clearly required.

B. Any reference in this chapter to the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes shall mean the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, and amendments thereto, and other provisions of the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes, as they existed on December 31, 2018, except for:

1. The special depreciation allowance for certain property provided for under §§ 168(k), 168(l), 168(m), 1400L, and 1400N of the Internal Revenue Code;

2. The carry-back of certain net operating losses for five years under § 172(b)(1)(H) of the Internal Revenue Code;

3. The original issue discount on applicable high yield discount obligations under § 163(e)(5)(F) of the Internal Revenue Code;

4. The deferral of certain income under § 108(i) of the Internal Revenue Code. For Virginia income tax purposes, income from the discharge of indebtedness in connection with the reacquisition of an "applicable debt instrument" (as defined under § 108(i) of the Internal Revenue Code) reacquired in the taxable year shall be fully included in the taxpayer's Virginia taxable income for the taxable year, unless the taxpayer elects to include such income in the taxpayer's Virginia taxable income ratably over a three-taxable-year period beginning with taxable year 2009 for transactions completed in taxable year 2009, or over a three-taxable-year period beginning with taxable year 2010 for transactions completed in taxable year 2010 on or before April 21, 2010. For purposes of such election, all other provisions of § 108(i) of the Internal Revenue Code shall apply mutatis mutandis. No other deferral shall be allowed for income from the discharge of indebtedness in connection with the reacquisition of an "applicable debt instrument"; and

5. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, the provisions of § 11046 of the federal Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, P.L. 115-97 (2017), related to the suspension of the overall limitation on itemized deductions.

The Department of Taxation is hereby authorized to develop procedures or guidelines for implementation of the provisions of this section, which procedures or guidelines shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

Code 1950, § 58-151.01; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1980, c. 633; 1984, c. 675; 1994, c. 1; 2003, cc. 2, 163; 2004, c. 512; 2005, cc. 5, 26; 2006, cc. 63, 162; 2007, cc. 59, 782; 2008, cc. 1, 2; 2009, cc. 2, 3, 781; 2010, cc. 872, 874; 2011, cc. 2, 866, 890; 2012, cc. 2, 335, 480, 578; 2013, cc. 4, 693; 2014, c. 1; 2014, cc. 1, 2; 2015, cc. 1, 61; 2016, cc. 2, 19; 2017, cc. 1, 2; 2017, cc. 1, 2; 2018, cc. 14, 15; 2019, cc. 17, 18.

§ 58.1-302. Definitions.

For the purpose of this chapter and unless otherwise required by the context:

"Affiliated" means two or more corporations subject to Virginia income taxes whose relationship to each other is such that (i) one corporation owns at least 80 percent of the voting stock of the other or others or (ii) at least 80 percent of the voting stock of two or more corporations is owned by the same interests.

"Compensation" means wages, salaries, commissions and any other form of remuneration paid or accrued to employees for personal services.

"Corporation" includes associations, joint stock companies and insurance companies.

"Domicile" means the permanent place of residence of a taxpayer and the place to which he intends to return even though he may actually reside elsewhere. In determining domicile, consideration may be given to the applicant's expressed intent, conduct, and all attendant circumstances including, but not limited to, financial independence, business pursuits, employment, income sources, residence for federal income tax purposes, marital status, residence of parents, spouse and children, if any, leasehold, sites of personal and real property owned by the applicant, motor vehicle and other personal property registration, residence for purposes of voting as proven by registration to vote, if any, and such other factors as may reasonably be deemed necessary to determine the person's domicile.

"Foreign source income" means:

1. Interest, other than interest derived from sources within the United States;

2. Dividends, other than dividends derived from sources within the United States;

3. Rents, royalties, license, and technical fees from property located or services performed without the United States or from any interest in such property, including rents, royalties, or fees for the use of or the privilege of using without the United States any patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, good will, trademarks, trade brands, franchises, and other like properties;

4. Gains, profits, or other income from the sale of intangible or real property located without the United States; and

5. The amount of an individual's share of net income attributable to a foreign source qualified business unit of an electing small business corporation (S corporation). For purposes of this subsection, qualified business unit shall be defined by § 989 of the Internal Revenue Code, and the source of such income shall be determined in accordance with §§ 861, 862 and 987 of the Internal Revenue Code.

In determining the source of "foreign source income," the provisions of §§ 861, 862, and 863 of the Internal Revenue Code shall be applied except as specifically provided in subsection 5 above.

"Income and deductions from Virginia sources" includes:

1. Items of income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to:

a. The ownership of any interest in real or tangible personal property in Virginia;

b. A business, trade, profession or occupation carried on in Virginia; or

c. Prizes paid by the Virginia Lottery Department, and gambling winnings from wagers placed or paid at a location in Virginia.

2. Income from intangible personal property, including annuities, dividends, interest, royalties and gains from the disposition of intangible personal property to the extent that such income is from property employed by the taxpayer in a business, trade, profession, or occupation carried on in Virginia.

"Income tax return preparer" means any person who prepares for compensation, or who employs one or more persons to prepare for compensation, any return of tax imposed by this chapter or any claim for refund of tax. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the preparation for compensation of any portion of a return or claim for refund shall be treated as if it were the preparation of the return or claim for refund. A person shall not be an "income tax return preparer" merely because the person:

1. Furnishes typing, reproducing, or other mechanical assistance;

2. Prepares a return or claim for refund of the employer (or of an officer or employee of the employer) by whom he is regularly and continuously employed;

3. Prepares as a fiduciary a return or claim for refund for any person; or

4. Prepares an application for correction of an erroneous assessment or a protective claim for refund for a taxpayer in response to any assessment pursuant to § 58.1-1812 issued to the taxpayer or in response to any waiver pursuant to § 58.1-101 or 58.1-220 after the commencement of an audit of the taxpayer or another taxpayer if a determination in such audit of such other taxpayer directly or indirectly affects the tax liability of such taxpayer.

"Individual" means all natural persons whether married or unmarried and fiduciaries acting for natural persons, but not fiduciaries acting for trusts or estates.

"Intangible expenses and costs" means:

1. Expenses, losses and costs for, related to, or in connection directly or indirectly with the direct or indirect acquisition, use, maintenance or management, ownership, sale, exchange, lease, transfer, or any other disposition of intangible property to the extent such amounts are allowed as deductions or costs in determining taxable income;

2. Losses related to or incurred in connection directly or indirectly with factoring transactions or discounting transactions;

3. Royalty, patent, technical and copyright fees;

4. Licensing fees; and

5. Other similar expenses and costs.

"Intangible property" means patents, patent applications, trade names, trademarks, service marks, copyrights and similar types of intangible assets.

"Interest expenses and costs" means amounts directly or indirectly allowed as deductions under § 163 of the Internal Revenue Code for purposes of determining taxable income under the Internal Revenue Code to the extent such expenses and costs are directly or indirectly for, related to, or in connection with the direct or indirect acquisition, use, maintenance, management, ownership, sale, exchange, lease, transfer, or disposition of intangible property.

"Nonresident estate or trust" means an estate or trust which is not a resident estate or trust.

"Related entity" means:

1. A stockholder who is an individual, or a member of the stockholder's family enumerated in § 318 of the Internal Revenue Code, if the stockholder and the members of the stockholder's family own, directly, indirectly, beneficially or constructively, in the aggregate, at least 50 percent of the value of the taxpayer's outstanding stock;

2. A stockholder, or a stockholder's partnership, limited liability company, estate, trust or corporation, if the stockholder and the stockholder's partnerships, limited liability companies, estates, trusts and corporations own directly, indirectly, beneficially or constructively, in the aggregate, at least 50 percent of the value of the taxpayer's outstanding stock; or

3. A corporation, or a party related to the corporation in a manner that would require an attribution of stock from the corporation to the party or from the party to the corporation under the attribution rules of § 318 of the Internal Revenue Code, if the taxpayer owns, directly, indirectly, beneficially or constructively, at least 50 percent of the value of the corporation's outstanding stock. The attribution rules of § 318 of the Internal Revenue Code shall apply for purposes of determining whether the ownership requirements of this subdivision have been met.

"Related member" means a person that, with respect to the taxpayer during all or any portion of the taxable year, is a related entity, a component member as defined in § 1563(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, or is a person to or from whom there is attribution of stock ownership in accordance with § 1563(e) of the Internal Revenue Code.

"Resident" applies only to natural persons and includes, for the purpose of determining liability for the taxes imposed by this chapter upon the income of any taxable year every person domiciled in Virginia at any time during the taxable year and every other person who, for an aggregate of more than 183 days of the taxable year, maintained his place of abode within Virginia, whether domiciled in Virginia or not. The word "resident" shall not include any member of the United States Congress who is domiciled in another state.

"Resident estate or trust" means:

1. The estate of a decedent who at his death was domiciled in the Commonwealth;

2. A trust created by will of a decedent who at his death was domiciled in the Commonwealth; or

3. A trust created by or consisting of property of a person domiciled in the Commonwealth

"Sales" means all gross receipts of the corporation not allocated under § 58.1-407, except the sale or other disposition of intangible property shall include only the net gain realized from the transaction.

"State," for purposes of Article 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.), means any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, and any foreign country.

"Trust" or "estate" means a trust or estate, or a fiduciary thereof, which is required to file a fiduciary income tax return under the laws of the United States.

"Virginia fiduciary adjustment" means the net amount of the applicable modifications described in §§ 58.1-322.01, 58.1-322.02, and 58.1-322.04 (including subdivision 1 of § 58.1-322.04 if the estate or trust is a beneficiary of another estate or trust) which relate to items of income, gain, loss or deduction of an estate or trust. The fiduciary adjustment shall not include the modification in § 58.1-322.03, except that the amount of state income taxes excluded from federal taxable income shall be included. The fiduciary adjustment shall also include the modification in subdivision 7 of § 58.1-322.03 regarding the deduction for the purchase of a prepaid tuition contract or contribution to a savings trust account.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.02, 58-151.013, 58-151.023, 58-151.034, 58-151.081; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, cc. 310, 827; 1973, cc. 198, 345, 458; 1974, c. 682; 1975, c. 46; 1976, cc. 528, 694, 781; 1977, cc. 297, 612; 1978, cc. 67, 158; 1979, cc. 226, 404, 596; 1981, cc. 402, 414; 1982, c. 633; 1983, cc. 452, 472; 1984, cc. 153, 162, 636, 674, 675, 729; 1990, c. 294; 1992, c. 678; 1995, c. 602; 2000, cc. 382, 400; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2005, c. 48; 2017, c. 444; 2019, cc. 23, 192.

§ 58.1-303. Residency for portion of tax year.

A. Any person who, during the taxable year, becomes a resident of Virginia, whether domiciliary or actual, for purposes of income taxation, by moving to the Commonwealth from without during such taxable year, shall be taxable as a resident for only that portion of the taxable year during which he was a resident of the Commonwealth and his personal exemptions shall be reduced to an amount which bears the same ratio to the full exemptions as the number of days during which he was a resident of the Commonwealth bears to 365 days. No person to whom the preceding sentence applies shall be entitled to any credit on his income tax payable to Virginia for any income tax paid to the state or other jurisdiction of his former domicile or actual residence for that part of the taxable year during which he was a domiciliary or actual resident of such other state or jurisdiction, notwithstanding the provisions of § 58.1-332.

B. Any person who, on or before the last day of the taxable year, changes his place of abode to a place without the Commonwealth with the bona fide intention of continuing actually to abide permanently without Virginia shall be taxable as a resident for only that portion of the taxable year during which he was a resident of Virginia and his personal exemptions shall be reduced to an amount which bears the same ratio to the full exemptions as the number of days during which he was a resident of this Commonwealth bears to 365 days. The fact that a person who has changed his place of abode, within six months from so doing abides again in the Commonwealth, shall be prima facie evidence that he did not intend permanently to have his place of abode without Virginia. The fact that a person has removed his abode to a place without the Commonwealth is not conclusive evidence of a change of domicile.

C. Any person who is taxable as a resident of the Commonwealth for only a portion of a taxable year because he moved to this Commonwealth from without Virginia during the taxable year as set out in subsection A, or because he changed his place of abode during the taxable year to a place without Virginia as set out in subsection B, and who, as a nonresident of Virginia for any other part of the taxable year derived income from any property owned or from any business, trade, profession or occupation carried on in Virginia shall be taxable as a nonresident with respect to such income as provided in § 58.1-325.

Code 1950, § 58-151.02; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, cc. 310, 827; 1979, c. 404; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-304. Reserved.

Reserved.

§ 58.1-305. Duties of commissioner of the revenue relating to income tax.

Every commissioner of the revenue shall obtain an income tax return from every individual or fiduciary within his jurisdiction who is liable under the law to file such a return with him; provided such individual or fiduciary has not filed such a return with the Department of Taxation. This duty of the commissioner of the revenue to obtain such return shall in no manner diminish any obligation to file a return without being called upon to do so by the commissioner of the revenue or any other officer. Each commissioner of the revenue shall audit returns as soon as practicable after they are made to him and shall assess the amount of taxes, or the amount of additional taxes, as the case may be, which appears to be due. Such auditing shall not be done in a manner or at a time in any case as will result in any delay on the part of the commissioner of the revenue in complying with §§ 58.1-307 and 58.1-350.

Code 1950, § 58-151.068; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 2004, c. 544.

§ 58.1-306. Filing of individual, estate or trust income tax returns with the Department.

Every individual and fiduciary responsible for filing income tax returns may file such returns with the Department of Taxation or the appropriate commissioner of the revenue. Whenever an individual or fiduciary files with the Department an income tax return for a current year, the Department may assess the state income tax against such taxpayer instead of transmitting such return to a commissioner of the revenue for assessment. In every such case the Department, however, shall advise the appropriate commissioner of the revenue of such action. The Department may advise taxpayers through its publications and instructions of their right to file state income tax returns with the Department but shall not by any means whatsoever, either directly or indirectly, in its bulletins, instructions, publications or otherwise, request, promote or solicit, in any local jurisdiction, unless requested by the commissioner of the revenue or assessing officer thereof on or before September 1 of each year, the filing of such state income tax return with the Department. Nothing in this chapter shall prohibit the Department from including the mailing addresses of the local commissioners of the revenue as well as the Department within the appropriate income tax forms and filing instructions.

Code 1950, § 58-151.065; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1974, c. 281; 1984, c. 675; 2004, cc. 521, 544.

§ 58.1-307. Disposition of returns; handling of state income tax payments; audit.

A. As soon as the individual and fiduciary income tax returns have been received by the commissioner of the revenue and entered upon the assessment sheets or forms, the commissioner of the revenue shall forward such returns to the Department. The Department, however, may authorize the commissioner of the revenue to retain such returns for such length of time as may be necessary to enable him to review them under § 58.1-305 and to use them in ascertaining delinquents. As soon as practicable after each such return is received by the Department, it shall examine and audit it. Except in criminal and internal investigations, the Department shall conduct its audits, inspections of records, and meetings with taxpayers at reasonable times and places. For purposes of informal meetings on appeals under § 58.1-1821, Richmond shall be a reasonable place to meet.

B. If any income tax return filed with and received by the commissioner of the revenue or director of finance or other assessing officer is accompanied by payment, in whole or in part, of the liability shown on such return, such officer, within two banking days of receipt of such return, shall deliver such payment or payments to the treasurer. The commissioner of the revenue or director of finance or other assessing officer shall maintain a record of the date on which such payments are received and shall also record the date on which such payments are delivered to the treasurer. The Auditor of Public Accounts shall either prescribe or approve the commissioner of the revenue's or director of finance's or other assessing officer's record-keeping system and shall audit such records as provided for in Chapter 14 (§ 30-130 et seq.) of Title 30. The Auditor, in his discretion, upon a showing of hardship making it difficult to comply with these requirements, may prescribe or approve alternative arrangements intended to accomplish the same result. The treasurer shall act in accordance with subsection B of § 2.2-806 and 58.1-3168 in the handling, deposit, and accounting of such payments.

Code 1950, § 58-151.070; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 1991, c. 485; 1996, c. 634.

§ 58.1-308. Assessment and payment of deficiency; fraud; penalties.

If the amount of tax computed by the Department is greater than the amount theretofore assessed, the excess shall be assessed by the Department and a bill for the same shall be mailed to the taxpayer. The taxpayer shall pay such additional tax to the Department within thirty days after the amount of the tax as computed is mailed by the Department. In such case, if the return was made in good faith and the understatement of the amount in the return was not due to any fault of the taxpayer, there shall be no penalty on the additional tax because of such understatement, but interest shall be added to the amount of the deficiency at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the time the return was required by law to be filed until paid.

If the understatement is false or fraudulent with intent to evade the tax, a penalty of 100 percent shall be added together with interest on the tax at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the time the return was required by law to be filed until paid.

Nothing contained in this section shall prevent the taxpayer from applying to the circuit court of the county or the city wherein he resides for a correction of the assessment made by the Department, with right of appeal in the manner provided by law.

Code 1950, § 58-151.071; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 396; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-309. Refund of overpayment.

If the amount of taxes as computed is less than the amount theretofore paid, the excess shall be refunded out of the state treasury on the order of the Tax Commissioner upon the Comptroller.

Code 1950, § 58-151.072; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1974, c. 178; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-310. Examination of federal returns.

Whenever in the opinion of the Department it is necessary to examine the federal income returns or any copy thereof of any individual, estate, trust, partnership or corporation in order properly to audit such returns, the Department or the commissioner of the revenue shall have the right to require such taxpayer to provide such return or a copy thereof and all statements, inventories, and schedules in support thereof.

Code 1950, § 58-151.097; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1973, c. 198; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-311. Report of change in federal taxable income.

If the amount of any individual, estate, trust or corporate taxpayer's federal taxable income reported on his federal income tax return for any taxable year is changed or corrected by the United States Internal Revenue Service or other competent authority, or as the result of a renegotiation of a contract or subcontract with the United States, the taxpayer shall file an amended return, or such other form as the Department may prescribe, reporting such change or correction in federal taxable income within one year after the final determination of such change, correction, or renegotiation, or as otherwise required by the Department, and shall concede the accuracy of such determination or state wherein it is erroneous. However, if the Department has sufficient information from which to compute the proper additional tax and the taxpayer has paid such tax, then the taxpayer is not required to file an amended individual income tax return. Any taxpayer filing an amended federal income tax return shall also file within one year thereafter an amended return under this chapter and shall give such information as the Department may require. The Department may by regulation prescribe such exceptions to the requirements of this section as it deems appropriate.

Code 1950, § 58-151.0103; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 1992, c. 678; 2006, c. 234.

§ 58.1-311.1. Report of change in taxes paid to other states.

If the amount of any individual taxpayer's income tax reported on a return filed with any other state for any taxable year is changed or corrected by such state as a result of an examination conducted by a competent authority of such state, and the taxpayer previously claimed a credit for such tax pursuant to § 58.1-332, the taxpayer shall file an amended return, or such other form as the Department may prescribe, reporting the effects of such change or correction on the taxpayer's Virginia individual income tax within one year after the final determination of such change or correction, or as otherwise required by the Department, and shall concede the accuracy of such determination or declare wherein it is erroneous. However, if the Department has sufficient information from which to compute the proper additional tax and the taxpayer has paid such tax, then the taxpayer is not required to file an amended individual income tax return. Any taxpayer filing an amended income tax return with any other state that results in a change to the taxpayer's Virginia income tax shall also file an amended return within one year thereafter under this chapter and shall provide such information as the Department may require. The Department may by regulation prescribe such exceptions to the requirements of this section as it deems appropriate.

2006, c. 234.

§ 58.1-312. Limitations on assessment.

A. The tax imposed by this chapter may be assessed at any time if:

1. No return is filed;

2. A false or fraudulent return is filed with intent to evade tax;

3. The taxpayer fails to comply with § 58.1-311 in not reporting a change or correction increasing his federal taxable income as reported on his federal income tax return, or in not reporting a change or correction which is treated in the same manner as if it were a deficiency for federal income tax purposes, or in not filing an amended return; or

4. The taxpayer fails to comply with § 58.1-311.1 by not reporting a change or correction decreasing the tax paid to another state for which a credit was claimed on his Virginia income tax return as a result of an examination conducted by any other state or an amended income tax return filed with any other state.

B. The tax may be assessed within six years after the return was filed, whether such return was filed on or after the date prescribed, if the taxpayer knowingly failed to disclose on his state income tax return a transaction identified by the Tax Commissioner as an abusive tax avoidance transaction and published as provided in § 58.1-204. A return of tax filed before the last day prescribed by law for the timely filing thereof shall be considered as filed on the last day. If such return is false or fraudulent, an assessment may be made at any time whether or not the falsity or fraud is related to the abusive tax avoidance transaction.

C. If the taxpayer pursuant to § 58.1-311 or 58.1-311.1 reports a change or correction or files an amended return increasing his federal taxable income, decreasing the tax paid to another state, or reports a change or correction which is treated in the same manner as if it were a deficiency for federal income tax purposes, the assessment (if not deemed to have been made upon the filing of the report or amended return) may be made at any time within one year after such report or amended return was filed. The amount of such assessment of tax shall not exceed the amount of the increase in Virginia tax attributable to such federal change or correction. The provisions of this paragraph shall not affect the time within which or the amount for which an assessment may otherwise be made.

D. If a deficiency is attributable to the application to the taxpayer of a net operating loss carry-back, or to a net capital loss carry-back, it may be assessed at any time that a deficiency for the taxable year of the loss may be assessed.

E. An erroneous refund shall be considered an underpayment of tax on the date made, and an assessment of a deficiency arising out of an erroneous refund may be made at any time within two years from the making of the refund, except that the assessment may be made within five years from the making of the refund if it appears that any part of the refund was induced by fraud or misrepresentation of a material fact.

F. If a return is required for a decedent or for his estate during the period of administration, the tax shall be assessed within eighteen months after written request therefor (made after the return is filed) by the executor, administrator or other person representing the estate of such decedent, but not more than three years after the return was filed, except as otherwise provided in this subsection.

Code 1950, § 58-151.0104; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 2006, c. 234; 2007, c. 524.

§ 58.1-313. Immediate assessment where collection jeopardized by delay; notice of assessment; termination of taxable period; memorandum of lien.

A. If the Tax Commissioner determines that the collection of any income tax, penalties or interest required to be paid under this title will be jeopardized by delay, the Tax Commissioner shall immediately assess the actual or estimated amount of tax due, together with all penalties and interest, and demand immediate payment from the taxpayer. A notice of such assessment and demand shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the taxpayer's last known address or personally delivered to the taxpayer. In the case of a tax for a current period, the Tax Commissioner shall declare the taxable period of the taxpayer immediately terminated and shall cause notice of such finding and declaration to be mailed or personally delivered to the taxpayer together with a demand for immediate payment of the tax based on the period declared terminated, and such tax shall be immediately due and payable, whether or not the time otherwise allowed by law for filing a return and paying the tax has expired. Assessments provided for in this section shall become immediately due and payable, and if any such tax, penalty or interest is not paid upon demand of the Tax Commissioner, he shall proceed to collect the same by legal process as otherwise provided by law. A memorandum of lien provided for in § 58.1-1805 may be issued immediately upon assessment and notice thereof, or the Tax Commissioner may require the taxpayer to file a bond sufficient in the Commissioner's judgment to protect the interest of the Commonwealth. "Jeopardized by delay" for purposes of this section includes a finding by the Tax Commissioner that a taxpayer designs (i) to depart quickly from the Commonwealth, (ii) to remove his property therefrom, (iii) to conceal himself or his property therein, or (iv) to do any other act tending to prejudice or to render wholly or partially ineffectual proceedings to collect the income tax for the period in question.

B. A memorandum of lien may be filed for delinquent income taxes assessed by the Department only within six years after an assessment.

C. The Department shall notify the taxpayer that he shall have the opportunity to appear at a meeting within fourteen days and make an oral or written statement of why he believes no jeopardy to the revenue exists or why a memorandum of lien should be released, if one was recorded. Upon request of the taxpayer, the Department shall meet with the taxpayer at a time set by the Department within fourteen days after the issuance of the jeopardy assessment. The Department shall determine within twenty days after such meeting whether such jeopardy assessment or lien should be withdrawn and shall send written notice of such finding to the taxpayer. If the finding is not in the taxpayer's favor, he may use the remedies available for corrections of erroneous assessments in Article 2 (§ 58.1-1820 et seq.) of Chapter 18.

Code 1950, § 58-151.0105; 1979, c. 639; 1984, c. 675; 1989, c. 263; 1996, c. 634.

§ 58.1-314. Lien of jeopardy assessment; notice of lien.

Upon the completion of all acts necessary to effect a jeopardy assessment under § 58.1-313 and upon the failure of the taxpayer to make payment in full upon demand of all taxes, penalties and interest immediately due thereunder or post a bond in lieu thereof when applicable, such assessment shall be a lien upon and bind the real and personal property of the delinquent taxpayer against whom it may be issued from the time the taxpayer fails to make full payment thereunder, except as against a bona fide purchaser for a valuable consideration. A notice of such lien, drawn by the Tax Commissioner, shall be sent to the clerk of the circuit court in all jurisdictions wherein the taxpayer is known or believed to own any estate. The clerk to whom any such notice of lien is so sent shall record it, as a judgment is required by law to be recorded, and shall index the same in the name of the Commonwealth as well as of the delinquent taxpayer. Such recordation shall thereupon be constructive notice of the lien created by the assessment as to all estate of the delinquent taxpayer located in such jurisdiction.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.077, 58-151.0106; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 396; 1979, c. 639; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-315. Transitional modifications to Virginia taxable income.

The modifications of Virginia taxable income to be made in accordance with subdivision 2 of § 58.1-322.04 and subsection D of § 58.1-402, so long as applicable, are as follows:

1. There shall be subtracted from Virginia taxable income the amount necessary to prevent the taxation under this chapter of any annuity or of any other amount of income or gain which was properly included in income or gain and was taxable under Articles 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 (§§ 58-77 through 58-151) of Chapter 4 of Title 58 to the taxpayer prior to the repeal thereof, or to a decedent by reason of whose death the taxpayer acquires the right to receive the income or gain, or to a trust or estate from which the taxpayer received the income or gain.

2. The carry-back of net operating losses or net capital losses to reduce taxable income of taxable years beginning prior to January 1, 1972, shall not be permitted. Where a taxpayer would have been allowed to deduct an amount as a net operating loss carry-over or net capital loss carry-over in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1971, but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning prior to January 1, 1972, there shall be added to Virginia taxable income any amount which was actually deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carry-over or net capital loss carry-over and there shall be subtracted from Virginia taxable income the amount which could have been deducted as a net operating loss carry-over or net capital loss carry-over in arriving at taxable income but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back for federal purposes.

3. There shall be added to Virginia taxable income the amount necessary to prevent the deduction under this chapter of any item which was properly deductible by the taxpayer in determining a tax under §§ 58-77 through 58-151 prior to the repeal thereof.

4. There shall be subtracted from Virginia taxable income that portion of any accumulation distribution which is allocable, under the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes, to undistributed net income of a trust for any taxable year beginning on or before December 31, 1971. The rules prescribed by such laws of the United States with reference to any such accumulation distribution shall be applied, mutatis mutandis, to allow for this limitation; and, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the credit provided by § 58.1-370 in the case of accumulation distributions shall in no instance encompass any part of any tax paid for a taxable year beginning on or before December 31, 1971.

5. As to gain or loss attributable to the sale or exchange of nondepreciable property, Virginia taxable income shall be adjusted to effect a reduction in such gain or increase in such loss by the amount by which the adjusted basis of such property, determined for Virginia income tax purposes at the close of the taxable period immediately preceding the first taxable period to which Articles 7.1 to 7.6 (§ 58-151.01 et seq.) of Title 58 applied prior to repeal thereof exceeds the adjusted basis of such property for federal income tax purposes determined at the close of the same period.

6. There shall be subtracted from the Virginia taxable income of a shareholder of an electing small business corporation any amount included in his taxable income as his share of the undistributed taxable income of such corporation for any year of the corporation beginning before January 1, 1972.

7. There shall be subtracted from federal taxable income amounts which would have been deductible by the corporation in computing federal taxable income but for the election of such corporation of the additional investment tax credit under § 46(a)(2)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code in effect on January 1, 1978.

Code 1950, § 58-151.0111; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 827; 1973, c. 323; 1974, c. 248; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 2017, c. 444.

§ 58.1-316. Information reporting on rental payments to nonresident payees; penalties.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, every nonresident payee receiving gross payments of $600 or more in any calendar year from the rental of real property in this Commonwealth shall register with the Department of Taxation pursuant to forms and regulations adopted by the Tax Commissioner.

B. Any broker as defined in § 6045(c) of the Internal Revenue Code making payments to a nonresident payee attributable to the rental of real property in this Commonwealth shall obtain from the nonresident payee the registration form required in subsection A of this section or satisfactory evidence of prior registration. The broker shall retain a copy of the registration form in his files and shall transmit the original copy to the Department of Taxation on or before the fifteenth day of the month following the month in which the form was received from the payee.

C. If a nonresident payee fails to provide a completed registration form to the broker within sixty days after being requested by the broker or if such payee provides the broker with a registration form that is incomplete or false on its face, the broker shall file a registration form on behalf of the payee providing the payee's name, address, identification number, and such other information as may be required by the Tax Commissioner. In the case of each failure to file a registration form with the Tax Commissioner on the date prescribed therefor, the broker failing to file such registration form shall pay a $50 penalty for each month that each such failure to file continues, not exceeding six months in the aggregate.

D. Any payee who willfully supplies false or fraudulent information to a broker with the intent to evade the payment of income taxes properly due on the rental of real estate in this Commonwealth and any broker who has actual knowledge that any information supplied by a payee is false or fraudulent and fails to notify the Department of Taxation of such shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

E. For purposes of this section, the term "nonresident payee" means every individual who is not a resident, every nonresident estate or trust, every partnership and S corporation which has nonresident partners or shareholders, or every corporation which is not formed or organized under Virginia law.

1990, c. 910.

§ 58.1-317. Filing of estimated tax by nonresidents upon the sale of real property; penalties.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, every nonresident payee receiving payments from the transfer of fee simple title in real property in this Commonwealth shall concurrent with the transfer of title register with the Department of Taxation pursuant to forms and regulations adopted by the Tax Commissioner.

B. The real estate reporting person as defined in § 6045(e) of the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations thereunder shall obtain from the nonresident payee the registration form required in subsection A of this section. The real estate reporting person shall retain a copy of the registration form in his files and shall transmit the original copy to the Department of Taxation on or before the fifteenth day of the month following the month in which the title was transferred. As prescribed by the Tax Commissioner, a payee may be excused from the filing of a registration form by furnishing the real estate reporting person with a certificate stating that the payment is not subject to the corporation or individual income tax.

C. If a nonresident payee fails to provide a completed registration form to the real estate reporting person or if such payee provides the real estate reporting person with a registration form that is incomplete or false on its face, the real estate reporting person shall file a registration form on behalf of the payee providing the payee's name, address, taxpayer identification number, and such other information as may be required by the Tax Commissioner. In the case of each failure to file a registration form with the Tax Commissioner on the date prescribed therefor, the real estate reporting person failing to file such registration form shall pay a $50 penalty for each month that each such failure to file continues, not exceeding six months in the aggregate.

D. Any payee who willfully supplies false or fraudulent information to a real estate reporting person with the intent to evade the payment of income taxes properly due on the transfer of fee simple title to real estate in this Commonwealth and any real estate reporting person who has actual knowledge that any information supplied by a payee is false or fraudulent and fails to notify the Department of Taxation of such shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

E. For purposes of this section, the term "nonresident payee" means every individual who is not a resident, every nonresident estate or trust, every partnership and S corporation which has nonresident partners or shareholders, or every corporation which is not formed or organized under Virginia law.

1990, c. 910.

§ 58.1-318. Investments eligible for tax credits.

A. For purposes of this section, "funding portal" means a website that (i) allows accredited investors to participate in general solicitation transactions by an issuer that meet the requirements of § 4(a)(6) of the Securities Act of 1933, P.L. 112-106, or (ii) is an online broker or funding portal registered with the federal Securities Exchange Commission pursuant to § 4A(a) of the Securities Act of 1993, P.L. 112-106.

B. Any investment made by a taxpayer that is transacted via an online general solicitation, an online broker, or a funding portal shall be eligible for any tax credit authorized pursuant to this chapter, so long as the investment itself meets the criteria set forth in the statute specifically authorizing the credit.

2013, c. 289.

§ 58.1-319. Unclaimed tax credits; report.

If any tax credit authorized pursuant to this title has not been claimed by any taxpayer during the preceding five calendar years, such credit shall be deemed obsolete, and the Department shall not authorize any taxpayer to claim such credit against any tax levied pursuant to this title in future calendar years except as expressly authorized by the General Assembly. The Department shall report to the House Committee on Appropriations, the House Committee on Finance, and the Senate Committee on Finance no later than February 1 of each year as to all credits that are deemed obsolete and shall publish such report on its website.

For purposes of this section, a credit shall be considered claimed in the calendar year when it is claimed by a taxpayer and shall not include the carryover or transfer of a credit in subsequent years as authorized by law, nor shall this section be interpreted to prevent the lawful carryover or transfer of a credit previously authorized by the Department.

2013, c. 657.

Article 2. Individual Income Tax.

§ 58.1-320. Imposition of tax.

A tax is hereby annually imposed on the Virginia taxable income for each taxable year of every individual as follows:

Two percent on income not exceeding $3,000;

Three percent on income in excess of $3,000, but not in excess of $5,000;

Five percent on income in excess of $5,000, but not in excess of $12,000 for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1987;

Five percent on income in excess of $5,000 but not in excess of $14,000 for taxable years beginning January 1, 1987, through December 31, 1987;

Five percent on income in excess of $5,000 but not in excess of $15,000 for taxable years beginning January 1, 1988, through December 31, 1988;

Five percent on income in excess of $5,000 but not in excess of $16,000 for taxable years beginning January 1, 1989, through December 31, 1989;

Five percent on income in excess of $5,000 but not in excess of $17,000 for taxable years beginning January 1, 1990;

Five and three-quarters percent on income in excess of $12,000 for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1987;

Five and three-quarters percent on income in excess of $14,000 for taxable years beginning January 1, 1987, through December 31, 1987;

Five and three-quarters percent on income in excess of $15,000 for taxable years beginning January 1, 1988, through December 31, 1988;

Five and three-quarters percent on income in excess of $16,000 for taxable years beginning January 1, 1989, through December 31, 1989; and

Five and three-quarters percent on income in excess of $17,000 for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1990.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.03, 58-151.011; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, cc. 310, 563; 1978, cc. 159, 796; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 1987, c. 9.

§ 58.1-321. Exemptions and exclusions.

A. No tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-320 is imposed, nor any return required to be filed, by:

1. A single individual where the Virginia adjusted gross income plus the modification specified in subdivision 5 of § 58.1-322.03 for such taxable year is less than $11,650 for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2010, but before January 1, 2012.

A single individual where the Virginia adjusted gross income plus the modification specified in subdivision 5 of § 58.1-322.03 for such taxable year is less than $11,950 for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2012.

2. An individual and spouse if their combined Virginia adjusted gross income plus the modification specified in subdivision 5 of § 58.1-322.03 is less than $23,300 for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2010 (or one-half of such amount in the case of a married individual filing a separate return) but before January 1, 2012, and less than $23,900 for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2012 (or one-half of such amount in the case of a married individual filing a separate return).

For the purposes of this section, "Virginia adjusted gross income" means federal adjusted gross income for the taxable years with the modifications specified in §§ 58.1-322.01 and 58.1-322.02.

B. Persons in the Armed Forces of the United States stationed on military or naval reservations within Virginia who are not domiciled in Virginia shall not be held liable to income taxation for compensation received from military or naval service.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.03, 58.1-016; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, cc. 310, 827; 1978, cc. 159, 796; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 1987, c. 9; 1993, c. 803; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2007, cc. 527, 543; 2017, c. 444.

§ 58.1-322. Virginia taxable income of residents.

The Virginia taxable income of a resident individual means his federal adjusted gross income for the taxable year, which excludes combat pay for certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States as provided in § 112 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, and with the modifications specified in §§ 58.1-322.01 through 58.1-322.04.

Code 1950, § 58-151.013; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 827; 1973, cc. 198, 345, 458; 1974, c. 682; 1975, c. 46; 1976, cc. 528, 694, 781; 1977, cc. 297, 612; 1978, cc. 67, 158; 1979, cc. 226, 596; 1981, cc. 402, 414; 1982, c. 633; 1983, cc. 452, 472; 1984, cc. 153, 162, 636, 674, 675, 729; 1985, cc. 221, 465; 1986, cc. 474, 515; 1987, cc. 9, 484, 531, 615; 1988, cc. 741, 743, 755, 756; 1989, cc. 39, 639, 749; 1989, Sp. Sess., c. 3; 1990, cc. 507, 525, 714; 1991, cc. 346, 361; 1992, cc. 665, 678, 686, 691; 1993, c. 803; 1994, cc. 488, 590; 1994, 1st Sp. Sess., c. 5; 1996, cc. 401, 624; 1997, cc. 106, 785, 861, 909; 1998, cc. 373, 874; 1999, cc. 285, 298, 339, 365, 485, 498, 518, 535, 588; 2000, cc. 382, 387, 394, 400, 419, 1021, 1039; 2001, c. 476; 2003, cc. 3, 58, 181, 209, 807, 980; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2005, cc. 27, 67; 2006, cc. 214, 570, 599, 617, 939; 2007, cc. 359, 527, 543, 636, 942; 2008, cc. 149, 211; 2009, c. 508; 2010, cc. 802, 830; 2011, c. 851; 2012, cc. 2, 96, 256, 305, 578; 2013, cc. 88, 801; 2014, cc. 225, 729; 2015, cc. 60, 82, 227, 248, 311, 335, 336; 2016, cc. 304, 391; 2017, c. 444.

§ 58.1-322.01. Virginia taxable income; additions.

In computing Virginia taxable income pursuant to § 58.1-322, to the extent excluded from federal adjusted gross income, there shall be added:

1. Interest, less related expenses to the extent not deducted in determining federal income, on obligations of any state other than Virginia, or of a political subdivision of any such other state unless created by compact or agreement to which Virginia is a party.

2. Interest or dividends, less related expenses to the extent not deducted in determining federal taxable income, on obligations or securities of any authority, commission, or instrumentality of the United States, which the laws of the United States exempt from federal income tax but not from state income taxes.

3. Unrelated business taxable income as defined by § 512 of the Internal Revenue Code.

4. The amount of a lump sum distribution from a qualified retirement plan, less the minimum distribution allowance and any amount excludable for federal income tax purposes that is excluded from federal adjusted gross income solely by virtue of an individual's election to use the averaging provisions under § 402 of the Internal Revenue Code.

5. The amount required to be included in income for the purpose of computing the partial tax on an accumulation distribution pursuant to § 667 of the Internal Revenue Code.

6. (Effective until October 1, 2019) For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2014, any loss for the taxable year that was deducted as a capital loss for federal income tax purposes by an account holder attributable to such person's first-time home buyer savings account established pursuant to Chapter 32 (§ 55-555 et seq.) of Title 55. For purposes of this subdivision, "account holder" and "first-time home buyer savings account" mean the same as those terms are defined in § 55-555.

6. (Effective October 1, 2019) For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2014, any loss for the taxable year that was deducted as a capital loss for federal income tax purposes by an account holder attributable to such person's first-time home buyer savings account established pursuant to Chapter 12 (§ 36-171 et seq.) of Title 36. For purposes of this subdivision, "account holder" and "first-time home buyer savings account" mean the same as those terms are defined in § 36-171.

7. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2016, to the extent that tax credit is allowed for the same donation pursuant to § 58.1-439.12:12, any amount claimed as a federal income tax deduction for such donation under § 170 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended or renumbered.

2017, c. 444.

§ 58.1-322.02. (Effective October 1, 2019) Virginia taxable income; subtractions.

In computing Virginia taxable income pursuant to § 58.1-322, to the extent included in federal adjusted gross income, there shall be subtracted:

1. Income derived from obligations, or on the sale or exchange of obligations, of the United States and on obligations or securities of any authority, commission, or instrumentality of the United States to the extent exempt from state income taxes under the laws of the United States, including, but not limited to, stocks, bonds, treasury bills, and treasury notes but not including interest on refunds of federal taxes, interest on equipment purchase contracts, or interest on other normal business transactions.

2. Income derived from obligations, or on the sale or exchange of obligations, of the Commonwealth or of any political subdivision or instrumentality of the Commonwealth.

3. Benefits received under Title II of the Social Security Act and other benefits subject to federal income taxation solely pursuant to § 86 of the Internal Revenue Code.

4. Up to $20,000 of disability income, as defined in § 22(c)(2)(B)(iii) of the Internal Revenue Code; however, any person who claims a deduction under subdivision 5 of § 58.1-322.03 may not also claim a subtraction under this subdivision.

5. The amount of any refund or credit for overpayment of income taxes imposed by the Commonwealth or any other taxing jurisdiction.

6. The amount of wages or salaries eligible for the federal Work Opportunity Credit which was not deducted for federal purposes on account of the provisions of § 280C(a) of the Internal Revenue Code.

7. Any amount included therein less than $600 from a prize awarded by the Virginia Lottery.

8. The wages or salaries received by any person for active and inactive service in the National Guard of the Commonwealth of Virginia, not to exceed the amount of income derived from 39 calendar days of such service or $3,000, whichever amount is less; however, only those persons in the ranks of O3 and below shall be entitled to the deductions specified in this subdivision.

9. Amounts received by an individual, not to exceed $1,000 in any taxable year, as a reward for information provided to a law-enforcement official or agency, or to a nonprofit corporation created exclusively to assist such law-enforcement official or agency, in the apprehension and conviction of perpetrators of crimes. This subdivision shall not apply to the following: an individual who is an employee of, or under contract with, a law-enforcement agency, a victim or the perpetrator of the crime for which the reward was paid, or any person who is compensated for the investigation of crimes or accidents.

10. The amount of "qualified research expenses" or "basic research expenses" eligible for deduction for federal purposes, but which were not deducted, on account of the provisions of § 280C(c) of the Internal Revenue Code and which shall be available to partners, shareholders of S corporations, and members of limited liability companies to the extent and in the same manner as other deductions may pass through to such partners, shareholders, and members.

11. Any income received during the taxable year derived from a qualified pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan as described by § 401 of the Internal Revenue Code, an individual retirement account or annuity established under § 408 of the Internal Revenue Code, a deferred compensation plan as defined by § 457 of the Internal Revenue Code, or any federal government retirement program, the contributions to which were deductible from the taxpayer's federal adjusted gross income, but only to the extent the contributions to such plan or program were subject to taxation under the income tax in another state.

12. Any income attributable to a distribution of benefits or a refund from a prepaid tuition contract or savings trust account with the Virginia College Savings Plan, created pursuant to Chapter 7 (§ 23.1-700 et seq.) of Title 23.1. The subtraction for any income attributable to a refund shall be limited to income attributable to a refund in the event of a beneficiary's death, disability, or receipt of a scholarship.

13. All military pay and allowances, to the extent included in federal adjusted gross income and not otherwise subtracted, deducted, or exempted under this section, earned by military personnel while serving by order of the President of the United States with the consent of Congress in a combat zone or qualified hazardous duty area that is treated as a combat zone for federal tax purposes pursuant to § 112 of the Internal Revenue Code.

14. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2015, the gain derived from the sale or exchange of real property or the sale or exchange of an easement to real property which results in the real property or the easement thereto being devoted to open-space use, as that term is defined in § 58.1-3230, for a period of time not less than 30 years. To the extent that a subtraction is taken in accordance with this subdivision, no tax credit under this chapter for donating land for its preservation shall be allowed for three years following the year in which the subtraction is taken.

15. Fifteen thousand dollars of military basic pay for military service personnel on extended active duty for periods in excess of 90 days; however, the subtraction amount shall be reduced dollar-for-dollar by the amount by which the taxpayer's military basic pay exceeds $15,000 and shall be reduced to zero if such military basic pay amount is equal to or exceeds $30,000.

16. The first $15,000 of salary for each federal and state employee whose total annual salary from all employment for the taxable year is $15,000 or less.

17. Unemployment benefits taxable pursuant to § 85 of the Internal Revenue Code.

18. Any amount received as military retirement income by an individual awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

19. Items of income attributable to, derived from, or in any way related to (i) assets stolen from, hidden from, or otherwise lost by an individual who was a victim or target of Nazi persecution or (ii) damages, reparations, or other consideration received by a victim or target of Nazi persecution to compensate such individual for performing labor against his will under the threat of death, during World War II and its prelude and direct aftermath. This subtraction shall not apply to assets acquired with such items of income or with the proceeds from the sale of assets stolen from, hidden from, or otherwise lost to, during World War II and its prelude and direct aftermath, a victim or target of Nazi persecution. The provisions of this subdivision shall only apply to an individual who was the first recipient of such items of income and who was a victim or target of Nazi persecution, or a spouse, widow, widower, or child or stepchild of such victim.

As used in this subdivision:

"Nazi regime" means the country of Nazi Germany, areas occupied by Nazi Germany, those European countries allied with Nazi Germany, or any other neutral European country or area in Europe under the influence or threat of Nazi invasion.

"Victim or target of Nazi persecution" means any individual persecuted or targeted for persecution by the Nazi regime who had assets stolen from, hidden from, or otherwise lost as a result of any act or omission in any way relating to (i) the Holocaust, (ii) World War II and its prelude and direct aftermath, (iii) transactions with or actions of the Nazi regime, (iv) treatment of refugees fleeing Nazi persecution, or (v) the holding of such assets by entities or persons in the Swiss Confederation during World War II and its prelude and aftermath. A "victim or target of Nazi persecution" also includes any individual forced into labor against his will, under the threat of death, during World War II and its prelude and direct aftermath.

20. The military death gratuity payment made after September 11, 2001, to the survivor of deceased military personnel killed in the line of duty, pursuant to 10 U.S.C. Chapter 75; however, the subtraction amount shall be reduced dollar-for-dollar by the amount that the survivor may exclude from his federal gross income in accordance with § 134 of the Internal Revenue Code.

21. The death benefit payments from an annuity contract that are received by a beneficiary of such contract, provided that (i) the death benefit payment is made pursuant to an annuity contract with an insurance company and (ii) the death benefit payment is paid solely by lump sum. The subtraction under this subdivision shall be allowed only for that portion of the death benefit payment that is included in federal adjusted gross income.

22. Any gain recognized from the sale of launch services to space flight participants, as defined in 49 U.S.C. § 70102, or launch services intended to provide individuals with the training or experience of a launch, without performing an actual launch. To qualify for a deduction under this subdivision, launch services must be performed in Virginia or originate from an airport or spaceport in Virginia.

23. Any gain recognized as a result of resupply services contracts for delivering payload, as defined in 49 U.S.C. § 70102, entered into with the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or other space flight entity, as defined in § 8.01-227.8, and launched from an airport or spaceport in Virginia.

24. Any income taxed as a long-term capital gain for federal income tax purposes, or any income taxed as investment services partnership interest income (otherwise known as investment partnership carried interest income) for federal income tax purposes. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, such income shall be attributable to an investment in a "qualified business," as defined in § 58.1-339.4, or in any other technology business approved by the Secretary of Technology, provided that the business has its principal office or facility in the Commonwealth and less than $3 million in annual revenues in the fiscal year prior to the investment. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, the investment shall be made between the dates of April 1, 2010, and June 30, 2020. No taxpayer who has claimed a tax credit for an investment in a "qualified business" under § 58.1-339.4 shall be eligible for the subtraction under this subdivision for an investment in the same business.

25. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2014, any income of an account holder for the taxable year taxed as (i) a capital gain for federal income tax purposes attributable to such person's first-time home buyer savings account established pursuant to Chapter 12 (§ 36-171 et seq.) of Title 36 and (ii) interest income or other income for federal income tax purposes attributable to such person's first-time home buyer savings account.

Notwithstanding the statute of limitations on assessments contained in § 58.1-312, any subtraction taken under this subdivision shall be subject to recapture in the taxable year or years in which moneys or funds withdrawn from the first-time home buyer savings account were used for any purpose other than the payment of eligible costs by or on behalf of a qualified beneficiary, as provided under § 36-174. The amount subject to recapture shall be a portion of the amount withdrawn in the taxable year that was used for other than the payment of eligible costs, computed by multiplying the amount withdrawn and used for other than the payment of eligible costs by the ratio of the aggregate earnings in the account at the time of the withdrawal to the total balance in the account at such time.

However, recapture shall not apply to the extent of moneys or funds withdrawn that were (i) withdrawn by reason of the qualified beneficiary's death or disability; (ii) a disbursement of assets of the account pursuant to a filing for protection under the United States Bankruptcy Code, 11 U.S.C. §§ 101 through 1330; or (iii) transferred from an account established pursuant to Chapter 12 (§ 36-171 et seq.) of Title 36 into another account established pursuant to such chapter for the benefit of another qualified beneficiary.

For purposes of this subdivision, "account holder," "eligible costs," "first-time home buyer savings account," and "qualified beneficiary" mean the same as those terms are defined in § 36-171.

26. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2015, any income for the taxable year attributable to the discharge of a student loan solely by reason of the student's death. For purposes of this subdivision, "student loan" means the same as that term is defined under § 108(f) of the Internal Revenue Code.

27. a. Income, including investment services partnership interest income (otherwise known as investment partnership carried interest income), attributable to an investment in a Virginia venture capital account. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, the investment shall be made on or after January 1, 2018, but before December 31, 2023. No subtraction shall be allowed under this subdivision for an investment in a company that is owned or operated by a family member or an affiliate of the taxpayer. No subtraction shall be allowed under this subdivision for a taxpayer who has claimed a subtraction under subdivision 24 or a tax credit under § 58.1-339.4 for the same investment.

b. As used in this subdivision 27:

"Qualified portfolio company" means a company that (i) has its principal place of business in the Commonwealth; (ii) has a primary purpose of production, sale, research, or development of a product or service other than the management or investment of capital; and (iii) provides equity in the company to the Virginia venture capital account in exchange for a capital investment. "Qualified portfolio company" does not include a company that is an individual or sole proprietorship.

"Virginia venture capital account" means an investment fund that has been certified by the Department as a Virginia venture capital account. In order to be certified as a Virginia venture capital account, the operator of the investment fund shall register the investment fund with the Department prior to December 31, 2023, (i) indicating that it intends to invest at least 50 percent of the capital committed to its fund in qualified portfolio companies and (ii) providing documentation that it employs at least one investor who has at least four years of professional experience in venture capital investment or substantially equivalent experience. "Substantially equivalent experience" includes, but is not limited to, an undergraduate degree from an accredited college or university in economics, finance, or a similar field of study. The Department may require an investment fund to provide documentation of the investor's training, education, or experience as deemed necessary by the Department to determine substantial equivalency. If the Department determines that the investment fund employs at least one investor with the experience set forth herein, the Department shall certify the investment fund as a Virginia venture capital account at such time as the investment fund actually invests at least 50 percent of the capital committed to its fund in qualified portfolio companies.

28. a. Income attributable to an investment in a Virginia real estate investment trust. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, the investment shall be made on or after January 1, 2019, but before December 31, 2024. No subtraction shall be allowed for an investment in a trust that is managed by a family member or an affiliate of the taxpayer. No subtraction shall be allowed under this subdivision for a taxpayer who has claimed a subtraction under subdivision 24 or 27 or a tax credit under § 58.1-339.4 for the same investment.

b. As used in this subdivision 28:

"Distressed" means satisfying the criteria applicable to a locality described in subdivision E 2 of § 2.2-115.

"Double distressed" means satisfying the criteria applicable to a locality described in subdivision E 3 of § 2.2-115.

"Virginia real estate investment trust" means a real estate investment trust, as defined in 26 U.S.C. § 856, that has been certified by the Department as a Virginia real estate investment trust. In order to be certified as a Virginia real estate investment trust, the trustee shall register the trust with the Department prior to December 31, 2024, indicating that it intends to invest at least 90 percent of trust funds in Virginia and at least 40 percent of trust funds in real estate in localities that are distressed or double distressed. If the Department determines that the trust satisfies the preceding criteria, the Department shall certify the trust as a Virginia real estate investment trust at such time as the trust actually invests at least 90 percent of trust funds in Virginia and at least 40 percent of trust funds in real estate in localities that are distressed or double distressed.

29. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, any gain recognized from the taking of real property by condemnation proceedings.

2017, cc. 444, 762; 2018, c. 821; 2019, c. 270.

§ 58.1-322.02. (Effective until October 1, 2019) Virginia taxable income; subtractions.

In computing Virginia taxable income pursuant to § 58.1-322, to the extent included in federal adjusted gross income, there shall be subtracted:

1. Income derived from obligations, or on the sale or exchange of obligations, of the United States and on obligations or securities of any authority, commission, or instrumentality of the United States to the extent exempt from state income taxes under the laws of the United States, including, but not limited to, stocks, bonds, treasury bills, and treasury notes but not including interest on refunds of federal taxes, interest on equipment purchase contracts, or interest on other normal business transactions.

2. Income derived from obligations, or on the sale or exchange of obligations, of the Commonwealth or of any political subdivision or instrumentality of the Commonwealth.

3. Benefits received under Title II of the Social Security Act and other benefits subject to federal income taxation solely pursuant to § 86 of the Internal Revenue Code.

4. Up to $20,000 of disability income, as defined in § 22(c)(2)(B)(iii) of the Internal Revenue Code; however, any person who claims a deduction under subdivision 5 of § 58.1-322.03 may not also claim a subtraction under this subdivision.

5. The amount of any refund or credit for overpayment of income taxes imposed by the Commonwealth or any other taxing jurisdiction.

6. The amount of wages or salaries eligible for the federal Work Opportunity Credit which was not deducted for federal purposes on account of the provisions of § 280C(a) of the Internal Revenue Code.

7. Any amount included therein less than $600 from a prize awarded by the Virginia Lottery.

8. The wages or salaries received by any person for active and inactive service in the National Guard of the Commonwealth of Virginia, not to exceed the amount of income derived from 39 calendar days of such service or $3,000, whichever amount is less; however, only those persons in the ranks of O3 and below shall be entitled to the deductions specified in this subdivision.

9. Amounts received by an individual, not to exceed $1,000 in any taxable year, as a reward for information provided to a law-enforcement official or agency, or to a nonprofit corporation created exclusively to assist such law-enforcement official or agency, in the apprehension and conviction of perpetrators of crimes. This subdivision shall not apply to the following: an individual who is an employee of, or under contract with, a law-enforcement agency, a victim or the perpetrator of the crime for which the reward was paid, or any person who is compensated for the investigation of crimes or accidents.

10. The amount of "qualified research expenses" or "basic research expenses" eligible for deduction for federal purposes, but which were not deducted, on account of the provisions of § 280C(c) of the Internal Revenue Code and which shall be available to partners, shareholders of S corporations, and members of limited liability companies to the extent and in the same manner as other deductions may pass through to such partners, shareholders, and members.

11. Any income received during the taxable year derived from a qualified pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan as described by § 401 of the Internal Revenue Code, an individual retirement account or annuity established under § 408 of the Internal Revenue Code, a deferred compensation plan as defined by § 457 of the Internal Revenue Code, or any federal government retirement program, the contributions to which were deductible from the taxpayer's federal adjusted gross income, but only to the extent the contributions to such plan or program were subject to taxation under the income tax in another state.

12. Any income attributable to a distribution of benefits or a refund from a prepaid tuition contract or savings trust account with the Virginia College Savings Plan, created pursuant to Chapter 7 (§ 23.1-700 et seq.) of Title 23.1. The subtraction for any income attributable to a refund shall be limited to income attributable to a refund in the event of a beneficiary's death, disability, or receipt of a scholarship.

13. All military pay and allowances, to the extent included in federal adjusted gross income and not otherwise subtracted, deducted, or exempted under this section, earned by military personnel while serving by order of the President of the United States with the consent of Congress in a combat zone or qualified hazardous duty area that is treated as a combat zone for federal tax purposes pursuant to § 112 of the Internal Revenue Code.

14. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2015, the gain derived from the sale or exchange of real property or the sale or exchange of an easement to real property which results in the real property or the easement thereto being devoted to open-space use, as that term is defined in § 58.1-3230, for a period of time not less than 30 years. To the extent that a subtraction is taken in accordance with this subdivision, no tax credit under this chapter for donating land for its preservation shall be allowed for three years following the year in which the subtraction is taken.

15. Fifteen thousand dollars of military basic pay for military service personnel on extended active duty for periods in excess of 90 days; however, the subtraction amount shall be reduced dollar-for-dollar by the amount by which the taxpayer's military basic pay exceeds $15,000 and shall be reduced to zero if such military basic pay amount is equal to or exceeds $30,000.

16. The first $15,000 of salary for each federal and state employee whose total annual salary from all employment for the taxable year is $15,000 or less.

17. Unemployment benefits taxable pursuant to § 85 of the Internal Revenue Code.

18. Any amount received as military retirement income by an individual awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

19. Items of income attributable to, derived from, or in any way related to (i) assets stolen from, hidden from, or otherwise lost by an individual who was a victim or target of Nazi persecution or (ii) damages, reparations, or other consideration received by a victim or target of Nazi persecution to compensate such individual for performing labor against his will under the threat of death, during World War II and its prelude and direct aftermath. This subtraction shall not apply to assets acquired with such items of income or with the proceeds from the sale of assets stolen from, hidden from, or otherwise lost to, during World War II and its prelude and direct aftermath, a victim or target of Nazi persecution. The provisions of this subdivision shall only apply to an individual who was the first recipient of such items of income and who was a victim or target of Nazi persecution, or a spouse, widow, widower, or child or stepchild of such victim.

As used in this subdivision:

"Nazi regime" means the country of Nazi Germany, areas occupied by Nazi Germany, those European countries allied with Nazi Germany, or any other neutral European country or area in Europe under the influence or threat of Nazi invasion.

"Victim or target of Nazi persecution" means any individual persecuted or targeted for persecution by the Nazi regime who had assets stolen from, hidden from, or otherwise lost as a result of any act or omission in any way relating to (i) the Holocaust, (ii) World War II and its prelude and direct aftermath, (iii) transactions with or actions of the Nazi regime, (iv) treatment of refugees fleeing Nazi persecution, or (v) the holding of such assets by entities or persons in the Swiss Confederation during World War II and its prelude and aftermath. A "victim or target of Nazi persecution" also includes any individual forced into labor against his will, under the threat of death, during World War II and its prelude and direct aftermath.

20. The military death gratuity payment made after September 11, 2001, to the survivor of deceased military personnel killed in the line of duty, pursuant to 10 U.S.C. Chapter 75; however, the subtraction amount shall be reduced dollar-for-dollar by the amount that the survivor may exclude from his federal gross income in accordance with § 134 of the Internal Revenue Code.

21. The death benefit payments from an annuity contract that are received by a beneficiary of such contract, provided that (i) the death benefit payment is made pursuant to an annuity contract with an insurance company and (ii) the death benefit payment is paid solely by lump sum. The subtraction under this subdivision shall be allowed only for that portion of the death benefit payment that is included in federal adjusted gross income.

22. Any gain recognized from the sale of launch services to space flight participants, as defined in 49 U.S.C. § 70102, or launch services intended to provide individuals with the training or experience of a launch, without performing an actual launch. To qualify for a deduction under this subdivision, launch services must be performed in Virginia or originate from an airport or spaceport in Virginia.

23. Any gain recognized as a result of resupply services contracts for delivering payload, as defined in 49 U.S.C. § 70102, entered into with the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or other space flight entity, as defined in § 8.01-227.8, and launched from an airport or spaceport in Virginia.

24. Any income taxed as a long-term capital gain for federal income tax purposes, or any income taxed as investment services partnership interest income (otherwise known as investment partnership carried interest income) for federal income tax purposes. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, such income shall be attributable to an investment in a "qualified business," as defined in § 58.1-339.4, or in any other technology business approved by the Secretary of Technology, provided that the business has its principal office or facility in the Commonwealth and less than $3 million in annual revenues in the fiscal year prior to the investment. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, the investment shall be made between the dates of April 1, 2010, and June 30, 2020. No taxpayer who has claimed a tax credit for an investment in a "qualified business" under § 58.1-339.4 shall be eligible for the subtraction under this subdivision for an investment in the same business.

25. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2014, any income of an account holder for the taxable year taxed as (i) a capital gain for federal income tax purposes attributable to such person's first-time home buyer savings account established pursuant to Chapter 32 (§ 55-555 et seq.) of Title 55 and (ii) interest income or other income for federal income tax purposes attributable to such person's first-time home buyer savings account.

Notwithstanding the statute of limitations on assessments contained in § 58.1-312, any subtraction taken under this subdivision shall be subject to recapture in the taxable year or years in which moneys or funds withdrawn from the first-time home buyer savings account were used for any purpose other than the payment of eligible costs by or on behalf of a qualified beneficiary, as provided under § 55-558. The amount subject to recapture shall be a portion of the amount withdrawn in the taxable year that was used for other than the payment of eligible costs, computed by multiplying the amount withdrawn and used for other than the payment of eligible costs by the ratio of the aggregate earnings in the account at the time of the withdrawal to the total balance in the account at such time.

However, recapture shall not apply to the extent of moneys or funds withdrawn that were (i) withdrawn by reason of the qualified beneficiary's death or disability; (ii) a disbursement of assets of the account pursuant to a filing for protection under the United States Bankruptcy Code, 11 U.S.C. §§ 101 through 1330; or (iii) transferred from an account established pursuant to Chapter 32 (§ 55-555 et seq.) of Title 55 into another account established pursuant to such chapter for the benefit of another qualified beneficiary.

For purposes of this subdivision, "account holder," "eligible costs," "first-time home buyer savings account," and "qualified beneficiary" mean the same as those terms are defined in § 55-555.

26. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2015, any income for the taxable year attributable to the discharge of a student loan solely by reason of the student's death. For purposes of this subdivision, "student loan" means the same as that term is defined under § 108(f) of the Internal Revenue Code.

27. a. Income, including investment services partnership interest income (otherwise known as investment partnership carried interest income), attributable to an investment in a Virginia venture capital account. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, the investment shall be made on or after January 1, 2018, but before December 31, 2023. No subtraction shall be allowed under this subdivision for an investment in a company that is owned or operated by a family member or an affiliate of the taxpayer. No subtraction shall be allowed under this subdivision for a taxpayer who has claimed a subtraction under subdivision 24 or a tax credit under § 58.1-339.4 for the same investment.

b. As used in this subdivision 27:

"Qualified portfolio company" means a company that (i) has its principal place of business in the Commonwealth; (ii) has a primary purpose of production, sale, research, or development of a product or service other than the management or investment of capital; and (iii) provides equity in the company to the Virginia venture capital account in exchange for a capital investment. "Qualified portfolio company" does not include a company that is an individual or sole proprietorship.

"Virginia venture capital account" means an investment fund that has been certified by the Department as a Virginia venture capital account. In order to be certified as a Virginia venture capital account, the operator of the investment fund shall register the investment fund with the Department prior to December 31, 2023, (i) indicating that it intends to invest at least 50 percent of the capital committed to its fund in qualified portfolio companies and (ii) providing documentation that it employs at least one investor who has at least four years of professional experience in venture capital investment or substantially equivalent experience. "Substantially equivalent experience" includes, but is not limited to, an undergraduate degree from an accredited college or university in economics, finance, or a similar field of study. The Department may require an investment fund to provide documentation of the investor's training, education, or experience as deemed necessary by the Department to determine substantial equivalency. If the Department determines that the investment fund employs at least one investor with the experience set forth herein, the Department shall certify the investment fund as a Virginia venture capital account at such time as the investment fund actually invests at least 50 percent of the capital committed to its fund in qualified portfolio companies.

28. a. Income attributable to an investment in a Virginia real estate investment trust. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, the investment shall be made on or after January 1, 2019, but before December 31, 2024. No subtraction shall be allowed for an investment in a trust that is managed by a family member or an affiliate of the taxpayer. No subtraction shall be allowed under this subdivision for a taxpayer who has claimed a subtraction under subdivision 24 or 27 or a tax credit under § 58.1-339.4 for the same investment.

b. As used in this subdivision 28:

"Distressed" means satisfying the criteria applicable to a locality described in subdivision E 2 of § 2.2-115.

"Double distressed" means satisfying the criteria applicable to a locality described in subdivision E 3 of § 2.2-115.

"Virginia real estate investment trust" means a real estate investment trust, as defined in 26 U.S.C. § 856, that has been certified by the Department as a Virginia real estate investment trust. In order to be certified as a Virginia real estate investment trust, the trustee shall register the trust with the Department prior to December 31, 2024, indicating that it intends to invest at least 90 percent of trust funds in Virginia and at least 40 percent of trust funds in real estate in localities that are distressed or double distressed. If the Department determines that the trust satisfies the preceding criteria, the Department shall certify the trust as a Virginia real estate investment trust at such time as the trust actually invests at least 90 percent of trust funds in Virginia and at least 40 percent of trust funds in real estate in localities that are distressed or double distressed.

29. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, any gain recognized from the taking of real property by condemnation proceedings.

2017, cc. 444, 762; 2018, c. 821; 2019, c. 270.

§ 58.1-322.03. Virginia taxable income; deductions.

In computing Virginia taxable income pursuant to § 58.1-322, there shall be deducted from Virginia adjusted gross income as defined in § 58.1-321:

1. a. The amount allowable for itemized deductions for federal income tax purposes where the taxpayer has elected for the taxable year to itemize deductions on his federal return, but reduced by the amount of income taxes imposed by the Commonwealth or any other taxing jurisdiction and deducted on such federal return and increased by an amount that, when added to the amount deducted under § 170 of the Internal Revenue Code for mileage, results in a mileage deduction at the state level for such purposes at a rate of 18 cents per mile; or

b. Provided that the taxpayer has not itemized deductions for the taxable year on his federal income tax return: (i) for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2019, and on and after January 1, 2026, $3,000 for single individuals and $6,000 for married persons (one-half of such amounts in the case of a married individual filing a separate return) and (ii) for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, but before January 1, 2026, $4,500 for single individuals and $9,000 for married persons (one-half of such amounts in the case of a married individual filing a separate return). For purposes of this section, any person who may be claimed as a dependent on another taxpayer's return for the taxable year may compute the deduction only with respect to earned income.

2. a. A deduction in the amount of $930 for each personal exemption allowable to the taxpayer for federal income tax purposes.

b. Each blind or aged taxpayer as defined under § 63(f) of the Internal Revenue Code shall be entitled to an additional personal exemption in the amount of $800.

The additional deduction for blind or aged taxpayers allowed under this subdivision shall be allowable regardless of whether the taxpayer itemizes deductions for the taxable year for federal income tax purposes.

3. A deduction equal to the amount of employment-related expenses upon which the federal credit is based under § 21 of the Internal Revenue Code for expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

4. An additional $1,000 deduction for each child residing for the entire taxable year in a home under permanent foster care placement as defined in § 63.2-908, provided that the taxpayer can also claim the child as a personal exemption under § 151 of the Internal Revenue Code.

5. a. A deduction in the amount of $12,000 for individuals born on or before January 1, 1939.

b. A deduction in the amount of $12,000 for individuals born after January 1, 1939, who have attained the age of 65. This deduction shall be reduced by $1 for every $1 that the taxpayer's adjusted federal adjusted gross income exceeds $50,000 for single taxpayers or $75,000 for married taxpayers. For married taxpayers filing separately, the deduction shall be reduced by $1 for every $1 that the total combined adjusted federal adjusted gross income of both spouses exceeds $75,000.

For the purposes of this subdivision, "adjusted federal adjusted gross income" means federal adjusted gross income minus any benefits received under Title II of the Social Security Act and other benefits subject to federal income taxation solely pursuant to § 86 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended.

6. The amount an individual pays as a fee for an initial screening to become a possible bone marrow donor, if (i) the individual is not reimbursed for such fee or (ii) the individual has not claimed a deduction for the payment of such fee on his federal income tax return.

7. a. A deduction shall be allowed to the purchaser or contributor for the amount paid or contributed during the taxable year for a prepaid tuition contract or college savings trust account entered into with the Virginia College Savings Plan, pursuant to Chapter 7 (§ 23.1-700 et seq.) of Title 23.1. Except as provided in subdivision b, the amount deducted on any individual income tax return in any taxable year shall be limited to $4,000 per prepaid tuition contract or college savings trust account. No deduction shall be allowed pursuant to this subdivision 7 if such payments or contributions are deducted on the purchaser's or contributor's federal income tax return. If the purchase price or annual contribution to a college savings trust account exceeds $4,000, the remainder may be carried forward and subtracted in future taxable years until the purchase price or college savings trust contribution has been fully deducted; however, except as provided in subdivision b, in no event shall the amount deducted in any taxable year exceed $4,000 per contract or college savings trust account. Notwithstanding the statute of limitations on assessments contained in § 58.1-312, any deduction taken hereunder shall be subject to recapture in the taxable year or years in which distributions or refunds are made for any reason other than (i) to pay qualified higher education expenses, as defined in § 529 of the Internal Revenue Code or (ii) the beneficiary's death, disability, or receipt of a scholarship. For the purposes of this subdivision, "purchaser" or "contributor" means the person shown as such on the records of the Virginia College Savings Plan as of December 31 of the taxable year. In the case of a transfer of ownership of a prepaid tuition contract or college savings trust account, the transferee shall succeed to the transferor's tax attributes associated with a prepaid tuition contract or college savings trust account, including, but not limited to, carryover and recapture of deductions.

b. A purchaser of a prepaid tuition contract or contributor to a college savings trust account who has attained age 70 shall not be subject to the limitation that the amount of the deduction not exceed $4,000 per prepaid tuition contract or college savings trust account in any taxable year. Such taxpayer shall be allowed a deduction for the full amount paid for the contract or contributed to a college savings trust account, less any amounts previously deducted.

8. The total amount an individual actually contributed in funds to the Virginia Public School Construction Grants Program and Fund, established in Chapter 11.1 (§ 22.1-175.1 et seq.) of Title 22.1, provided that the individual has not claimed a deduction for such amount on his federal income tax return.

9. An amount equal to 20 percent of the tuition costs incurred by an individual employed as a primary or secondary school teacher licensed pursuant to Chapter 15 (§ 22.1-289.1 et seq.) of Title 22.1 to attend continuing teacher education courses that are required as a condition of employment; however, the deduction provided by this subdivision shall be available only if (i) the individual is not reimbursed for such tuition costs and (ii) the individual has not claimed a deduction for the payment of such tuition costs on his federal income tax return.

10. The amount an individual pays annually in premiums for long-term health care insurance, provided that the individual has not claimed a deduction for federal income tax purposes, or, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014, a credit under § 58.1-339.11. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2014, no such deduction for long-term health care insurance premiums paid by the individual during the taxable year shall be allowed if the individual has claimed a federal income tax deduction for such taxable year for long-term health care insurance premiums paid by him.

11. Contract payments to a producer of quota tobacco or a tobacco quota holder, or their spouses, as provided under the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-357), but only to the extent that such payments have not been subtracted pursuant to subsection D of § 58.1-402, as follows:

a. If the payment is received in installment payments, then the recognized gain may be subtracted in the taxable year immediately following the year in which the installment payment is received.

b. If the payment is received in a single payment, then 10 percent of the recognized gain may be subtracted in the taxable year immediately following the year in which the single payment is received. The taxpayer may then deduct an equal amount in each of the nine succeeding taxable years.

12. An amount equal to 20 percent of the sum paid by an individual pursuant to Chapter 6 (§ 58.1-600 et seq.), not to exceed $500 in each taxable year, in purchasing for his own use the following items of tangible personal property: (i) any clothes washers, room air conditioners, dishwashers, and standard size refrigerators that meet or exceed the applicable energy star efficiency requirements developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy; (ii) any fuel cell that (a) generates electricity using an electrochemical process, (b) has an electricity-only generation efficiency greater than 35 percent, and (c) has a generating capacity of at least two kilowatts; (iii) any gas heat pump that has a coefficient of performance of at least 1.25 for heating and at least 0.70 for cooling; (iv) any electric heat pump hot water heater that yields an energy factor of at least 1.7; (v) any electric heat pump that has a heating system performance factor of at least 8.0 and a cooling seasonal energy efficiency ratio of at least 13.0; (vi) any central air conditioner that has a cooling seasonal energy efficiency ratio of at least 13.5; (vii) any advanced gas or oil water heater that has an energy factor of at least 0.65; (viii) any advanced oil-fired boiler with a minimum annual fuel-utilization rating of 85; (ix) any advanced oil-fired furnace with a minimum annual fuel-utilization rating of 85; and (x) programmable thermostats.

13. The lesser of $5,000 or the amount actually paid by a living donor of an organ or other living tissue for unreimbursed out-of-pocket expenses directly related to the donation that arose within 12 months of such donation, provided that the donor has not taken a medical deduction in accordance with the provisions of § 213 of the Internal Revenue Code for such expenses. The deduction may be taken in the taxable year in which the donation is made or the taxable year in which the 12-month period expires.

14. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2013, the amount an individual age 66 or older with earned income of at least $20,000 for the year and federal adjusted gross income not in excess of $30,000 for the year pays annually in premiums for (i) a prepaid funeral insurance policy covering the individual or (ii) medical or dental insurance for any person for whom individual tax filers may claim a deduction for such premiums under federal income tax laws. As used in this subdivision, "earned income" means the same as that term is defined in § 32(c) of the Internal Revenue Code. The deduction shall not be allowed for any portion of such premiums paid for which the individual has (a) been reimbursed, (b) claimed a deduction for federal income tax purposes, (c) claimed a deduction or subtraction under another provision of this section, or (d) claimed a federal income tax credit or any income tax credit pursuant to this chapter.

15. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2018, 20 percent of business interest disallowed as a deduction pursuant to § 163(j) of the Internal Revenue Code. For purposes of this subdivision, "business interest" means the same as that term is defined under § 163(j) of the Internal Revenue Code.

16. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, the actual amount of real and personal property taxes imposed by the Commonwealth or any other taxing jurisdiction not otherwise deducted solely on account of the dollar limitation imposed on individual deductions by § 164(b)(6)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code.

2017, c. 444; 2019, cc. 17, 18.

§ 58.1-322.04. Virginia taxable income; additional modifications.

In calculating Virginia taxable income pursuant to § 58.1-322, the following adjustments shall be made:

1. There shall be added to or subtracted from federal adjusted gross income, as the case may be, the individual's share, as beneficiary of an estate or trust, of the Virginia fiduciary adjustment determined under § 58.1-361.

2. There shall be added or subtracted, as the case may be, the amounts provided in § 58.1-315 as transitional modifications.

3. To the extent included in federal adjusted gross income, there shall be (i) subtracted from federal adjusted gross income, by a shareholder of an electing small business corporation (S corporation) that is subject to the bank franchise tax imposed under Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.) for the calendar year in which such taxable year begins, the shareholder's allocable share of the income or gain of such electing small business corporation (S corporation) and (ii) added back to federal adjusted gross income, such that federal adjusted gross income shall be increased, by a shareholder of an electing small business corporation (S corporation) that is subject to the bank franchise tax imposed under Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.) for the calendar year in which such taxable year begins, the shareholder's allocable share of the losses or deductions of such electing small business corporation (S corporation).

To the extent excluded from federal adjusted gross income, there shall be added to federal adjusted gross income, by a shareholder of an electing small business corporation (S corporation) that is subject to the bank franchise tax imposed under Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.) for the calendar year in which such taxable year begins, the value of any distribution paid or distributed to the shareholder by such electing small business corporation (S corporation).

4. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the income from any disposition of real property that is held by the taxpayer for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the taxpayer's trade or business, as defined in § 453(l)(1)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code, of property may, at the election of the taxpayer, be recognized under the installment method described under § 453 of the Internal Revenue Code, provided that (i) the election relating to the dealer disposition of the property has been made on or before the due date prescribed by law (including extensions) for filing the taxpayer's return of the tax imposed under this chapter for the taxable year in which the disposition occurs and (ii) the dealer disposition is in accordance with restrictions or conditions established by the Department, which shall be set forth in guidelines developed by the Department. Along with such restrictions or conditions, the guidelines shall also address the recapture of such income under certain circumstances. The development of the guidelines shall be exempt from the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

2017, c. 444.

§ 58.1-322.1. Expired.

Expired.

§ 58.1-322.2. Expired.

Expired.

§ 58.1-323. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1987, c. 9, effective for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1988.

§ 58.1-323.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2000, c. 419.

§ 58.1-324. Husband and wife.

A. If the federal taxable income of husband or wife is determined on a separate federal return, their Virginia taxable incomes shall be separately determined.

B. If the federal taxable income of husband and wife is determined on a joint federal return, or if neither files a federal return:

1. Their tax shall be determined on their joint Virginia taxable income; or

2. Separate taxes may be determined on their separate Virginia taxable incomes if they so elect.

C. Where husband and wife have not separately reported and claimed items of income, exemptions and deductions for federal income tax purposes, and have not elected to file a joint Virginia income tax return, such items allowable for Virginia income tax purposes shall be allocated and adjusted as follows:

1. Income shall be allocated to the spouse who earned the income or with respect to whose property the income is attributable.

2. Allowable deductions with respect to trade, business, production of income, or employment shall be allocated to the spouse to whom attributable.

3. Nonbusiness deductions, where properly taken for federal income tax purposes, shall be allowable for Virginia income tax purposes, but shall be allocable between husband and wife as they may mutually agree. For this purpose, "nonbusiness deductions" consist of allowable deductions not described in subdivision 2.

4. Where the standard deduction or low income allowance is properly taken pursuant to subdivision 1 a of § 58.1-322.03, such deduction or allowance shall be allocable between husband and wife as they may mutually agree.

5. Personal exemptions properly allowable for federal income tax purposes shall be allocated for Virginia income tax purposes as husband and wife may mutually agree; however, exemptions for taxpayer and spouse together with exemptions for old age and blindness must be allocated respectively to the spouse to whom they relate.

D. Where allocations are permitted to be made under subsection C pursuant to agreement between husband and wife, and husband and wife have failed to agree as to those allocations, such allocations shall be made between husband and wife in a manner corresponding to the treatment for federal income tax purposes of the items involved, under regulations prescribed by the Department.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.012, 58-151.013; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 827; 1973, cc. 198, 345, 458; 1974, c. 682; 1975, c. 46; 1976, cc. 528, 694, 781; 1977, cc. 297, 612; 1978, cc. 67, 158; 1979, cc. 226, 596; 1981, cc. 402, 414; 1982, c. 633; 1983, cc. 452, 472; 1984, cc. 153, 162, 636, 674, 675, 729; 2017, c. 444.

§ 58.1-325. Virginia taxable income of nonresident individuals, partners, beneficiaries and certain shareholders.

A. The Virginia taxable income of a nonresident individual, partner or beneficiary shall be an amount bearing the same proportion to his Virginia taxable income, computed as though he were a resident, as the net amount of his income, gain, loss and deductions from Virginia sources bears to the net amount of his income, gain, loss and deductions from all sources.

B. For a nonresident individual who is a shareholder in an electing small business corporation (S corporation), there shall be included in his Virginia taxable income his share of the taxable income of such corporation, and his share of any net operating loss of such corporation shall be deductible from his Virginia taxable income.

Code 1950, § 58-151.013; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 827; 1973, cc. 198, 345, 458; 1974, c. 682; 1975, c. 46; 1976, cc. 528, 694, 781; 1977, cc. 297, 612; 1978, cc. 67, 158; 1979, cc. 226, 596; 1981, cc. 402, 414; 1982, c. 633; 1983, cc. 452, 472; 1984, cc. 153, 162, 636, 674, 675, 729.

§ 58.1-326. Husband and wife when one nonresident.

If husband or wife is a resident and the other is a nonresident, separate taxes shall be determined on their separate Virginia taxable incomes on such single or separate forms as may be required by the Department, unless both elect to determine their joint Virginia taxable income as if both were residents.

Code 1950, § 58-151.012; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

Article 3. Tax Credits for Individuals.

§ 58.1-330. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1990, cc. 507, 525, effective for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1990.

§ 58.1-331. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2009, c. 34, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-332. Credits for taxes paid other states.

A. Whenever a Virginia resident has become liable to another state for income tax on any earned or business income or any gain on the sale of a capital asset (within the meaning of § 1221 of the Internal Revenue Code), not including an asset used in a trade or business, to the extent that such gain is included in federal adjusted gross income, for the taxable year, derived from sources outside the Commonwealth and subject to taxation under this chapter, the amount of such tax payable by him shall, upon proof of such payment, be credited on the taxpayer's return with the income tax so paid to the other state.

However, no franchise tax, license tax, excise tax, unincorporated business tax, occupation tax or any tax characterized as such by the taxing jurisdiction, although applied to earned or business income, shall qualify for a credit under this section, nor shall any tax which, if characterized as an income tax or a commuter tax, would be illegal and unauthorized under such other state's controlling or enabling legislation qualify for a credit under this section.

The credit allowable under this section shall not exceed: (i) such proportion of the income tax otherwise payable by him under this chapter as his income upon which the tax imposed by the other state was computed bears to his Virginia taxable income upon which the tax imposed by this Commonwealth was computed or (ii) the income tax otherwise payable under this chapter in the event that the income upon which the tax imposed by the other state is computed is less than the Virginia taxable income upon which the tax imposed by this Commonwealth is computed and all income derived from sources outside the Commonwealth and subject to taxation under this chapter is earned income or business income reported on federal form Schedule C from a single state contiguous to Virginia. The credit provided for by this section shall not be granted to a resident individual when the laws of another state, under which the income in question is subject to tax assessment, provide a credit to such resident individual substantially similar to that granted by subsection B of this section.

B. Whenever a nonresident individual of this Commonwealth has become liable to the state where he resides for income tax upon his Virginia taxable income for the taxable year, derived from Virginia sources and subject to taxation under this chapter, the amount of such tax payable under this chapter shall be credited with such proportion of the tax so payable by him to the state where he resides, upon proof of such payment, as his income subject to taxation under this chapter bears to his entire income upon which the tax so payable to such other state was imposed. The credit, however, shall be allowed only if the laws of such state: (i) grant a substantially similar credit to residents of Virginia subject to income tax under such laws or (ii) impose a tax upon the income of its residents derived from Virginia sources and exempt from taxation the income of residents of this Commonwealth. No credit shall be allowed against the amount of the tax on any income taxable under this chapter which is exempt from taxation under the laws of such other state.

C. For purposes of this section, the amount of any state income tax paid by an electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be deemed to have been paid by its individual shareholders in proportion to their ownership of the stock of such corporation.

Code 1950, § 58-151.015; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 827; 1984, c. 675; 1985, c. 466; 1991, cc. 362, 456; 1992, c. 317; 1994, c. 195; 1998, c. 291; 1999, c. 317.

§ 58.1-332.1. Credit for taxes paid to a foreign country on retirement income.

A. Whenever a Virginia resident has become liable to a foreign country for income tax paid on any pension or retirement income to the extent that such income is included in federal adjusted gross income for the taxable year, derived from foreign sources as a result of past employment in a foreign country and subject to taxation under this chapter, the amount of such tax payable by him shall, upon proof of such payment, be credited on the taxpayer's return with the income tax so paid to the foreign country. The credit allowable under this section shall not exceed: (i) such proportion of the income tax otherwise payable by him under this chapter as his income upon which the tax imposed by the foreign country was computed bears to his Virginia taxable income upon which the tax imposed by this Commonwealth was computed or (ii) the income tax otherwise payable under this chapter, in the event that the income upon which the tax imposed by the foreign country is computed is less than the Virginia taxable income upon which the tax imposed by this Commonwealth is computed.

B. For purposes of determining this credit, the foreign currency must be translated into United States dollars using the prevailing rate of exchange which most nearly reflects the value of the foreign currency at the time the taxes were actually paid to the foreign country.

C. As used in this section, a foreign country shall include all possessions of the United States. Any foreign country which does not qualify for the federal foreign tax credit under § 901(j) of the Internal Revenue Code will also be disqualified for the credit allowed under this section.

1998, c. 292.

§ 58.1-332.2. (Applicable for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2007) Definition of income tax.

A. For purposes of the credits in §§ 58.1-332 and 58.1-332.1, the term "income tax" is a term of art that refers to a specific type of tax levied on earned and unearned income and shall not include any other type of tax merely because it may be measured by or referenced to gross or net income. An income tax includes, but is not limited to, a tax imposed on all income of an individual if a resident, or all income of an individual from the jurisdiction's sources if a nonresident; however, an income tax so imposed may incorporate other provisions that grant exemptions, exclusions, deductions, subtractions, credits, or other preferences for specific types of income, expenses, individuals, or other criteria.

B. An income tax shall not include:

1. A tax conditioned upon the exercise of any franchise, privilege, or business within the jurisdiction even though the tax is measured or based upon gross or net income derived therefrom, but such measure does not include income that the person exercising such franchise, privilege, or business may receive from other sources within the jurisdiction.

2. License and occupation taxes, which are payable in respect to the privilege of engaging in or carrying on a particular business or vocation, even though the amount of tax payable by an individual may be measured by the amount of business which he transacts or his earnings therefrom, but such measure does not include income that the person engaging in or carrying on a particular business or vocation may receive from other sources within the jurisdiction.

C. The credits in §§ 58.1-332 and 58.1-332.1 shall apply only when the tax imposed in the other state or foreign country is substantially similar to the tax imposed by Article 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.), as defined by this section. The nomenclature used to describe the tax of the other jurisdiction shall not be binding on Virginia for this purpose whether such nomenclature is that of the other jurisdiction's legislature or courts or the United States Congress or courts.

2012, c. 292.

§ 58.1-333. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, cc. 292, 300.

§ 58.1-334. Tax credit for purchase of conservation tillage equipment.

A. Any individual shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-320 of an amount equaling 25 percent of all expenditures made for the purchase and installation of conservation tillage equipment used in agricultural production by the purchaser. As used in this section the term "conservation tillage equipment" means a planter, drill, or other equipment used to reduce soil compaction commonly known as a "no-till" planter, drill, or other equipment used to reduce soil compaction including guidance systems to control traffic patterns that are designed to minimize disturbance of the soil in planting crops, including such planters, drills, or other equipment designed to reduce soil compaction which may be attached to equipment already owned by the taxpayer.

B. The amount of such credit shall not exceed $4,000 or the total amount of tax imposed by this chapter, whichever is less, in the year of purchase. If the amount of such credit exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for such tax year, the amount which exceeds the tax liability may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of such individual in the next five taxable years until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken.

C. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to the purchase and installation of conservation tillage equipment by a partnership or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners or shareholders in proportion to their ownership or interest in the partnership or S corporation.

1985, c. 560; 1990, c. 416; 2005, c. 58.

§ 58.1-335. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1990, c. 875, effective for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1990.

§ 58.1-336. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, cc. 293 and 299.

§ 58.1-337. Tax credit for purchase of advanced technology pesticide and fertilizer application equipment.

A. Any individual engaged in agricultural production for market who has in place a nutrient management plan approved by the local Soil and Water Conservation District by the required tax return filing date of the individual shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-320 of an amount equaling twenty-five percent of all expenditures made by such individual for the purchase of equipment certified by the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Board as providing more precise pesticide and fertilizer application. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and Virginia State University shall provide at the request of the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Board technical assistance in determining appropriate specifications for certified equipment which would provide for more precise pesticide and fertilizer application to reduce the potential for adverse environmental impacts. The equipment shall be divided into the following categories:

1. Sprayers for pesticides and liquid fertilizers;

2. Pneumatic fertilizer applicators;

3. Monitors, computer regulators, and height adjustable booms for sprayers and liquid fertilizer applicators;

4. Manure applicators;

5. Tramline adapters; and

6. Starter fertilizer banding attachments for planters.

B. The amount of such credit shall not exceed $3,750 or the total amount of the tax imposed by this chapter, whichever is less, in the year of purchase. If the amount of such credit exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for such taxable year, the amount which exceeds the tax liability may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of such individual in the next five taxable years until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken.

C. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to the purchase of equipment certified by the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Board as providing more precise pesticide and fertilizer application by a partnership or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners or shareholders in proportion to their ownership or interest in the partnership or S corporation.

1990, c. 416; 1996, c. 739.

§ 58.1-338. Expired.

Expired.

§ 58.1-339. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2011, c. 851, cl. 2, effective for taxable periods on or after January 1, 2011.

§ 58.1-339.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1992, c. 394.

§ 58.1-339.2. Historic rehabilitation tax credit.

A. Effective for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1997, any individual, trust or estate, or corporation incurring eligible expenses in the rehabilitation of a certified historic structure shall be entitled to a credit against the tax imposed by Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.), 6 (§ 58.1-360 et seq.) and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) of Chapter 3; Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.); Article 1 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.) of Chapter 25; and Article 2 (§ 58.1-2620 et seq.) of Chapter 26, in accordance with the following schedule:

aYear% of Eligible Expenses
b199710%
c199815%
d199920%
e2000 and thereafter25%

If the amount of such credit exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for such taxable year, the amount that exceeds the tax liability may be carried over for credit against the taxes of such taxpayer in the next ten taxable years or until the full credit is used, whichever occurs first. Credits granted to a partnership or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be passed through to the partners or shareholders, respectively. Credits granted to a partnership or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated among all partners or shareholders, respectively, either in proportion to their ownership interest in such entity or as the partners or shareholders mutually agree as provided in an executed document, the form of which shall be prescribed by the Director of the Department of Historic Resources.

B. Effective for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2000, any individual, trust, estate, or corporation resident in Virginia that incurs eligible expenses in the rehabilitation of a certified historic structure in any other state that has in effect a reciprocal historic structure rehabilitation tax credit program and agreement for residents of that state who rehabilitate historic structures in Virginia shall be entitled to a credit to the same extent as provided in subsection A and other applicable provisions of law; however, no eligible party shall receive any credit authorized under this subsection prior to taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2002.

C. 1. To claim the credit authorized under this section, the taxpayer shall apply to the Virginia Department of Historic Resources, which shall determine the amount of eligible rehabilitation expenses and issue a certificate thereof to the taxpayer. The taxpayer shall attach the certificate to the Virginia tax return on which the credit is claimed.

2. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2017, the amount of the credit that may be claimed by each taxpayer, including amounts carried over from prior taxable years, shall not exceed $5 million in any taxable year.

D. When used in this section:

"Certified historic structure" means a property listed individually on the Virginia Landmarks Register, or certified by the Director of the Virginia Department of Historic Resources as contributing to the historic significance of a historic district that is listed on the Virginia Landmarks Register or certified by the Director of the Virginia Department of Historic Resources as meeting the criteria for listing on the Virginia Landmarks Register.

"Eligible rehabilitation expenses" means expenses incurred in the material rehabilitation of a certified historic structure and added to the property's capital account.

"Material rehabilitation" means improvements or reconstruction consistent with "The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation," the cost of which amounts to at least fifty percent of the assessed value of such building for local real estate tax purposes for the year prior to the initial expenditure of any rehabilitation expenses, unless the building is an owner-occupied building, in which case the cost shall amount to at least twenty-five percent of the assessed value of such building for local real estate tax purposes for the year prior to the initial expenditure of any rehabilitation expenses.

"Owner-occupied building" means any building that is used as a personal residence by the owner.

E. The Director of the Department of Historic Resources shall establish by regulation the requirements needed for this program, including the fees to defray necessary expenses thereof, and, except as otherwise prohibited by this section, the extent to which the availability of the credit provided by this section is coextensive with the availability of the federal tax credit for the rehabilitation of certified historic resources.

F. Any gain or income under federal law from the allocation or application of a tax credit under this section shall not be (i) taxable gain or income for purposes of the tax imposed pursuant to Article 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.), (ii) taxable gain or income for purposes of the tax imposed pursuant to Article 6 (§ 58.1-360 et seq.), or (iii) taxable gain or income for purposes of the tax imposed pursuant to Article 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.). However, nothing in this subsection shall be construed or interpreted as allowing a subtraction or deduction for such gain or income under federal law if the gain or income is otherwise excluded, deducted, or subtracted in computing the respective tax set forth under clauses (i) through (iii).

1996, c. 520; 1998, cc. 371, 372; 1999, cc. 152, 183, 213; 2000, cc. 356, 367, 429; 2012, cc. 92, 639; 2017, cc. 717, 721; 2019, c. 25.

§ 58.1-339.3. Agricultural best management practices tax credit.

A. For all taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1998, any individual who is engaged in agricultural production for market, or has equines that create needs for agricultural best management practices to reduce nonpoint source pollutants, and has in place a soil conservation plan approved by the local Soil And Water Conservation District (SWCD), shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-320 of an amount equaling 25 percent of the first $70,000 expended for agricultural best management practices by the individual.

As used in this section, "agricultural best management practice" means a practice approved by the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Board (VSWCB) which will provide a significant improvement to water quality in the state's streams and rivers and the Chesapeake Bay and is consistent with other state and federal programs that address agricultural, nonpoint-source-pollution management. Eligible practices shall include, but are not limited to, the following:

1. Livestock-waste and poultry-waste management;

2. Soil erosion control;

3. Nutrient and sediment filtration and detention;

4. Nutrient management; and

5. Pest management and pesticide handling.

A detailed list of the standards and criteria for practices eligible for credit shall be found in the most recently approved "Virginia Agricultural BMP Manual" published annually prior to July 1 by the Department of Conservation and Recreation.

B. Any practice approved by the local Soil and Water Conservation District Board shall be completed within the taxable year in which the credit is claimed. After the practice installation has been completed, the local SWCD Board shall certify the practice as approved and completed, and eligible for credit. The applicant shall forward the certification to the Department of Taxation on forms provided by the Department. The credit shall be allowed only for expenditures made by the taxpayer from funds of his own sources.

C. 1. The amount of such credit shall not exceed $17,500 or the total amount of the tax imposed by this chapter, whichever is less, in the year the project was completed, as certified by the Board. Any taxpayer claiming a tax credit under this section shall not claim a credit under any similar Virginia law for costs related to the same eligible practices.

2. If the amount of the credit exceeds the taxpayer's liability for such taxable year, the excess may be refunded by the Tax Commissioner. Tax credits shall be refunded by the Tax Commissioner on behalf of the Commonwealth for 100 percent of face value. Tax credits shall be refunded within 90 days after the filing date of the income tax return on which the individual applies for the refund.

D. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to agricultural best management practices by a pass-through entity such as a partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S Corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners, members, or shareholders in proportion to their ownership or interest in such entity.

E. A pass-through tax entity, such as a partnership, limited liability company or electing small business corporation (S corporation), may appoint a tax matters representative, who shall be a general partner, member-manager or shareholder, and register that representative with the Tax Commissioner. The Tax Commissioner shall be entitled to deal with the tax matters representative as representative of the taxpayers to whom credits have been allocated by the entity under this article with respect to those credits. In the event a pass-through tax entity allocates tax credits arising under this article to its partners, members or shareholders and the allocated credits shall be disallowed, in whole or in part, such that an assessment of additional tax against a taxpayer shall be made, the Tax Commissioner shall first make written demand for payment of any additional tax, together with interest and penalties, from the tax matters representative. In the event such payment demand is not satisfied, the Tax Commissioner shall proceed to collection against the taxpayers in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 18 (§ 58.1-1800 et seq.).

1996, c. 629; 2006, c. 440; 2011, c. 352.

§ 58.1-339.4. Qualified equity and subordinated debt investments tax credit.

A. As used in this section:

"Commercialization investment" means a qualified investment in a qualified business that was created to commercialize research developed at or in partnership with an institution of higher education.

"Equity" means common stock or preferred stock, regardless of class or series, of a corporation; a partnership interest in a limited partnership; or a membership interest in a limited liability company, which is not required or subject to an option on the part of the taxpayer to be redeemed by the issuer within three years from the date of issuance.

"Qualified business" means a business which (i) has annual gross revenues of no more than $3 million in its most recent fiscal year, (ii) has its principal office or facility in the Commonwealth, (iii) is engaged in business primarily in or does substantially all of its production in the Commonwealth, (iv) has not obtained during its existence more than $3 million in aggregate gross cash proceeds from the issuance of its equity or debt investments (not including commercial loans from chartered banking or savings and loan institutions), and (v) is primarily engaged, or is primarily organized to engage, in the fields of advanced computing, advanced materials, advanced manufacturing, agricultural technologies, biotechnology, electronic device technology, energy, environmental technology, information technology, medical device technology, nanotechnology, or any similar technology-related field determined by regulation by the Department of Taxation to fall under the purview of this section.

"Qualified investment" means a cash investment in a qualified business in the form of equity or subordinated debt; however, an investment shall not be qualified if the taxpayer who holds such investment, or any of such taxpayer's family members, or any entity affiliated with such taxpayer, receives or has received compensation from the qualified business in exchange for services provided to such business as an employee, officer, director, manager, independent contractor or otherwise in connection with or within one year before or after the date of such investment. For the purposes hereof, reimbursement of reasonable expenses incurred shall not be deemed to be compensation.

"Subordinated debt" means indebtedness of a corporation, general or limited partnership, or limited liability company that (i) by its terms required no repayment of principal for the first three years after issuance; (ii) is not guaranteed by any other person or secured by any assets of the issuer or any other person; and (iii) is subordinated to all indebtedness and obligations of the issuer to national or state-chartered banking or savings and loan institutions.

B. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1999, a taxpayer shall be allowed a credit against the tax levied pursuant to §§ 58.1-320 and 58.1-360 in an amount equal to 50 percent of such taxpayer's qualified investments during such taxable year. No credit shall be allowed to any taxpayer that has committed capital under management in excess of $10 million and engages in the business of making debt or equity investments in private businesses, or to any taxpayer that is allocated a credit as a partner, shareholder, member or owner of an entity that engages in such business.

C. The amount of any credit attributable to a qualified investment by a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, as the case may be, as they may determine.

D. The aggregate amount of the credit for each taxpayer shall not exceed the lesser of (i) the tax imposed for such taxable year or (ii) $50,000. Any credit not usable for the taxable year in which the credit was allowed may be, to the extent usable, carried over for the next 15 succeeding taxable years or until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken, whichever occurs first.

E. The amount of tax credits available under this section for a calendar year shall be $5 million. Of the amount of available credits, one-half of the amount shall be allocated exclusively for credits for commercialization investments. Such allocation of tax credits shall constitute the minimum amount of tax credits to be allocated for commercialization investments. However, if the amount of tax credits requested for commercialization investments is less than one-half of the total amount of credits available under this section, the balance of such credits shall be allocated for qualified investments in any qualified business under this section.

F. Unless the taxpayer transfers the equity received in connection with a qualified investment as a result of (i) the liquidation of the qualified business issuing such equity, (ii) the merger, consolidation or other acquisition of such business with or by a party not affiliated with such business, or (iii) the death of the taxpayer, any taxpayer that fails to hold such equity for at least three full calendar years following the calendar year for which a tax credit for a qualified investment is allocated pursuant to this section shall forfeit both used and unused tax credits and in addition shall pay the Department of Taxation interest on the total allowed credits at the rate of one percent per month, compounded monthly, from the date the tax credits were allocated to the taxpayer. The Department of Taxation shall deposit any amounts received under this subsection into the general fund of the Commonwealth.

G. Prior to December 31, 1998, the Department of Taxation shall promulgate regulations in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) (i) establishing procedures for claiming the tax credit provided by this section and (ii) providing for the allocation of tax credits among taxpayers requesting credits in the event the amount of credits for which requests are made exceeds the available amount of credits in any one calendar year. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Department of Taxation shall permit an application for certification as a qualified business to be filed at any time during the calendar year regardless of when the investment was made during the calendar year.

1998, c. 491; 2004, c. 614; 2009, c. 853.

§ 58.1-339.5. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2016, c. 305, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-339.6. Political candidate contribution tax credit.

For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2000, but before January 1, 2017, any individual shall be entitled to a credit against the tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-320 of an amount equal to 50 percent of the amount contributed by the taxpayer to a candidate, as defined in § 24.2-101, in one or more primary, special, or general elections for local or state office held in the Commonwealth in the taxable year in which the contributions are made. The amount of the credit shall not exceed $25 for an individual taxpayer or $50 for taxpayers filing a joint return.

1999, c. 464; 2016, cc. 50, 348.

§ 58.1-339.7. Livable Home Tax Credit.

A. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2000, any taxpayer who purchases a new residence or retrofits or hires someone to retrofit an existing residence, provided that such new residence or the retrofitting of such existing residence is designed to improve accessibility, provide universal visitability, and meets the eligibility requirements established by guidelines developed by the Department of Housing and Community Development, shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed pursuant to § 58.1-320 of an amount equal to $500, or $2,000 for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2010, for such new residence or 25 percent of the total amount spent for the retrofitting of such existing residence. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2010, the 25 percent shall increase to 50 percent. The amount of the credit allowed for the retrofitting of an existing residence shall not exceed $500, or $2,000 for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2010. Such a credit shall require application by the taxpayer as provided in subsection C. For purposes of this section, the purchase of a new residence means a transaction involving the first sale of a residence or dwelling. The provisions of this subsection shall not be applicable for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2011.

B. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2011, an individual shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-320 for a portion of the total purchase price paid by him for a new residence or the total amount expended by him to retrofit an existing residence, provided that the new residence or the retrofitting of the existing residence is designed to improve accessibility, to provide universal visitability, and it meets the eligibility requirements established by guidelines developed by the Department of Housing and Community Development. In addition, a licensed contractor, as defined in § 54.1-1100, shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-320 or 58.1-400 for a portion of the total amount it expended in constructing a new residential structure or unit or retrofitting or renovating an existing residential structure or unit, provided that the new residential structure or unit or the retrofitting or renovating of the existing residential structure or unit is designed to improve accessibility, to provide universal visitability, and it meets the eligibility requirements established by guidelines developed by the Department of Housing and Community Development.

The credit shall be allowed for the taxable year in which the residence has been purchased or construction, retrofitting, or renovation of the residence or residential structure or unit has been completed. The credit allowed under this section shall not exceed (i) $5,000 for the purchase of each new residence or the construction of each new residential structure or unit or (ii) 50 percent of the total amount expended, but not to exceed $5,000, for the retrofitting or renovation of each existing residence or residential structure or unit.

No credit shall be allowed under this section for the purchase, construction, retrofitting, or renovation of residential rental property.

C. Eligible taxpayers shall apply for the credit by making application to the Department of Housing and Community Development. The Department of Housing and Community Development shall issue a certification for an approved application to the taxpayer. The taxpayer shall attach the certification to the applicable income tax return. The total amount of tax credits granted under this section for any fiscal year shall not exceed $1 million. In each year, the Department of Housing and Community Development shall allocate $500,000 in tax credits for the purchase or construction of new residences and $500,000 in tax credits for the retrofitting or renovation of existing residences or residential structures or units. If the amount of tax credits approved in a fiscal year for the purchase or construction of new residences is less than $500,000, the Director of the Department of Housing and Community Development shall allocate the remaining balance of such tax credits for the retrofitting or renovation of existing residences or residential structures or units. If the amount of tax credits approved in a fiscal year for the retrofitting or renovation of existing residences or residential structures or units is less than $500,000, the Director of the Department of Housing and Community Development shall allocate the remaining balance of such tax credits for the purchase or construction of new residences. In the event applications for the tax credit exceed the amount allocated by the Director for the fiscal year, the Department of Housing and Community Development shall issue the tax credits pro rata based upon the amount of tax credit approved for each taxpayer and the amount of tax credits allocated by the Director.

In no case shall the Director issue any tax credit relating to transactions or dealings between affiliated entities. In no case shall the Director issue any tax credit more than once to the same or different persons relating to the same retrofitting, renovation, or construction project.

D. In no case shall the amount of credit taken by a taxpayer pursuant to this section exceed the taxpayer's income tax liability for the taxable year. If the amount of credit allowed for the taxable year in which the residence has been purchased or construction, retrofitting, or renovation of the residence or residential structure or unit has been completed exceeds the taxpayer's income tax liability imposed for such taxable year, then the amount that exceeds the tax liability may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of such taxpayer in the next seven taxable years or until the total amount of the tax credit issued has been taken, whichever is sooner. Credits granted to a partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners, members, or shareholders, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

1999, c. 404; 2007, cc. 68, 765; 2009, cc. 15, 496; 2011, c. 365.

§ 58.1-339.8. Income tax credit for low-income taxpayers.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires otherwise:

"Family Virginia adjusted gross income" means the combined Virginia adjusted gross income of an individual, the individual's spouse, and any person claimed as a dependent on the individual's or his spouse's income tax return for the taxable year.

"Poverty guidelines" means the poverty guidelines for the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia updated annually in the Federal Register by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under the authority of § 673(2) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981.

"Virginia adjusted gross income" has the same meaning as the term is defined in § 58.1-321.

B. 1. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2000, any individual or persons filing a joint return whose family Virginia adjusted gross income does not exceed 100 percent of the poverty guideline amount corresponding to a household of an equal number of persons as listed in the poverty guidelines published during such taxable year, shall be allowed a credit against the tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-320 in an amount equal to $300 each for the individual, the individual's spouse, and any person claimed as a dependent on the individual's or married persons' income tax return for the taxable year. For any taxable year in which a husband and wife file separate Virginia income tax returns, the credit provided under this section shall be allowed against the tax for only one of such two tax returns. Additionally, the credit provided under this section shall not be allowed against such tax of a dependent of the individual or of married persons.

2. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2006, any individual or married persons, eligible for a tax credit pursuant to § 32 of the Internal Revenue Code, may for the taxable year, in lieu of the credit authorized under subdivision B 1, claim a credit against the tax imposed pursuant to § 58.1-320 in an amount equal to 20 percent of the credit claimed by the individual or married persons for federal individual income taxes pursuant to § 32 of the Internal Revenue Code for the taxable year. In no case shall a household be allowed a credit pursuant to this subdivision and subdivision B 1 for the same taxable year.

For purpose of this subdivision, "household" means an individual and in the case of married persons, the individual and his spouse regardless of whether or not the individual and his spouse file combined or separate Virginia individual income tax returns.

C. The amount of the credit provided pursuant to subsection B for any taxable year shall not exceed the individual's or married persons' Virginia income tax liability.

D. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, no credit shall be allowed pursuant to subsection B in any taxable year in which the individual, the individual's spouse, or both, or any person claimed as a dependent on such individual's or married persons' income tax return, claims one or any combination of the following on his or their income tax return for such taxable year:

1. The subtraction under subdivision 8 of § 58.1-322.02;

2. The subtraction under subdivision 15 of § 58.1-322.02;

3. The subtraction under subdivision 16 of § 58.1-322.02;

4. The deduction for the additional personal exemption for blind or aged taxpayers under subdivision 2 b of § 58.1-322.03; or

5. The deduction under subdivision 5 of § 58.1-322.03.

2000, c. 397; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2017, c. 444.

§ 58.1-339.9. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2016, c. 305, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-339.10. Riparian forest buffer protection for waterways tax credit.

A. For all taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2000, any individual who owns land abutting a waterway on which timber is harvested, and who forbears harvesting timber on certain portions of the land near the waterway, shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-320 as set forth in this section. For purposes of this section, "waterway" means any perennial or intermittent stream of water depicted on the then most current United States Geological Survey topographical map. For purposes of this section and for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2008, "individual" means an individual person and an individual's grantor trust.

B. The State Forester shall develop guidelines setting forth the general requirements of qualifying for the credit, including the land for which credit is eligible. To qualify for the credit, the individual must comply with an individualized Forest Stewardship Plan to be certified by the State Forester. In no event shall the distance from such waterway to the far end of the timber buffer, on which the tax credit is based, be less than thirty-five feet or more than three hundred feet. The minimum duration for the buffer shall be fifteen years. The State Forester shall check each certified buffer annually to verify its continued compliance with the individual's Forest Stewardship Plan. If the State Forester discovers that the timber in that portion of the land retained as a buffer has been harvested prior to the end of the required term, written notification of such violation shall be delivered to the individual by the State Forester.

C. The tax credit shall be an amount equal to twenty-five percent of the value of timber in that portion of the land retained as a buffer. The amount of such credit shall not exceed $17,500 or the total amount of the tax imposed by this chapter, whichever is less, in the year that the timber outside the buffer was harvested. If the amount of the credit exceeds the individual's liability for such taxable year, the excess may be carried over for credit against income taxes in the next five taxable years until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to qualified buffer protection by a partnership or electing small business corporation (S Corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners or shareholders in proportion to their ownership or interest in the partnership or S Corporation. The land which is the subject of a tax credit under this section cannot again be the subject of a tax credit under this section for at least fifteen years. The State Forester shall check each certified buffer annually to verify its continued compliance with the individual's Forest Stewardship Plan. If the State Forester discovers that the timber in that portion of the land retained as a buffer has been harvested prior to the end of the required term, written notification of such noncompliance shall be delivered to the individual by the State Forester.

D. To claim the credit authorized under this section, the individual shall apply to the State Forester, who shall determine the amount of credit, using the assessed value of the timber in that portion of land retained as a buffer, and issue a certificate thereof to the individual. The individual shall attach the certificate to the Virginia tax return on which the credit is claimed. In the event the timber in that portion of land retained as a buffer is harvested by the individual or any other person prior to the end of the term originally established in the individual's Forest Stewardship Plan, the individual shall repay the tax credit claimed. Within sixty days after receiving written notification from the State Forester that the individual's plan no longer qualifies for the credit, repayment shall be made to the Department of Taxation. If repayment is not made within the sixty-day period, the State Forester shall notify the locality's Commonwealth Attorney for assistance in collecting the funds from the individual.

2000, cc. 568, 607; 2008, c. 449.

§ 58.1-339.11. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2013, c. 801, cl. 2, effective for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014.

§ 58.1-339.12. Farm wineries and vineyards tax credit.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Qualified capital expenditures" means all expenditures made by the taxpayer for the purchase and installation of barrels, bins, bottling equipment, capsuling equipment, chemicals, corkers, crushers and destemmers, dirt, fermenters, or other recognized fermentation devices, fertilizer and soil amendments, filters, grape harvesters, grape plants, hoses, irrigation equipment, labeling equipment, poles, posts, presses, pumps, refractometers, refrigeration equipment, seeders, tanks, tractors, vats, weeding and spraying equipment, wine tanks, and wire.

"Virginia vineyard" means agricultural lands located in the Commonwealth consisting of at least one contiguous acre dedicated to the growing of grapes that are used or are intended to be used in the production of wine by a Virginia farm winery as well as any plants or other improvements located thereon.

"Virginia farm winery" means an establishment located in the Commonwealth that is licensed as a Virginia farm winery pursuant to § 4.1-207.

B. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2011, any Virginia farm winery or vineyard shall be entitled to a credit against the tax levied pursuant to §§ 58.1-320 and 58.1-400 for qualified capital expenditures made in connection with the establishment of new Virginia farm wineries or vineyards and capital improvements made to existing Virginia farm wineries or vineyards. The amount of the credit shall be equal to 25 percent of all qualified capital expenditures.

C. The total amount of tax credits available under this section for a calendar year shall not exceed $250,000. In the event that applications for such credit exceed $250,000 for any calendar, the Department of Taxation shall allocate the credits on a pro rata basis.

D. If the amount of the credit exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for the taxable year, the excess may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of the taxpayer in the next 10 taxable years, or until the total credit amount has been taken, whichever occurs first.

E. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

F. The credit allowed in this section shall not be claimed to the extent the taxpayer has claimed a deduction for the same expenses for federal income tax purposes under § 179 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended.

2011, cc. 214, 226.

Article 4. Accounting, Returns, Procedures for Individuals.

§ 58.1-340. Accounting.

A. An individual taxpayer's taxable year under this chapter shall be the same as his taxable year for federal income tax purposes.

B. If a taxpayer's taxable year is changed for federal income tax purposes, his taxable year for purposes of this chapter shall be similarly changed. If a taxable year of less than twelve months results from a change of taxable year, the Virginia taxable income shall be prorated under regulations of the Department.

C. A taxpayer's method of accounting under this chapter shall be the same as his method of accounting for federal income tax purposes. In the absence of any method of accounting for federal income tax purposes, Virginia taxable income shall be computed under such method as in the opinion of the Tax Commissioner clearly reflects income.

D. If a taxpayer's method of accounting is changed for federal income tax purposes, his method of accounting for purposes of this chapter shall be similarly changed. If a taxpayer's method of accounting is changed, other than from an accrual to an installment method, any additional tax which results from adjustments determined to be necessary solely by reason of the change shall not be greater than if such adjustments were ratably allocated and included for the taxable year of the change and the preceding taxable years, not in excess of two, during which the taxpayer used the method of accounting from which the change is made. If a taxpayer's method of accounting is changed from an accrual to an installment method, any additional tax for the year of such change of method and for any subsequent year which is attributable to the receipt of installment payments properly accrued in a prior year, shall be reduced by the portion of tax for any prior taxable year attributable to the accrual of such installment payments, in accordance with regulations of the Department.

E. In computing a taxpayer's Virginia taxable income for any taxable year under a method of accounting different from the method under which the taxpayer's Virginia taxable income was computed, there shall be taken into account those adjustments which are determined, under regulations prescribed by the Department, to be necessary solely by reason of change in order to prevent amounts from being duplicated or omitted.

F. Notwithstanding any of the other provisions of this section, any accounting adjustments made for federal income tax purposes for any taxable year shall be applied in computing the taxpayer's taxable income for such year.

Code 1950, § 58-151.061; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-341. Returns of individuals.

A. On or before May 1 of each year if an individual's taxable year is the calendar year, or on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of a taxable year other than the calendar year, an income tax return under this chapter shall be made and filed by or for:

1. Every resident individual, except as provided in § 58.1-321, required to file a federal income tax return for the taxable year, or having Virginia taxable income for the taxable year;

2. Every nonresident individual having Virginia taxable income for the taxable year, except as provided in § 58.1-321.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, every member of the armed services of the United States deployed outside of the United States shall be allowed an automatic extension to file an income tax return. Such extension shall expire 90 days following the completion of such member's deployment. For purposes of this section, "the armed services of the United States" includes active duty service with the regular Armed Forces of the United States or the National Guard or other reserve component.

B. If the federal income tax liability of husband or wife is determined on a separate federal return, their Virginia income tax liabilities and returns shall be separate. If the federal income tax liabilities of husband and wife (other than a husband and wife described in subdivision 2 of subsection A) are determined on a joint federal return, or if neither files a federal return:

1. They shall file a joint Virginia income tax return, and their tax liabilities shall be joint and several; or

2. They may elect to file separate Virginia income tax returns if they comply with the requirements of the Department in setting forth information (whether or not on a single form), in which event their tax liabilities shall be separate unless such husband and wife file separately on a combined return. The election permitted under this subsection may be made or changed at any time within three years from the last day prescribed by law for the timely filing of the return.

C. If either husband or wife is a resident and the other is a nonresident, they shall file separate Virginia income tax returns on such single or separate forms as may be required by the Department, in which event their tax liabilities shall be separate except as provided in subsection D, unless both elect to determine their joint Virginia taxable income as if both were residents, in which event their tax liabilities shall be joint and several.

D. If husband and wife file separate Virginia income tax returns on a single form pursuant to subsection B or C, and:

1. If the sum of the payments by either spouse, including withheld and estimated taxes, exceeds the amount of the tax for which such spouse is separately liable, the excess may be applied by the Department to the credit of the other spouse if the sum of the payments by such other spouse, including withheld and estimated taxes, is less than the amount of the tax for which such other spouse is separately liable;

2. If the sum of the payments made by both spouses with respect to the taxes for which they are separately liable, including withheld and estimated taxes, exceeds the total of the taxes due, refund of the excess may be made payable to both spouses.

The provisions of this subsection shall not apply if the return of either spouse includes a demand that any overpayment made by him or her shall be applied only on account of his or her separate liability.

E. The return for any deceased individual shall be made and filed by his executor, administrator, or other person charged with his property.

F. The return for an individual who is unable to make a return by reason of minority or other disability shall be made and filed by his guardian, committee, fiduciary or other person charged with the care of his person or property (other than a receiver in possession of only a part of his property), or by his duly authorized agent.

Code 1950, § 58-151.062; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 827; 1978, c. 796; 1984, c. 675; 2008, c. 591.

§ 58.1-341.1. Returns of individuals; voter registration information.

For all taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1995, the Department of Taxation shall include in any packet of instructions and forms for individual income tax returns an application to register to vote by mail and appropriate instructions for the completion and mailing of the application to register to vote. The form of the application shall be prescribed and the instructions shall be provided by the State Board of Elections.

1994, c. 632.

§ 58.1-341.2. Returns of individuals; notification of tax return data breach.

A. As used in this section:

"Income tax return preparer" has the same meaning as in § 58.1-302.

"Return information" means a taxpayer's identity and the nature, source, or amount of his income, payments, receipts, deductions, exemptions, credits, assets, liabilities, net worth, tax liability, tax withheld, assessments, or tax payments. "Return information" does not include information that is lawfully obtained from publicly available information or from federal, state, or local government records lawfully made available to the general public.

"Signing income tax return preparer" means an income tax return preparer who has the primary responsibility for the overall substantive accuracy of the preparation of a return or claim for refund.

"Taxpayer identity" means the name of a person with respect to whom a return is to be filed and his taxpayer identification number as defined in 26 U.S.C. § 6109.

B. 1. Any signing income tax return preparer who prepares Virginia individual income tax returns during a calendar year shall notify the Department without unreasonable delay after the discovery or notification of unauthorized access and acquisition of unencrypted and unredacted return information that compromises the confidentiality of such information maintained by such signing income tax return preparer and that creates a reasonable belief that an unencrypted and unredacted version of such information was accessed and acquired by an unauthorized person and that causes, or such preparer reasonably believes has caused or will cause, identity theft or other fraud.

2. Such signing income tax return preparer shall provide the Department with the name and taxpayer identification number of any taxpayer that may be affected by a compromise in confidentiality that requires notification pursuant to subdivision 1, as well as the name of the signing income tax return preparer, his preparer tax identification number, and such other information as the Department may prescribe.

C. An income tax return preparer shall complete the notice required by this section on behalf of any of its employees who are signing income tax preparers and who would otherwise be required to notify the Department pursuant to subsection B.

2018, cc. 283, 360.

§ 58.1-342. Special cases in which nonresident need not file Virginia return.

A. A nonresident of Virginia who had no actual place of abode in this Commonwealth at any time during the taxable year and commuted on a daily basis from his place of residence in another state to his place of employment in Virginia is hereby relieved of filing an income tax return with this Commonwealth for that taxable year provided:

1. His only income from Virginia sources was from salaries and wages;

2. Such salaries and wages were subject to income taxation by the state of his residence under an income tax law substantially similar in principle to this chapter;

3. The laws of such other state contain a provision substantially similar in effect to that contained in § 58.1-332 and applicable to residents of Virginia; and

4. The laws of such other state accord like treatment to a resident of this Commonwealth who commuted on a daily basis from his place of residence in Virginia to his place of employment in such other state.

B. The Department may enter into reciprocal agreements with other states to exempt nonresidents from the Virginia income tax if such other states similarly exempt Virginia residents. Under such reciprocal agreements nonresidents are not required to pay tax or file a return with, nor be subject to withholding by, the reciprocating state on compensation paid in that state or on income distributed by a trust domiciled in that state.

Code 1950, § 58-151.063; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1982, c. 528; 1984, c. 675; 1998, c. 352.

§ 58.1-343. Place of filing.

A. Every resident who is required by this chapter to file a return shall file his return with the commissioner of the revenue for the county or city in which he resides, and every nonresident who is required by this chapter to file a return shall file his return with the commissioner of the revenue for the county or city in which all or a part of his income from Virginia sources was derived.

B. Every fiduciary required to file a return on behalf of an individual shall file such return with the commissioner of the revenue having jurisdiction in the county or city in which the fiduciary qualified or, if there has been no qualification in this Commonwealth, in the county or city in which such fiduciary resides, does business or has an office or wherein the beneficiary or any of them may reside, or with the Department if provided by regulation thereof.

Code 1950, § 58-151.064; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-344. Extension of time for filing returns.

A. In accordance with procedures established by the Tax Commissioner, any individual or fiduciary may elect an extension of time within which to file the income tax return required under this chapter to the date six months after such due date, provided that the estimated tax due is paid in accordance with the provisions of subsection B.

B. Any taxpayer desiring an extension of time in accordance with the provisions of subsection A shall, on or before the original due date for the filing of such return, in accordance with procedures established by the Tax Commissioner pay the full amount properly estimated as the balance of the tax due for the taxable year after giving effect to any estimated tax payments under § 58.1-491 and any tax credit under § 58.1-499. If any amount of the balance of the tax due is underestimated, interest at the rate prescribed in § 58.1-15 will be assessed on such amount from the original due date for filing of the income tax return to the date of payment. In addition to interest, if the underestimation of the balance of tax due exceeds 10 percent of the actual tax liability, there shall be added to the tax as a penalty an amount equal to two percent per month for each month or fraction thereof from the original due date for the filing of the income tax return to the date of payment.

C. If the return is not filed, or the full amount of the tax due is not paid, on or before the extended due date elected under subsection A, the penalty imposed by § 58.1-347 shall apply as if no extension had been granted.

D. An extension of time for filing returns of income is hereby granted to and including the first day of the seventh month following the close of the taxable year in the case of United States citizens residing or traveling outside the United States and Puerto Rico, including persons in the military or naval service on duty outside the United States and Puerto Rico.

In all such cases a statement must be attached to the return certifying that the taxpayer is the person for whom the return is made and that the taxpayer was outside the United States or Puerto Rico on the due date of the return.

E. Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, any taxpayer who qualifies for an automatic extension under subsection D of this section, and who expects to qualify for foreign income exclusion may, on or before the expiration of the first day of the seventh month, apply for an additional extension of time for filing returns of income for a period of 30 days after the date such taxpayer reasonably expects to qualify for such exclusion. Such extension may not be granted unless a similar request for extension has been made for filing the federal return. An approved copy of the federal extension must be attached to the return when filed.

F. 1. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the date for filing income tax returns and paying the tax due for the taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 1990, and before January 1, 1991, for members of the reserve components of the armed forces, as defined in 10 U.S.C. § 261, as amended, who on the original due date of such return were on active duty status, is hereby extended for a period of one year from the original due date of the return.

2. However, in the case of an individual who qualifies for a period of postponement under § 7508 of the Internal Revenue Code or an act of Congress relating to and defining "Desert Shield service" for purposes of the federal income tax, the deadline for filing income tax returns and paying the tax due shall be the date 15 days after the date on which the federal period of postponement terminates, if such date is greater than one year from the original due date of the return.

3. In all cases, an individual qualifying for an extension under either subdivision 1 or 2 of this subsection shall attach a statement to the return containing such information as may be prescribed by the Tax Commissioner.

G. 1. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the date for filing income tax returns and paying the tax due for the taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1995, and before January 1, 1997, for members of the Armed Forces of the United States, who on the original due date of such return were on active duty status serving in any part of the former Yugoslavia, including the air space above such location or any waters subject to related naval operations in support of Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR as part of the NATO Peace Keeping Force, is hereby extended for a period of one year from the original due date of the return.

2. However, in the case of an individual who qualifies for a period of postponement under § 7508 of the Internal Revenue Code for purposes of the federal income tax, the deadline for filing income tax returns and paying the tax due shall be the date 15 days after the date on which the federal period of postponement terminates, if such date is greater than one year from the original due date of the return.

3. In all cases, an individual qualifying for an extension under either subdivision 1 or 2 of this subsection shall attach a statement to the return containing such information as may be prescribed by the Tax Commissioner.

H. Any individual who receives an extension for filing an individual income tax return for taxable year 1990 pursuant to subsection F or for taxable year 1995 pursuant to subsection G of this section shall be paid interest on any overpayment of individual income tax for taxable year 1990 or 1995, respectively, beginning from the date the return was originally required to be filed prior to the extension.

Code 1950, § 58-151.067; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 827; 1976, c. 720; 1977, c. 244; 1978, c. 166; 1984, c. 675; 1991, cc. 346, 361, 362, 456; 1996, c. 401; 2005, c. 100.

§ 58.1-344.1. Postponement of time for performing certain acts.

Penalty, interest, and addition to tax shall not apply or be computed with respect to the tax imposed in Article 2 of this chapter during the period of time that an individual enjoys the extension under subdivision 2 of subsections F and G of § 58.1-344. The periods of limitation prescribed in Chapter 18 (§ 58.1-1800 et seq.) of this title shall also be extended by the number of days to which an individual is entitled to an extension under subdivision 2 of subsections F and G of § 58.1-344.

1991, cc. 346, 361; 1996, c. 401.

§ 58.1-344.2. Voluntary contributions; cost of administration.

For all voluntary contributions made on individual income tax returns for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2003, except those made pursuant to § 58.1-344.4, the Department of Taxation may retain up to five percent of all voluntary contributions made for the taxable year, but not to exceed $50,000 for any taxable year, for its costs in administering voluntary contributions. The amount otherwise payable to each organization for which a voluntary contribution has been designated shall be reduced on a pro rata basis in accordance with the amount of voluntary contributions designated to the specific organization in the previous taxable year as compared to the total of all voluntary contributions designated to organizations in the previous taxable year.

2002, cc. 395, 413; 2013, cc. 28, 402.

§ 58.1-344.3. Voluntary contributions of refunds requirements.

A. 1. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2005, all entities entitled to voluntary contributions of tax refunds listed in subsections B and C must have received at least $10,000 in contributions in each of the three previous taxable years for which there is complete data and in which such entity was listed on the individual income tax return.

2. In the event that an entity listed in subsections B and C does not satisfy the requirement in subdivision 1, such entity shall no longer be listed on the individual income tax return.

3. a. The entities listed in subdivisions B 21 and B 22 as well as any other entities in subsections B and C added subsequent to the 2004 Session of the General Assembly shall not appear on the individual income tax return until their addition to the individual income tax return results in a maximum of 25 contributions listed on the return. Such contributions shall be added in the order that they are listed in subsections B and C.

b. Each entity added to the income tax return shall appear on the return for at least three consecutive taxable years before the requirement in subdivision 1 is applied to such entity.

4. The Department of Taxation shall report annually by the first day of each General Assembly Regular Session to the chairmen of the House and Senate Finance Committees the amounts collected for each entity listed under subsections B and C for the three most recent taxable years for which there is complete data. Such report shall also identify the entities, if any, that will be removed from the individual income tax return because they have failed the requirements in subdivision 1, the entities that will remain on the individual income tax return, and the entities, if any, that will be added to the individual income tax return.

B. Subject to the provisions of subsection A, the following entities entitled to voluntary contributions shall appear on the individual income tax return and are eligible to receive tax refund contributions of not less than $1:

1. Nongame wildlife voluntary contribution.

a. All moneys contributed shall be used for the conservation and management of endangered species and other nongame wildlife. "Nongame wildlife" includes protected wildlife, endangered and threatened wildlife, aquatic wildlife, specialized habitat wildlife both terrestrial and aquatic, and mollusks, crustaceans, and other invertebrates under the jurisdiction of the Board of Game and Inland Fisheries.

b. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Game Protection Fund and which shall be accounted for as a separate part thereof to be designated as the Nongame Cash Fund. All moneys so deposited in the Nongame Cash Fund shall be used by the Commission of Game and Inland Fisheries for the purposes set forth herein.

2. Open space recreation and conservation voluntary contribution.

a. All moneys contributed shall be used by the Department of Conservation and Recreation to acquire land for recreational purposes and preserve natural areas; to develop, maintain, and improve state park sites and facilities; and to provide funds to local public bodies pursuant to the Virginia Outdoor Fund Grants Program.

b. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Open Space Recreation and Conservation Fund. The moneys in the fund shall be allocated one-half to the Department of Conservation and Recreation for the purposes stated in subdivision 2 a and one-half to local public bodies pursuant to the Virginia Outdoor Fund Grants Program.

3. Voluntary contribution to political party.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the State Central Committee of any party that meets the definition of a political party under § 24.2-101 as of July 1 of the previous taxable year. The maximum contribution allowable under this subdivision shall be $25. In the case of a joint return of husband and wife, each spouse may designate that the maximum contribution allowable be paid.

4. United States Olympic Committee voluntary contribution.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the United States Olympic Committee.

5. Housing program voluntary contribution.

a. All moneys contributed shall be used by the Department of Housing and Community Development to provide assistance for emergency, transitional, and permanent housing for the homeless; and to provide assistance to housing for the low-income elderly for the physically or mentally disabled.

b. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Virginia Tax Check-off for Housing Fund. All moneys deposited in the fund shall be used by the Department of Housing and Community Development for the purposes set forth in this subdivision. Funds made available to the Virginia Tax Check-off for Housing Fund may supplement but shall not supplant activities of the Virginia Housing Trust Fund established pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 36-141 et seq.) of Title 36 or those of the Virginia Housing Development Authority.

6. Voluntary contributions to the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services.

a. All moneys contributed shall be used by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services for the enhancement of transportation services for the elderly and disabled.

b. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Transportation Services for the Elderly and Disabled Fund. All moneys so deposited in the fund shall be used by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services for the enhancement of transportation services for the elderly and disabled. The Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services shall conduct an annual audit of the moneys received pursuant to this subdivision and shall provide an evaluation of all programs funded pursuant to this subdivision annually to the Secretary of Health and Human Resources.

7. Voluntary contribution to the Community Policing Fund.

a. All moneys contributed shall be used to provide grants to local law-enforcement agencies for the purchase of equipment or the support of services, as approved by the Criminal Justice Services Board, relating to community policing.

b. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Community Policing Fund. All moneys deposited in such fund shall be used by the Department of Criminal Justices Services for the purposes set forth herein.

8. Voluntary contribution to promote the arts.

All moneys contributed shall be used by the Virginia Arts Foundation to assist the Virginia Commission for the Arts in its statutory responsibility of promoting the arts in the Commonwealth. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Virginia Arts Foundation Fund.

9. Voluntary contribution to the Historic Resources Fund.

All moneys contributed shall be deposited in the Historic Resources Fund established pursuant to § 10.1-2202.1.

10. Voluntary contribution to the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and Public Policy.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and Public Policy. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Virginia Humanities Fund.

11. Voluntary contribution to the Center for Governmental Studies.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Center for Governmental Studies, a public service and research center of the University of Virginia. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Governmental Studies Fund.

12. Voluntary contribution to the Law and Economics Center.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Law and Economics Center, a public service and research center of George Mason University. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Law and Economics Fund.

13. Voluntary contribution to Children of America Finding Hope.

All moneys contributed shall be used by Children of America Finding Hope (CAFH) in its programs which are designed to reach children with emotional and physical needs.

14. Voluntary contribution to 4-H Educational Centers.

All moneys contributed shall be used by the 4-H Educational Centers throughout the Commonwealth for their (i) educational, leadership, and camping programs and (ii) operational and capital costs. The State Treasurer shall pay the moneys to the Virginia 4-H Foundation in Blacksburg, Virginia.

15. Voluntary contribution to promote organ and tissue donation.

a. All moneys contributed shall be used by the Virginia Transplant Council to assist in its statutory responsibility of promoting and coordinating educational and informational activities as related to the organ, tissue, and eye donation process and transplantation in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

b. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Virginia Donor Registry and Public Awareness Fund. All moneys deposited in such fund shall be used by the Virginia Transplant Council for the purposes set forth herein.

16. Voluntary contributions to the Virginia War Memorial division of the Department of Veterans Services and the National D-Day Memorial Foundation.

All moneys contributed shall be used by the Virginia War Memorial division of the Department of Veterans Services and the National D-Day Memorial Foundation in their work through each of their respective memorials. The State Treasurer shall divide the moneys into two equal portions and pay one portion to the Virginia War Memorial division of the Department of Veterans Services and the other portion to the National D-Day Memorial Foundation.

17. Voluntary contribution to the Virginia Federation of Humane Societies.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Virginia Federation of Humane Societies to assist in its mission of saving, caring for, and finding homes for homeless animals.

18. Voluntary contribution to the Tuition Assistance Grant Fund.

a. All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Tuition Assistance Grant Fund for use in providing monetary assistance to residents of the Commonwealth who are enrolled in undergraduate or graduate programs in private Virginia colleges.

b. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Tuition Assistance Grant Fund. All moneys so deposited in the Fund shall be administered by the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia in accordance with and for the purposes provided under the Tuition Assistance Grant Act (§ 23.1-628 et seq.).

19. Voluntary contribution to the Spay and Neuter Fund.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Spay and Neuter Fund for use by localities in the Commonwealth for providing low-cost spay and neuter surgeries through direct provision or contract or each locality may make the funds available to any private, nonprofit sterilization program for dogs and cats in such locality. The Tax Commissioner shall determine annually the total amounts designated on all returns from each locality in the Commonwealth, based upon the locality that each filer who makes a voluntary contribution to the Fund lists as his permanent address. The State Treasurer shall pay the appropriate amount to each respective locality.

20. Voluntary contribution to the Virginia Commission for the Arts.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Virginia Commission for the Arts.

21. Voluntary contribution for the Department of Emergency Management.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Department of Emergency Management.

22. Voluntary contribution for the cancer centers in the Commonwealth.

All moneys contributed shall be paid equally to all entities in the Commonwealth that officially have been designated as cancer centers by the National Cancer Institute.

23. Voluntary contribution to the Brown v. Board of Education Scholarship Program Fund.

a. All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Brown v. Board of Education Scholarship Program Fund to support the work of and generate nonstate funds to maintain the Brown v. Board of Education Scholarship Program.

b. All moneys shall be deposited into the Brown v. Board of Education Scholarship Program Fund as established in § 30-231.4.

c. All moneys so deposited in the Fund shall be administered by the State Council of Higher Education in accordance with and for the purposes provided in Chapter 34.1 (§ 30-231.01 et seq.) of Title 30.

24. Voluntary contribution to the Martin Luther King, Jr. Living History and Public Policy Center.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Board of Trustees of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Living History and Public Policy Center.

25. Voluntary contribution to the Virginia Caregivers Grant Fund.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Virginia Caregivers Grant Fund established pursuant to § 63.2-2202.

26. Voluntary contribution to public library foundations.

All moneys contributed pursuant to this subdivision shall be deposited into the state treasury. The Tax Commissioner shall determine annually the total amounts designated on all returns for each public library foundation and shall report the same to the State Treasurer. The State Treasurer shall pay the appropriate amount to the respective public library foundation.

27. Voluntary contribution to Celebrating Special Children, Inc.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to Celebrating Special Children, Inc. and shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Celebrating Special Children, Inc. Fund.

28. Voluntary contributions to the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services.

a. All moneys contributed shall be used by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services for providing Medicare Part D counseling to the elderly and disabled.

b. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Medicare Part D Counseling Fund. All moneys so deposited shall be used by the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services to provide counseling for the elderly and disabled concerning Medicare Part D. The Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services shall conduct an annual audit of the moneys received pursuant to this subdivision and shall provide an evaluation of all programs funded pursuant to the subdivision to the Secretary of Health and Human Resources.

29. Voluntary contribution to community foundations.

All moneys contributed pursuant to this subdivision shall be deposited into the state treasury. The Tax Commissioner shall determine annually the total amounts designated on all returns for each community foundation and shall report the same to the State Treasurer. The State Treasurer shall pay the appropriate amount to the respective community foundation. A "community foundation" shall be defined as any institution that meets the membership requirements for a community foundation established by the Council on Foundations.

30. Voluntary contribution to the Virginia Foundation for Community College Education.

a. All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Virginia Foundation for Community College Education for use in providing monetary assistance to Virginia residents who are enrolled in comprehensive community colleges in Virginia.

b. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Virginia Foundation for Community College Education Fund. All moneys so deposited in the Fund shall be administered by the Virginia Foundation for Community College Education in accordance with and for the purposes provided under the Community College Incentive Scholarship Program (former § 23-220.2 et seq.).

31. Voluntary contribution to the Middle Peninsula Chesapeake Bay Public Access Authority.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Middle Peninsula Chesapeake Bay Public Access Authority to be used for the purposes described in § 15.2-6601.

32. Voluntary contribution to the Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment Fund.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment Fund established pursuant to § 32.1-368.

33. Voluntary contribution to the Virginia Aquarium and Marine Science Center.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Virginia Aquarium and Marine Science Center for use in its mission to increase the public's knowledge and appreciation of Virginia's marine environment and inspire commitment to preserve its existence.

34. Voluntary contribution to the Virginia Capitol Preservation Foundation.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Virginia Capitol Preservation Foundation for use in its mission in supporting the ongoing restoration, preservation, and interpretation of the Virginia Capitol and Capitol Square.

35. Voluntary contribution for the Secretary of Veterans and Defense Affairs.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Office of the Secretary of Veterans and Defense Affairs for related programs and services.

C. Subject to the provisions of subsection A, the following voluntary contributions shall appear on the individual income tax return and are eligible to receive tax refund contributions or by making payment to the Department if the individual is not eligible to receive a tax refund pursuant to § 58.1-309 or if the amount of such tax refund is less than the amount of the voluntary contribution:

1. Voluntary contribution to the Family and Children's Trust Fund of Virginia.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Family and Children's Trust Fund of Virginia.

2. Voluntary Chesapeake Bay restoration contribution.

a. All moneys contributed shall be used to help fund Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries restoration activities in accordance with tributary plans developed pursuant to Article 7 (§ 2.2-215 et seq.) of Chapter 2 of Title 2.2 or the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Implementation Plan submitted by the Commonwealth of Virginia to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on November 29, 2010, and any subsequent revisions thereof.

b. The Tax Commissioner shall annually determine the total amount of voluntary contributions and shall report the same to the State Treasurer, who shall credit that amount to a special nonreverting fund to be administered by the Office of the Secretary of Natural Resources. All moneys so deposited shall be used for the purposes of providing grants for the implementation of tributary plans developed pursuant to Article 7 (§ 2.2-215 et seq.) of Chapter 2 of Title 2.2 or the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Implementation Plan submitted by the Commonwealth of Virginia to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on November 29, 2010, and any subsequent revisions thereof.

c. No later than November 1 of each year, the Secretary of Natural Resources shall submit a report to the House Committee on Agriculture, Chesapeake and Natural Resources; the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Conservation and Natural Resources; the House Committee on Appropriations; the Senate Committee on Finance; and the Virginia delegation to the Chesapeake Bay Commission, describing the grants awarded from moneys deposited in the fund. The report shall include a list of grant recipients, a description of the purpose of each grant, the amount received by each grant recipient, and an assessment of activities or initiatives supported by each grant. The report shall be posted on a website maintained by the Secretary of Natural Resources, along with a cumulative listing of previous grant awards beginning with awards granted on or after July 1, 2014.

3. Voluntary Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation Contribution.

All moneys contributed shall be used by the Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation for the Jamestown 2007 quadricentennial celebration. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Jamestown Quadricentennial Fund. This subdivision shall be effective for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2008.

4. State forests voluntary contribution.

a. All moneys contributed shall be used for the development and implementation of conservation and education initiatives in the state forests system.

b. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the State Forests System Fund, established pursuant to § 10.1-1119.1. All moneys so deposited in such fund shall be used by the State Forester for the purposes set forth herein.

5. Voluntary contributions to Uninsured Medical Catastrophe Fund.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Uninsured Medical Catastrophe Fund established pursuant to § 32.1-324.2, such funds to be used for the treatment of Virginians sustaining uninsured medical catastrophes.

6. Voluntary contribution to local school divisions.

a. All moneys contributed shall be used by a specified local public school foundation as created by and for the purposes stated in § 22.1-212.2:2.

b. All moneys collected pursuant to subdivision 6 a or through voluntary payments by taxpayers designated for a local public school foundation over refundable amounts shall be deposited into the state treasury. The Tax Commissioner shall determine annually the total amounts designated on all returns for each public school foundation and shall report the same to the State Treasurer. The State Treasurer shall pay the appropriate amount to the respective public school foundation.

c. In order for a public school foundation to be eligible to receive contributions under this section, school boards must notify the Department during the taxable year in which they want to participate prior to the deadlines and according to procedures established by the Tax Commissioner.

7. Voluntary contribution to Home Energy Assistance Fund.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Home Energy Assistance Fund established pursuant to § 63.2-805, such funds to be used to assist low-income Virginians in meeting seasonal residential energy needs.

8. Voluntary contribution to the Virginia Military Family Relief Fund.

a. All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Virginia Military Family Relief Fund for use in providing assistance to military service personnel on active duty and their families for living expenses including, but not limited to, food, housing, utilities, and medical services.

b. All moneys shall be deposited into a special fund known as the Virginia Military Family Relief Fund, established and administered pursuant to § 44-102.2.

9. Voluntary contribution to the Federation of Virginia Food Banks.

All moneys contributed shall be paid to the Federation of Virginia Food Banks, a Partner State Association of Feeding America. The Federation of Virginia Food Banks shall as soon as practicable make an equitable distribution of all such moneys to the Blue Ridge Area Food Bank, Capital Area Food Bank, Feeding America Southwest Virginia, FeedMore, Inc., Foodbank of Southeastern Virginia and the Eastern Shore, Fredericksburg Area Food Bank, or Virginia Peninsula Foodbank.

The Secretary of Finance may request records or receipts of all distributions by the Federation of Virginia Food Banks of such moneys contributed for purposes of ensuring compliance with the requirements of this subdivision.

D. Unless otherwise specified and subject to the requirements in § 58.1-344.2, all moneys collected for each entity in subsections B and C shall be deposited into the state treasury. The Tax Commissioner shall determine annually the total amount designated for each entity in subsections B and C on all individual income tax returns and shall report the same to the State Treasurer, who shall credit that amount to each entity's respective special fund.

2004, c. 649; 2005, cc. 860, 889; 2006, cc. 103, 479; 2007, cc. 69, 70, 601; 2008, cc. 97, 313, 461; 2009, cc. 4, 26, 41, 521, 834; 2010, c. 690; 2011, cc. 780, 858; 2012, cc. 803, 835; 2013, cc. 22, 234, 631, 754; 2014, cc. 18, 115, 182, 490; 2015, c. 70.

§ 58.1-344.4. Voluntary contributions of refunds into Virginia College Savings Plan accounts.

A. If an individual is entitled to an income tax refund for the taxable year, that individual may designate on his Virginia individual income tax return a contribution to one or more Virginia College Savings Plan accounts established under Chapter 7 (§ 23.1-700 et seq.) of Title 23.1, in the amount of the entire individual income tax refund or a portion thereof.

B. 1. The Department of Taxation shall send each contribution made pursuant to subsection A to the Virginia College Savings Plan with the following information:

a. The amount of the individual income tax refund or that portion of the refund that the individual has chosen to contribute;

b. The taxpayer's name, Social Security number or taxpayer identification number, address, and telephone number; and

c. The Virginia College Savings Plan account number or numbers into which the contributions will be deposited.

2. If a contribution to a Virginia College Savings Plan account is designated in an individual income tax return filed jointly by a husband and wife, the Department of Taxation shall send the information described in subdivision 1 for both the husband and wife to the Virginia College Savings Plan.

C. 1. If the taxpayer owns a single Virginia College Savings Plan account, the Virginia College Savings Plan shall deposit the contribution made pursuant to subsection A into that account.

2. If the taxpayer owns more than one Virginia College Savings Plan account, the Virginia College Savings Plan shall allocate the contribution made pursuant to subsection A between or among the accounts in equal amounts, or as otherwise designated by the taxpayer.

3. If the taxpayer does not own an existing Virginia College Savings Plan account and does not wish to open an account, contributions made pursuant to subsection A shall be returned to the taxpayer by the Virginia College Savings Plan.

D. For the purpose of determining interest on an overpayment or refund under § 58.1-1833, no interest shall accrue after the Department of Taxation sends the contribution to the Virginia College Savings Plan.

E. Any taxpayer designating that a refund be contributed to a Virginia College Savings Plan account shall, by making such designation, be deemed to authorize the Department of Taxation to provide all necessary information, including the information specified in subdivision B 1, to the Virginia College Savings Plan.

2013, cc. 28, 402.

§ 58.1-345. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2005, cc. 860 and 889, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-346.1. Expired.

Expired.

§ 58.1-346.1:1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2005, cc. 860 and 889, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-346.2. Expired.

Expired.

§ 58.1-346.2:1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2005, cc. 860 and 889, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-346.3. Expired.

Expired.

§ 58.1-346.3:1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2005, cc. 860 and 889, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-346.4. Expired.

Expired.

§ 58.1-346.4:1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2005, cc. 860 and 889, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-347. Penalty for failure to file income tax returns in time.

All individual or fiduciary income tax returns required by law to be filed with the commissioner of the revenue shall be filed with the commissioner of the revenue within the time required by this chapter, unless the time for filing such returns is extended by the Department. Upon all returns on which tax is due, filed with or assessed by the commissioner of the revenue after the time herein prescribed for the filing of returns, the commissioner of the revenue shall assess a penalty equal to six percent of the amount of taxes assessable thereon if the failure is for not more than one month, with an additional six percent for each additional month or fraction thereof during which such failure to file continues, not exceeding thirty percent in the aggregate. Such penalty shall be collected in the same manner as is provided by law for the collection of other taxes.

Code 1950, § 58-151.073; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1974, c. 178; 1984, c. 675; 1989, cc. 629, 642; 1991, cc. 316, 331.

§ 58.1-348. Criminal prosecution for failure or refusal to file return of income or for making false statement therein; limitation.

Notwithstanding any other provisions of this title and in addition to any other penalties provided by law, any individual or fiduciary required under this chapter to make a return of income, who willfully fails or refuses to make such return, at the time or times required by law, shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor, or who, with intent to defraud the Commonwealth, makes any false statement in any such return, shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony. A prosecution under this section shall be commenced within five years next after the commission of the offense.

Code 1950, § 58-151.074; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 246; 1984, c. 675; 2003, c. 180.

§ 58.1-348.1. Fraudulent assistance; penalty.

Any income tax return preparer, as defined in § 58.1-302, who knowingly and willfully aids or assists in, counsels or advises the preparation or presentation of a return, affidavit, claim or other document required by this chapter that he knows is fraudulent or false as to any material matter, is guilty of a Class 6 felony.

2005, c. 48.

§ 58.1-348.2. Authority to enjoin income tax return preparers.

A. The Department may commence a civil action to enjoin any person who is an income tax return preparer from further engaging in any conduct described in subsection B or from further action as an income tax return preparer. The venue for any action under this section shall be brought in the circuit court in the circuit where the income tax return preparer resides or has his principal place of business or in the jurisdiction in which the taxpayer with respect to whose income tax return the action is brought resides. The court may exercise its jurisdiction over such action separate and apart from any other administrative or judicial action brought by the Commonwealth against such income tax return preparer or any taxpayer.

B. In any action under subsection A, the court may enjoin the income tax return preparer from further engaging in any conduct specified in this subsection if the court finds that injunctive relief is appropriate to prevent the recurrence of such conduct. The court may enjoin conduct when an income tax return preparer has:

1. Engaged in any conduct subject to penalty under § 6694 or 6695 of the Internal Revenue Code, or subject to any criminal penalty provided by the Internal Revenue Code or this title; or

2. Engaged in any other fraudulent or deceptive conduct that substantially interferes with the proper administration of the tax laws of the Commonwealth.

C. If the court finds that an income tax return preparer has continually or repeatedly engaged in any conduct described in subsection B and that an injunction prohibiting such conduct would not be sufficient to prevent such person's interference with the proper administration of the tax laws of the Commonwealth, the court may enjoin such person from acting as an income tax return preparer. The fact that that person has been enjoined from preparing income tax returns for the United States or any other state in the five years preceding the petition for an injunction shall establish a prima facie case for an injunction under this section.

D. 1. The Department may bar or suspend any income tax return preparer, without resort to the injunctive remedies described in this section, from filing returns with the Department for repeated violations of § 58.1-348.4. Such disbarment or suspension shall be subject to appeal pursuant to the procedures described in subdivision D 2.

2. a. Any income tax preparer barred or suspended pursuant to subdivision D 1 may, within 30 days from the date of such barring or suspension, apply for relief to the Commissioner or appeal directly to the Circuit Court of the City of Richmond. Such application shall be in the form prescribed by the Department, and shall fully set forth the grounds upon which the tax preparer relies and all facts relevant to the tax preparer's contention. The Commissioner may also require such additional information, testimony, or documentary evidence as he deems necessary to a fair determination of the application.

b. Any income tax preparer barred or suspended against whom an order or decision of the Commissioner has been adversely rendered pursuant to subdivision D 2 a may, within fifteen days of such order or decision, appeal from such order or decision to the Circuit Court of the City of Richmond.

c. Any income tax preparer barred or suspended shall not file any Virginia income tax returns pending application for relief to the Commissioner and appeal to the Circuit Court of the City of Richmond.

2005, c. 48; 2018, c. 150.

§ 58.1-348.3. Requirement that income tax return preparers use identification numbers.

A. As used in this section, "PTIN" means the Preparer Tax Identification Number that the Internal Revenue Service uses to identify tax return preparers pursuant to 26 U.S.C. § 6109.

B. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, the Department shall require any income tax return preparer to include his PTIN on any tax return that he prepares or assists in preparing.

C. The Department shall promulgate regulations for using the PTIN as an oversight mechanism to assess returns and to identify high error rates, patterns of suspected fraud, and unsubstantiated bases for tax positions by income tax return preparers.

D. 1. The Department shall establish formal and regular communication protocols with the Internal Revenue Service to share and exchange PTIN information on income tax return preparers who are suspected of fraud, who are disciplined, or who are barred from filing tax returns with the Department or the Internal Revenue Service.

2. The Department may establish communication protocols with other states to exchange the enforcement and discipline information described in subdivision D 1.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 58.1-3 or any other provision of this title, the Department is authorized to provide to the Internal Revenue Service and other state tax or revenue agencies for their confidential use preparer and return data, including PTIN information, taxpayer names, taxpayer identification numbers, and other information as necessary to enforce the provisions of this section and §§ 58.1-348.2 and 58.1-348.4.

E. The failure of an income tax return preparer to include his PTIN on a tax return shall not be used by the Department as a basis for rejecting such return as improperly filed.

2018, c. 150.

§ 58.1-348.4. Failure to provide identification number; civil penalty.

A. No income tax return preparer may provide tax preparation services for Virginia income tax returns unless he provides his PTIN, as defined in § 58.1-348.3, when submitting a return and signing as an income tax return preparer.

B. In addition to all other penalties provided by law, any person who violates subsection A shall pay a civil penalty to the Department in the amount of $50 per offense, but not to exceed $25,000 per calendar year. No penalty shall be imposed if the violation is reasonable and unintentional as determined by the Department.

2018, c. 150.

§ 58.1-349. Information returns prima facie evidence.

In any prosecution under § 58.1-348, any information return filed with the Department of Taxation or with the local commissioners of the revenue, as required by this chapter, may be admitted in evidence in any court in the Commonwealth as prima facie evidence of what is stated in said return.

Code 1950, § 58-151.075; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-350. Procuring returns from delinquent individuals or fiduciaries.

The commissioner of the revenue shall secure a return from every delinquent individual or fiduciary within his jurisdiction, or if any such individual or fiduciary refuses to make a return or fails to make such return for fifteen days after the commissioner of the revenue calls upon him to do so, such commissioner shall, from the best information he can obtain, make an estimate of the income of such individual or fiduciary and report the same to the Department.

The commissioner of the revenue shall have authority to assess taxes, penalties and interest upon such estimate, and such taxes, penalties and interest shall be collected in like manner as is provided by law for the collection of state taxes.

Code 1950, § 58-151.076; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-351. When, where and how individual income taxes payable and collectible.

Each individual and fiduciary liable for income tax shall pay the same to the treasurer of the county or city with whose commissioner of the revenue the taxpayer files his return at the time fixed by law for filing the return. The full amount of the tax payable as shown on the face of the return shall be so paid. A taxpayer may file his return and pay his tax in full in the closing days of his taxable year provided he is able to prepare a complete return.

If any payment is not made in full when due, there shall be added to the entire tax or to any unpaid balance of the tax, a penalty of six percent of the amount thereof, if the failure is for not more than one month, with an additional six percent for each additional month or fraction thereof during which such failure to pay continues, not exceeding thirty percent in the aggregate. The entire tax or any unpaid balance of the tax, together with such penalty, will immediately become collectible. Interest upon such tax or any unpaid balance of the tax, and on the accrued penalty, shall be added at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the date the tax or any unpaid balance of the tax, was originally due until paid. In the case of an additional tax assessed by the commissioner of the revenue under the provisions of § 58.1-307, if the return was made in good faith and the understatement of the amount in the return was not due to any fault of the taxpayer, there shall be no penalty on the additional tax because of such understatement, but interest shall be added to the amount of the deficiency at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the time the said return was required by law to be filed until paid.

The penalty under this section shall not be applicable to any month or fraction thereof for which the individual is subject to the penalty imposed under § 58.1-347. In no event shall the total amount of penalty assessed under this section and under § 58.1-347 exceed thirty percent in the aggregate.

Code 1950, § 58-151.077; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 396; 1984, c. 675; 1989, cc. 629, 642; 1991, cc. 316, 331.

§ 58.1-352. Memorandum assessments.

The commissioner of the revenue shall prepare a memorandum assessment if the taxpayer, on filing his return, desires to pay in currency. Such memorandum shall be prepared on a form to be prescribed and furnished by the Department and a copy of such memorandum assessment shall be immediately certified to the treasurer, who shall receive the currency or coin from the taxpayer and give his receipt therefor. Memorandum assessments shall be subsequently entered by the commissioner of the revenue on the prescribed assessment sheets or forms, and the Department may prescribe and furnish forms for making memorandum assessments in all additional cases in which, in the opinion of the Department, the same may be necessary to facilitate the assessment and collection of individual and fiduciary income taxes.

Code 1950, § 58-151.077; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 396; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-353. Duties of county and city treasurer in collecting tax.

Each county and city treasurer shall proceed promptly to collect all individual and fiduciary income taxes for the taxable year that have been assessed by the commissioner of the revenue and remain unpaid after the time fixed by law for payment and shall continue his efforts so to collect until the close of the then current calendar year. The collection of such taxes shall be enforced by legal process, as provided in § 58.1-3919, and all remedies available to the treasurer for the collection of other taxes shall apply to the collection of individual and fiduciary income taxes. Forms of necessary tax bills and receipts shall be prescribed by the Department.

Within thirty-one days after the close of such calendar year, the treasurer shall transmit to the Department in such form as the Department may prescribe such information and data as may be required by such Department with respect to all assessments made by the commissioner of the revenue during such calendar year as the treasurer was unable to collect. The Department, upon receiving and examining the same, shall certify to the Comptroller the necessary information to enable the Comptroller to give such treasurer proper credit on the Comptroller's books for all unpaid items, and such treasurer shall not receive any of such taxes after he has transmitted such information and data to the Department, but the same shall be paid directly into the state treasury.

Code 1950, § 58-151.077; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 396; 1984, c. 675; 1986, c. 267.

§ 58.1-354. Separate individual income assessment sheets or forms; how kept.

The assessment of individual income taxes shall be made on separate sheets or forms to be prescribed by the Department, all copies of which shall be kept by the commissioner of the revenue, the treasurer and the Department, respectively, in such manner as shall preclude inspection by unauthorized persons.

Code 1950, § 58-151.099; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 565; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-355. Income taxes of members of armed services on death.

The provisions of § 692(a) and (c) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, shall be applicable in the same manner for purposes of the tax imposed in Article 2 of this chapter.

1991, cc. 346, 361.

Article 6. Taxation of Estates and Trusts.

§ 58.1-360. Imposition of tax.

A tax is hereby annually imposed, at the rates prescribed by § 58.1-320 for individuals, on the Virginia taxable income for each taxable year of every estate and trust.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.03, 58-151.021; 1971 Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 310; 1978, cc. 159, 796; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-361. Virginia taxable income of a resident estate or trust.

A. The Virginia taxable income of a resident estate or trust means its federal taxable income for the taxable year to which there shall be added or subtracted, as the case may be, the share of the estate or trust in the Virginia fiduciary adjustment determined under subsection B.

B. The respective shares of an estate or trust and its beneficiaries (including, solely for the purpose of this allocation, nonresident beneficiaries) in the Virginia fiduciary adjustment shall be in proportion to their respective shares of distributable net income of the estate or trust. If the estate or trust has no distributable net income for the taxable year, the share of each beneficiary in the Virginia fiduciary adjustment shall be in proportion to his share of the estate or trust income for such year, under local law or the governing instrument, which is required to be distributed currently and any other amounts of such income distributed in such year. Any balance of the Virginia fiduciary adjustment shall be allocated to the estate or trust.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.022, 58-151.023; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 827; 1973, c. 198; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-362. Virginia taxable income of a nonresident estate or trust.

The Virginia taxable income of a nonresident estate or trust shall be its share of income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to Virginia sources as determined under § 58.1-363 increased or reduced, as the case may be, by:

1. The amount derived from or connected with Virginia sources of any income, gain, loss and deduction recognized for federal income tax purposes but excluded from the computation of distributable net income of the estate or trust; and

2. The net amount of any modifications as provided for in §§ 58.1-322.01, 58.1-322.02, and 58.1-322.04 with respect to the income or gain referred to in subdivision 1 of this section.

Code 1950, § 58-151.024; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 827; 1984, c. 675; 2017, c. 444.

§ 58.1-363. Share of a nonresident estate, trust, or beneficiary in income from Virginia sources.

A. The share of a nonresident estate or trust under § 58.1-362 and the share of a nonresident beneficiary of any estate or trust under provisions otherwise applicable to nonresident individuals in estate or trust income or loss attributable to Virginia sources shall be determined as follows:

1. There shall be determined the items of income, gain, loss and deduction derived from Virginia sources, which enter into the computation of distributable net income of the estate or trust for the taxable year (including such items from another estate or trust of which the first estate or trust is a beneficiary).

2. There shall be added or subtracted (as the case may be) the modifications described in §§ 58.1-322.01, 58.1-322.02, 58.1-322.03, and 58.1-322.04 to the extent relating to items of income, gain, loss and deduction derived from Virginia sources which enter into the computation of distributable net income (including all such items from another estate or trust of which the first estate or trust is a beneficiary). No modification shall be made under this subsection which has the effect of duplicating an item already reflected in the computation of distributable net income.

3. The amounts determined under subdivisions 1 and 2 shall be allocated among the estate or trust and its beneficiaries (including, solely for the purposes of this allocation, resident beneficiaries) in proportion to their respective shares of distributable net income. The amounts so allocated shall have the same character under this article as under the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes. Where an item entering into the computation of such amounts is not characterized by such laws, it shall have the same character as if realized directly from the source from which realized by the estate or trust, or incurred in the same manner as incurred by the estate or trust.

B. If the estate or trust has no distributable net income for the taxable year, the share of each beneficiary (including, solely for the purpose of such allocation, resident beneficiaries) in the net amount determined under subdivisions A 1 and 2 shall be in proportion to his share of the estate or trust income for such year, under local law or the governing instrument, which is required to be distributed currently and any other amounts of such income distributed in such year. Any balance of such net amount shall be allocated to the estate or trust.

Code 1950, § 58-151.025; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 2017, c. 444.

Article 7. Tax Credits for Estates and Trusts.

§ 58.1-370. Credit to trust beneficiary receiving accumulation distribution.

A. A beneficiary of a trust whose Virginia taxable income includes all or part of an accumulation distribution by such trust, as defined in the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes, shall be allowed a credit against the tax otherwise due under this chapter for all or a proportionate part of any tax paid by the trust under this chapter which would not have been payable if the trust had in fact made distributions to its beneficiaries at the times and in the amounts specified in the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes.

B. The credit under this section shall not reduce the tax otherwise due from the beneficiary under this chapter to an amount less than would have been due if the accumulation distribution or his part thereof were excluded from his Virginia taxable income.

Code 1950, § 58-151.026; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-371. Credits for taxes paid other states.

The provisions of § 58.1-332 shall be applicable mutatis mutandis to trusts and estates.

Code 1950, § 58-151.027; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

Article 8. Accounting, Returns, Procedures for Estates and Trusts.

§ 58.1-380. Accounting.

A. An estate and trust taxable year under this chapter shall be the same as its taxable year for federal income tax purposes.

B. If a taxpayer's taxable year is changed for federal income tax purposes, its taxable year for purposes of this chapter shall be similarly changed. If a taxable year of less than twelve months results from a change of taxable year, the Virginia taxable income shall be prorated under regulations of the Department.

C. A taxpayer's method of accounting under this chapter shall be the same as its method of accounting for federal income tax purposes. In the absence of any method of accounting for federal income tax purposes, Virginia taxable income shall be computed under such method as in the opinion of the Tax Commissioner clearly reflects income.

D. If a taxpayer's method of accounting is changed for federal income tax purposes, its method of accounting for purposes of this chapter shall be similarly changed. If a taxpayer's method of accounting is changed, other than from an accrual to an installment method, any additional tax which results from adjustments determined to be necessary solely by reason of the change shall not be greater than if such adjustments were ratably allocated and included for the taxable year of the change and the preceding taxable years, not in excess of two, during which the taxpayer used the method of accounting from which the change is made. If a taxpayer's method of accounting is changed from an accrual to an installment method, any additional tax for the year of such change of method and for any subsequent year which is attributable to the receipt of installment payments properly accrued in a prior year, shall be reduced by the portion of tax for any prior taxable year attributable to the accrual of such installment payments, in accordance with regulations of the Department.

E. In computing a taxpayer's Virginia taxable income for any taxable year under a method of accounting different from the method under which the taxpayer's Virginia taxable income was computed, there shall be taken into account those adjustments which are determined, under regulations prescribed by the Department of Taxation, to be necessary solely by reason of change in order to prevent amounts from being duplicated or omitted.

F. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, any accounting adjustments made for federal income tax purposes for any taxable year shall be applied in computing the taxpayer's taxable income for such year.

Code 1950, § 58-151.061; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-381. Returns of estates and trusts.

A. On or before May 1 of each year if the taxable year is a calendar year, or on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of a taxable year other than a calendar year, an income tax return under this chapter shall be made and filed by or for:

1. Every resident estate or trust required to file a federal income tax return for the taxable year, or having any Virginia taxable income for the taxable year. If the return is for a fractional part of a year, the due date shall be determined as if the return were for a full twelve-month period;

2. Every nonresident estate or trust having Virginia taxable income for the taxable year determined under § 58.1-362.

B. The return for any deceased individual shall be made and filed by his executor, administrator, or other person charged with his property.

C. The return for an estate or trust shall be made and filed by the fiduciary.

D. If two or more fiduciaries are acting jointly, the return may be made by any one of them.

Code 1950, § 58-151.062; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 827; 1978, c. 796; 1984, c. 675; 1985, c. 221.

§ 58.1-382. Place of filing.

Every fiduciary required to file a return on behalf of an estate or trust shall file such return with the commissioner of the revenue having jurisdiction in the county or city in which the fiduciary qualified or, if there has been no qualification in this Commonwealth, in the county or city in which such fiduciary resides, does business or has an office or wherein the beneficiary or any of them may reside, or with the Department if provided by regulation thereof.

Code 1950, § 58-151.064; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-383. Extension of time for filing returns.

The provisions of § 58.1-344 shall be applicable to the extension of time for filing returns by a fiduciary on behalf of an estate or trust.

1984, c. 675.

Article 9. Taxation of Partnerships.

§ 58.1-390. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3, effective September 1, 2004.

§ 58.1-390.1. Definitions.

The following words and terms, when used in this article, shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Owner" means any individual or entity who is treated as a partner, member, or shareholder of a pass-through entity for federal income tax purposes.

"Pass-through entity" means any entity, including a limited partnership, a limited liability partnership, a general partnership, a limited liability company, a professional limited liability company, a business trust or a Subchapter S corporation, that is recognized as a separate entity for federal income tax purposes, in which the partners, members or shareholders report their share of the income, gains, losses, deductions and credits from the entity on their federal income tax returns.

2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3.

§ 58.1-390.2. Taxation of pass-through entities.

Except as provided for in this article, owners of pass-through entities shall be liable for tax under this chapter only in their separate or individual capacities on income passed through to the owners of pass-through entities. Any taxes imposed on the pass-through entity itself, such as, but not limited to, sales and use taxes, withholding taxes with respect to employees or nonresident owners, and minimum taxes in lieu of income taxes, shall be paid by the pass-through entity.

2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2009, cc. 37, 152.

§ 58.1-391. Virginia taxable income of owners of a pass-through entity.

A. In determining Virginia taxable income of an owner, any modification described in §§ 58.1-322.01, 58.1-322.02, 58.1-322.03, and 58.1-322.04 that relates to an item of pass-through entity income, gain, loss or deduction shall be made in accordance with the owner's distributive share, for federal income tax purposes, of the item to which the modification relates. Where an owner's distributive share of any such item is not included in any category of income, gain, loss or deduction required to be taken into account separately for federal income tax purposes, the owner's distributive share of such item shall be determined in accordance with his distributive share, for federal income tax purposes, of pass-through entity taxable income or loss.

B. Each item of pass-through entity income, gain, loss or deduction shall have the same character for an owner under this chapter as for federal income tax purposes. Where an item is not characterized for federal income tax purposes, it shall have the same character for an owner as if realized directly from the source from which realized by the pass-through entity or incurred in the same manner by the pass-through entity.

C. Where an owner's distributive shares of an item of pass-through entity income, gain, loss or deduction is determined for federal income tax purposes by special provision in the pass-through entity agreement with respect to such item, and where the principal purpose of such provision is the avoidance or evasion of tax under this chapter, the owner's distributive share of such item, and any modification required with respect thereto, shall be determined as if the pass-through entity agreement made no special provision with respect to such item.

Code 1950, § 58-151.014; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2017, c. 444.

§ 58.1-392. Reports by pass-through entities.

A. Every pass-through entity doing business in Virginia, or having income from Virginia sources, shall make a return to the Department of Taxation on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of its taxable year. Such returns shall be made and filed in the manner prescribed by the Department.

B. The return of a pass-through entity shall be signed by any one of the owners. An owner's name signed on the return shall be prima facie evidence that such owner is authorized to sign the return on behalf of the pass-through entity.

C. The Tax Commissioner may establish an income threshold for the filing of returns by pass-through entities and their owners. Pass-through entities and owners with income below this threshold shall not be required to file a return.

D. Receivers, trustees in dissolution, trustees in bankruptcy, and assignees operating the property or business of pass-through entities must make and file returns of income for such pass-through entities. If a receiver has full custody of and control over the business or property of a pass-through entity, he shall be deemed to be operating such business or property, whether he is engaged in carrying on the business for which the pass-through entity was organized or only in marshaling, selling, or disposing of its assets for purposes of liquidation.

E. Pass-through entities may be required to file the return using an electronic medium prescribed by the Tax Commissioner. The Tax Commissioner shall establish a minimum number of owners for the electronic filing requirement. Waivers shall be granted only if the Tax Commissioner finds that the requirement creates an unreasonable burden on the pass-through entity. All requests for waivers must be submitted to the Tax Commissioner in writing. A pass-through entity that has fewer than the established minimum number of owners may, at such pass-through entity's option, file such annual return on such prescribed electronic medium in lieu of filing the annual return on paper.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.078, 58-151.084; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 465; 1984, c. 675; 1988, c. 249; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3.

§ 58.1-393. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, c. 249.

§ 58.1-393.1. Extension of time for filing return by pass-through entity.

A. In accordance with procedures established by the Tax Commissioner, any pass-through entity may elect an extension of time within which to file the report or return required by this article to the date six months after such due date, or 30 days after the extended date for filing the federal report, whichever is later.

B. If the return is not filed on or before the extended due date elected under subsection A, the penalty imposed by § 58.1-394.1 shall apply as if no extension had been granted.

2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2005, c. 100.

§ 58.1-394. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3, effective September 1, 2004.

§ 58.1-394.1. Failure of pass-through entity to make a return.

A. Any pass-through entity that fails to file a return required by this article within the time required shall be liable for a penalty of $200 if the failure is for not more than one month, with an additional $200 for each additional month or fraction thereof during which such failure to file continues, not exceeding six months in the aggregate. In no case, however, shall the penalty be less than $200.

B. If any pass-through entity's failure to file a return required by this article exceeds six months, the Department shall assess a penalty of six percent of the total amount of Virginia taxable income derived by its owners from the pass-through entity for the taxable year. The Department may determine such penalty from any information in its possession. The penalty assessed pursuant to this subsection shall be reduced by the penalty assessed pursuant to subsection A and any tax paid by the owners on their share of income from the pass-through entity for the taxable year.

C. The penalties set forth in this subsection shall be assessed and collected by the Department in the manner provided for the assessment and collection of taxes under this chapter or in a civil action, at the instance of the Department. In addition, such pass-through entity shall be compellable by mandamus to file such return.

2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3.

§ 58.1-394.2. Fraudulent returns, etc., of pass-through entities; penalty.

A. Any officer or owner of any pass-through entity who makes a fraudulent return or statement with the intent of assisting or facilitating the evasion of the payment of the taxes prescribed by this chapter by the pass-through entity or an owner shall be liable for a penalty of not more than $1,000, to be assessed and collected in the manner provided for the assessment and collection of taxes under this chapter or in a civil action, at the instance of the Department.

B. In addition to other penalties provided by law, any officer or owner of a pass-through entity who makes a fraudulent return or statement with the intent of assisting or facilitating the evasion of the payment of the taxes prescribed by this chapter by the pass-through entity or an owner, or who willfully fails or refuses to make a return required by this chapter at the time or times required by law shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. A prosecution under this section shall be commenced within five years next after the commission of the offense.

2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3.

§ 58.1-394.3. Pass-through entity items.

A. The period for assessing any tax imposed by this chapter that is attributable to any pass-through entity item with respect to any owner of a pass-through entity shall not expire before the date that is three years after the later of (i) the last day for filing the pass-through entity return for the taxable year of the pass-through entity, as extended, or (ii) the date on which the pass-through entity return for such taxable year was filed.

B. The period for assessing any tax, as provided in subsection A, may be extended pursuant to agreement under § 58.1-101 or 58.1-220 between the Department and the owner who signed the pass-through entity return or any other owner or person authorized to sign the pass-through entity return.

C. The Tax Commissioner shall mail to each owner whose name and address have been provided by the pass-through entity notice of the beginning of an administrative proceeding at the pass-through entity level with respect to a pass-through entity item, and the final pass-through entity administrative adjustment resulting from any such proceeding. The Tax Commissioner shall not be required to mail notices to any owner with less than a one-percent interest in the profits of the pass-through entity if such entity has more than 100 owners.

D. In any administrative proceeding under § 58.1-1821 in which the taxation of pass-through entity items is an issue, the pass-through entity shall be permitted to participate in the proceeding. In addition, the Department may consolidate proceedings involving more than one taxpayer when the same pass-through items are in issue.

E. The provisions of this section shall apply to any tax attributable to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, credit, or other tax attribute that is recognized or reportable by the pass-through entity and that is required to be reported by the owner of the pass-through entity pursuant to § 58.1-391 or other sections of this chapter.

2008, c. 549.

§ 58.1-395. Nonresident owners.

Pass-through entities may make written application to the Tax Commissioner for permission to file a statement of combined pass-through entity income attributable to nonresident owners and thereby relieve nonresident owners from filing individual nonresident returns. The application must state the reasons for seeking such permission. The Tax Commissioner, in his sole discretion, may, for good cause, grant permission to file a combined nonresident return upon such terms as he may determine.

2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3.

Article 10. Taxation of Corporations.

§ 58.1-400. Imposition of tax.

A tax at the rate of six percent is hereby annually imposed on the Virginia taxable income for each taxable year of every corporation organized under the laws of the Commonwealth and every foreign corporation having income from Virginia sources.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.03, 58-151.031; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, cc. 310, 563; 1978, cc. 159, 796; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-400.1. Minimum tax on telecommunications companies.

A. A telecommunications company that is incorporated shall be subject to a minimum tax, instead of the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400, at the applicable rate on its gross receipts for the calendar year which ends during the taxable year if the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 is less than the minimum tax imposed by this section. A telecommunications company that is organized as a limited liability company, partnership, corporation that has made an election under subchapter S of the Internal Revenue Code, or other entity treated as a pass-through entity shall be subject to the minimum tax in the manner prescribed by regulation.

The minimum tax shall be imposed at the rate of 0.5 percent of gross receipts.

B. In the case of an income tax return for a period of less than twelve months, the minimum tax shall be based on the gross receipts for the calendar year which ends during the taxable period or, if none, the most recent calendar year which ended before the taxable period. The minimum tax shall be prorated by the number of months in the taxable period.

C. The State Corporation Commission shall certify to the Department for each tax year as defined in § 58.1-2600 the name, address, and gross receipts for each telecommunications company. The Commission shall mail or otherwise deliver a copy of the certification to each affected telecommunications company.

D. The following words and terms, when used in this section, shall have the following meanings:

"Gross receipts" means all revenue from business done within the Commonwealth, including the proportionate part of interstate revenue attributable to the Commonwealth if such inclusion will result in annual gross receipts exceeding $5 million, with the following deductions:

1. Revenue billed on behalf of another such telephone company or person to the extent such revenues are later paid over to or settled with that company or person; and

2. Revenues received from a telecommunications company, or from a telephone utility company providing interstate communications service, for providing to the company any of the following: (i) unbundled network facilities, (ii) completion, origination or interconnection of telephone calls with the taxpayer's network, (iii) transport of telephone calls over taxpayer's network, or (iv) taxpayer's telephone services for resale.

"Telecommunications company" means a telephone company or other person holding a certificate of convenience and necessity granted by the State Corporation Commission authorizing telephone service; or a person authorized by the Federal Communications Commission to provide commercial mobile service as defined in § 332(d)(1) of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, where such service includes cellular mobile radio communications services or broadband personal communications services; or a person holding a certificate issued pursuant to § 214 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, authorizing domestic telephone service and belonging to an affiliated group including a person holding a certificate of convenience and necessity granted by the State Corporation Commission authorizing telephone service; or a telegraph company or other person operating the apparatus necessary to communicate by telegraph. The term "affiliated group" shall have the meaning given in § 58.1-3700.1.

1988, c. 899; 1995, c. 507; 1998, c. 897; 2000, c. 368; 2009, cc. 37, 152.

§ 58.1-400.2. Taxation of electric suppliers, pipeline distribution companies, gas utilities, and gas suppliers.

A. Any electric supplier, pipeline distribution company, gas utility, or gas supplier that is subject to income tax pursuant to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, except those organized as cooperatives and exempt from federal taxation under § 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, shall be subject to the tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-400.

B. Any electric supplier that operates as a cooperative and is exempt from income tax pursuant to § 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, shall be subject to tax at the tax rate set forth in § 58.1-400 on all modified net income derived from nonmember sales. Any gas supplier, pipeline distribution company or gas utility which has a taxable year that begins after January 1, 2001, but before January 1, 2002, shall also be subject to the provisions under subsection E.

C. The following words and terms when used in this section shall have the following meanings:

"Electric supplier" means any corporation, cooperative, partnership or other business entity providing electric service.

"Electricity" is deemed tangible personal property for purposes of the corporate income tax pursuant to this article.

"Gas supplier" means any person licensed by the State Corporation Commission to engage in the business of selling natural gas.

"Gas utility" has the same meaning as provided in § 56-235.8.

"Members" means those customers of a cooperative who receive allocations of patronage capital from a cooperative.

"Modified net income" means all revenue of a cooperative from the sale of electricity within the Commonwealth with the following subtractions:

1. Revenue attributable to sales of electric power to its members.

2. Nonmember share of all ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year in carrying on the sale of electric power to nonmembers. Such nonmember expenses shall be determined by allocating the amount of such expenses between sales of electricity to members and sales of electricity to nonmembers. Such allocation shall be applicable to all tax credits available to an electric supplier.

"Nonmember" means those customers which are not members.

"Ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred" means ordinary and necessary expenses determined according to generally accepted accounting principles.

"Pipeline distribution company" has the same meaning as provided in § 58.1-2600.

D. The Department of Taxation shall promulgate all regulations necessary to implement the intent of this section. This section shall apply to taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2001.

E. 1. Any gas supplier, pipeline distribution company or gas utility which has a taxable year that begins after January 1, 2001, but before January 1, 2002, shall be required to file an income tax return as if a short taxable year has occurred covering the period beginning January 1, 2001, and ending on the last day prior to the beginning of the gas supplier's, pipeline distribution company's or gas utility's taxable year pursuant to § 58.1-440 A.

2. If a return is required to be made under subdivision 1 of this subsection, federal taxable income will be determined using the methodology prescribed in § 443 of the Internal Revenue Code, as if the gas supplier, pipeline distribution company or gas utility was undergoing a change of annual accounting period, and § 58.1-440 B and the regulations thereunder.

1999, c. 971; 2000, cc. 691, 706.

§ 58.1-400.3. Minimum tax on certain electric suppliers.

A. 1. An electric supplier, except for those organized as cooperatives and exempt from federal taxation under § 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, shall be subject to a minimum tax imposed by this section, instead of the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400 if applicable, net of any income tax credits that may be used to offset such tax, if the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 is less than the minimum tax imposed by this subsection. An electric supplier that is organized as a limited liability, partnership, corporation that has made an election under subchapter S of the Internal Revenue Code, or other entity treated as a pass-through entity shall be subject to the minimum tax in the manner prescribed by regulation.

2. The minimum tax imposed by this subsection shall be equal to 1.45 percent of such electric supplier's gross receipts for the calendar year that ends during the taxable year minus the state's portion of the electric utility consumption tax billed to consumers.

B. 1. An electric supplier that is organized as a cooperative and exempt from federal taxation under § 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, shall be subject to a minimum tax, instead of the tax on modified net income imposed by § 58.1-400.2, if the tax imposed by § 58.1-400.2, net of any credits that may be used to offset such tax, is less than the minimum tax imposed by this subsection.

2. The minimum tax imposed by this subsection shall be equal to 1.45 percent of such electric supplier's gross receipts from sales to nonmembers for the calendar year that ends during the taxable year minus the consumption tax collected from nonmembers.

C. In the case of an income tax return for a period of less than 12 months, the minimum tax shall be based on the gross receipts for the calendar year that ends during the taxable period or, if none, the most recent calendar year that ended before the taxable period. The minimum tax shall be prorated by the number of months in the taxable period.

D. The State Corporation Commission shall calculate and certify to the Department for each tax year as defined in § 58.1-2600 the name, address, and minimum tax for each electric supplier. The Commission shall mail or otherwise deliver a copy of the certification to each affected electric supplier.

E. When an electric supplier subject to the tax imposed by this section is one of several affiliated corporations that file a consolidated or combined income tax return, the portion of the affiliated corporations' tax liability that is attributable to the electric supplier shall be computed as follows:

1. Each corporation included in the consolidated or combined return shall recompute its corporate income tax liability, net of any income tax credits, as if it were filing a separate return. The separate income tax liability of the electric supplier shall then be compared to the affiliated corporations' tax liability, net of any income tax credits, indicated on the consolidated or combined return. For purposes of this section, the lesser amount shall be deemed to be the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400 and attributable to the electric supplier.

2. a. If such corporate income tax amount is less than the minimum tax of the electric supplier as calculated pursuant to subsection A, the electric supplier shall be subject to the minimum tax in lieu of the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400.

b. If such corporate income tax amount exceeds the minimum tax of the electric supplier as calculated pursuant to subsection A, the electric supplier shall not owe the minimum tax.

F. The requirements imposed under Article 20 (§ 58.1-500 et seq.) of Chapter 3 of this title regarding the filing of a declaration of estimated income taxes and the payment of such estimated taxes, shall be applicable to electric suppliers regardless of whether such taxpayer expects to be subject to the minimum tax imposed herein or to the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400.

For purposes of determining the applicability of the exceptions under which the addition to the tax for the underpayment of any installment of estimated taxes shall not be imposed, it shall be irrelevant whether the tax shown on the return for the preceding taxable year is the corporate income tax or the minimum tax.

G. To the extent that a taxpayer is subject to the minimum tax imposed under this section, there shall be allowed a credit against the separate, combined, or consolidated corporate income tax for the total amount of minimum tax paid by the electric supplier in all previous years that is in excess of the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 on the electric supplier for such years.

H. 1. To the extent an electric supplier or its parent company has remitted estimated income tax payments in excess of its corporate income tax liability for the taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2001, but before January 1, 2004, such overpayments shall only be utilized to offset any corporate income tax liabilities incurred pursuant to § 58.1-400 for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004, and shall not be claimed as a refund of overpaid taxes, except as provided in subdivision 2 of this subsection. For the purposes of this subsection, estimated income tax payments shall include any overpayments from a prior taxable year carried forward as an estimated payment to be credited towards a future tax liability.

2. If an electric supplier has had a corporate income tax liability of greater than $0 for each taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2001, but before January 1, 2003, then such electric supplier may claim a refund of any estimated income tax payments in excess of their taxable year 2003 corporate income tax liability.

I. Every electric supplier which owes the minimum tax imposed by this section shall remit such tax payment to the Department of Taxation.

J. Notwithstanding any of the foregoing provisions, an electric supplier may not adjust capped rates pursuant to § 56-582 of the Code of Virginia on any portion of the minimum tax due to the Commonwealth.

K. The following words and terms, for purposes of this section, shall have the following meanings:

"Consumption tax" means the state's portion of the electric utility consumption tax billed pursuant to Chapter 29 (§ 58.1-2900 et seq.) of this title, for which the electric supplier is defined as the "service provider" pursuant to § 58.1-2901 less any amounts billed on behalf of utilities owned and operated by municipalities.

"Electric supplier" means an incumbent electric utility in the Commonwealth that, prior to July 1, 1999, supplied electric energy to retail customers located in an exclusive service territory established by the State Corporation Commission.

"Gross receipts" has the same meaning as defined in § 58.1-2600 less receipts from sales to federal, state and local governments for their own use.

"Nonmember" has the same meaning as defined in § 58.1-400.2.

2004, c. 716; 2009, cc. 37, 152.

§ 58.1-400.4. Minimum tax on home service contract providers.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Collected provider fees" means provider fees collected on home service contracts issued to a resident of the Commonwealth.

"Home service contract" means the same as that term is defined in § 59.1-434.1.

"Provider" means the same as that term is defined in § 59.1-434.1.

"Provider fee" means the consideration paid for a home service contract issued to a resident of the Commonwealth.

B. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2018, a provider shall be subject to a minimum tax instead of the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400, if applicable, net any income tax credits that may be used to offset such tax, if the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 is less than the minimum tax imposed by this subsection. The minimum tax imposed by this subsection shall be equal to 2.25 percent of such provider's collected provider fees.

C. In the case of an income tax return for a period of less than 12 months, the minimum tax shall be based on the collected provider fees for the calendar year that ends during the taxable period or, if none, the most recent calendar year that ended before the taxable period. The minimum tax shall be prorated by the number of months in the taxable period.

D. For purposes of the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400, a provider's collected provider fees shall be considered sales in the Commonwealth when determining such provider's sales factor pursuant to § 58.1-414.

E. When a provider that is subject to the tax imposed by this section is one of several affiliated corporations that file a consolidated or combined income tax return, the portion of the affiliated corporations' tax liability that is attributable to the provider shall be computed as follows:

1. Each corporation included in the consolidated or combined return shall recompute its corporate income tax liability, net of any income tax credits, as if it were filing a separate return. The separate income tax liability of the provider shall then be compared to the affiliated corporation's tax liability, net of any income tax credits, indicated on the consolidated or combined return. For purposes of this section, the lesser amount shall be deemed to be the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400 and attributable to the provider.

2. If such corporate income tax amount is less than the minimum tax of the provider as calculated pursuant to subsection B, the provider shall be subject to the minimum tax in lieu of the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400.

3. If such corporate income tax amount exceeds the minimum tax of the provider as calculated pursuant to subsection B, the provider shall not owe the minimum tax.

F. The requirements imposed under Article 20 (§ 58.1-500 et seq.) of Chapter 3 regarding the filing of a declaration of estimated income taxes and the payment of such estimated taxes shall be applicable to a provider regardless of whether such taxpayer expects to be subject to the minimum tax imposed herein or to the corporate income tax imposed by § 58.1-400.

For purposes of determining the applicability of the exceptions under which the addition to the tax for the underpayment of any installment of estimated taxes shall not be imposed, it shall be irrelevant whether the tax shown on the return for the preceding taxable year is the corporate income tax or the minimum tax.

G. Every provider that owes the minimum tax imposed by this section shall remit such tax payment to the Department of Taxation.

H. The minimum tax imposed by this section on providers is in lieu of all other state and local license fees or license taxes on providers and home service contracts.

I. The minimum tax imposed by this section shall:

1. Apply to (i) any entity that immediately prior to January 1, 2018, was licensed as a provider under former Article 2 (§ 38.2-2617 et seq.) of Chapter 26 of Title 38.2 and that continues to act as a provider on and after January 1, 2018, and (ii) any entity that registers to sell home service contracts under Chapter 33.1 (§ 59.1-434.1 et seq.) of Title 59.1 on or after January 1, 2018; and

2. Not apply to any entity that was exempt from the provisions of former Article 2 (§ 38.2-2617 et seq.) of Chapter 26 of Title 38.2 immediately prior to January 1, 2018.

J. Notwithstanding § 58.1-3 or any other provision of law, the Department of Taxation and the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services may exchange information regarding providers for purposes of enforcing the provisions of Chapter 33.1 (§ 59.1-434.1 et seq.) of Title 59.1.

2017, c. 727.

§ 58.1-401. Exemptions and exclusions.

No tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-400, 58.1-400.1 or 58.1-400.2 is imposed on:

1. A public service corporation to the extent such corporation is subject to the license tax on gross receipts contained in Chapter 26 (§ 58.1-2600 et seq.) of this title;

2. Insurance companies to the extent such company is subject to the license tax on gross premiums under Chapter 25 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.) of this title and reciprocal or interinsurance exchanges which pay a premium tax to the Commonwealth as provided by law;

3. State and national banks, banking associations and trust companies to the extent such companies are subject to the bank franchise tax on net capital;

3a. Credit unions organized and conducted as such under the laws of the Commonwealth or under the laws of the United States;

4. Electing small business corporations (S corporations);

5. Religious, educational, benevolent and other corporations not organized or conducted for pecuniary profit which by reason of their purposes or activities are exempt from income tax under the laws of the United States, except those organizations which have unrelated business income or other taxable income under such laws, except as provided in § 58.1-400.2;

6. Telephone companies chartered in the Commonwealth which are exclusively a local mutual association and are not designated to accumulate profits for the benefit of, or to pay dividends to, the stockholders or members thereof;

7. A corporation that has contracted with a commercial printer for printing and that is not otherwise taxable shall not become taxable by reason of: (i) the ownership or leasing by that corporation of tangible personal property located at the Virginia premises of the commercial printer and used solely in connection with the printing contract with such person; (ii) the sale by that corporation at another location of property of any kind printed at and shipped or distributed from the Virginia premises of the commercial printer; (iii) the activities in connection with the printing contract with such person of any kind performed by or on behalf of that corporation at the Virginia premises of the commercial printer; and (iv) the activities in connection with the printing contract with such person performed by the commercial printer for or on behalf of that corporation;

8. Foreign sales corporations (FSC) and any income attributable to an FSC under the rules relating to the taxation of an FSC in Part III, Subpart C of the Internal Revenue Code (§ 921 et seq.) and the regulations thereunder; and

9. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, domestic international sales corporations (DISC) under the rules relating to the taxation of a DISC in Part IV, Subpart A of the Internal Revenue Code (§ 991 et seq.) and the regulations thereunder.

Code 1950, § 58-151.03; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 310; 1978, cc. 159, 796; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 1985, c. 221; 1987, c. 484; 1988, cc. 581, 899; 1995, cc. 422, 472; 1999, c. 971; 2014, cc. 26, 186.

§ 58.1-402. Virginia taxable income.

A. For purposes of this article, Virginia taxable income for a taxable year means the federal taxable income and any other income taxable to the corporation under federal law for such year of a corporation adjusted as provided in subsections B, C, D, E, and G.

For a regulated investment company and a real estate investment trust, such term means the "investment company taxable income" and "real estate investment trust taxable income," respectively, to which shall be added in each case any amount of capital gains and any other income taxable to the corporation under federal law which shall be further adjusted as provided in subsections B, C, D, E, and G.

B. There shall be added to the extent excluded from federal taxable income:

1. Interest, less related expenses to the extent not deducted in determining federal taxable income, on obligations of any state other than Virginia, or of a political subdivision of any such other state unless created by compact or agreement to which the Commonwealth is a party;

2. Interest or dividends, less related expenses to the extent not deducted in determining federal taxable income, on obligations or securities of any authority, commission or instrumentality of the United States, which the laws of the United States exempt from federal income tax but not from state income taxes;

3. [Repealed.]

4. The amount of any net income taxes and other taxes, including franchise and excise taxes, which are based on, measured by, or computed with reference to net income, imposed by the Commonwealth or any other taxing jurisdiction, to the extent deducted in determining federal taxable income;

5. Unrelated business taxable income as defined by § 512 of the Internal Revenue Code;

6. [Repealed.]

7. The amount required to be included in income for the purpose of computing the partial tax on an accumulation distribution pursuant to § 667 of the Internal Revenue Code;

8. a. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004, the amount of any intangible expenses and costs directly or indirectly paid, accrued, or incurred to, or in connection directly or indirectly with one or more direct or indirect transactions with one or more related members to the extent such expenses and costs were deductible or deducted in computing federal taxable income for Virginia purposes. This addition shall not be required for any portion of the intangible expenses and costs if one of the following applies:

(1) The corresponding item of income received by the related member is subject to a tax based on or measured by net income or capital imposed by Virginia, another state, or a foreign government that has entered into a comprehensive tax treaty with the United States government;

(2) The related member derives at least one-third of its gross revenues from the licensing of intangible property to parties who are not related members, and the transaction giving rise to the expenses and costs between the corporation and the related member was made at rates and terms comparable to the rates and terms of agreements that the related member has entered into with parties who are not related members for the licensing of intangible property; or

(3) The corporation can establish to the satisfaction of the Tax Commissioner that the intangible expenses and costs meet both of the following: (i) the related member during the same taxable year directly or indirectly paid, accrued or incurred such portion to a person who is not a related member, and (ii) the transaction giving rise to the intangible expenses and costs between the corporation and the related member did not have as a principal purpose the avoidance of any portion of the tax due under this chapter.

b. A corporation required to add to its federal taxable income intangible expenses and costs pursuant to subdivision a may petition the Tax Commissioner, after filing the related income tax return for the taxable year and remitting to the Tax Commissioner all taxes, penalties, and interest due under this article for such taxable year including tax upon any amount of intangible expenses and costs required to be added to federal taxable income pursuant to subdivision a, to consider evidence relating to the transaction or transactions between the corporation and a related member or members that resulted in the corporation's taxable income being increased, as required under subdivision a, for such intangible expenses and costs.

If the corporation can demonstrate to the Tax Commissioner's sole satisfaction, by clear and convincing evidence, that the transaction or transactions between the corporation and a related member or members resulting in such increase in taxable income pursuant to subdivision a had a valid business purpose other than the avoidance or reduction of the tax due under this chapter, the Tax Commissioner shall permit the corporation to file an amended return. For purposes of such amended return, the requirements of subdivision a shall not apply to any transaction for which the Tax Commissioner is satisfied (and has identified) that the transaction had a valid business purpose other than the avoidance or reduction of the tax due under this chapter. Such amended return shall be filed by the corporation within one year of the written permission granted by the Tax Commissioner and any refund of the tax imposed under this article shall include interest at a rate equal to the rate of interest established under § 58.1-15 and such interest shall accrue as provided under § 58.1-1833. However, upon the filing of such amended return, any related member of the corporation that subtracted from taxable income amounts received pursuant to subdivision C 21 shall be subject to the tax imposed under this article on that portion of such amounts for which the corporation has filed an amended return pursuant to this subdivision. In addition, for such transactions identified by the Tax Commissioner herein by which he has been satisfied by clear and convincing evidence, the Tax Commissioner may permit the corporation in filing income tax returns for subsequent taxable years to deduct the related intangible expenses and costs without making the adjustment under subdivision a.

The Tax Commissioner may charge a fee for all direct and indirect costs relating to the review of any petition pursuant to this subdivision, to include costs necessary to secure outside experts in evaluating the petition. The Tax Commissioner may condition the review of any petition pursuant to this subdivision upon payment of such fee.

No suit for the purpose of contesting any action of the Tax Commissioner under this subdivision shall be maintained in any court of this Commonwealth.

c. Nothing in subdivision B 8 shall be construed to limit or negate the Department's authority under § 58.1-446;

9. a. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004, the amount of any interest expenses and costs directly or indirectly paid, accrued, or incurred to, or in connection directly or indirectly with one or more direct or indirect transactions with one or more related members to the extent such expenses and costs were deductible or deducted in computing federal taxable income for Virginia purposes. This addition shall not be required for any portion of the interest expenses and costs, if:

(1) The related member has substantial business operations relating to interest-generating activities, in which the related member pays expenses for at least five full-time employees who maintain, manage, defend or are otherwise responsible for operations or administration relating to the interest-generating activities; and

(2) The interest expenses and costs are not directly or indirectly for, related to or in connection with the direct or indirect acquisition, maintenance, management, sale, exchange, or disposition of intangible property; and

(3) The transaction giving rise to the expenses and costs between the corporation and the related member has a valid business purpose other than the avoidance or reduction of taxation and payments between the parties are made at arm's length rates and terms; and

(4) One of the following applies:

(i) The corresponding item of income received by the related member is subject to a tax based on or measured by net income or capital imposed by Virginia, another state, or a foreign government that has entered into a comprehensive tax treaty with the United States government;

(ii) Payments arise pursuant to a pre-existing contract entered into when the parties were not related members provided the payments continue to be made at arm's length rates and terms;

(iii) The related member engages in transactions with parties other than related members that generate revenue in excess of $2 million annually; or

(iv) The transaction giving rise to the interest payments between the corporation and a related member was done at arm's length rates and terms and meets any of the following: (a) the related member uses funds that are borrowed from a party other than a related member or that are paid, incurred or passed-through to a person who is not a related member; (b) the debt is part of a regular and systematic funds management or portfolio investment activity conducted by the related member, whereby the funds of two or more related members are aggregated for the purpose of achieving economies of scale, the internal financing of the active business operations of members, or the benefit of centralized management of funds; (c) financing the expansion of the business operations; or (d) restructuring the debt of related members, or the pass-through of acquisition-related indebtedness to related members.

b. A corporation required to add to its federal taxable income interest expenses and costs pursuant to subdivision a may petition the Tax Commissioner, after filing the related income tax return for the taxable year and remitting to the Tax Commissioner all taxes, penalties, and interest due under this article for such taxable year including tax upon any amount of interest expenses and costs required to be added to federal taxable income pursuant to subdivision a, to consider evidence relating to the transaction or transactions between the corporation and a related member or members that resulted in the corporation's taxable income being increased, as required under subdivision a, for such interest expenses and costs.

If the corporation can demonstrate to the Tax Commissioner's sole satisfaction, by clear and convincing evidence, that the transaction or transactions between the corporation and a related member or members resulting in such increase in taxable income pursuant to subdivision a had a valid business purpose other than the avoidance or reduction of the tax due under this chapter and that the related payments between the parties were made at arm's length rates and terms, the Tax Commissioner shall permit the corporation to file an amended return. For purposes of such amended return, the requirements of subdivision a shall not apply to any transaction for which the Tax Commissioner is satisfied (and has identified) that the transaction had a valid business purpose other than the avoidance or reduction of the tax due under this chapter and that the related payments between the parties were made at arm's length rates and terms. Such amended return shall be filed by the corporation within one year of the written permission granted by the Tax Commissioner and any refund of the tax imposed under this article shall include interest at a rate equal to the rate of interest established under § 58.1-15 and such interest shall accrue as provided under § 58.1-1833. However, upon the filing of such amended return, any related member of the corporation that subtracted from taxable income amounts received pursuant to subdivision C 21 shall be subject to the tax imposed under this article on that portion of such amounts for which the corporation has filed an amended return pursuant to this subdivision. In addition, for such transactions identified by the Tax Commissioner herein by which he has been satisfied by clear and convincing evidence, the Tax Commissioner may permit the corporation in filing income tax returns for subsequent taxable years to deduct the related interest expenses and costs without making the adjustment under subdivision a.

The Tax Commissioner may charge a fee for all direct and indirect costs relating to the review of any petition pursuant to this subdivision, to include costs necessary to secure outside experts in evaluating the petition. The Tax Commissioner may condition the review of any petition pursuant to this subdivision upon payment of such fee.

No suit for the purpose of contesting any action of the Tax Commissioner under this subdivision shall be maintained in any court of this Commonwealth.

c. Nothing in subdivision B 9 shall be construed to limit or negate the Department's authority under § 58.1-446.

d. For purposes of subdivision B 9:

"Arm's-length rates and terms" means that (i) two or more related members enter into a written agreement for the transaction, (ii) such agreement is of a duration and contains payment terms substantially similar to those that the related member would be able to obtain from an unrelated entity, (iii) the interest is at or below the applicable federal rate compounded annually for debt instruments under § 1274(d) of the Internal Revenue Code that was in effect at the time of the agreement, and (iv) the borrower or payor adheres to the payment terms of the agreement governing the transaction or any amendments thereto.

"Valid business purpose" means one or more business purposes that alone or in combination constitute the motivation for some business activity or transaction, which activity or transaction improves, apart from tax effects, the economic position of the taxpayer, as further defined by regulation.

10. a. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2009, the amount of dividends deductible under §§ 561 and 857 of the Internal Revenue Code by a Captive Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT). For purposes of this subdivision, a REIT is a Captive REIT if:

(1) It is not regularly traded on an established securities market;

(2) More than 50 percent of the voting power or value of beneficial interests or shares of which, at any time during the last half of the taxable year, is owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by a single entity that is (i) a corporation or an association taxable as a corporation under the Internal Revenue Code; and (ii) not exempt from federal income tax pursuant to § 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code; and

(3) More than 25 percent of its income consists of rents from real property as defined in § 856(d) of the Internal Revenue Code.

b. For purposes of applying the ownership test of subdivision 10 a (2), the following entities shall not be considered a corporation or an association taxable as a corporation:

(1) Any REIT that is not treated as a Captive REIT;

(2) Any REIT subsidiary under § 856 of the Internal Revenue Code other than a qualified REIT subsidiary of a Captive REIT;

(3) Any Listed Australian Property Trust, or an entity organized as a trust, provided that a Listed Australian Property Trust owns or controls, directly or indirectly, 75 percent or more of the voting or value of the beneficial interests or shares of such trust; and

(4) Any Qualified Foreign Entity.

c. For purposes of subdivision B 10, the constructive ownership rules prescribed under § 318(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, as modified by § 856(d)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code, shall apply in determining the ownership of stock, assets, or net profits of any person.

d. For purposes of subdivision B 10:

"Listed Australian Property Trust" means an Australian unit trust registered as a Management Investment Scheme, pursuant to the Australian Corporations Act, in which the principal class of units is listed on a recognized stock exchange in Australia and is regularly traded on an established securities market.

"Qualified Foreign Entity" means a corporation, trust, association or partnership organized outside the laws of the United States and that satisfies all of the following criteria:

(1) At least 75 percent of the entity's total asset value at the close of its taxable year is represented by real estate assets, as defined in § 856(c)(5)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code, thereby including shares or certificates of beneficial interest in any REIT, cash and cash equivalents, and U.S. Government securities;

(2) The entity is not subject to a tax on amounts distributed to its beneficial owners, or is exempt from entity level tax;

(3) The entity distributes, on an annual basis, at least 85 percent of its taxable income, as computed in the jurisdiction in which it is organized, to the holders of its shares or certificates of beneficial interest;

(4) The shares or certificates of beneficial interest of such entity are regularly traded on an established securities market or, if not so traded, not more than 10 percent of the voting power or value in such entity is held directly, indirectly, or constructively by a single entity or individual; and

(5) The entity is organized in a country that has a tax treaty with the United States.

e. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2016, for purposes of subdivision B 10, any voting power or value of the beneficial interests or shares in a REIT that is held in a segregated asset account of a life insurance corporation as described in § 817 of the Internal Revenue Code shall not be taken into consideration when determining if such REIT is a Captive REIT.

11. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2016, to the extent that tax credit is allowed for the same donation pursuant to § 58.1-439.12:12, any amount claimed as a federal income tax deduction for such donation under § 170 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended or renumbered.

C. There shall be subtracted to the extent included in and not otherwise subtracted from federal taxable income:

1. Income derived from obligations, or on the sale or exchange of obligations, of the United States and on obligations or securities of any authority, commission or instrumentality of the United States to the extent exempt from state income taxes under the laws of the United States including, but not limited to, stocks, bonds, treasury bills, and treasury notes, but not including interest on refunds of federal taxes, interest on equipment purchase contracts, or interest on other normal business transactions.

2. Income derived from obligations, or on the sale or exchange of obligations of this Commonwealth or of any political subdivision or instrumentality of this Commonwealth.

3. Dividends upon stock in any domestic international sales corporation, as defined by § 992 of the Internal Revenue Code, 50 percent or more of the income of which was assessable for the preceding year, or the last year in which such corporation has income, under the provisions of the income tax laws of the Commonwealth.

4. The amount of any refund or credit for overpayment of income taxes imposed by this Commonwealth or any other taxing jurisdiction.

5. Any amount included therein by the operation of the provisions of § 78 of the Internal Revenue Code (foreign dividend gross-up).

6. The amount of wages or salaries eligible for the federal Targeted Jobs Credit which was not deducted for federal purposes on account of the provisions of § 280C(a) of the Internal Revenue Code.

7. Any amount included therein by the operation of § 951 of the Internal Revenue Code (subpart F income) or, for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2018, § 951A of the Internal Revenue Code (Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income).

8. Any amount included therein which is foreign source income as defined in § 58.1-302.

9. [Repealed.]

10. The amount of any dividends received from corporations in which the taxpaying corporation owns 50 percent or more of the voting stock.

11. [Repealed.]

12, 13. [Expired.]

14. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1995, the amount for "qualified research expenses" or "basic research expenses" eligible for deduction for federal purposes, but which were not deducted, on account of the provisions of § 280C(c) of the Internal Revenue Code.

15. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2000, the total amount actually contributed in funds to the Virginia Public School Construction Grants Program and Fund established in Chapter 11.1 (§ 22.1-175.1 et seq.) of Title 22.1.

16. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2000, but before January 1, 2015, the gain derived from the sale or exchange of real property or the sale or exchange of an easement to real property which results in the real property or the easement thereto being devoted to open-space use, as that term is defined in § 58.1-3230, for a period of time not less than 30 years. To the extent a subtraction is taken in accordance with this subdivision, no tax credit under this chapter for donating land for its preservation shall be allowed for three years following the year in which the subtraction is taken.

17. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2001, any amount included therein with respect to § 58.1-440.1.

18. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1999, income received as a result of (i) the "Master Settlement Agreement," as defined in § 3.2-3100; and (ii) the National Tobacco Grower Settlement Trust dated July 19, 1999, by (a) tobacco farming businesses; (b) any business holding a tobacco marketing quota, or tobacco farm acreage allotment, under the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938; or (c) any business having the right to grow tobacco pursuant to such a quota allotment.

19, 20. [Repealed.]

21. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004, any amount of intangible expenses and costs or interest expenses and costs added to the federal taxable income of a corporation pursuant to subdivision B 8 or B 9 shall be subtracted from the federal taxable income of the related member that received such amount if such related member is subject to Virginia income tax on the same amount.

22. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2009, any gain recognized from the sale of launch services to space flight participants, as defined in 49 U.S.C. § 70102, or launch services intended to provide individuals the training or experience of a launch, without performing an actual launch. To qualify for a deduction under this subdivision, launch services must be performed in Virginia or originate from an airport or spaceport in Virginia.

23. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2009, any gain recognized as a result of resupply services contracts for delivering payload, as defined in 49 U.S.C. § 70102, entered into with the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or other space flight entity, as defined in § 8.01-227.8, and launched from an airport or spaceport in Virginia.

24. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2011, any income taxed as a long-term capital gain for federal income tax purposes, or any income taxed as investment services partnership interest income (otherwise known as investment partnership carried interest income) for federal income tax purposes. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, such income must be attributable to an investment in a "qualified business," as defined in § 58.1-339.4, or in any other technology business approved by the Secretary of Technology, provided the business has its principal office or facility in the Commonwealth and less than $3 million in annual revenues in the fiscal year prior to the investment. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, the investment must be made between the dates of April 1, 2010, and June 30, 2020. No taxpayer who has claimed a tax credit for an investment in a "qualified business" under § 58.1-339.4 shall be eligible for the subtraction under this subdivision for an investment in the same business.

25. a. Income, including investment services partnership interest income (otherwise known as investment partnership carried interest income), attributable to an investment in a Virginia venture capital account. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, the investment shall be made on or after January 1, 2018, but before December 31, 2023. No subtraction shall be allowed under this subdivision for an investment in a company that is owned or operated by an affiliate of the taxpayer. No subtraction shall be allowed under this subdivision for a taxpayer who has claimed a subtraction under subdivision C 24 for the same investment.

b. As used in this subdivision 25:

"Qualified portfolio company" means a company that (i) has its principal place of business in the Commonwealth; (ii) has a primary purpose of production, sale, research, or development of a product or service other than the management or investment of capital; and (iii) provides equity in the company to the Virginia venture capital account in exchange for a capital investment. "Qualified portfolio company" does not include a company that is an individual or sole proprietorship.

"Virginia venture capital account" means an investment fund that has been certified by the Department as a Virginia venture capital account. In order to be certified as a Virginia venture capital account, the operator of the investment fund shall register the investment fund with the Department prior to December 31, 2023, (i) indicating that it intends to invest at least 50 percent of the capital committed to its fund in qualified portfolio companies and (ii) providing documentation that it employs at least one investor who has at least four years of professional experience in venture capital investment or substantially equivalent experience. "Substantially equivalent experience" includes, but is not limited to, an undergraduate degree from an accredited college or university in economics, finance, or a similar field of study. The Department may require an investment fund to provide documentation of the investor's training, education, or experience as deemed necessary by the Department to determine substantial equivalency. If the Department determines that the investment fund employs at least one investor with the experience set forth herein, the Department shall certify the investment fund as a Virginia venture capital account at such time as the investment fund actually invests at least 50 percent of the capital committed to its fund in qualified portfolio companies.

26. a. Income attributable to an investment in a Virginia real estate investment trust. To qualify for a subtraction under this subdivision, the investment shall be made on or after January 1, 2019, but before December 31, 2024. No subtraction shall be allowed for an investment in a trust that is managed by an affiliate of the taxpayer. No subtraction shall be allowed under this subdivision for a taxpayer who has claimed a subtraction under subdivision C 24 or 25 for the same investment.

b. As used in this subdivision 26:

"Distressed" means satisfying the criteria applicable to a locality described in subdivision E 2 of § 2.2-115.

"Double distressed" means satisfying the criteria applicable to a locality described in subdivision E 3 of § 2.2-115.

"Virginia real estate investment trust" means a real estate investment trust, as defined in 26 U.S.C. § 856, that has been certified by the Department as a Virginia real estate investment trust. In order to be certified as a Virginia real estate investment trust, the trustee shall register the trust with the Department prior to December 31, 2024, indicating that it intends to invest at least 90 percent of trust funds in Virginia and at least 40 percent of trust funds in real estate in localities that are distressed or double distressed. If the Department determines that the trust satisfies the preceding criteria, the Department shall certify the trust as a Virginia real estate investment trust at such time as the trust actually invests at least 90 percent of trust funds in Virginia and at least 40 percent of trust funds in real estate in localities that are distressed or double distressed.

27. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, any gain recognized from the taking of real property by condemnation proceedings.

D. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2006, there shall be subtracted from federal taxable income contract payments to a producer of quota tobacco or a tobacco quota holder as provided under the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-357) as follows:

1. If the payment is received in installment payments, then the recognized gain, including any gain recognized in taxable year 2005, may be subtracted in the taxable year immediately following the year in which the installment payment is received.

2. If the payment is received in a single payment, then 10 percent of the recognized gain may be subtracted in the taxable year immediately following the year in which the single payment is received. The taxpayer may then deduct an equal amount in each of the nine succeeding taxable years.

E. Adjustments to federal taxable income shall be made to reflect the transitional modifications provided in § 58.1-315.

F. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the income from any disposition of real property which is held by the taxpayer for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the taxpayer's trade or business, as defined in § 453(l)(1)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code, of property made on or after January 1, 2009, may, at the election of the taxpayer, be recognized under the installment method described under § 453 of the Internal Revenue Code, provided that (i) the election relating to the dealer disposition of the property has been made on or before the due date prescribed by law (including extensions) for filing the taxpayer's return of the tax imposed under this chapter for the taxable year in which the disposition occurs, and (ii) the dealer disposition is in accordance with restrictions or conditions established by the Department, which shall be set forth in guidelines developed by the Department. Along with such restrictions or conditions, the guidelines shall also address the recapture of such income under certain circumstances. The development of the guidelines shall be exempt from the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

G. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2018, there shall be deducted to the extent included in and not otherwise subtracted from federal taxable income 20 percent of business interest disallowed as a deduction pursuant to § 163(j) of the Internal Revenue Code. For purposes of this subsection, "business interest" means the same as that term is defined under § 163(j) of the Internal Revenue Code.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.013, 58-151.032; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, cc. 310, 827; 1973, cc. 198, 345, 458; 1974, cc. 320, 682; 1975, cc. 46, 50; 1976, cc. 528, 694, 781; 1977, cc. 297, 612; 1978, cc. 67, 158, 783, 785; 1979, cc. 226, 371, 596; 1981, cc. 402, 414; 1982, c. 633; 1983, cc. 452, 472; 1984, cc. 153, 162, 636, 672, 674, 675, 729; 1985, cc. 221, 465; 1987, c. 484; 1989, cc. 39, 639; 1992, c. 678; 1994, c. 590; 1997, c. 106; 1998, c. 874; 1999, cc. 339, 971; 2000, cc. 419, 1021, 1039; 2003, cc. 3, 58, 209; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2006, c. 214; 2008, cc. 149, 211; 2009, cc. 426, 508, 558; 2010, cc. 802, 830; 2011, c. 851; 2012, cc. 96, 256; 2015, cc. 248, 335, 336; 2016, cc. 304, 342, 391; 2017, c. 762; 2018, c. 821; 2019, cc. 17, 18, 270.

§ 58.1-403. Additional modifications to determine Virginia taxable income for certain corporations.

In addition to the modifications set forth in § 58.1-402 for determining Virginia taxable income for corporations generally, the adjustments set forth in subdivision 1 shall be made to the federal taxable income for savings institutions and as set forth in subdivisions 2 and 3 for railway companies, as set forth in subdivisions 6 and 7 for telecommunications companies, and as set forth in subdivisions 8 and 9 for gas suppliers, pipeline distribution companies and gas utilities.

1. There shall be added the deduction allowed for bad debts. The percentage which would have been used in determining the bad debt deduction under the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-514), shall then be applied to federal taxable income as adjusted under the provisions of § 58.1-402 and the amount so determined subtracted therefrom.

2. There shall be added to federal taxable income any amount which was deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carryover from any taxable year beginning on or before December 31, 1978.

3. Where such railway company would have been allowed to deduct an amount as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1978, but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning prior to January 1, 1979, there shall be added to federal taxable income any amount which was actually deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover and there shall be subtracted from federal taxable income the amount which could have been deducted as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover in arriving at taxable income but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back for federal purposes.

4., 5. [Repealed.]

6. There shall be added to federal taxable income any amount which was deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carryover from any taxable year beginning on or before December 31, 1988.

7. Where such telecommunications company would have been allowed to deduct an amount as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1988, but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning prior to January 1, 1989, there shall be added to federal taxable income any amount which was actually deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover and there shall be subtracted from federal taxable income the amount which could have been deducted as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss in arriving at taxable income but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back for federal purposes.

8. There shall be added to federal taxable income any amount that was deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carryover from any taxable year beginning on or before December 31, 2000.

9. Where such gas supplier, pipeline distribution company or gas utility would have been allowed to deduct an amount as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2000, but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning prior to January 1, 2001, there shall be added to federal taxable income any amount that was actually deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss carryover and there shall be subtracted from federal taxable income the amount that could have been deducted as a net operating loss carryover or net capital loss in arriving at taxable income but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back for federal purposes.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.032:1, 58-151.032:2; 1972, c. 310; 1973, c. 198; 1978, c. 784; 1979, c. 226; 1981, c. 402; 1982, c. 633; 1984, cc. 672, 675; 1985, c. 221; 1987, c. 614; 1988, c. 899; 1996, c. 77; 2000, cc. 691, 706.

§ 58.1-404. Reserved.

Reserved.

§ 58.1-405. Corporations transacting or conducting entire business within this Commonwealth.

Except as provided in § 58.1-405.1, if the entire business of the corporation is transacted or conducted within the Commonwealth, the tax imposed by this chapter shall be upon the entire Virginia taxable income of such corporation for each taxable year; however, if such corporation is certified by the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority as an eligible company pursuant to § 58.1-405.1, it may elect to (i) apportion its income between qualified localities, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, and other localities in the Commonwealth, provided that it shall not apportion any of its income to a state other than Virginia and (ii) utilize any modification for which it may be eligible pursuant to the provisions of § 58.1-408, 58.1-417, 58.1-418, 58.1-419, 58.1-420, 58.1-422, 58.1-422.1, or 58.1-422.2, as applicable. The entire business of the corporation shall be deemed to have been transacted or conducted within the Commonwealth if such corporation is not subject in any other state to a net income tax, a franchise tax measured by net income, or a franchise tax for the privilege of doing business.

Code 1950, § 58-151.033; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-405.1. Eligibility of companies for apportionment modification; certification by the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority.

A. For purposes of this section:

"Authority" means the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority.

"Eligible company" means a corporation or pass-through entity, as defined in § 58.1-390.1, that does not have any existing property or payroll in Virginia as of January 1, 2018, and on or after January 1, 2018, but before January 1, 2025, (i) either (a) spends at least $5 million on new capital investment in a qualified locality or qualified localities and creates at least 10 new jobs in a qualified locality or qualified localities or (b) creates at least 50 new jobs in a qualified locality or qualified localities; (ii) is a traded-sector company; and (iii) is certified by the Authority as generating a positive fiscal impact pursuant to subsection B.

"New capital investment" means real property acquired in a qualified locality or qualified localities on or after January 1, 2018, but before January 1, 2025, and any improvements to real property in a qualified locality or qualified localities on or after January 1, 2018, but before January 1, 2025.

"New job" means a permanent, full-time position of indefinite duration that pays at least 150 percent of the minimum wage, as defined in the Virginia Minimum Wage Act (§ 40.1-28.8 et seq.), and that requires a minimum of (i) 35 hours of an employee's time a week for the entire normal year of the eligible company's operations, which normal year shall consist of at least 48 weeks, or (ii) 1,680 hours per year.

"Qualified development site" means real property that is in a locality adjacent to a qualified locality and, before January 1, 2018, either (i) was owned or partly owned by a qualified locality or an industrial development authority of which a qualified locality is a member or (ii) was owned or partly owned by a locality or industrial development authority, was leased to a private party, and was subject to a revenue-sharing agreement providing that a portion of the revenues from the lease would be distributed to a qualified locality. "Qualified development site" does not include real property that is not owned by the Commonwealth or a political subdivision thereof.

"Qualified locality" means (i) the County of Alleghany, Bland, Buchanan, Carroll, Craig, Dickenson, Giles, Grayson, Lee, Page, Russell, Scott, Smyth, Tazewell, Washington, Wise, or Wythe or the City of Bristol, Galax, or Norton; (ii) the County of Amelia, Appomattox, Buckingham, Charlotte, Cumberland, Halifax, Henry, Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, Nottoway, Patrick, Pittsylvania, or Prince Edward or the City of Danville or Martinsville; (iii) the County of Accomack, Caroline, Essex, Gloucester, King and Queen, King William, Lancaster, Mathews, Middlesex, Northampton, Northumberland, Richmond, or Westmoreland; or (iv) the County of Brunswick or Dinwiddie or the City of Petersburg. "Qualified locality" includes a qualified development site.

"Traded-sector company" means a company that directly or indirectly derives more than 50 percent of its revenue from out-of-state sources.

B. 1. The Authority shall determine whether a company will generate a positive fiscal impact based on the following factors: (i) job creation; (ii) private capital investment; and (iii) anticipated additional state and local tax revenue. The Authority also shall consider the additional revenue the Commonwealth likely would expend in and for the localities if the economy in the localities continues to erode. In making its determination, the Authority shall consult with the Department regarding the revenue impact of certifying such company. The Authority shall certify a company only if it determines such company will generate a positive fiscal impact.

2. The Authority shall deny certification to any company if it determines such taxpayer has engaged in a merger, acquisition, similar business combination, name change, change in business form, or other transaction the primary purpose of which is to obtain status as an eligible company.

3. The Authority shall make an annual re-certification according to subdivision B 1, and no company shall remain an eligible company for any taxable year that the Authority does not grant re-certification.

C. Any eligible company may elect to apportion its income pursuant to the provisions of § 58.1-408, 58.1-417, 58.1-418, 58.1-419, 58.1-420, 58.1-422, 58.1-422.1, or 58.1-422.2, as applicable. However, if the entire business of an eligible company is transacted or conducted within the Commonwealth, it shall not apportion its income pursuant to this subsection but may elect to apportion its income pursuant to the provisions of § 58.1-405.

2018, cc. 801, 802; 2019, cc. 262, 263.

§ 58.1-406. Allocation and apportionment of income.

Any corporation having income from business activity which is taxable both within and without the Commonwealth shall allocate and apportion its Virginia taxable income as provided in §§ 58.1-407 through 58.1-420.

Code 1950, § 58-151.035; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1976, c. 436; 1979, c. 371; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-407. How dividends allocated.

Dividends received to the extent included in Virginia taxable income are allocable to the state of commercial domicile of the taxpaying corporation.

Code 1950, § 58-151.037; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-408. What income apportioned and how.

A. The Virginia taxable income of any corporation, except those subject to the provisions of § 58.1-417, 58.1-418, 58.1-419, 58.1-420, 58.1-422, 58.1-422.1, 58.1-422.2, or 58.1-422.3, excluding income allocable under § 58.1-407, shall be apportioned to the Commonwealth by multiplying such income by a fraction, the numerator of which is the property factor plus the payroll factor, plus twice the sales factor, and the denominator of which is four; however, where the sales factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors and where the sales factor exists but the payroll factor or the property factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors plus one.

B. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, may subtract from the numerator of the corresponding factor the value of its (i) property acquired in any qualified locality or qualified localities, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, on or after January 1, 2018, but before January 1, 2025; (ii) payroll attributable to jobs created on or after January 1, 2018, but before January 1, 2025, in any qualified locality or qualified localities; and (iii) sales in the Commonwealth during the taxable year. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (a) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (b) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

Code 1950, § 58-151.041; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 1999, cc. 158, 186; 2009, c. 821; 2012, cc. 86, 666; 2015, cc. 92, 237; 2018, cc. 801, 802, 807.

§ 58.1-409. Property factor.

The property factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the average value of the corporation's real and tangible personal property owned and used or rented and used in the Commonwealth during the taxable year and the denominator of which is the average value of all the corporation's real and tangible personal property owned and used or rented and used during the taxable year and located everywhere, to the extent that such property is used to produce Virginia taxable income and is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and income therefrom is includable in federal taxable income.

Code 1950, § 58-151.042; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1978, c. 184; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-410. Valuation of property owned or rented.

Property owned by the corporation shall be valued at its original cost plus the cost of additions and improvements. Property rented by the corporation shall be valued at eight times the annual rental rate paid by the corporation. The value of movable tangible personal property used both within and without the Commonwealth shall be included in the numerator to the extent of its utilization in the Commonwealth. The extent of such utilization shall be determined by multiplying the total value of such property by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of days of physical location of the property in the Commonwealth during the taxable period and the denominator of which is the number of days of physical location of the property everywhere during the taxable period. The number of days of physical location of the property may be determined on a statistical basis or by such other reasonable method acceptable to the Department.

Code 1950, § 58-151.043; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-411. Average value of property.

The average value of property shall be determined by averaging the value at the beginning and ending of the taxable year, but the Department may require the averaging of monthly values during the taxable year if reasonably required to reflect properly the average value of the corporation's property.

Code 1950, § 58-151.044; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-412. Payroll factor.

The payroll factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the total amount paid or accrued in the Commonwealth during the tax period by the corporation for compensation, and the denominator of which is the total compensation paid or accrued everywhere during the taxable year, to the extent that such payroll is used to produce Virginia taxable income and is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and income therefrom is includable in federal taxable income.

Code 1950, § 58-151.045; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-413. When compensation deemed paid or accrued in this Commonwealth.

Compensation is paid or accrued in the Commonwealth if:

1. The employee's service is performed entirely within the Commonwealth;

2. The employee's service is performed both within and without the Commonwealth, but the service performed without the Commonwealth is incidental to the employee's service within the Commonwealth; or

3. Some of the service is performed in the Commonwealth; and

a. The base of operations or, if there is no base of operations, the place from which the service is directed or controlled is in the Commonwealth; or

b. The base of operations or the place from which the service is directed or controlled is not in any state in which some part of the service is performed, but the employee's residence is in the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 58-151.046; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-414. Sales factor.

The sales factor is a fraction, the numerator of which is the total sales of the corporation in the Commonwealth during the taxable year, and the denominator of which is the total sales of the corporation everywhere during the taxable year, to the extent that such sales are used to produce Virginia taxable income and are effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and income therefrom is includable in federal taxable income.

Code 1950, § 58-151.047; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-415. When sales of tangible personal property deemed in the Commonwealth.

Sales of tangible personal property are in the Commonwealth if such property is received in the Commonwealth by the purchaser. In the case of delivery by common carrier or other means of transportation, the place at which such property is ultimately received after all transportation has been completed shall be considered as the place at which such property is received by the purchaser. Direct delivery in the Commonwealth, other than for purposes of transportation, to a person or firm designated by a purchaser, constitutes delivery to the purchaser in the Commonwealth, and direct delivery outside the Commonwealth to a person or firm designated by the purchaser does not constitute delivery to the purchaser in the Commonwealth, regardless of where title passes, or other conditions of sale.

Code 1950, § 58-151.048; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-416. When certain other sales deemed in the Commonwealth.

A. Sales, other than sales of tangible personal property, are in the Commonwealth if:

1. The income-producing activity is performed in the Commonwealth; or

2. The income-producing activity is performed both in and outside the Commonwealth and a greater proportion of the income-producing activity is performed in the Commonwealth than in any other state, based on costs of performance.

B. For debt buyers, as defined in § 58.1-422.3, sales, other than sales of tangible personal property, are in the Commonwealth if they consist of money recovered on debt that a debt buyer collected from a person who is a resident of the Commonwealth or an entity that has its commercial domicile in the Commonwealth. Such rule shall apply regardless of the location of a debt buyer's business.

C. The taxes under this article on the sales described under subsection B are imposed to the maximum extent permitted under the Constitutions of Virginia and the United States and federal law. For the collection of such taxes on such sales, it is the intent of the General Assembly that the Tax Commissioner and the Department assert the taxpayer's nexus with the Commonwealth to the maximum extent permitted under the Constitutions of Virginia and the United States and federal law.

D. If necessary information is not available to the taxpayer to determine whether a sale other than a sale of tangible personal property is in the Commonwealth pursuant to the provisions of subsections B and C, the taxpayer may estimate the dollar value or portion of such sale in the Commonwealth, provided that the taxpayer can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Tax Commissioner that (i) the estimate has been undertaken in good faith, (ii) the estimate is a reasonable approximation of the dollar value or portion of such sale in the Commonwealth, and (iii) in using an estimate the taxpayer did not have as a principal purpose the avoidance of any tax due under this article. The Department may implement procedures for obtaining its approval to use an estimate. The Department shall adopt remedies and corrective procedures for cases in which the Department has determined that the sourcing rules for sales other than sales of tangible personal property have been abused by the taxpayer, which may include reliance on the location of income-producing activity and direct costs of performance as described in subsection A.

Code 1950, § 58-151.049; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 2018, c. 807.

§ 58.1-417. Motor carriers; apportionment.

A. Motor carriers of property or passengers shall apportion their net apportionable income to this Commonwealth by the use of the ratio of vehicle miles in this Commonwealth to total vehicle miles of the corporation everywhere. For the purposes of this section the words "vehicle miles" in the case of motor carriers of property shall mean miles traveled by vehicles (whether owned or operated by the corporation) hauling property for a charge or traveling on a scheduled route. In the case of motor carriers of passengers the same shall mean miles traveled by vehicles (whether owned or operated by the corporation) carrying passengers for a fare or traveling on a scheduled route.

B. The provisions of subsection A shall not be applicable to a carrier:

1. Which neither owns nor rents real or tangible personal property within this Commonwealth, except vehicles, which has made no pick-ups or deliveries within this Commonwealth, and which has traveled less than 50,000 vehicle miles in this Commonwealth in the taxable year; or

2. Which neither owns nor rents any real or tangible personal property within this Commonwealth, except vehicles, and which makes no more than twelve round trips into this Commonwealth during a taxable year.

The mileage traveled under 50,000 miles or the mileage traveled in such round trips, however, may not represent more than 5 percent of the total miles annually traveled in all states by such carrier.

C. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, may subtract its vehicle miles traveled in any qualified locality or qualified localities, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subsection A. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

Code 1950, § 58-151.050; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 658; 1984, c. 675; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-418. Financial corporations; apportionment.

A. The Virginia taxable income of a financial corporation, as defined herein, excluding income allocable under § 58.1-407, shall be apportioned within and without this Commonwealth in the ratio that the business within this Commonwealth is to the total business of the corporation. Business within this Commonwealth shall be based on cost of performance in the Commonwealth over cost of performance everywhere.

B. "Financial corporation" means any corporation not exempted from the imposition of tax under the provisions of § 58.1-401, which derives more than seventy percent of its gross income from the classes of income enumerated in subdivisions 1 through 4 below, without reference to the state wherein such income is earned, including but not limited to small loan companies, sales finance companies, brokerage companies and investment companies:

1. Fees, commissions, other compensation for financial services rendered;

2. Gross profits from trading in stocks, bonds, or other securities;

3. Interest; and

4. Dividends received to the extent included in Virginia taxable income.

C. In computing the amounts referred to in subdivisions 1 through 4 of subsection B of this section, any amount received by a member of an affiliated group, determined under § 1504(a) of the Internal Revenue Code but without reference to whether any such corporation is an includable corporation under § 1504(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, from another member of such group shall be included only to the extent such amount exceeds expenses of the recipient directly related thereto.

D. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, may subtract the value of its business within any qualified locality or qualified localities, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subsection A. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

Code 1950, § 58-151.050:1; 1976, c. 436; 1979, c. 32; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-419. Construction corporations; apportionment.

A. Construction companies which have elected to report income on the completed contract basis shall apportion income within and without this Commonwealth in the ratio that the business within the Commonwealth is to the total business of the corporation.

B. All other construction corporations not reporting under the completed contract method shall determine Virginia taxable income by reference to §§ 58.1-406 through 58.1-416.

C. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, may subtract the value of its business within any qualified locality or qualified localities, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subsection A. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

Code 1950, § 58-151.050:2; 1976, c. 436; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-420. Railway companies; apportionment.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 58.1-408, railway companies shall determine their net apportionable income to the Commonwealth by multiplying the Virginia taxable income of such company, excluding the classes of income allocable under § 58.1-407, by the use of the ratio of revenue car miles in the Commonwealth to total revenue car miles of the company everywhere. For the purposes of this section, "revenue car mile" in the case of railway carriers of property or passengers means the movement of a unit of loaded car equipment a distance of one mile. The loaded car miles shall be determined in accordance with the Uniform System of Accounts for Railroad Companies of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

B. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, may subtract its revenue car miles traveled in any qualified locality or qualified localities, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subsection A. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.021, 58-151.050:3; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1978, c. 784; 1979, c. 371; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-421. Alternative method of allocation.

If any corporation believes that the method of allocation or apportionment hereinbefore prescribed as administered by the Department has operated or will so operate as to subject it to taxation on a greater portion of its Virginia taxable income than is reasonably attributable to business or sources within this Commonwealth, it shall be entitled to file with the Department a statement of its objections and of such alternative method of allocation or apportionment as it believes to be proper under the circumstances with such detail and proof and within such time as the Department may reasonably prescribe. If the Department concludes that the method of allocation or apportionment theretofore employed is in fact inapplicable or inequitable, it shall redetermine the taxable income by such other method of allocation or apportionment as seems best calculated to assign to the Commonwealth for taxation the portion of the income reasonably attributable to business and sources within the Commonwealth, not exceeding, however, the amount which would be arrived at by application of the statutory rules for allocation or apportionment.

Code 1950, § 58-151.051; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-422. Manufacturing companies; apportionment.

A. For taxable years beginning on or after July 1, 2011, the Virginia taxable income of a manufacturing company, excluding income allocable under § 58.1-407, may be apportioned within and without the Commonwealth as provided in § 58.1-408 or as follows:

1. From July 1, 2011, until July 1, 2013, by multiplying such income by a fraction, the numerator of which is the property factor plus the payroll factor plus triple the sales factor and the denominator of which is five, except when the sales factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors, and when the sales factor exists but the payroll factor or property factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors plus two;

2. From July 1, 2013, until July 1, 2014, by multiplying such income by a fraction, the numerator of which is the property factor plus the payroll factor plus quadruple the sales factor and the denominator of which is six, except when the sales factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors, and when the sales factor exists but the payroll factor or property factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors plus three; and

3. From July 1, 2014, and thereafter, by multiplying such income by the sales factor.

B. If the taxpayer makes one or more of the elections described in subdivision A 1, A 2, or A 3, the taxpayer may not revoke the election for a period of three taxable years.

In addition, the taxpayer shall certify to the Department that the average weekly wage of its full-time employees is greater than the lower of the state or local average weekly wages for the taxpayer's industry.

C. If the average annual number of full-time employees of a manufacturing company for the first three taxable years (in which the manufacturing company used the alternative apportionment set forth in this section) is less than 90 percent of the base year employment, or the average wage of its full-time employees as certified by the taxpayer is not greater than the lower of the state or local average weekly wage, then the Department of Taxation shall assess the manufacturing company with additional taxes pursuant to this article computed as the difference between (i) the taxes that would have been due under the apportionment formula provided under § 58.1-408 for such three taxable years, minus (ii) the taxes due under the alternative apportionment provided under this section for such three taxable years. Interest shall accrue and shall be assessed on such additional taxes at the rate prescribed under § 58.1-15, with such interest accruing from the original due date for filing of the income tax return to the date of payment of such additional taxes.

Such additional taxes and interest are hereby imposed on manufacturing companies using the alternative apportionment set forth in this section.

D. As used in this section, unless the context requires another meaning:

"Base year employment" means the average number of full-time employees employed by the manufacturing company in the Commonwealth in the taxable year that ended immediately prior to the first taxable year in which the manufacturing company used the alternative apportionment set forth in this section.

"Full-time employee" means an employee of a manufacturing company who is employed for an indefinite duration in the Commonwealth for which the standard fringe benefits are paid by the manufacturing company, for which employment requires a minimum of either (i) 35 hours of an employee's time per week for the entire normal year of such manufacturing company's operations, which "normal year" shall consist of at least 48 weeks, or (ii) 1,680 hours per year.

"Manufacturing company" means a domestic or foreign corporation primarily engaged in activities that, in accordance with the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS), United States Manual, United States Office of Management and Budget, 1997 Edition, would be included in Sector 11, 31, 32, or 33.

E. The General Assembly of Virginia finds that job creation is essential to the continued fiscal health of the Commonwealth. In this modern economy, states often compete for quality manufacturing jobs. Accordingly, the provisions of this section relating to manufacturing companies that increase their employment in Virginia are integral to the purpose of the election allowed pursuant to this section. If any provision of this section is for any reason held to be invalid or unconstitutional by the decision of a court of competent jurisdiction, that provision shall not be deemed severable.

F. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, that elects to apportion its income pursuant to subsection A may subtract the value of its sales in the Commonwealth during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subdivision A 3. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

2009, c. 821; 2012, c. 427; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-422.1. Retail companies; apportionment.

A. For taxable years beginning on or after July 1, 2012, the Virginia taxable income of a retail company, excluding income allocable under § 58.1-407, shall be apportioned within and without the Commonwealth as follows:

1. From July 1, 2012, until July 1, 2014, by multiplying such income by a fraction, the numerator of which is the property factor plus the payroll factor plus triple the sales factor and the denominator of which is five, except that when the sales factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors, and when the sales factor exists but the payroll factor or property factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors plus two;

2. From July 1, 2014, until July 1, 2015, by multiplying such income by a fraction, the numerator of which is the property factor plus the payroll factor plus quadruple the sales factor and the denominator of which is six, except that when the sales factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors, and when the sales factor exists but the payroll factor or property factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors plus three; and

3. From July 1, 2015, and thereafter, by multiplying such income by the sales factor.

B. As used in this section, "retail company" means a domestic or foreign corporation primarily engaged in activities that, in accordance with the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), United States Manual, United States Office of Management and Budget, 1997 Edition, would be included in Sectors 44-45.

C. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, may subtract the value of its sales in the Commonwealth during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subdivision A 3. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

2012, cc. 86, 666; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-422.2. Apportionment; taxpayers with enterprise data center operations.

A. For taxable years beginning on or after July 1, 2016, the Virginia taxable income of taxpayers with enterprise data center operations, excluding income allocable under § 58.1-407, shall be apportioned within and without the Commonwealth as follows:

1. From July 1, 2016, until July 1, 2017, by multiplying such income by a fraction, the numerator of which is the property factor plus the payroll factor plus quadruple the sales factor and the denominator of which is six, except that when the sales factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors, and when the sales factor exists but the payroll factor or property factor does not exist, the denominator of the fraction shall be the number of existing factors plus three; and

2. From July 1, 2017, and thereafter, by multiplying such income by the sales factor.

B. As used in this section:

"Enterprise data center operations" means operations that (i) physically house information technology equipment such as servers, switches, routers, data storage devices, or related equipment; (ii) manage and process digital data and information to provide application services or management for data processing, such as web hosting, Internet, intranet, telecommunication, and information technology; (iii) are developed and owned by the taxpayer; and (iv) are operated by the taxpayer or any of its affiliates substantially for their own use.

C. The provisions of this section requiring an apportionment formula for taxpayers with enterprise data center operations shall apply only to taxpayers that have entered into a memorandum of understanding with the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority on or after July 1, 2015, to make a new capital investment of at least $150 million in an enterprise data center in the Commonwealth on or after such date. The apportionment formula under this section shall apply to such taxpayers beginning with the taxable year for which the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority provides a written certification to the taxpayer that the new capital investment has been completed.

D. The General Assembly of Virginia finds that capital investment in data centers is essential to the continued fiscal health of the Commonwealth. In this modern economy, states often compete for quality data centers. Accordingly, the provisions of subsection C relating to capital investment in enterprise data centers are integral to the purpose of this section. If any provision of this section is for any reason held to be invalid or unconstitutional by the decision of a court of competent jurisdiction, that provision shall not be deemed severable.

E. Any eligible company, as defined in § 58.1-405.1, that apportions its income pursuant to this section may subtract the value of its sales in the Commonwealth during the taxable year from the numerator of the ratio in subdivision A 2. Such eligible company may make such modification for the taxable year in which it first becomes eligible and for the six subsequent, consecutive taxable years, except for any year in which the eligible company's (i) total, cumulative new capital investment falls below the applicable initial threshold or (ii) number of new jobs falls below the applicable initial threshold.

2015, cc. 92, 237; 2018, cc. 801, 802.

§ 58.1-422.3. Debt buyers; apportionment.

A. As used in this section, "debt buyer" means an entity and its affiliated entities that purchase nonperforming loans from unaffiliated commercial entities that (i) are in default for at least 120 days or (ii) are in bankruptcy proceedings. "Debt buyer" does not include an entity that provides debt collection services for unaffiliated entities.

B. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, the Virginia taxable income of a debt buyer, excluding income allocable under § 58.1-407, shall be apportioned within and without the Commonwealth by multiplying such income by the sales factor. For debt buyers, only money recovered on debt that a debt buyer collected from a person who is a resident of the Commonwealth or an entity that has its commercial domicile in the Commonwealth shall be apportioned to the Commonwealth for income tax purposes.

2018, c. 807.

§ 58.1-423. Income tax paid by commercial spaceflight entities.

A. Beginning July 1, 2011, and for fiscal years 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016, the portion of the Virginia income tax net revenue generated by qualified corporations or limited liability companies that is attributable to the sale of commercial human spaceflights or commercial spaceflight training (regardless of point of sale, or where space flight takes place), or is incidental to the sale of commercial human spaceflights, shall be transferred to the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, established pursuant to Article 2 (§ 2.2-2201 et seq.) of Chapter 22 of Title 2.2. The Tax Commissioner shall make a written certification to the Comptroller within 15 days of the close of each calendar quarter providing an estimate of the portion of the Virginia income tax net revenue generated during the calendar quarter by the qualified corporations or limited liability companies that is attributable to the sale of commercial human spaceflights or commercial spaceflight training or is incidental to the sale of commercial human spaceflights. Not later than 30 days after the close of each quarter, the Comptroller shall transfer to the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority an amount from the general fund that is equal to the estimate provided by the Tax Commissioner.

B. For purposes of this section, a qualified corporation or limited liability company is a corporation or limited liability company that engages in commercial human spaceflights or commercial spaceflight training.

2011, c. 563; 2012, cc. 779, 817; 2015, c. 260.

Article 13. Tax Credits for Corporations.

§ 58.1-430. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, cc. 292, 300.

§ 58.1-431. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2009, c. 34, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-432. Tax credit for purchase of conservation tillage equipment.

A. Any corporation shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 of an amount equaling 25 percent of all expenditures made for the purchase and installation of conservation tillage equipment used in agricultural production by the purchaser. As used in this section, the term "conservation tillage equipment" means a planter, drill, or other equipment used to reduce soil compaction commonly known as a "no-till" planter, drill, or other equipment used to reduce soil compaction including guidance systems to control traffic patterns that are designed to minimize disturbance of the soil in planting crops, including such planters, drills, or other equipment used to reduce soil compaction which may be attached to equipment already owned by the taxpayer.

B. The amount of such credit shall not exceed $4,000 or the total amount of tax imposed by this chapter, whichever is less, in the year of purchase. If the amount of such credit exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for such tax year, the amount which exceeds such tax liability may be carried over for credit against income taxes in the next five taxable years until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken.

C. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to the purchase and installation of conservation tillage equipment by a partnership or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners or shareholders in proportion to their ownership or interest in the partnership or S corporation.

1985, c. 560; 1990, c. 416; 2005, c. 58.

§ 58.1-433. Expired.

Expired.

§ 58.1-433.1. Virginia Coal Employment and Production Incentive Tax Credit.

A. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2001, every electricity generator in the Commonwealth shall be allowed a three-dollar-per-ton credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 or § 58.1-400.2 for each ton of coal purchased and consumed by such electricity generator, provided such coal was mined in Virginia as certified by such seller. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no electricity generator shall be allowed more than a three-dollar-per-ton coal tax credit and shall be subject to all limitations set forth in § 58.1-400.2. In no event shall the credit allowed hereunder exceed the total amount of tax liability of such taxpayer. Any tax credit not usable for the taxable year may be carried over to the extent usable for the next 10 succeeding taxable years or until the full credit is utilized, whichever is sooner. For the purposes of the credit provided by this section, "electricity generator" means any person who produces electricity for self-consumption or for sale.

B. For each such ton of coal described in subsection A that is purchased on or after January 1, 2006, from any person with an economic interest in coal as defined under § 58.1-439.2, the $3-per-ton credit allowed under subsection A may be allocated between such electricity generator and such person with an economic interest in coal. The allocation of the $3-per-ton credit may be provided in the contract between such parties for the sale of such coal. Such allocation may be amended by the execution of a written instrument by the parties prior to December 31 of the year of purchase of such coal. Such contracts and written instruments shall be subject to audit by the Department of Taxation to ensure the proper application of credits.

In no case shall the credit allocated for each such ton of coal among such electricity generators and such persons with an economic interest in coal exceed $3 per ton.

All credits earned on or after January 1, 2006, which are allocated to persons with an economic interest in coal as provided under this subsection may be used as tax credits by such persons against the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 and any other tax imposed by the Commonwealth. If the credits earned on or after January 1, 2006 exceed the state tax liability for the applicable taxable year of such person with an economic interest in coal, the excess shall be redeemable by the Tax Commissioner as set forth in subsection D of § 58.1-439.2, provided that the ability of persons with an economic interest in coal to redeem with the Tax Commissioner credits received pursuant to an allocation under this section shall expire for credits earned under this section on or after July 1, 2016.

1999, c. 971; 2000, c. 929; 2006, cc. 788, 803; 2011, cc. 294, 851.

§ 58.1-434. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2016, c. 305, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-436. Tax credit for purchase of advanced technology pesticide and fertilizer application equipment.

A. Any corporation engaged in agricultural production for market which has in place a nutrient management plan approved by the local Soil and Water Conservation District by the required tax return filing date of the corporation shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 of an amount equaling twenty-five percent of all expenditures made by such corporation for the purchase of equipment certified by the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Board as providing more precise pesticide and fertilizer application. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and Virginia State University shall provide at the request of the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Board technical assistance in determining appropriate specifications for certified equipment which would provide for more precise pesticide and fertilizer application to reduce the potential for adverse environmental impacts. The equipment shall be divided into the following categories:

1. Sprayers for pesticides and liquid fertilizers;

2. Pneumatic fertilizer applicators;

3. Monitors, computer regulators, and height adjustable booms for sprayers and liquid fertilizer applicators;

4. Manure applicators;

5. Tramline adapters; and

6. Starter fertilizer banding attachments for planters.

B. The amount of such credit shall not exceed $3,750 or the total amount of the tax imposed by this chapter, whichever is less, in the year of purchase. If the amount of such credit exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for such taxable year, the amount which exceeds the tax liability may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of such corporation in the next five taxable years until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken. Credits granted to a partnership or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be passed through to the partners or shareholders, respectively.

C. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to the purchase of equipment certified by the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Board as providing more precise pesticide and fertilizer application by a partnership or S corporation shall be allocated to the individual partners or shareholders in proportion to their ownership or interest in the partnership or S corporation.

1990, c. 416; 1996, c. 739.

§ 58.1-437. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1992, c. 394.

§ 58.1-438. Not effective.

Not effective.

§ 58.1-438.1. Tax credit for vehicle emissions testing equipment, clean-fuel vehicles and certain refueling property.

Any corporation, individual or public service corporation shall be allowed a credit against the income or gross receipts taxes imposed by Subtitle I (§ 58.1-100 et seq.) and Chapter 26 (§ 58.1-2600 et seq.) of Title 58.1 of (i) an amount equal to ten percent of the deduction allowed to such corporation, individual or public service corporation under Section 179A of the Internal Revenue Code for purchases of clean-fuel vehicles principally garaged in Virginia or certain refueling property placed in service in Virginia or ten percent of the costs used to compute the credit under Section 30 of the Internal Revenue Code and (ii) an amount equal to twenty percent of the purchase or lease price paid during the taxable year for equipment certified by the Department of Environmental Quality for vehicle emissions testing, located within, or within any county, city or town adjacent to, any county, city or town wherein implementation of an enhanced vehicle emissions inspection program, as defined in § 46.2-1176, is required. Credits granted to a partnership or S corporation shall be passed through to the partners or shareholders, respectively. If the credit exceeds the tax liability in a year, the credit may be carried forward up to five succeeding years.

1993, c. 562; 1994, cc. 164, 875; 1995, c. 100; 1997, c. 350; 1998, c. 599.

§ 58.1-439. Major business facility job tax credit.

A. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1995, but before July 1, 2022, a taxpayer shall be allowed a credit against the taxes imposed by Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.), 6 (§ 58.1-360 et seq.), and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) of Chapter 3; Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.); Article 1 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.) of Chapter 25; or Article 2 (§ 58.1-2620 et seq.) of Chapter 26 as set forth in this section.

B. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

C. A "major business facility" is a company that satisfies the following criteria:

1. Subject to the provisions of subsections K or L, the establishment or expansion of the company shall result in the creation of at least 50 jobs for qualified full-time employees; the first such 50 jobs shall be referred to as the "threshold amount"; and

2. The company is engaged in any business in the Commonwealth, except a retail trade business if such trade is the principal activity of an individual facility in the Commonwealth. Examples of types of major business facilities that are eligible for the credit provided under this section include, but are not limited to, a headquarters, or portion of such a facility, where company employees are physically employed, and where the majority of the company's financial, personnel, legal or planning functions are handled either on a regional or national basis. A company primarily engaged in the Commonwealth in the business of manufacturing or mining; agriculture, forestry or fishing; transportation or communications; or a public utility subject to the corporation income tax shall be deemed to have established or expanded a major business facility in the Commonwealth if it meets the requirements of subdivision 1 during a single taxable year and such facilities are not retail establishments. A major business facility shall also include facilities that perform central management or administrative activities, whether operated as a separate trade or business, or as a separate support operation of another business. Central management or administrative activities include, but are not limited to, general management; accounting; computing; tabulating; purchasing; transportation or shipping; engineering and systems planning; advertising; technical sales and support operations; central administrative offices and warehouses; research, development and testing laboratories; computer-programming, data-processing and other computer-related services facilities; and legal, financial, insurance, and real estate services. The terms used in this subdivision to refer to various types of businesses shall have the same meanings as those terms are commonly defined in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual.

D. For purposes of this section, the "credit year" is the first taxable year following the taxable year in which the major business facility commenced or expanded operations.

E. The Department of Taxation shall make all determinations as to the classification of a major business facility in accordance with the provisions of this section.

F. A "qualified full-time employee" means an employee filling a new, permanent full-time position in a major business facility in the Commonwealth. A "new, permanent full-time position" is a job of an indefinite duration, created by the company as a result of the establishment or expansion of a major business facility in the Commonwealth, requiring a minimum of 35 hours of an employee's time a week for the entire normal year of the company's operations, which "normal year" shall consist of at least 48 weeks, or a position of indefinite duration which requires a minimum of 35 hours of an employee's time a week for the portion of the taxable year in which the employee was initially hired for, or transferred to, the major business facility in the Commonwealth. Seasonal or temporary positions, or a job created when a job function is shifted from an existing location in the Commonwealth to the new major business facility and positions in building and grounds maintenance, security, and other such positions which are ancillary to the principal activities performed by the employees at a major business facility shall not qualify as new, permanent full-time positions.

G. For any major business facility, the amount of credit earned pursuant to this section shall be equal to $1,000 per qualified full-time employee, over the threshold amount, employed during the credit year. The credit shall be allowed ratably, with one-third of the credit amount allowed annually for three years beginning with the credit year. However, for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2009, one-half of the credit amount shall be allowed each year for two years. The portion of the $1,000 credit earned with respect to any qualified full-time employee who is employed in the Commonwealth for less than 12 full months during the credit year will be determined by multiplying the credit amount by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of full months that the qualified full-time employee worked for the major business facility in the Commonwealth during the credit year, and the denominator of which is 12. A separate credit year and a three-year allowance period shall exist for each distinct major business facility of a single taxpayer, except for credits allowed for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2009, when a two-year allowance period shall exist for each distinct major business facility of a single taxpayer.

H. The amount of credit allowed pursuant to this section shall not exceed the tax imposed for such taxable year. Any credit not usable for the taxable year the credit was allowed may be, to the extent usable, carried over for the next 10 succeeding taxable years. No credit shall be carried back to a preceding taxable year. In the event that a taxpayer who is subject to the tax limitation imposed pursuant to this subsection is allowed another credit pursuant to any other section of the Code of Virginia, or has a credit carryover from a preceding taxable year, such taxpayer shall be considered to have first utilized any credit allowed which does not have a carryover provision, and then any credit which is carried forward from a preceding taxable year, prior to the utilization of any credit allowed pursuant to this section.

I. No credit shall be earned pursuant to this section for any employee (i) for whom a credit under this section was previously earned by a related party as defined by Internal Revenue Code § 267(b) or a trade or business under common control as defined by Internal Revenue Code § 52(b); (ii) who was previously employed in the same job function in Virginia by a related party as defined by Internal Revenue Code § 267(b) or a trade or business under common control as defined by Internal Revenue Code § 52(b); (iii) whose job function was previously performed at a different location in Virginia by an employee of the taxpayer, a related party as defined by Internal Revenue Code § 267(b), or a trade or business under common control as defined by Internal Revenue Code § 52(b); or (iv) whose job function previously qualified for a credit under this section at a different major business facility on behalf of the taxpayer, a related party as defined by Internal Revenue Code § 267(b), or a trade or business under common control as defined by Internal Revenue Code § 52(b).

J. Subject to the provisions of subsections K or L, recapture of this credit, under the following circumstances, shall be accomplished by increasing the tax in any of the five years succeeding the taxable year in which a credit has been earned pursuant to this section if the number of qualified full-time employees decreases below the average number of qualified full-time employees employed during the credit year. Such tax increase amount shall be determined by (i) recomputing the credit which would have been earned for the original credit year using the decreased number of qualified full-time employees and (ii) subtracting such recomputed credit from the amount of credit previously earned. In the event that the average number of qualifying full-time employees employed at a major business facility falls below the threshold amount in any of the five taxable years succeeding the credit year, all credits earned with respect to such major business facility shall be recaptured. No credit amount will be recaptured more than once pursuant to this subsection. Any recapture pursuant to this section shall reduce credits earned but not yet allowed, and credits allowed but carried forward, before the taxpayer's tax liability may be increased.

K. In the event that a major business facility is located in an economically distressed area or in an enterprise zone as defined in Chapter 49 (§ 59.1-538 et seq.) of Title 59.1 during a credit year, the threshold amount required to qualify for a credit pursuant to this section and to avoid full recapture shall be reduced from 50 to 25 for purposes of subdivision C 1 and subsection J. An area shall qualify as economically distressed if it is a city or county with an unemployment rate for the preceding year of at least 0.5 percent higher than the average statewide unemployment rate for such year. The Virginia Economic Development Partnership shall identify and publish a list of all economically distressed areas at least annually.

L. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2004, but before January 1, 2006, in the event that a major business facility is located in a severely economically distressed area, the threshold amount required to qualify for a credit pursuant to this section and to avoid full recapture shall be reduced from 100 to 25 for purposes of subdivision C 1 and subsection J. However, the total amount of credit allowable under this subsection shall not exceed $100,000 in aggregate. An area shall qualify as severely economically distressed if it is a city or county with an unemployment rate for the preceding year of at least twice the average statewide unemployment rate for such year. The Virginia Economic Development Partnership shall identify and publish a list of all severely economically distressed areas at least annually.

M. The Tax Commissioner shall promulgate regulations, in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.), relating to (i) the computation, carryover, and recapture of the credit provided under this section; (ii) defining criteria for (a) a major business facility, (b) qualifying full-time employees at such facility, and (c) economically distressed areas; and (iii) the computation, carryover, recapture, and redemption of the credit by affiliated companies pursuant to subsection S.

N. The provisions of this section shall apply only in instances where an announcement of intent to establish or expand a major business facility is made on or after January 1, 1994. An announcement of intent to establish or expand a major business facility includes, but is not limited to, a press conference or extensive press coverage, providing information with respect to the impact of the project on the economy of the area where the major business facility is to be established or expanded and the Commonwealth as a whole.

O. The credit allowed pursuant to this section shall be granted to the person who pays taxes for the qualified full-time employees pursuant to Chapter 5 (§ 60.2-500 et seq.) of Title 60.2.

P. No person shall claim a credit allowed pursuant to this section and the credit allowed pursuant to § 58.1-439.2. Any qualified business firm receiving an enterprise zone job creation grant under § 59.1-547 shall not be eligible to receive a major business facility job tax credit pursuant to this section for any job used to qualify for the enterprise zone job creation grant.

Q. No person operating a business in the Commonwealth pursuant to Chapter 29 (§ 59.1-364 et seq.) of Title 59.1 shall claim a credit pursuant to this section.

R. Notwithstanding subsection O, a taxpayer may, for the purpose of determining the number of qualified full-time employees at a major business facility, include the employees of a contractor or a subcontractor if such employees are permanently assigned to the taxpayer's major business facility. If the taxpayer includes the employees of a contractor or subcontractor in its total of qualified full-time employees, it shall enter into a contractual agreement with the contractor or subcontractor prohibiting the contractor or subcontractor from also claiming these employees in order to receive a credit given under this section. The taxpayer shall provide evidence satisfactory to the Department of Taxation that it has entered into such a contract.

S. For purposes of satisfying the criteria of subdivision C 1, two or more affiliated companies may elect to aggregate the number of jobs created for qualified full-time employees as the result of the establishment or expansion by the individual companies in order to qualify for the credit allowed pursuant to this section. For purposes of this subsection, "affiliated companies" means two or more companies related to each other such that (i) one company owns at least 80 percent of the voting power of the other or others or (ii) at least 80 percent of the voting power of two or more companies is owned by the same interests.

T. The General Assembly of Virginia finds that modern business infrastructure allows businesses to locate their administrative or manufacturing facilities with minimal regard to the location of markets or the transportation of raw materials and finished goods, and that the economic vitality of the Commonwealth would be enhanced if such facilities were established in Virginia. Accordingly, the provisions of this section targeting the credit to major business facilities and limiting the credit to those companies which establish a major business facility in Virginia are integral to the purpose of the credit earned pursuant to this section and shall not be deemed severable.

U. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, and notwithstanding the provisions of § 58.1-3 or any other provision of law, the Department of Taxation, in consultation with the Virginia Economic Development Partnership, shall publish the following information by November 1 of each year for the 12-month period ending on the preceding December 31:

1. The location of sites used for major business facilities for which a credit was claimed;

2. The North American Industry Classification System codes used for the major business facilities for which a credit was claimed;

3. The number of qualified full time employees for whom a credit was claimed; and

4. The total cost to the Commonwealth's general fund of the credits claimed.

Such information shall be published by the Department, regardless of how few taxpayers claimed the tax credit, in a manner that prevents the identification of particular taxpayers, reports, returns, or items.

1994, cc. 750, 768; 1995, c. 365; 1996, c. 874; 1997, cc. 786, 852; 1998, c. 367; 2004, cc. 170, 619; 2005, cc. 863, 884; 2009, c. 753; 2010, cc. 363, 469; 2012, cc. 93, 445, 475; 2015, c. 451; 2019, c. 699.

§ 58.1-439.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2016, c. 305, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-439.2. Coalfield employment enhancement tax credit.

A. For tax years beginning on and after January 1, 1996, but before January 1, 2017, and on and after January 1, 2018, but before January 1, 2023, any person who has an economic interest in coal mined in the Commonwealth shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 and any other tax imposed by the Commonwealth in accordance with the following:

1. For metallurgical coal mined by underground methods, the credit amount shall be based on the seam thickness as follows:

a

Seam Thickness

Credit per Ton

b

36'' and under

$2.00

c

Above 36''

$1.00

The seam thickness shall be based on the weighted average isopach mapping of actual metallurgical coal thickness by mine as certified by a professional engineer. Copies of such certification shall be maintained by the person qualifying for the credit under this section for a period of three years after the credit is applied for and received and shall be available for inspection by the Department of Taxation. The Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy is hereby authorized to audit all information upon which the isopach mapping is based.

2. For metallurgical coal mined by surface mining methods, a credit in the amount of 40 cents ($0.40) per ton for coal sold in 1996, and each year thereafter.

B. In addition to the credit allowed in subsection A, for tax years beginning on and after January 1, 1996, but before January 1, 2023, any person who is a producer of coalbed methane shall be allowed a credit in the amount of one cent ($0.01) per million BTUs of coalbed methane produced in the Commonwealth against the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 and any other tax imposed by the Commonwealth on such person.

C. For purposes of this section, economic interest is the same as the economic ownership interest required by § 611 of the Internal Revenue Code which was in effect on December 31, 1977. A party who only receives an arm's length royalty shall not be considered as having an economic interest in coal mined in the Commonwealth.

D. If the credit exceeds the person's state tax liability for the tax year, the excess shall be redeemable by the Tax Commissioner on behalf of the Commonwealth for 90 percent of the face value within 90 days after filing the return; however, for credit earned in tax years beginning on and after January 1, 2002, such excess shall be redeemable by the Tax Commissioner on behalf of the Commonwealth for 85 percent of the face value within 90 days after filing the return. The remaining 10 or 15 percent of the value of the credit being redeemed, as applicable for such tax year, shall be deposited by the Commissioner in a regional economic development fund administered by the Virginia Coalfield Economic Development Authority to be used for regional economic diversification in accordance with guidelines developed by the Virginia Coalfield Economic Development Authority and the Virginia Economic Development Partnership.

E. No person may utilize more than one of the credits on a given ton of coal described in subsection A. No person may claim a credit pursuant to this section for any ton of coal for which a credit has been claimed under § 58.1-433.1 or 58.1-2626.1. Persons who qualify for the credit may not apply such credit to their tax returns prior to January 1, 1999, and only one year of credits shall be allowed annually beginning in 1999.

F. The amount of credit allowed pursuant to subsection A shall be the amount of credit earned multiplied by the person's employment factor. The person's employment factor shall be the percentage obtained by dividing the total number of coal mining jobs of the person filing the return, including the jobs of the contract operators of such person, as reflected in the annual tonnage reports filed with the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy for the year in which the credit was earned by the total number of coal mining jobs of such persons or operators as reflected in the annual tonnage reports for the year immediately prior to the year in which the credit was earned. In no case shall the credit claimed exceed that amount set forth in subsection A.

G. The tax credit allowed under this section shall be claimed in the third taxable year following the taxable year in which the credit was earned and allowed.

H. As used in this section, "metallurgical coal" means bituminous coal used for the manufacture of iron and steel with calorific value of 14,000 BTUs or greater on a moisture and ash free basis.

1995, c. 775; 1996, c. 1034; 1999, c. 971; 2000, cc. 91, 1066; 2006, cc. 788, 803; 2011, c. 851; 2012, cc. 309, 649; 2018, cc. 853, 855.

§ 58.1-439.3. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2009, c. 34, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-439.4. Day-care facility investment tax credit.

A. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1997, any taxpayer shall be allowed a credit against the taxes imposed by § 58.1-320 or § 58.1-400 in an amount equal to twenty-five percent of all expenditures paid or incurred by such taxpayer in such taxable year for planning, site preparation, construction, renovation, or acquisition of facilities for the purpose of establishing a child day-care facility to be used primarily by the children of such taxpayer's employees, and equipment installed for permanent use within or immediately adjacent to such facility, including kitchen appliances, to the extent that such equipment or appliances are necessary in the use of such facility for purposes of child day-care; however, the amount of credit allowed to any taxpayer under this section shall not exceed $25,000. If two or more taxpayers share in the cost of establishing the child day-care facility for the children of their employees, each such taxpayer shall be allowed such credit in relation to the respective share paid or incurred by such taxpayer, of the total expenditures for the facility in such taxable year.

B. The credits provided under this section shall be allowed only if (i) the child day-care facility shall be operated under the authority of a license issued by the Commissioner of Social Services pursuant to § 63.2-1701, (ii) an application for a building permit for the facility is made after July 1, 1996, and (iii) the Tax Commissioner approves a taxpayer's application for a credit. Proper applications submitted to the Department for the credit shall be approved in the order received. For each application approved for credit it shall be assumed that the amount of the credit will be $25,000, and the amount of the credit will be taken in the fiscal year in which the application is approved and the following two fiscal years. Approval of applications shall be limited to those that are assumed to result in no more than $100,000 of credits in any fiscal year based on the assumptions set forth in this subsection.

C. Any tax credit not usable for the taxable year may be carried over to the extent usable for the next three taxable years; however, the balance of a credit shall not be claimed for any succeeding taxable year in which the child day-care facility is operated for purposes of child day-care for less than six months.

D. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

1996, c. 497.

§ 58.1-439.5. Agricultural best management practices tax credit.

A. For all taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1998, any corporation engaged in agricultural production for market who has in place a soil conservation plan approved by the local Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD) shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 of an amount equaling twenty-five percent of the first $70,000 expended for agricultural best management practices by the corporation. As used in this section, "agricultural best management practice" means a practice approved by the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation Board (VSWCB) which will provide a significant improvement to water quality in the state's streams and rivers and the Chesapeake Bay and is consistent with other state and federal programs that address agricultural, nonpoint-source-pollution management. Eligible practices shall include, but are not limited to, the following:

1. Livestock-waste and poultry-waste management;

2. Soil erosion control;

3. Nutrient and sediment filtration and detention;

4. Nutrient management; and

5. Pest management and pesticide handling.

A detailed list of the standards and criteria for practices eligible for credit shall be found in the most recently approved "Virginia Agricultural BMP Implementation Manual" published by the Department of Conservation and Recreation.

B. Any practice approved by the local Soil and Water Conservation District Board shall be completed within the taxable year in which the credit is claimed. After the practice installation has been completed, the local SWCD Board shall certify the practice as approved and completed, and eligible for credit. The applicant shall forward the certification to the Department of Taxation on forms provided by the Department. The credit shall be allowed only for expenditures made by the taxpayer from funds of his own sources.

C. 1. The amount of such credit shall not exceed $17,500 or the total amount of the tax imposed by this chapter, whichever is less, in the year the project was completed, as certified by the Board. Any taxpayer claiming a tax credit under this section shall not claim a credit under any similar Virginia law for costs related to the same eligible practices.

2. If the amount of the credit exceeds the taxpayer's liability for such taxable year, the excess shall be refunded by the Tax Commissioner. Tax credits shall be refunded by the Tax Commissioner on behalf of the Commonwealth for 100 percent of face value. Tax credits shall be refunded within 90 days after the filing date of the income tax return on which the taxpayer applies for the refund.

D. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to agricultural best management practices by a partnership or electing small business corporation (S Corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners or shareholders in proportion to their ownership or interest in the partnership or S Corporation.

1996, c. 629; 2018, c. 556.

§ 58.1-439.6. Worker retraining tax credit.

A. As used in this section, unless the context clearly requires otherwise:

"Eligible worker retraining" means retraining of a qualified employee that promotes economic development in the form of (i) noncredit courses at any of the Commonwealth's comprehensive community colleges or a private school or (ii) worker retraining programs undertaken through an apprenticeship agreement approved by the Commissioner of Labor and Industry.

"Manufacturing" means processing, manufacturing, refining, mining, or converting products for sale or resale.

"Qualified employee" means an employee of an employer eligible for a credit under this section in a full-time position requiring a minimum of 1,680 hours in the entire normal year of the employer's operations if the standard fringe benefits are paid by the employer for the employee. Employees in seasonal or temporary positions shall not qualify as qualified employees. A qualified employee (i) shall not be a relative of any owner or the employer claiming the credit and (ii) shall not own, directly or indirectly, more than five percent in value of the outstanding stock of a corporation claiming the credit. As used herein, "relative" means a spouse, child, grandchild, parent or sibling of an owner or employer, and "owner" means, in the case of a corporation, any person who owns five percent or more of the corporation's stock.

"STEM or STEAM discipline" means a science, technology, engineering, mathematics, or applied mathematics related discipline as certified by the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority in consultation with the Superintendent of Public Instruction. The term shall include a health care-related discipline.

B. 1. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1999, but prior to January 1, 2019, an employer shall be allowed a credit against the taxes imposed by Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.), 6 (§ 58.1-360 et seq.), and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) of Chapter 3; Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.); Article 1 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.) of Chapter 25; or Article 2 (§ 58.1-2620 et seq.) of Chapter 26 in an amount equal to 30 percent of all expenditures paid or incurred by the employer during the taxable year for eligible worker retraining. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2013, but prior to January 1, 2019, if the eligible worker retraining consists of courses conducted at a private school, the credit shall be in an amount equal to the cost per qualified employee, but the amount of the credit shall not exceed $200 per qualified employee annually, or $300 per qualified employee annually if the eligible worker retraining includes retraining in a STEM or STEAM discipline, including but not limited to industry-recognized credentials, certificates, and certifications.

2. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2018, but prior to January 1, 2019, a business primarily engaged in manufacturing shall be allowed a credit against the taxes imposed by Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.) and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) in an amount equal to 35 percent of its direct costs incurred during the taxable year in conducting orientation, instruction, and training in the Commonwealth relating to the manufacturing activities undertaken by the business. In no event shall the credit allowed to a business under this subdivision exceed $2,000 for any taxable year. The Department shall allow credit only for programs that (i) provide orientation, instruction, and training solely to students in grades six through 12; (ii) are coordinated with the local school division; and (iii) are conducted either at a plant or facility owned, leased, rented, or otherwise used by the business or at a public middle or high school in Virginia. The taxpayer shall include in its direct costs only the following expenditures: (a) salaries or wages paid to instructors and trainers, prorated for the period of instruction or training; (b) costs for orientation, instruction, and training materials; (c) amounts paid for machinery and equipment used primarily for such instruction and training; and (d) the cost of leased or rented space used primarily for conducting the program.

3. The total amount of tax credits granted under this section for each fiscal year shall not exceed $1 million.

C. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

D. 1. An employer shall be allowed a credit pursuant to subdivision B 1 only for those courses at a comprehensive community college or a private school for which courses have been certified as eligible worker retraining to the Department of Taxation by the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority. The Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority shall review requests for certification submitted by employers and shall advise the Tax Commissioner whether a course or program qualifies as eligible worker retraining and, if it qualifies, whether the course or program is in a STEM or STEAM discipline.

2. A business shall be allowed the credit pursuant to subdivision B 2 only for an orientation, instruction, and training program that has been approved by the local school division and certified as eligible by the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority. A business seeking a tax credit under subdivision B 2 shall include in its application reviewed by the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority an approval from the local school division. The Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority shall review requests for certification submitted by businesses and shall advise the Tax Commissioner whether an orientation, instruction, and training program qualifies as relating to the manufacturing activities undertaken by the business and meets other applicable requirements.

3. The Tax Commissioner shall develop guidelines (i) establishing procedures for claiming the credit provided by this section, (ii) defining eligible worker retraining, which shall include only those courses and programs that are substantially related to the duties of a qualified employee or that enhance the qualified employee's job-related skills, and that promote economic development, and (iii) providing for the allocation of credits among employers and businesses requesting credits in the event that the amount of credits for which requests are made exceeds the available amount of credits in any year. Such guidelines shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

E. Any credit not usable for the taxable year may be carried over for the next three taxable years. The amount of credit allowed pursuant to this section shall not exceed the tax imposed for such taxable year. No credit shall be carried back to a preceding taxable year. If an employer or business that is subject to the tax limitation imposed pursuant to this subsection is allowed another credit pursuant to any other section of this Code, or has a credit carryover from a preceding taxable year, such employer or business shall be considered to have first utilized any credit allowed which does not have a carryover provision, and then any credit which is carried forward from a preceding taxable year, prior to the utilization of any credit allowed pursuant to this section.

F. No employer or business shall be eligible to claim a credit under this section for worker retraining or manufacturing orientation, instruction, and training undertaken by any program operated, administered, or paid for by the Commonwealth.

G. The Department shall review certifications received from the Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority pursuant to subsection D and, if it determines a taxpayer meets the applicable requirements, shall issue a credit in the amount specified in subsection B.

H. The Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority shall report annually to the Chairmen of the House Finance and Senate Finance Committees on the status and implementation of the credit established by this section, including certifications for eligible worker retraining.

1997, c. 726; 2013, cc. 294, 482; 2014, c. 734; 2017, cc. 177, 454; 2018, c. 500; 2019, c. 189.

§ 58.1-439.6:1. Worker training tax credit.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Eligible worker training" means the training of a qualified employee or non-highly compensated worker in the form of (i) credit or noncredit courses at any institution recognized on the Eligible Training Provider List that results in the qualified employee or non-highly compensated worker receiving a workforce credential or (ii) instruction or training that is part of an apprenticeship agreement approved by the Commissioner of Labor and Industry.

"Industry-recognized" means demonstrating competency or proficiency in the technical and occupational skills identified as necessary for performing functions of an occupation based on standards developed or endorsed by employers or industry organizations.

"Manufacturing" means processing, manufacturing, refining, mining, or converting products for sale or resale.

"Non-highly compensated worker" means a worker whose income is less than Virginia's median wage, as reported by the Virginia Employment Commission, in the taxable year prior to applying for the credit. "Non-highly compensated worker" does not include an owner or relative.

"Owner" means an individual who owns, directly or indirectly, more than a five percent interest in the business claiming the credit.

"Qualified employee" means an employee of a business eligible for a credit under this section in a full-time position requiring a minimum of 1,680 hours in the entire normal year of the business' operations if the standard fringe benefits are paid by the business for the employee. Employees in seasonal or temporary positions shall not qualify as qualified employees. "Qualified employee" does not include an owner or relative.

"Relative" means a spouse, child, grandchild, parent, or sibling of an owner.

"Workforce credential" means an industry-recognized (i) certification, (ii) certificate, or (iii) degree.

B. 1. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, but prior to July 1, 2022, a business shall be allowed a credit against the taxes imposed by Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.), 6 (§ 58.1-360 et seq.), and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) of Chapter 3; Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.); Article 1 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.) of Chapter 25; or Article 2 (§ 58.1-2620 et seq.) of Chapter 26 in an amount equal to 35 percent of expenses incurred by the business during the taxable year for eligible worker training. If the recipient of the training is a qualified employee, the credit shall not exceed $500 per qualified employee annually. If the recipient of the training is a non-highly compensated worker, the credit shall not exceed $1,000 per non-highly compensated worker annually.

2. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, but prior to January 1, 2022, a business primarily engaged in manufacturing shall be allowed a credit against the taxes imposed by Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.) and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) in an amount equal to 35 percent of its direct costs incurred during the taxable year in conducting orientation, instruction, and training in the Commonwealth relating to the manufacturing activities undertaken by the business. In no event shall the credit allowed to a business under this subdivision exceed $2,000 for any taxable year. The Department shall allow credit only for programs that (i) provide orientation, instruction, and training solely to students in grades six through 12; (ii) are coordinated with the local school division; and (iii) are conducted either at a plant or facility owned, leased, rented, or otherwise used by the business or at a public middle or high school in the Commonwealth. The taxpayer shall include in its direct costs only the following expenditures: (a) salaries or wages paid to instructors and trainers, prorated for the period of instruction or training; (b) costs for orientation, instruction, and training materials; (c) amounts paid for machinery and equipment used primarily for such instruction and training; and (d) the cost of leased or rented space used primarily for conducting the program.

3. The total amount of tax credits granted under this section for each fiscal year shall not exceed $1 million.

C. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

D. 1. A business shall be allowed a credit pursuant to subdivision B 1 only for those programs and providers that have been approved for inclusion in the Commonwealth's Eligible Training Provider List. The Workforce Innovation Opportunity Act Title 1 Administrator shall provide the Tax Commissioner with the approved list annually.

2. A business shall be allowed the credit pursuant to subdivision B 2 only for an orientation, instruction, and training program that has been approved by the local school division and certified as eligible by the Department of Education. A business seeking a tax credit under subdivision B 2 shall include in its application reviewed by the Department of Education an approval from the local school division. The Department of Education shall review requests for certification submitted by businesses and shall advise the Tax Commissioner whether an orientation, instruction, and training program qualifies as relating to the manufacturing activities undertaken by the business and meets other applicable requirements.

3. The Tax Commissioner shall develop guidelines (i) establishing procedures for claiming the credit provided by this section and (ii) providing for the allocation of credits among businesses requesting credits in the event that the amount of credits for which requests are made exceeds the available amount of credits in any year. Such guidelines shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

E. Any credit not usable for the taxable year may be carried over for the next three taxable years. The amount of credit allowed pursuant to this section shall not exceed the tax imposed for such taxable year. No credit shall be carried back to a preceding taxable year. If a business that is subject to the tax limitation imposed pursuant to this subsection is allowed another credit pursuant to any other section of this Code, or has a credit carryover from a preceding taxable year, such business shall be considered to have first utilized any credit allowed that does not have a carryover provision, and then any credit which is carried forward from a preceding taxable year, prior to the utilization of any credit allowed pursuant to this section.

F. No business shall be eligible to claim a credit under this section for eligible worker training or manufacturing orientation, instruction, and training undertaken by any program operated, administered, or paid for by the Commonwealth.

G. The Tax Commissioner shall report annually to the Chairmen of the House and Senate Committees on Finance on the status and implementation of the credit established by this section.

2019, c. 189.

§ 58.1-439.7. Tax credit for purchase of machinery and equipment for processing recyclable materials.

A. 1. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1999, but before January 1, 2020, a taxpayer shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed pursuant to Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.) and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) of Chapter 3 of this title, in an amount equal to 20 percent of the purchase price paid during the taxable year for machinery and equipment used predominantly in or on the premises of manufacturing facilities or plant units which manufacture, process, compound, or produce items of tangible personal property from recyclable materials, within the Commonwealth, for sale. For purposes of determining "purchase price paid" under this section, the taxpayer may use the original total capitalized cost of such machinery and equipment, less capitalized interest.

2. The Department of Environmental Quality shall certify that such machinery and equipment are integral to the recycling process before the taxpayer shall be allowed the tax credit under this section. The taxpayer shall also submit purchase receipts and invoices as may be necessary to confirm the taxpayer's statement of purchase price paid, with the income tax return to verify the amount of purchase price paid for the recycling machinery and equipment.

3. No taxpayer shall be denied the credit under this section based solely on another person's use of the tangible personal property produced by the taxpayer, provided that the tangible personal property was sold by the taxpayer to an unaffiliated person in an arm's-length sale.

4. No credit shall be allowed under this section for machinery and equipment unless the machinery and equipment manufacture, process, compound, or produce items of tangible personal property from recyclable materials.

B. The total credit allowed under this section in any taxable year shall not exceed 40 percent of the Virginia income tax liability of such taxpayer.

C. Any tax credit not used for the taxable year in which the purchase price on recycling machinery and equipment was paid may be carried over for credit against the taxpayer's income taxes in the 10 succeeding taxable years until the total credit amount is used.

D. The Department of Taxation shall administer the tax credits under this section. Beginning with credits allowable for taxable year 2015, in no case shall the Department issue more than $2 million in tax credits pursuant to this section in any fiscal year of the Commonwealth. A taxpayer shall not be allowed to claim any tax credit unless it has applied to the Department of Environmental Quality for certification as described in subdivision A 2 and the Department of Environmental Quality has issued a written certification stating that the machinery and equipment purchased are integral to the recycling process. If the amount of tax credits approved under this section by the Department of Taxation for any taxable year exceeds $2 million, the Department shall apportion the credits by dividing $2 million by the total amount of tax credits so approved, to determine the percentage of otherwise allowed tax credits each taxpayer shall receive.

E. In the event a corporation converts to a partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S corporation), such business entity shall be entitled to any unused credits of the corporation. Credits earned by a partnership, limited liability company, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or a predecessor corporation entitled to such credits, shall be allocated to the individual partners, members, or shareholders, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

1998, c. 253; 2001, c. 91; 2004, c. 611; 2007, cc. 529, 593; 2009, c. 34; 2015, cc. 49, 94.

§ 58.1-439.8. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2009, c. 34, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-439.9. Tax credit for certain employers hiring recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families.

A. As used in this section:

"Qualified business employer" means an employer whose business employed not more than 100 employees at the time that the employer first hired a qualified employee.

"Qualified employee" means an employee who is a Virginia resident and is a recipient of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 6 (§ 63.2-600 et seq.) of Title 63.2.

B. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1999, a qualified business employer shall be allowed a credit against the taxes imposed by Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.), 6 (§ 58.1-360 et seq.), and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) of Chapter 3 of this title in an amount equal to five percent of the annual salary actually paid during the taxable year to a qualified employee. However, the annual amount of the credit shall not exceed $750 per qualified employee. Qualified business employers entitled to the credit pursuant to this section shall provide written evidence, satisfactory to the Tax Commissioner, of employing such qualified employee for the taxable year in which the credit is claimed.

C. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

D. Any credit not usable for the taxable year may be carried over for the next three taxable years. The amount of credit allowed pursuant to this section shall not exceed the tax imposed for such taxable year. No credit shall be carried back to a preceding taxable year. If a qualified business employer that is subject to the tax limitation imposed pursuant to this subsection is allowed another credit pursuant to any other section of this Code, or has a credit carryover from a preceding taxable year, such employer shall be considered to have first utilized any credit allowed which does not have a carryover provision, and then any credit which is carried forward from a preceding taxable year, prior to the utilization of any credit allowed pursuant to this section.

E. The amount of tax credits available under this section in any fiscal year shall not exceed the amount appropriated for such year as provided in the general appropriation act.

F. The State Board of Social Services shall promulgate regulations in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) establishing procedures for claiming the tax credit provided by this section.

1998, c. 486; 2002, c. 747.

§ 58.1-439.10. Tax credit for purchase of waste motor oil burning equipment.

A. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1999, a taxpayer who operates a business facility within the Commonwealth which accepts waste motor oil from the public shall be allowed a credit against the taxes imposed pursuant to Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.) and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) of this chapter in an amount equal to fifty percent of the purchase price paid during the taxable year for equipment used exclusively for burning waste motor oil at the business facility. The total credit allowed to any taxpayer under this section in any taxable year shall not exceed $5,000.

B. The Department of Environmental Quality shall certify that such equipment is used to burn waste motor oil at a business facility within the Commonwealth which accepts waste motor oil from the public before the taxpayer shall be entitled to the tax credit under this section. The taxpayer shall also submit with his income tax return such receipts, invoices, and other documentation as may be necessary to confirm the taxpayer's statement of the purchase price paid for the waste motor oil burning equipment. Any tax credit under this section shall be used only for the taxable year in which the purchase price of the waste motor oil burning equipment was paid.

C. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to the purchase of equipment used exclusively for burning waste motor oil by a partnership or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners or shareholders in proportion to their ownership or interest in the partnership or S corporation.

1998, c. 896.

§ 58.1-439.11. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2016, c. 305, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-439.12. Riparian forest buffer protection for waterways tax credit.

A. For all taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2000, any corporation that owns land abutting a waterway on which timber is harvested, and that forbears harvesting timber on certain portions of the land near the waterway, shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 as set forth in this section. For purposes of this section, "waterway" means any perennial or intermittent stream of water depicted on the then most current United States Geological Survey topographical map.

B. The State Forester shall develop guidelines setting forth the general requirements of qualifying for the credit, including the land for which credit is eligible. To qualify for the credit the corporation must comply with an individualized Forest Stewardship Plan to be certified by the State Forester. In no event shall the distance from such waterway to the far end of the timber buffer, on which the tax credit is based, be less than thirty-five feet or more than three hundred feet. The minimum duration for the buffer shall be fifteen years. The State Forester shall check each certified buffer annually to verify its continued compliance with the taxpayer's Forest Stewardship Plan. If the State Forester discovers that the timber in that portion of the land retained as a buffer has been harvested prior to the end of the required term, written notification of such noncompliance shall be delivered to the taxpayer by the State Forester.

C. The tax credit shall be an amount equal to twenty-five percent of the value of timber in that portion of land retained as a buffer. The amount of such credit shall not exceed $17,500 or the total amount of the tax imposed by this chapter, whichever is less, in the year that the timber outside the buffer was harvested. If the amount of the credit exceeds the taxpayer's liability for such taxable year, the excess may be carried over for credit against income taxes in the next five taxable years until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken. The land which is the subject of a tax credit under this section cannot again be the subject of a tax credit under this section for at least fifteen years.

D. To claim the credit authorized under this section, the taxpayer shall apply to the State Forester, who shall determine the amount of credit, using the assessed value of the timber in that portion of land retained as a buffer, and issue a certificate thereof to the taxpayer. The taxpayer shall attach the certificate to the Virginia tax return on which the credit is claimed. In the event the timber in that portion of land retained as a buffer is harvested by the taxpayer or any other person prior to the end of the term originally established in the taxpayer's individualized Forest Stewardship Plan, the taxpayer shall repay the tax credit claimed. Within sixty days after receiving written notification from the State Forester that the taxpayer's plan no longer qualifies for the credit, repayment shall be made to the Department of Taxation. If repayment is not made within the sixty-day period, the State Forester shall notify the locality's Commonwealth Attorney for assistance in collecting the funds from the taxpayer.

2000, cc. 568, 607.

§ 58.1-439.12:01. Credit for cigarettes manufactured and exported.

A. For purposes of this section:

"Base year export volume" means the number of cigarettes manufactured by a corporation, which cigarettes were also exported by such manufacturer during its taxable year beginning in calendar year 2004.

"Cigarette or cigarettes" means the same as that term is defined in § 58.1-1031.

"Current year export volume" means the number of cigarettes manufactured by a corporation, which cigarettes were also exported by such manufacturer in the taxable year for which credit under this section is claimed. The term shall only apply for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2006.

"Exported" or "exports" means the shipment of cigarettes to a foreign country.

"Manufactured" or "manufactures" means manufactured in Virginia.

B. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2006, but before January 1, 2016, any corporation that manufactures cigarettes in Virginia, which cigarettes are exported by such manufacturer, shall be allowed a credit against the tax imposed by § 58.1-400 for such exported cigarettes as follows:

1. If the current year export volume of the corporation is less than 50 percent of the base year export volume for the corporation, no credit shall be allowed for the taxable year.

2. If the current year export volume of the corporation is at least 50 percent but less than 60 percent of the base year export volume for the corporation, the credit allowed shall equal $0.20 per 1,000 cigarettes of the current year export volume.

3. If the current year export volume of the corporation is at least 60 percent but less than 80 percent of the base year export volume for the corporation, the credit allowed shall equal $0.25 per 1,000 cigarettes of the current year export volume.

4. If the current year export volume of the corporation is at least 80 percent but less than 100 percent of the base year export volume for the corporation, the credit allowed shall equal $0.30 per 1,000 cigarettes of the current year export volume.

5. If the current year export volume of the corporation is at least 100 percent but less than 120 percent of the base year export volume for the corporation, the credit allowed shall equal $0.35 per 1,000 cigarettes of the current year export volume.

6. If the current year export volume of the corporation is at least 120 percent of the base year export volume for the corporation, the credit allowed shall equal $0.40 per 1,000 cigarettes of the current year export volume.

C. In no event shall the credit allowed under this section for any taxable year to any corporation exceed the lesser of $6 million or 50 percent of the corporation's income tax liability to the Commonwealth for such taxable year.

D. The total amount of tax credits granted under this section for each fiscal year of the Commonwealth shall not exceed $6 million. A corporation meeting the requirements of this section shall be eligible to receive a tax credit to the extent the corporation reserves such tax credit through the Department as provided herein.

The Department shall establish policies and procedures for the reservation of tax credits by eligible corporations. Such policies and procedures shall provide (i) requirements for applying for reservations of tax credits; (ii) a system for allocating the available amount of tax credits among eligible corporations; (iii) a method for the issuance of reservations to eligible corporations that did not initially receive a reservation in any year, if the Department determines that tax credit reservations were issued to other corporations that did not use, or were determined to be wholly or partially ineligible for, a reserved tax credit; and (iv) a procedure for the cancellation and reallocation of tax credit reservations allocated to eligible corporations that, after reserving tax credits, have been determined to be ineligible for all or a portion of the tax credits reserved. In no case shall a corporation be allowed to carry over any tax credit to be applied against any income tax for taxable years subsequent to the taxable year of export.

Actions of the Department relating to the approval or denial of applications for reservations for tax credits pursuant to this section shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act pursuant (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

E. A corporation claiming the credit under this section for a taxable year shall submit with its application for reservation of tax credits and its state income tax return a written statement certifying its base year export volume and current year export volume. It shall also submit with such application and return a listing of its export volumes as reported on its monthly reports to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms of the United States Department of the Treasury for each month of the taxable year and a listing for each month of the taxable year of its export volumes.

2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 4; 2005, c. 951; 2006, Sp. Sess. I, c. 2.

§ 58.1-439.12:02. Biodiesel and green diesel fuels producers tax credit.

A. For purposes of this section:

"Biodiesel fuel" means a fuel composed of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM D6751.

"Green diesel fuel" means a fuel produced from nonfossil renewable resources including agricultural or silvicultural plants, animal fats, residue and waste generated from the production, processing, and marketing of agricultural products, silvicultural products, and other renewable resources, and meeting applicable ASTM specifications.

"Feedstock" means the agricultural or other renewable resources, whether plant or animal derived, used to produce biodiesel or green diesel fuels.

"Producer" means any person, entity, or agricultural cooperative association, as defined in the Agricultural Cooperative Association Act (§ 13.1-312 et seq.) that, in a calendar year, produces in the Commonwealth up to two million gallons of biodiesel or green diesel fuels using feedstock originating domestically within the United States.

B. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2008, any taxpayer who is a biodiesel fuel or green diesel fuel producer shall be entitled to a nonrefundable credit against the taxes imposed by § 58.1-320 or 58.1-400 in an amount equal to $0.01 per gallon of biodiesel or green diesel fuels produced by such taxpayer. However, the annual amount of the credit shall not exceed $5,000. The taxpayer shall be eligible for the credit during the first three years of production of biodiesel or green diesel fuels.

Any taxpayer entitled to a credit under this section may transfer unused but otherwise allowable credits for use by another taxpayer on Virginia income tax returns. A taxpayer who transfers any amount of the credit in accordance with this section shall file a notification of such transfer to the Department of Taxation in accordance with procedures and forms prescribed by the Tax Commissioner.

C. The Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy shall certify that the biodiesel or green diesel fuels producer has satisfied the requirements of this section for the taxable year in which the credit is allowed. In addition, the taxpayer shall submit with his income tax return all documentation as required by the Department of Taxation. Any credit not usable for the taxable year may be carried over the next three taxable years. The amount of the credit allowed pursuant to this section shall not exceed the tax imposed for such taxable year.

D. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entity.

2008, c. 482.

§ 58.1-439.12:03. Motion picture production tax credit.

A. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2011, but prior to January 1, 2022, any motion picture production company with qualifying expenses of at least $250,000 with respect to a motion picture production filmed in Virginia shall be allowed a refundable credit against the taxes imposed by § 58.1-320 or 58.1-400 in an amount equal to 15 percent of the production company's qualifying expenses or 20 percent of such expenses if the production is filmed in an economically distressed area of the Commonwealth. The Virginia Economic Development Partnership Authority shall designate which areas of the Commonwealth are deemed to be economically distressed areas. The credit shall be computed based on all of the taxpayer's qualifying expenses incurred with respect to the production, not just the qualifying expenses incurred during the taxable year. The refundable tax credits allowed under this section are for one tax year only. Where a motion picture production continues for more than one year, a separate application for each tax year the production continues must be made. The grant of a refundable tax credit for a motion picture film production does not create a presumption that the production will receive a refundable tax credit for subsequent tax years. Effective on January 1, 2013, for purposes of eligibility for refundable tax credits, a motion picture film production shall include digital interactive media production.

"Qualifying expenses" means the sum of the following amounts spent in the Commonwealth by a production company in connection with the production of a motion picture filmed in the Commonwealth:

1. Goods and services leased or purchased. For goods with a purchase price of $25,000 or more, the amount included in qualifying expenses is the purchase price less the fair market value of the good at the time the production is completed.

2. Compensation and wages, except in the case of each individual who directly or indirectly receives compensation in excess of $1 million for personal services with respect to a single production. In such a case, only the first $1 million of salary shall be considered a qualifying expense. An individual is deemed to receive compensation indirectly when a production company pays a personal service company or an employee leasing company that pays the individual.

B. 1. In addition to the refundable credit authorized under subsection A, such production company shall be allowed an additional refundable credit equal to 10 percent of the total aggregate payroll for Virginia residents employed in connection with the production of a film in the Commonwealth when total production costs in the Commonwealth are at least $250,000 but not more than $1 million. This additional credit shall be equal to 20 percent of the total aggregate payroll for Virginia residents employed in connection with such production when total production costs in the Commonwealth exceed $1 million.

2. In addition to the credits authorized under subsection A and subdivision B 1, such production company shall be allowed an additional refundable credit equal to 10 percent of the total aggregate payroll for Virginia residents employed for the first time as actors or members of a production crew in connection with the production of a film in the Commonwealth.

C. 1. For purposes of this section, in the case of an episodic television series, an entire season of episodes shall be deemed to be one production.

2. No credit shall be allowed under this section for any production that (i) is political advertising, (ii) is a television production of a news program or live sporting event, (iii) contains obscene material, or (iv) is a reality television production.

D. 1. The issuance of refundable tax credits under this section shall be in accordance with procedures, qualifying criteria, and deadlines established by the Department and the Virginia Film Office. The qualifying criteria established by the Virginia Film Office shall take into account whether the production involves physical production within the Commonwealth of Virginia, the number of residents of Virginia that will be employed in the production and the level of compensation they will be paid, the extent to which the production will contribute to the support and expansion of existing production companies in Virginia, the extent to which the production will impact existing local businesses and the local economy, the extent to which the production will involve existing and new companies located in Virginia, and other relevant considerations. The taxpayer shall apply for a credit by submitting such forms as prescribed by the Virginia Film Office, prior to the start of production in Virginia.

2. Any taxpayer seeking credits under this section must enter into a memorandum of understanding with the Virginia Film Office that at a minimum provides the requirements that the taxpayer must meet in order to receive the credits, including but not limited to the estimated amount of money to be spent in Virginia, the timeline for completing production in Virginia, and the maximum amount of credits allocated to the taxpayer.

3. Once the taxpayer has satisfied all of the requirements in the memorandum of understanding to the satisfaction of the Virginia Film Office and completed production in Virginia, the taxpayer may claim the applicable amount of credits up to the amount that has been allocated by the Virginia Film Office on a return filed for the taxable year in which the Virginia production activities are completed. The return must state the name of the production, provide a description of the production, and include a detailed accounting of the qualifying expenses with respect to which a credit is claimed.

E. A taxpayer allowed a credit under this section must maintain and make available for inspection any information or records required by the Tax Commissioner. The taxpayer has the burden of proving eligibility for a credit and the amount of the credit. The Tax Commissioner shall consult with the Virginia Film Office in order to determine the amount of qualifying expenses.

F. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company may be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

G. The total amount of credits allocated to all taxpayers under this section shall not exceed $2.5 million in the 2010-2012 biennium, $5 million in the 2012-2014 biennium, and $6.5 million in fiscal year 2015 and each fiscal year thereafter.

H. The Department of Taxation, in consultation with the Virginia Film Office, must publish by November 1 of each year for the 12-month period ending the preceding December 31 the following information:

1. Location of sites used in a production for which a credit was claimed;

2. Qualifying expenses for which a credit was claimed, classified by whether the expenses were for goods, services, or compensation paid by the production company;

3. Number of people employed in the Commonwealth with respect to credits claimed; and

4. Total cost to the Commonwealth's general fund of the credits claimed.

Notwithstanding any provision of § 58.1-3 or any other law, such information shall be published by the Department, even if such information is not classified, so as to prevent the identification of particular taxpayers, reports, or returns and items.

I. The Tax Commissioner shall develop guidelines implementing the provisions of this section, including but not limited to the definition of "qualifying expenses" and setting forth the recordkeeping requirements applicable to production companies claiming this credit. Such guidelines shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

2010, cc. 419, 599; 2014, c. 730; 2017, cc. 108, 425.

§ 58.1-439.12:04. Tax credit for participating landlords.

A. As used in this section, unless the context clearly shows otherwise, the term or phrase:

"Dwelling unit" means an individual housing unit in an apartment building, an individual housing unit in multifamily residential housing, a single-family residence, or any similar individual housing unit.

"Eligible housing area" means a census tract in the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area or the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News Metropolitan Statistical Area in which less than 10 percent of the residents live below the poverty level, as defined by the United States government and determined by the most recent United States census.

"Housing authority" means a housing authority created under Article 1 (§ 36-1 et seq.) of Chapter 1 of Title 36 or other government agency that is authorized by the United States government under the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. § 1437 et seq.) to administer a housing choice voucher program, or the authorized agent of such a housing authority that is authorized to act upon that authority's behalf. The term shall also include the Virginia Housing Development Authority.

"Housing choice voucher" means tenant-based assistance by a housing authority pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 1437f et seq.

(Effective until October 1, 2019) "Participating landlord" means any person engaged in the business of the rental of dwelling units who is (i) subject to the Virginia Residential Landlord and Tenant Act (§ 55-248.2 et seq.) and (ii) performing obligations under a contract with a housing authority relating to the rental of qualified housing units.

(Effective October 1, 2019) "Participating landlord" means any person engaged in the business of the rental of dwelling units who is (i) subject to the Virginia Residential Landlord and Tenant Act (§ 55.1-1200 et seq.) and (ii) performing obligations under a contract with a housing authority relating to the rental of qualified housing units.

"Qualified housing unit" means a dwelling unit that is located in an eligible housing area for which a portion of the rent is paid by a housing authority, which payment is pursuant to a housing choice voucher program.

B. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2010, a participating landlord renting a qualified housing unit shall be eligible for a credit against the tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-320 or 58.1-400 in an amount equal to 10 percent of the fair market value of the rent for the unit, computed for that portion of the taxable year in which the unit was rented by such landlord to a tenant participating in a housing choice voucher program. The Department of Housing and Community Development shall administer and issue the tax credit under this section. If (i) the same parcel of real property contains four or more dwelling units and (ii) the total number of qualified housing units on the parcel in the relevant taxable year exceeds 25 percent of the total dwelling units on the parcel, then the tax credit under this section shall apply only to a limited number of qualified housing units with regard to such parcel of real property, with the limited number being equal to 25 percent of the total dwelling units on such parcel of real property in the taxable year.

C. The Department of Housing and Community Development shall issue tax credits under this section on a fiscal year basis. The maximum amount of tax credits that may be issued under this section in each fiscal year shall be $250,000.

D. Participating landlords shall apply to the Department of Housing and Community Development for tax credits under this section. The Department of Housing and Community Development shall determine the credit amount allowable to the participating landlord for the taxable year and shall also determine the fair market value of the rent for the qualified housing unit based on the fair market rent approved by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development as the basis for the tenant-based assistance provided through the housing choice voucher program for the qualified housing unit. In issuing tax credits under this section, the Department of Housing and Community Development shall provide a written certification to the participating landlord, which certification shall report the amount of the tax credit approved by the Department. The participating landlord shall attach the certification to the applicable income tax return.

E. The Board of Housing and Community Development shall establish and issue guidelines for purposes of implementing the provisions of this section. The guidelines shall provide for the allocation of tax credits among participating landlords requesting credits. The guidelines shall be exempt from the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

F. In no case shall the amount of credit taken by a participating landlord for any taxable year exceed the total amount of tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year. If the amount of credit issued by the Department of Housing and Community Development for a taxable year exceeds the landlord's tax liability imposed by this chapter for such taxable year, then the amount that exceeds the tax liability may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of the participating landlord in the next five taxable years or until the total amount of the tax credit issued has been taken, whichever is sooner. Credits granted to a partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners, members, or shareholders, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

G. In the event that the amount of the qualified requests for tax credits for participating landlords in the fiscal year exceeds $250,000, the Department of Housing and Community Development shall pro rate the tax credits among the qualified applicants.

2010, cc. 520, 608; 2013, cc. 23, 374; 2016, c. 305; 2019, cc. 19, 272.

§ 58.1-439.12:05. Green job creation tax credit.

A. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2010, but before January 1, 2021, a taxpayer shall be allowed a credit against the tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-320 or 58.1-400 for each new green job created within the Commonwealth by the taxpayer. The amount of the annual credit for each new green job shall be $500 for each annual salary that is $50,000 or more. The credit shall be first allowed for the taxable year in which the job has been filled for at least one year and for each of the four succeeding taxable years provided the job is continuously filled during the respective taxable year. Each taxpayer qualifying under this section shall be allowed the credit for up to 350 green jobs.

B. As used in this section:

"Green job" means employment in industries relating to the field of renewable, alternative energies, including the manufacture and operation of products used to generate electricity and other forms of energy from alternative sources that include hydrogen and fuel cell technology, landfill gas, geothermal heating systems, solar heating systems, hydropower systems, wind systems, and biomass and biofuel systems. The Secretary of Commerce and Trade shall develop a detailed definition and list of jobs that qualify for the credit provided in this section and shall post them on his website.

"Job" means employment of an indefinite duration of an individual whose primary work activity is related directly to the field of renewable, alternative energies and for which the standard fringe benefits are paid by the taxpayer, requiring a minimum of either (i) 35 hours of an employee's time per week for the entire normal year of such taxpayer's operations, which "normal year" must consist of at least 48 weeks, or (ii) 1,680 hours per year. Positions created when a job function is shifted from an existing location in the Commonwealth shall not qualify as a job under this section.

C. To qualify for the tax credit provided in subsection A, a taxpayer shall demonstrate that the green job was created by the taxpayer, and that such job was continuously filled in the Commonwealth during the respective taxable year.

D. The amount of the credit shall not exceed the total amount of tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year in which the green job was continuously filled. If the amount of credit allowed exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for such taxable year, the amount that exceeds the tax liability may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of the taxpayer in the next five taxable years or until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken, whichever is sooner.

E. Credits granted to a partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners, members, or shareholders, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

F. If the taxpayer is eligible for the tax credits under this section and creates green jobs in an enterprise zone, as defined in § 59.1-539, such taxpayer may also qualify for the benefits under the Enterprise Zone Grant Program (§ 59.1-538 et seq.).

G. A taxpayer shall not be allowed a tax credit pursuant to this section for any green job for which the taxpayer is allowed (i) a major business facility job tax credit pursuant to § 58.1-439 or (ii) a federal tax credit for investments in manufacturing facilities for clean energy technologies that would foster investment and job creation in clean energy manufacturing.

2010, cc. 722, 727; 2015, cc. 249, 486; 2018, cc. 346, 347.

§ 58.1-439.12:06. International trade facility tax credit.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Affiliated companies" means two or more companies related to each other so that (i) one company owns at least 80 percent of the voting power of the other or others or (ii) the same interest owns at least 80 percent of the voting power of two or more companies.

"Capital investment" means the amount properly chargeable to a capital account for improvements to rehabilitate or expand depreciable real property placed in service during the taxable year and the cost of machinery, tools, and equipment used in an international trade facility directly related to the movement of cargo. Capital investment includes expenditures associated with any exterior, structural, mechanical, or electrical improvements necessary to expand or rehabilitate a building for commercial or industrial use and excavations, grading, paving, driveways, roads, sidewalks, landscaping, or other land improvements. For purposes of this section, machinery, tools, and equipment shall be deemed to include only that property placed in service by the international trade facility on and after January 1, 2011. Machinery, tools, and equipment excludes property (i) for which a credit under this section was previously granted; (ii) placed in service by the taxpayer, a related party as defined in § 267(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, or by a trade or business under common control as defined in § 52(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended; or (iii) previously in service in the Commonwealth that has a basis in the hands of the person acquiring it, determined in whole or in part by reference to the basis of such property in the hands of the person from whom acquired or § 1014(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended.

"Capital investment" shall not include:

1. The cost of acquiring any real property or building;

2. The cost of furnishings;

3. Any expenditure associated with appraisal, architectural, engineering, or interior design fees;

4. Loan fees, points, or capitalized interest;

5. Legal, accounting, realtor, sales and marketing, or other professional fees;

6. Closing costs, permit fees, user fees, zoning fees, impact fees, and inspection fees;

7. Bids, insurance, signage, utilities, bonding, copying, rent loss, or temporary facilities costs incurred during construction;

8. Utility hook-up or access fees;

9. Outbuildings; or

10. The cost of any well or septic system.

"Credit year" means the first taxable year following the taxable year in which the international trade facility commenced or expanded its operations. A separate credit year and a three-year allowance shall exist for each distinct international trade facility of a single taxpayer.

"International trade facility" means a company that:

1. Is engaged in port-related activities, including, but not limited to, warehousing, distribution, freight forwarding and handling, and goods processing;

2. Uses maritime port facilities located in the Commonwealth; and

3. Transports at least five percent more cargo through maritime port facilities in the Commonwealth during the taxable year than was transported by the company through such facilities during the preceding taxable year.

"New, permanent full-time position" means a job of indefinite duration, created by the company after establishing or expanding an international trade facility in the Commonwealth, requiring a minimum of 35 hours of employment per week for each employee for the entire normal year of the company's operations, or a position of indefinite duration that requires a minimum of 35 hours of employment per week for each employee for the portion of the taxable year in which the employee was initially hired for, or transferred to, the international trade facility in the Commonwealth. Seasonal or temporary positions, or a job created when a job function is shifted from an existing location in the Commonwealth to the international trade facility, and positions in building and grounds maintenance, security, and other such positions that are ancillary to the principal activities performed by the employees at the international trade facility shall not qualify as new, permanent full-time positions.

"Normal year" means at least 48 weeks in a calendar year.

"Qualified full-time employee" means an employee filling a new, permanent full-time position in an international trade facility in the Commonwealth.

"Qualified trade activities" means the completed exportation or importation of at least (i) one International Organization for Standardization ocean container with a minimum 20-foot length, (ii) 16 tons of noncontainerized cargo, or (iii) one unit of roll-on/roll-off cargo through any publicly or privately owned cargo facility located within the Commonwealth through which cargo is transported. Export cargo must be loaded on a barge or ocean-going vessel and import cargo must be discharged from a barge or ocean-going vessel at such facility.

B. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2011, but before January 1, 2022, a taxpayer satisfying the requirements of this section shall be allowed a credit against the taxes imposed by Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.) and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.). The amount of the credit earned pursuant to this section shall be equal to either (i) $3,500 per qualified full-time employee that results from increased qualified trade activities by the taxpayer or (ii) an amount equal to two percent of the capital investment made by the taxpayer to facilitate the increased qualified trade activities. The election of which tax credit amount to claim shall be the responsibility of the taxpayer. Both tax credits shall not be claimed for the same activities that occur in a calendar year. The portion of the $3,500 credit earned with respect to any qualified full-time employee who works in the Commonwealth for less than 12 full months during the credit year shall be determined by multiplying the credit amount by a fraction, the numerator of which is the number of full months such employee worked for the international trade facility in the Commonwealth during the credit year and the denominator of which is 12.

C. The Tax Commissioner shall issue tax credits under this section, and in no case shall the Tax Commissioner issue more than $1,250,000 in tax credits pursuant to this section in any fiscal year of the Commonwealth. If the amount of tax credits requested under this section for any taxable year exceeds $1,250,000, such credits shall be allocated proportionately among all qualified taxpayers. The Tax Commissioner shall not issue tax credits under this section subsequent to the Commonwealth's fiscal year ending on June 30, 2022. The taxpayer shall not be allowed to claim any tax credit under this section unless it has applied to the Department for the tax credit and the Department has approved the credit. The Department shall determine the credit amount allowable for the taxable year and shall provide a written certification to the taxpayer, which certification shall report the amount of the tax credit approved by the Department. The taxpayer shall attach the certification to the applicable income tax return.

D. The amount of the credit allowed pursuant to this section shall not exceed 50 percent of the tax imposed for the taxable year. Any remaining credit amount may be carried forward for the next 10 taxable years. In the event a taxpayer who is subject to the limitation imposed pursuant to this subsection is allowed a different tax credit pursuant to another section of the Code, or has a credit carry forward from a preceding taxable year, such taxpayer shall be considered to have first utilized any credit that does not have a carry forward provision, and then any credit carried forward from a preceding taxable year, before using any of the credit allowed pursuant to this section.

E. No credit shall be earned for any employee (i) for whom a credit under this section was previously earned by a related party as defined in § 267(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, or a trade or business under common control as defined in § 52(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended; (ii) who was previously employed in the same job function in Virginia by a related party as defined in § 267(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, or a trade or business under common control as defined in § 52(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended; (iii) whose job function was previously performed at a different location in Virginia by an employee of the taxpayer, by a related party as defined in § 267(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, or by a trade or business under common control as defined in § 52(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended; or (iv) whose job function previously qualified for a credit under this section at a different major business facility, as defined in subsection C of § 58.1-439, on behalf of the taxpayer, by a related party as defined in § 267(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, or a trade or business under common control as defined in § 52(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended.

F. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

G. For purposes of this section, two or more affiliated companies may elect to aggregate the number of jobs created for qualified full-time employees or the amounts of capital investments as the result of the establishment or expansion by the individual companies in order to qualify for the credit allowed herein.

H. Recapture of the credit amount, under the following circumstances, shall be accomplished by increasing the tax in any of the five years succeeding the taxable year in which a credit has been earned pursuant to this section if the number of qualified full-time employees falls below the average number of qualified full-time employees during the taxable year. The tax increase amount shall be determined by (i) recalculating the credit that would have been earned for the original taxable year using the decreased number of qualified full-time employees and (ii) subtracting the recalculated credit amount from the amount previously earned. In the event that the average number of qualified full-time employees employed at an international trade facility falls below the number employed by the taxpayer prior to claiming any credits pursuant to this section in any of the five taxable years succeeding the year in which the credits were earned, all credits earned with respect to the international trade facility shall be recaptured. No credit amount shall be recaptured more than once pursuant to this subsection. Any recapture pursuant to this subsection shall reduce credits earned but not yet allowed, and credits allowed but carried forward, before the taxpayer's tax liability is increased.

I. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 58.1-3, the Department of Taxation shall annually provide information to the Virginia Port Authority related to tax credits issued pursuant to this section.

J. The Tax Commissioner shall issue guidelines that are necessary and desirable to carry out the provisions of this section, including (i) the computation, carryover, and recapture of the credits provided under this section; (ii) the establishment of criteria for (a) international trade facilities, (b) qualified full-time employees at such facilities, and (c) capital investments; and (iii) the computation, carryover, recapture, and redemption of the credit by affiliated companies. Such guidelines shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

2011, c. 49; 2012, cc. 846, 849; 2014, c. 423; 2016, c. 69.

§ 58.1-439.12:07. Telework expenses tax credit.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Eligible telework expenses" means expenses incurred during the taxable year pursuant to a telework agreement, in an amount up to $1,200 for each participating employee, that enable a participating employee to begin to telework, which expenses are not otherwise the subject of a deduction from income claimed by the employer in any tax year. Such expenses include, but are not limited to, expenses paid or incurred to purchase computers, computer-related hardware and software, modems, data processing equipment, telecommunications equipment, high-speed Internet connectivity equipment, computer security software and devices, and all related delivery, installation, and maintenance fees. Such expenses do not include replacement costs for computers, computer-related hardware and software, modems, data processing equipment, telecommunications equipment, or computer security software and devices at the principal place of business when that equipment is relocated to the telework site. Eligible telework expenses may also include up to a maximum of $20,000 for conducting a telework assessment on or after January 1, 2012. Such costs shall be ineligible for this credit if they are otherwise taken as a deduction by the employer from income in any taxable year. The costs included and allowed to be taken as a credit include program planning costs, which may include direct program development and training costs, raw labor costs, and professional consulting fees. Such costs shall not include those for which a credit is claimed under any other provision of this chapter. The credit for conducting a telework assessment shall be allowed once for each employer meeting the requirements herein.

"Employer" means any employer subject to the income tax imposed by this chapter.

"Participating employee" means an employee who has entered into a telework agreement with his employer on or after July 1, 2012, in accordance with policies set by the Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation. The term shall not include an individual who is self-employed or an individual who ordinarily spends a majority of the workday at a location other than the place where his duties are normally performed.

"Telework" means the performance of normal and regular work functions on a workday at a location different from the place where work functions are normally performed and that is within or closer to the participating employee's residence. The term shall not include home-based businesses, extensions of the workday, or work performed on a weekend or holiday.

"Telework agreement" means an agreement signed by the employer and the participating employee, on or after July 1, 2012, but before January 1, 2019, that defines the terms of a telework arrangement, including the number of days per month the participating employee will telework in order to qualify for the credit, and any restrictions on the location from which the employee will telework.

"Telework assessment" means an optional assessment leading to the development of policies and procedures necessary to implement a formal telework program that would qualify the employer for the credit provided in this section, including but not limited to a workforce profile; a telework program business case and plan; a detailed accounting of the purpose, goals, and operating procedures of the telework program; methodologies for measuring telework program activities and success; and a deployment schedule for increasing telework activity.

B. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, but before January 1, 2019, an employer shall be allowed a credit against the taxes imposed pursuant to Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.) and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) for eligible telework expenses incurred during the calendar year that ends during the taxable year. The amount of the credit shall not exceed $50,000 per employer for each calendar year.

Such expenses may be incurred (i) only once per participating employee and (ii) directly by the employer on behalf of the participating employee or directly by the participating employee and reimbursed by the employer.

C. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

D. The amount of tax credits available to any employer under this section in any taxable year shall not exceed the employer's tax liability. No unused tax credit shall be carried forward or carried back against the employer's tax liability. An employer shall be ineligible for a tax credit pursuant to this section if such employer claims a credit based on the jobs, wages, or other expenses for the same employee under any other provision of this chapter.

E. An employer seeking to claim a tax credit provided herein shall submit a reservation application to the Tax Commissioner for tentative approval of the credit between September 1 and October 31 of the year preceding the calendar year in which the eligible telework expenses will be incurred. The Tax Commissioner shall establish policies and procedures for the reservation of tax credits by eligible employers. Such policies and procedures shall provide (i) requirements for applying for reservations of tax credits; (ii) a system for allocating the available amount of tax credits among eligible employers; and (iii) a procedure for the cancellation and reallocation of tax credit reservations allocated to eligible employers that, after reserving tax credits, have been determined to be ineligible for all or a portion of the tax credits reserved. Such application shall certify that the employer would not have incurred the eligible telework expenses for which the credit is sought but for the availability of such credit. The Tax Commissioner shall provide tentative approval of the applications no later than December 31 of the year in which the applications are received. When the application and amount of tax credits have been approved and the employer applicant notified, such employer may make purchases approved for the tax credits during the immediately following taxable year or lose the right to such credits.

F. In no event shall the aggregate amount of tax credits approved by the Tax Commissioner exceed $1 million annually. In the event the credit amounts on the applications filed with the Tax Commissioner exceed the maximum aggregate amount of tax credits, then the tax credits shall be allocated on a pro rata basis based on the amounts allowed by subsection B among the eligible employers who filed timely applications.

G. Actions of the Tax Commissioner relating to the approval or denial of applications for reservations of tax credits pursuant to this section shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

2011, cc. 409, 417; 2012, cc. 327, 341; 2017, cc. 177, 454; 2019, c. 21.

§ 58.1-439.12:08. Research and development expenses tax credit.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Virginia base amount" means the base amount as defined in § 41(c) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, that is attributable to Virginia, determined by (i) substituting "Virginia qualified research and development expense" for "qualified research expense"; (ii) substituting "Virginia qualified research" for "qualified research"; and (iii) instead of "fixed base percentage," using:

1. The percentage that the Virginia qualified research and development expense for the three taxable years immediately preceding the current taxable year in which the expense is incurred is of the taxpayer's total gross receipts for such years; or

2. The percentage that the Virginia qualified research and development expense for the applicable number of taxable years immediately preceding the current taxable year in which the expense is incurred is of the taxpayer's total gross receipts for such years, for the taxpayer that has fewer than three but at least one prior taxable year.

"Virginia gross receipts" means the same as "gross receipts" as defined in § 58.1-3700.1.

"Virginia qualified research" means qualified research, as defined in § 41(d) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, that is conducted in the Commonwealth.

"Virginia qualified research and development expenses" means qualified research expenses, as defined in § 41(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, incurred for Virginia qualified research.

B. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2011, but before January 1, 2022, a taxpayer shall be allowed a credit against the tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-320 or 58.1-400 in an amount equal to (i) 15 percent of the first $300,000 in Virginia qualified research and development expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer during the taxable year or (ii) 20 percent of the first $300,000 in Virginia qualified research and development expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer during the taxable year if the Virginia qualified research was conducted in conjunction with a public or private institution of higher education in the Commonwealth, to the extent the expenses exceed the Virginia base amount for the taxpayer.

C. 1. Effective for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2016, at the election of the taxpayer, the credit otherwise allowed under this section shall be computed under this subsection and shall equal 10 percent of the difference of (i) the Virginia qualified research and development expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer during the taxable year and (ii) 50 percent of the average Virginia qualified research and development expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer for the three taxable years immediately preceding the taxable year for which the credit is being determined. If the taxpayer did not pay or incur Virginia qualified research and development expenses in any one of the three taxable years immediately preceding the taxable year for which the credit is being determined, the tax credit shall equal five percent of the Virginia qualified research and development expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer during the relevant taxable year.

2. The aggregate amount of credits allowed to each taxpayer under this subsection shall not exceed $45,000 for the taxable year, except that the aggregate amount of credits allowed to each taxpayer shall not exceed $60,000 for the taxable year if the Virginia qualified research was conducted in conjunction with a public institution of higher education in the Commonwealth or a private institution of higher education in the Commonwealth.

D. The aggregate amount of credits available under this section for each fiscal year of the Commonwealth shall be as follows:

1. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, but prior to January 1, 2016, the total amount of credits granted for each of fiscal years 2015 and 2016 shall not exceed $6 million.

2. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2016, the total amount of credits granted for each fiscal year of the Commonwealth beginning with fiscal year 2017 shall not exceed $7 million.

E. A taxpayer meeting the requirements of this section shall be eligible to receive a tax credit as provided herein. The Department shall develop and publish guidelines for applications and such guidelines shall be exempt from the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Applications must be received by the Department no later than July 1 of the calendar year following the close of the taxable year in which the expenses were paid or incurred. In the event approved applications for the tax credits allowed under this section exceed the amount of credits specified in subsection D for the taxable year, the Department shall apportion the credits by dividing the amount of credits specified in subsection D by the total amount of tax credits approved, to determine the percentage of allowed tax credits each taxpayer shall receive. In the event that the total amount of approved tax credits under this section for all applications for any taxable year is less than the maximum amount of credits for the year as specified in subsection D, the Department shall allocate credits up to the maximum amount as specified in subsection D, on a pro rata basis, to taxpayers who are already approved for the tax credit for the taxable year, in the following amounts:

1. If the taxpayer computed the credit pursuant to subsection B, in an amount equal to 15 percent of the second $300,000 in qualified research expenses during the taxable year or 20 percent of the second $300,000 in qualified research expenses if the Virginia qualified research was conducted in conjunction with a public institution of higher education in the Commonwealth or a private institution of higher education in the Commonwealth; or

2. If the taxpayer computed the credit under subdivision C 1, in an amount equal to the excess of the limitation set forth in subdivision C 2, up to an additional $45,000 per taxpayer, or $60,000 per taxpayer if the Virginia qualified research was conducted in conjunction with a public institution of higher education in the Commonwealth or a private institution of higher education in the Commonwealth.

F. If the amount of the credit allowed exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for the taxable year, the amount that exceeds the tax liability shall be refunded to the taxpayer, subject to the limitations set forth in the guidelines developed by the Department.

G. Any taxpayer who claims the tax credit for Virginia qualified research and development expenses pursuant to this section shall not use such expenses as the basis for claiming any other credit provided under the Code of Virginia.

H. Effective for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2016, no taxpayer with Virginia qualified research and development expenses in excess of $5 million for the taxable year shall claim both the credit allowed pursuant to this section and the credit allowed under § 58.1-439.12:11 for such year.

I. Credits granted to a partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners, members, or shareholders, respectively, in proportion to their ownership interests in such entities or in accordance with a written agreement entered into by such individual partners, members, or shareholders, unless the partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S corporation) elects for such credits not to be so allocated but to be received and claimed at the entity level by the partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S corporation) pursuant to guidelines that shall be issued by the Department for purposes of such election.

J. The Department shall adopt guidelines to prescribe standards for determining when research and development is considered conducted in the Commonwealth for purposes of allowing the credit under this section. In adopting guidelines, the Department may consider (i) the location where the research and development is performed; (ii) the residence or business location of the taxpayer or taxpayers conducting the research and development; (iii) the location where supplies used in the research and development are consumed; and (iv) any other factors that the Department deems to be relevant.

K. The Tax Commissioner's annual report to the Governor on revenue collections by tax source shall include (i) the total number of applicants approved for tax credits pursuant to this section for the applicable tax year and (ii) the total amount of such tax credits approved for the applicable tax year.

L. The Department shall require taxpayers applying for the credit to provide information including (i) the number of full-time employees employed by the taxpayer in the Commonwealth during the taxable year for which the credit is sought; (ii) the taxpayer's sector or sectors according to the 2012 edition of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) as published by the United States Census Bureau; (iii) a brief description of the area, discipline, or field of Virginia qualified research performed by the taxpayer; (iv) the total gross receipts or anticipated total gross receipts of the taxpayer for the taxable year for which the credit is sought; and (v) whether the Virginia qualified research was conducted in conjunction with a Virginia public or private college or university. The Department shall aggregate and summarize the information collected and make it available to the Governor and any member of the General Assembly upon request, regardless of the number of taxpayers applying for the credit.

M. No tax credit shall be allowed pursuant to this section if the otherwise qualified research and development expenses are paid for or incurred by a taxpayer for research conducted in the Commonwealth on human cells or tissue derived from induced abortions or from stem cells obtained from human embryos. The foregoing provision shall not apply to research conducted using stem cells other than embryonic stem cells.

2011, cc. 742, 745; 2014, cc. 227, 306; 2016, cc. 300, 433, 661.

§ 58.1-439.12:09. Barge and rail usage tax credit.

A. As used in this section:

"International trade facility" means a company that:

1. Is doing business in the Commonwealth and engaged in port-related activities, including but not limited to warehousing, distribution, freight forwarding and handling, and goods processing;

2. Has the sole discretion and authority to move cargo originating or terminating in the Commonwealth;

3. Uses maritime port facilities located in the Commonwealth; and

4. Uses barges and rail systems to move cargo through port facilities in the Commonwealth rather than trucks or other motor vehicles on the Commonwealth's highways.

B. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2011, but before January 1, 2022, a company that is an international trade facility shall be allowed a credit against the taxes imposed by Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.), 6 (§ 58.1-360 et seq.), and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.); Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.); Article 1 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.) of Chapter 25; or Article 2 (§ 58.1-2620 et seq.) of Chapter 26. The amount of the credit shall be $25 per 20-foot equivalent unit (TEU), 16 tons of noncontainerized cargo, or one unit of roll-on/roll-off cargo moved by barge or rail rather than by trucks or other motor vehicles on the Commonwealth's highways.

C. The Tax Commissioner shall issue tax credits under this section, and in no case shall the Tax Commissioner issue more than $500,000 in tax credits pursuant to this section in any fiscal year of the Commonwealth. In addition, the Tax Commissioner shall not issue tax credits under this section subsequent to the Commonwealth's fiscal year ending on June 30, 2022. The international trade facility shall not be allowed to claim any tax credit under this section unless it has applied to the Department for the tax credit and the Department has approved the credit. The Department shall determine the credit amount allowable for the year and shall provide a written certification to the international trade facility, which certification shall report the amount of the tax credit approved by the Department. The international trade facility shall attach the certification to the applicable tax return.

D. For purposes of this section, the amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

E. Any credit not usable for the taxable year may be carried over for the next five taxable years or until such credit is fully taken, whichever occurs first. The amount of the credit allowed pursuant to this section shall not exceed the tax imposed for such taxable year. No credit shall be carried back to a preceding taxable year. If a taxpayer that is subject to the tax limitation imposed pursuant to this subsection is allowed another credit pursuant to any other section of this Code or has a credit carryover from a preceding taxable year, such taxpayer shall be considered to have first utilized any credit allowed that does not have a carryover provision, and then any credit that is carried forward from a preceding taxable year, before using any credit allowed pursuant to this section.

F. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 58.1-3, the Department of Taxation shall annually provide information to the Virginia Port Authority related to tax credits issued pursuant to this section.

G. The Tax Commissioner shall issue guidelines that are necessary and desirable to carry out the provisions of this section, including (i) the computation and carryover of the credits provided under this section and (ii) the establishment of criteria for international trade facilities. Such guidelines shall be exempt from the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

2011, cc. 820, 861; 2012, cc. 846, 849; 2014, c. 423; 2016, c. 69.

§ 58.1-439.12:10. Virginia port volume increase tax credit.

A. As used in this section, unless the context indicates otherwise:

"Agricultural entity" means a person engaged in growing or producing wheat, grains, fruits, nuts, crops; tobacco, nursery, or floral products; forestry products excluding raw wood fiber or wood fiber processed or manufactured for use as fuel for the generation of electricity; or seafood, meat, dairy, or poultry products.

"Base year port cargo volume" means the total amount of (i) net tons of noncontainerized cargo, (ii) TEUs of cargo, or (iii) units of roll-on/roll-off cargo actually transported by way of a waterborne ship or vehicle through a port facility during the period from (i) January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2010, for manufacturing-related entities or (ii) January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2012, for agricultural entities and mineral and gas entities. Base year port cargo volume must be at least 75 net tons of noncontainerized cargo, 10 loaded TEUs, or 10 units of roll-on/roll-off cargo for a taxpayer to be eligible for the credits provided in this section. For a taxpayer that does not ship that amount in the year ending December 31, 2010, or December 31, 2012, as applicable, including a taxpayer who locates in Virginia after such periods, its base cargo volume will be measured by the initial January 1 through December 31 calendar year in which it meets the requirements of 75 net tons of noncontainerized cargo, 10 loaded TEUs, or 10 units of roll-on/roll-off cargo. Base year port cargo volume must be recalculated each calendar year after the initial base year.

"Major facility" means a new facility to be located in Virginia that is projected to import or export cargo through a port in excess of 25,000 TEUs in its first calendar year.

"Manufacturing-related entity" means a person engaged in the manufacturing of goods or the distribution of manufactured goods.

"Mineral and gas entity" means a person engaged in severing minerals or gases from the earth.

"Port cargo volume" means the total amount of net tons of noncontainerized cargo, net units of roll-on/roll-off cargo, or containers measured in TEUs of cargo transported by way of a waterborne ship or vehicle through a port facility.

"Port facility" means any publicly or privately owned facility located within the Commonwealth through which cargo is transported by way of a waterborne ship or vehicle to or from destinations outside the Commonwealth and which handles cargo owned by third parties in addition to cargo owned by the port facility's owner.

"TEU" or "20-foot equivalent unit" means a volumetric measure based on the size of a container that is 20 feet long by eight feet wide by eight feet, six inches high.

B. 1. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2011, but before January 1, 2022, a taxpayer that is an agricultural entity, manufacturing-related entity, or mineral and gas entity that uses port facilities in the Commonwealth and increases its port cargo volume at these facilities by a minimum of five percent in a single calendar year over its base year port cargo volume is eligible to claim a credit against the tax levied pursuant to §§ 58.1-320 and 58.1-400 in an amount determined by the Virginia Port Authority. The Virginia Port Authority may waive the requirement that port cargo volume be increased by a minimum of five percent over base year port cargo volume for any taxpayer that qualifies as a major facility.

2. Qualifying taxpayers that increase their port cargo volume by a minimum of five percent in a qualifying calendar year shall receive a $50 credit against the tax levied pursuant to §§ 58.1-320 and 58.1-400 for each TEU, unit of roll-on/roll-off cargo, or 16 net tons of noncontainerized cargo, as applicable, above the base year port cargo volume. A qualifying taxpayer that is a major facility as defined in this section shall receive a $50 credit against the tax levied pursuant to §§ 58.1-320 and 58.1-400 for each TEU, unit of roll-on/roll-off cargo, or 16 net tons of noncontainerized cargo, as applicable, transported through a port facility during the major facility's first calendar year. A qualifying taxpayer may not receive more than $250,000 for each calendar year except as provided for in subdivision C 2. The maximum amount of credits allowed for all qualifying taxpayers pursuant to this section shall not exceed $3.2 million for each calendar year. The Virginia Port Authority shall allocate the credits pursuant to the provisions in subdivisions C 1 and C 2.

3. If the credit exceeds the taxpayer's tax liability for the taxable year, the excess amount may be carried forward and claimed against income taxes in the next five succeeding taxable years.

4. The credit may be claimed by the taxpayer as provided in subdivision 1 only if the taxpayer owns the cargo at the time the port facilities are used.

C. 1. For every year in which a taxpayer claims the credit, the taxpayer shall submit an application to the Virginia Port Authority by March 1 of the calendar year after the calendar year in which the increase in port cargo volume occurs. The taxpayer shall attach a schedule to the taxpayer's application to the Virginia Port Authority with the following information and any other information requested by the Virginia Port Authority or the Department:

a. A description of how the base year port cargo volume and the increase in port cargo volume were determined;

b. The amount of the base year port cargo volume;

c. The amount of the increase in port cargo volume for the taxable year stated both as a percentage increase and as a total increase in net tons of noncontainerized cargo, TEUs of cargo, and units of roll-on/roll-off cargo, as applicable, including information that demonstrates an increase in port cargo volume in excess of the minimum amount required to claim the tax credits pursuant to this section;

d. Any tax credit utilized by the taxpayer in prior years; and

e. The amount of tax credit carried over from prior years.

2. If on March 15 of each year the $3.2 million amount of credit is not fully allocated among qualifying taxpayers, then those taxpayers who have been allocated a credit for the prior year shall be allowed a pro rata share of the remaining allocated credit up to $3.2 million. If on March 15 of each year, the cumulative amount of tax credits requested by qualifying taxpayers for the prior year exceeds $3.2 million, then the $3.2 million in credits shall be prorated among the qualifying taxpayers who requested the credit.

3. The taxpayer shall claim the credit on its income tax return in a manner prescribed by the Department. The Department may require a copy of the certification form issued by the Virginia Port Authority be attached to the return or otherwise provided. Qualifying taxpayers may also claim the credit pursuant to § 58.1-439.12:09 for the same containers, noncontainerized cargo, or roll-on/roll-off units of cargo for which a credit is claimed under this section provided such taxpayer meets the applicable criteria set forth therein.

D. 1. Any taxpayer holding a credit under this section may transfer unused but otherwise allowable credit for use by another taxpayer on Virginia income tax returns. A taxpayer who transfers any amount of credit under this section shall file a notification of such transfer to the Department in accordance with procedures and forms prescribed by the Tax Commissioner. The transferred credits may be retroactively applied from the date such credits were originally issued, and the transferee may file an amended return under this chapter to claim such transferred credit for a prior tax year. However, nothing in this section shall be construed to extend the statute of limitations for filing an amended return under § 58.1-1823 or any other provision of law.

2. No transfer of tax credits pursuant to the provisions of this subsection shall be allowed unless such transfer occurs within one calendar year of the credit holder earning such credit.

3. Only tax credits issued in taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2018, but before January 1, 2022, shall be transferable pursuant to the provisions of this subsection.

E. Credits granted to a partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners, members, or shareholders, respectively, in proportion to their ownership interests in such business entities.

2011, cc. 831, 872; 2012, cc. 846, 849; 2013, c. 744; 2014, c. 423; 2016, c. 69; 2019, c. 759.

§ 58.1-439.12:11. Major research and development expenses tax credit.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Virginia qualified research" means qualified research, as defined in § 41(d) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, that is conducted in the Commonwealth.

"Virginia qualified research and development expenses" means qualified research expenses, as defined in § 41(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, incurred for Virginia qualified research.

B. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2016, but before January 1, 2022, a taxpayer with Virginia qualified research and development expenses for the taxable year in excess of $5 million shall be allowed a credit against the tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-320 or 58.1-400 in an amount equal to 10 percent of the difference between (i) the Virginia qualified research and development expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer during the taxable year and (ii) 50 percent of the average Virginia qualified research and development expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer for the three taxable years immediately preceding the taxable year for which the credit is being determined. If the taxpayer did not pay or incur Virginia qualified research and development expenses in any one of the three taxable years immediately preceding the taxable year for which the credit is being determined, the tax credit shall equal five percent of the Virginia qualified research and development expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer during the relevant taxable year.

C. The aggregate amount of credits granted for each fiscal year of the Commonwealth pursuant to this section shall not exceed $20 million.

D. In the event approved applications for the tax credits allowed under this section exceed $20 million for any taxable year, the Department shall apportion the credits by dividing $20 million by the total amount of tax credits approved, to determine the percentage of allowed tax credits each taxpayer shall receive.

E. The amount of the credit claimed for the taxable year shall not exceed 75 percent of the total amount of tax imposed by this chapter upon the taxpayer for the taxable year. Any credit not usable for the taxable year for which the credit was first allowed may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of the taxpayer in the next 10 succeeding taxable years or until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken, whichever is sooner.

F. Any taxpayer who claims the tax credit for Virginia qualified research and development expenses pursuant to this section shall not use such expenses as the basis for claiming any other credit provided under the Code of Virginia.

G. Credits granted to a partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners, members, or shareholders, respectively, in proportion to their ownership interests in such entities or in accordance with a written agreement entered into by such individual partners, members, or shareholders.

H. The Department shall develop and publish guidelines under this section including guidelines for applying for the tax credit. Such guidelines shall be exempt from the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Applications for the tax credit must be received by the Department no later than July 1 of the calendar year following the close of the taxable year in which the expenses were paid or incurred.

The Department shall also adopt guidelines to prescribe standards for determining when research and development is considered conducted in the Commonwealth for purposes of allowing the credit under this section. In adopting guidelines, the Department may consider (i) the location where the research and development is performed; (ii) the residence or business location of the taxpayer or taxpayers conducting the research and development; (iii) the location where supplies used in the research and development are consumed; and (iv) any other factors that the Department deems to be relevant.

I. No tax credit shall be allowed pursuant to this section, if the otherwise qualified research and development expenses are paid for or incurred by a taxpayer for research conducted in the Commonwealth on human cells or tissue derived from induced abortions or from stem cells obtained from human embryos. The foregoing provision shall not apply to research conducted using stem cells other than embryonic stem cells.

2016, cc. 300, 661.

§ 58.1-439.12:12. Food crop donation tax credit.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Food crops" means grains, fruits, nuts, or vegetables.

"Nonprofit food bank" means an entity located in the Commonwealth that is exempt from taxation under § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended or renumbered, and organized with a principal purpose of providing food to the needy.

B. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2016, but before January 1, 2022, any person engaged in the business of farming as defined under 26 C.F.R. §1.175-3 that donates food crops grown by the person in the Commonwealth to a nonprofit food bank shall be allowed a credit against the tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-320 or 58.1-400 for the taxable year of the donation. The person shall be allowed a credit in an amount equal to 30 percent of the fair market value of such food crops donated by the person to a nonprofit food bank during the taxable year but not to exceed an aggregate credit of $5,000 for all such donations made by the person during such year.

C. Credit shall be allowed under this section only if (i) the use of the donated food crops by the donee nonprofit food bank is related to providing food to the needy, (ii) the donated food crops are not transferred for use outside the Commonwealth or used by the donee nonprofit food bank as consideration for services performed or personal property purchased, and (iii) the donated food crops, if sold by the donee nonprofit food bank, are sold to the needy, other nonprofit food banks, or organizations that intend to use the food crops to provide food to the needy.

D. The Tax Commissioner shall issue tax credits under this section, and in no case shall the Tax Commissioner issue more than $250,000 in tax credits pursuant to this section in any fiscal year of the Commonwealth. For every taxable year for which a person seeks the tax credit under this section, the person shall submit an application to the Department in accordance with the forms, instructions, dates, and procedures prescribed by the Department. In order to claim any credit, for each donation made that is approved by the Department for tax credit, the person making the donation shall attach to the person's income tax return a written certification prepared by the donee nonprofit food bank. The written certification prepared by the donee nonprofit food bank shall identify the donee nonprofit food bank, the person donating food crops to it, the date of the donation, the number of pounds of food crops donated, and the fair market value of the food crops donated. The certification shall also include a statement by the donee nonprofit food bank that its use and disposition of the food crops complies with the requirements under subsection C.

E. The amount of the credit claimed shall not exceed the total amount of tax imposed by this chapter upon the person for the taxable year. Any credit not usable for the taxable year for which the credit was first allowed may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of the person in the next five succeeding taxable years or until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken, whichever is sooner.

F. Credits granted to a partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners, members, or shareholders, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

G. The Tax Commissioner shall develop guidelines implementing the provisions of this section. The guidelines shall include procedures for the allocation of tax credits among participating taxpayers. Such guidelines shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

2016, cc. 304, 391.

Article 13.1. Grants for Investment and Research and Development in Tobacco-Dependent Localities.

§ 58.1-439.13. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2016, c. 305, cl. 2.

§ 58.1-439.17. Grants in lieu of or in addition to tax credits.

The Tobacco Region Revitalization Commission created under § 3.2-3101 may establish a grant program for purposes of encouraging qualified investments and eligible research and development activities in tobacco-dependent localities. If the Commission elects to establish such a program, the program may be in addition to the tax credit programs allowed under former §§ 58.1-439.13 and 58.1-439.14. The criteria to receive grants shall be the same as the criteria for the tax credits allowed under former §§ 58.1-439.13 and 58.1-439.14 as they were in effect on December 31, 2009. In any case where a grant is awarded for any investment or for eligible research and development activity, the person receiving the grant may not use such investment or research and development activity as the basis for claiming any credit provided under the Code of Virginia.

2000, c. 1042; 2016, c. 305.

Article 13.2. Neighborhood Assistance Act Tax Credit.

§ 58.1-439.18. Definitions.

As used in this article:

"Affiliate" means with respect to any person, any other person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with such person. For purposes of this definition, "control" (including controlled by and under common control with) shall mean the power, directly or indirectly, to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such person whether through ownership or voting securities or by contract or otherwise.

"Business firm" means any corporation, partnership, electing small business (Subchapter S) corporation, limited liability company, or sole proprietorship authorized to do business in this Commonwealth subject to tax imposed by Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.) and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) of Chapter 3, Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.), Article 1 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.) of Chapter 25, or Article 2 (§ 58.1-2620 et seq.) of Chapter 26. "Business firm" also means any trust or fiduciary for a trust subject to tax imposed by Article 6 (§ 58.1-360 et seq.) of Chapter 3.

"Commissioner of Social Services" means the Commissioner of Social Services or his designee.

"Community services" means any type of counseling and advice, emergency assistance, medical care, provision of basic necessities, or services designed to minimize the effects of poverty, furnished primarily to low-income persons.

"Contracting services" means the provision, by a business firm licensed by the Commonwealth as a contractor under Chapter 11 (§ 54.1-1100 et seq.) of Title 54.1, of labor or technical advice to aid in the development, construction, renovation, or repair of (i) homes of low-income persons or (ii) buildings used by neighborhood organizations.

"Education" means any type of scholastic instruction or scholastic assistance to a low-income person or an eligible student with a disability.

"Eligible student with a disability" means a student (i) for whom an individualized educational program has been written and finalized in accordance with the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), regulations promulgated pursuant to IDEA, and regulations of the Board of Education and (ii) whose family's annual household income is not in excess of 400 percent of the current poverty guidelines.

"Housing assistance" means furnishing financial assistance, labor, material, or technical advice to aid the physical improvement of the homes of low-income persons.

"Job training" means any type of instruction to an individual who is a low-income person that enables him to acquire vocational skills so that he can become employable or able to seek a higher grade of employment.

"Low-income person" means an individual whose family's annual household income is not in excess of 300 percent of the current poverty guidelines.

"Neighborhood assistance" means providing community services, education, housing assistance, or job training.

"Neighborhood organization" means any local, regional or statewide organization whose primary function is providing neighborhood assistance and holding a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service of the United States Department of the Treasury that the organization is exempt from income taxation under the provisions of §§ 501(c)(3) and 501(c)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time, or any organization defined as a community action agency in the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. § 2701 et seq.), or any housing authority as defined in § 36-3.

"Poverty guidelines" means the poverty guidelines for the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia updated annually in the Federal Register by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under the authority of § 673(2) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981.

"Professional services" means any type of personal service to the public that requires as a condition precedent to the rendering of such service the obtaining of a license or other legal authorization and shall include, but shall not be limited to, the personal services rendered by medical doctors, dentists, architects, professional engineers, certified public accountants, attorneys-at-law, and veterinarians.

"Scholastic assistance" means (i) counseling or supportive services to elementary school, middle school, secondary school, or postsecondary school students or their parents in developing a postsecondary academic or vocational education plan, including college financing options for such students or their parents, or (ii) scholarships.

1981, c. 629, § 63.1-321; 1982, c. 178; 1984, c. 720; 1989, c. 310; 1996, c. 77; 1997, c. 640; 1999, cc. 890, 909; 2002, c. 747, § 63.2-2000; 2008, c. 585; 2009, cc. 10, 851; 2010, c. 164; 2011, cc. 312, 370; 2012, cc. 731, 842; 2016, c. 426.

§ 58.1-439.19. Public policy; business firms; donations.

It is hereby declared to be public policy of the Commonwealth to encourage business firms to make donations to neighborhood organizations for the benefit of low-income persons.

1981, c. 629, § 63.1-322; 1997, c. 640; 2002, c. 747, § 63.2-2001; 2008, c. 585; 2012, cc. 731, 842.

§ 58.1-439.20. Proposals to the State Board of Social Services; regulations; tax credits authorized.

A. Any neighborhood organization may submit a proposal, other than education proposals which shall be applied for and allocated pursuant to the provisions of § 58.1-439.20:1, to the Commissioner of Social Services requesting an allocation of tax credits for use by business firms making donations to the neighborhood organization.

The proposal shall set forth the program to be conducted by the neighborhood organization, the low-income persons to be assisted, the estimated amount to be donated to the program, and the plans for implementing the program.

B. 1. The State Board of Social Services is hereby authorized to adopt regulations for the approval or disapproval of such proposals by neighborhood organizations and for determining the value of the donations.

2. In order to be eligible to receive an allocation of tax credits pursuant to this article, a neighborhood organization shall have been in existence for at least one year. As a prerequisite for approval, neighborhood organizations with total revenues of (i) more than $100,000 shall provide to the Commissioner of Social Services an audit or review for the most recent year or (ii) $100,000 or less shall provide to the Commissioner of Social Services a compilation for the most recent year. Such audit, review, or compilation shall be performed by an independent certified public accountant. For purposes of this subdivision, "total revenues" means all revenues, including the value of all donations, for the organization's most recent year. No proposal for an allocation of tax credits shall be untimely filed solely because such audit, review, or compilation was not submitted by the neighborhood organization by the proposal filing deadline, provided that the audit, review, or compilation is submitted to the Commissioner of Social Services within the 30-day period immediately following such deadline.

3. In order to be eligible to receive an allocation of credits pursuant to this article, at least 50 percent of the persons served by the neighborhood organization shall be low-income persons, and at least 50 percent of the neighborhood organization's revenues shall be used to provide services to low-income persons.

4. In order for a proposal to be approved, an applicant neighborhood organization and any of its affiliates shall meet the requirements of this section and the application regulations.

However, beginning with tax credit allocations for fiscal year 2016-2017 and thereafter, such requirement for a proposal submitted by a neighborhood organization to the Commissioner of Social Services shall not apply in determining the eligibility of the neighborhood organization submitting a proposal, provided that (i) the neighborhood organization otherwise meets all statutory requirements and regulations, (ii) the neighborhood organization received a fiscal year 2013-2014 allocation of neighborhood assistance tax credits, and (iii) no affiliate of the neighborhood organization submits a proposal for or receives an allocation of tax credits pursuant to this article for the program year for which the neighborhood organization has submitted its proposal.

5. The regulations shall provide for the equitable allocation of the available amount of tax credits among the approved proposals submitted by neighborhood organizations. In allocating credits, the Commissioner of Social Services or the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall consider the past performance of neighborhood organizations that have received allocations of credits, including review of performance metrics, success in reaching targeted goals, or other measures of accountability that may be established by regulations or guidelines.

6. The regulations or guidelines shall provide that in any year in which the available amount of tax credits exceeds the previous year's available amount, at least 10 percent of the excess amount shall be allocated to qualified programs proposed by neighborhood organizations that did not receive any allocations in the preceding year. If the amount of tax credits requested by such neighborhood organizations is less than 10 percent of the excess amount, the unallocated portion of such 10 percent shall be allocated to qualified programs proposed by other neighborhood organizations.

C. 1. If the Commissioner of Social Services approves a proposal submitted by a neighborhood organization, the organization shall make the allocated tax credit amounts available to business firms making donations to the approved program. A neighborhood organization shall not assign or transfer an allocation of tax credits to another neighborhood organization without the approval of the Commissioner of Social Services.

2. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no more than an aggregate of $0.5 million in tax credits shall be approved in a fiscal year to a neighborhood organization or to a grouping of neighborhood organization affiliates for all other proposals combined.

3. If, after the initial allocation of credits to approved proposals, the State Department of Social Services has a balance of tax credits remaining for the fiscal year that can be used or allocated by a neighborhood organization for a proposal that had been approved for tax credits during the initial allocation, then the Commissioner of Social Services shall reallocate the remaining balance of tax credits to such previously approved proposals to the extent that a neighborhood organization can use or allocate additional tax credits for the previously approved proposal. The $0.5 million annual limitations for tax credits approved to a grouping of neighborhood organization affiliates shall be inapplicable for such reallocation of any balance of tax credits. The balance of tax credits remaining for reallocation shall include the amount of any tax credits that have been granted for a proposal approved during the initial allocation but for which the Commissioner of Social Services received notice from the neighborhood organization that it will not be able to use or allocate such amount for the approved proposal.

D. The total amount of tax credits granted for programs approved by the Commissioner of Social Services under this article for each fiscal year shall not exceed $8 million for fiscal year 2015-2016 and each fiscal year thereafter.

The Commissioner of Social Services shall work cooperatively with the Superintendent of Public Instruction for purposes of ensuring that neighborhood organization proposals are submitted to the proper state agency pursuant to this section and § 58.1-439.20:1. The Commissioner of Social Services may request the assistance of the Department of Taxation for purposes of determining whether or not anticipated donations for which tax credits are requested by a neighborhood organization likely qualify as a charitable donation under federal tax laws and regulations.

E. Actions of the State Department of Social Services, or the Commissioner of the same, relating to the review of neighborhood organization proposals and the allocation of tax credits to proposals shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Decisions of the State Department of Social Services, or the Commissioner of the same, shall be final and not subject to review or appeal.

2008, c. 585; 2009, cc. 10, 502, 851; 2011, c. 317; 2012, cc. 731, 837, 842; 2013, cc. 713, 716, 802; 2014, cc. 47, 189, 416, 712; 2016, c. 426; 2017, cc. 147, 723, 724.

§ 58.1-439.20:1. Proposals to the Department of Education; guidelines; tax credits authorized.

A. Any neighborhood organization may submit education proposals to the Superintendent of Public Instruction requesting an allocation of tax credits for use by business firms making donations to the neighborhood organization. All other neighborhood organization proposals shall be submitted to the Commissioner or Social Services pursuant to § 58.1-439.20.

The proposal shall set forth the program to be conducted by the neighborhood organization, the low-income persons or eligible students with disabilities to be assisted, the estimated amount to be donated to the program, and the plans for implementing the program.

B. 1. The Department of Education is hereby authorized to adopt guidelines for the approval or disapproval of such proposals by neighborhood organizations and for determining the value of the donations.

2. In order to be eligible to receive an allocation of tax credits pursuant to this article, a neighborhood organization shall have been in existence for at least one year. As a prerequisite for approval, neighborhood organizations with total revenues of (i) more than $100,000 shall provide to the Department of Education an audit or review for the most recent year or (ii) $100,000 or less shall provide to the Department of Education a compilation for the most recent year. Such audit, review, or compilation shall be performed by an independent certified public accountant. For purposes of this subdivision, "total revenues" means all revenues, including the value of all donations, for the organization's most recent year. No proposal for an allocation of tax credits shall be untimely filed solely because such audit, review, or compilation was not submitted by the neighborhood organization by the proposal filing deadline, provided that the audit, review, or compilation is submitted to the Superintendent of Public Instruction within the 30-day period immediately following such deadline.

3. In order to be eligible to receive an allocation of credits pursuant to this article, at least 50 percent of the persons served by the neighborhood organization shall be low-income persons or eligible students with disabilities and at least 50 percent of the neighborhood organization's revenues shall be used to provide services to low-income persons or to eligible students with disabilities. Expenditures for teacher salaries shall count toward the requirement that at least 50 percent of revenues be used to provide services to low-income persons or to eligible students with disabilities.

4. In order for a proposal to be approved, an applicant neighborhood organization and any of its affiliates shall meet the requirements of this section and the application guidelines. However, beginning with tax credit allocations for fiscal year 2014-2015 and ending with tax credit allocations for fiscal year 2019-2020, such requirement for a proposal submitted by a neighborhood organization to the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall not apply in determining eligibility of the neighborhood organization submitting the proposal, provided that (i) the neighborhood organization otherwise meets all statutory requirements and regulations, (ii) the neighborhood organization received a fiscal year 2011-2012 allocation of neighborhood assistance tax credits, and (iii) no affiliate of the neighborhood organization submits a proposal for or receives an allocation of tax credits pursuant to this article for the program year for which the neighborhood organization has submitted its proposal.

5. The guidelines shall provide for the equitable allocation of the available amount of tax credits among the approved proposals submitted by neighborhood organizations. In any year in which the available amount of tax credits exceeds the previous year's available amount, at least 10 percent of the excess amount shall be allocated to qualified programs proposed by neighborhood organizations that did not receive any allocations in the preceding year. If the amount of tax credits requested by such neighborhood organizations is less than 10 percent of the excess amount, the unallocated portion of such 10 percent shall be allocated to qualified programs proposed by other neighborhood organizations.

C. 1. If the Superintendent of Public Instruction approves a proposal submitted by a neighborhood organization, the organization shall make the allocated tax credit amounts available to business firms making donations to the approved program. A neighborhood organization shall not assign or transfer an allocation of tax credits to another neighborhood organization without the approval of the Superintendent of Public Instruction.

2. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no more than an aggregate of $0.825 million in tax credits shall be approved in a fiscal year to a neighborhood organization or to a grouping of neighborhood organization affiliates for all education proposals.

3. If, after the initial allocation of credits to approved proposals, the Department of Education has a balance of tax credits remaining for the fiscal year that can be used or allocated by a neighborhood organization for a proposal that had been approved for tax credits during the initial allocation, then the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall reallocate the remaining balance of tax credits to such previously approved proposals to the extent that a neighborhood organization can use or allocate additional tax credits for the previously approved proposal. The $0.825 million annual limitations for tax credits approved to a grouping of neighborhood organization affiliates shall be inapplicable for such reallocation of any balance of tax credits. The balance of tax credits remaining for reallocation shall include the amount of any tax credits that have been granted for a proposal approved during the initial allocation but for which the Superintendent of Public Instruction received notice from the neighborhood organization that it will not be able to use or allocate such amount for the approved proposal.

D. The total amount of tax credits granted for programs approved by the Superintendent of Public Instruction under this article for each fiscal year shall not exceed $9 million for fiscal year 2015-2016 and each fiscal year thereafter.

The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall work cooperatively with the Commissioner of Social Services for purposes of ensuring that neighborhood organization proposals are submitted to the proper state agency. The Superintendent of Public Instruction may request the assistance of the Department of Taxation for purposes of determining whether or not anticipated donations for which tax credits are requested by a neighborhood organization likely qualify as a charitable donation under federal tax laws and regulations.

E. Actions of the Superintendent of Public Instruction or the Department of Education relating to the review of neighborhood organization proposals and the allocation of tax credits to proposals shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Decisions of the Superintendent of Public Instruction or the Department of Education shall be final and not subject to review or appeal.

2017, c. 724.

§ 58.1-439.20:2. Expiration.

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 30-19.1:11, the issuance of tax credits under this article shall expire on July 1, 2028.

2017, c. 724.

§ 58.1-439.21. Tax credit; amount; limitation; carry over.

A. The Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Commissioner of Social Services shall certify to the Department of Taxation, or in the case of business firms subject to a tax under Article 1 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.) of Chapter 25 or Article 2 (§ 58.1-2620 et seq.) of Chapter 26, to the State Corporation Commission, the applicability of the tax credit provided herein for a business firm.

B. A business firm shall be eligible for a credit against the taxes imposed by Articles 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.), 6 (§ 58.1-360 et seq.), and 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) of Chapter 3, Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.), Article 1 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.) of Chapter 25, or Article 2 (§ 58.1-2620 et seq.) of Chapter 26, in an amount equal to 65 percent of the value of the money, property, professional services, and contracting services donated by the business firm during its taxable year to neighborhood organizations for programs approved pursuant to § 58.1-439.20. Notwithstanding any other law and for purposes of this article, the value of a motor vehicle donated by a business firm shall, in all cases, be such value as determined for federal income tax purposes using the laws and regulations of the United States relating to federal income taxes. No tax credit shall be granted for any donation made in the taxable year with a value of less than $616.

A business firm shall be eligible for a tax credit under this section only to the extent that sufficient tax credits allocated to the neighborhood organization for an approved project are available. Notwithstanding that this section establishes a tax credit of 65 percent of the value of the qualified donation, a business firm may by written agreement accept a lesser tax credit percentage from a neighborhood organization for any otherwise qualified donation it has made. No tax credit shall be granted to any business firm for donations to a neighborhood organization providing job training or education for individuals employed by the business firm. Any tax credit not usable for the taxable year the donation was made may be carried over to the extent usable for the next five succeeding taxable years or until the full credit has been utilized, whichever is sooner. Credits granted to a partnership, electing small business (Subchapter S) corporation, or limited liability company shall be allocated to their individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

C. A tax credit shall be issued by the Superintendent of Public Instruction or the Commissioner of Social Services to a business firm upon receipt of a certification made by a neighborhood organization to whom tax credits were allocated for an approved program pursuant to § 58.1-439.20. The certification shall identify the type and value of the donation received, the business firm making the donation, and the tax credit percentage to be used in determining the amount of the tax credit. The certification shall also include any written agreement under which a business firm accepts a tax credit of less than 65 percent for a donation.

1981, c. 629, § 63.1-324; 1982, c. 178; 1984, c. 720; 1986, c. 407; 1989, c. 310; 1995, c. 279; 1996, c. 77; 1997, cc. 229, 640; 1999, cc. 890, 909; 2002, c. 747, § 63.2-2003; 2008, c. 585; 2009, c. 851; 2011, c. 370; 2012, cc. 731, 842; 2015, c. 56.

§ 58.1-439.22. Donations of professional services.

A. A sole proprietor, partnership or limited liability company engaged in the business of providing professional services shall be eligible for a tax credit under this article based on the time spent by the proprietor or a partner or member, respectively, who renders professional services to a program that has received an allocation of tax credits from the Superintendent of Public Instruction or the Commissioner of Social Services. The value of the professional services, for purposes of determining the amount of the tax credit allowable, rendered by the proprietor or a partner or member to an approved program shall not exceed the lesser of (i) the reasonable cost for similar services from other providers or (ii) $125 per hour.

B. A business firm shall be eligible for a tax credit under this article for the time spent by a salaried employee who renders professional services to an approved program. The value of the professional services, for purposes of determining the amount of tax credit allowed to a business firm for time spent by its salaried employee in rendering professional services to an approved project, shall be equal to the salary that such employee was actually paid for the period of time that such employee rendered professional services to the approved program.

C. Notwithstanding any provision of this article limiting eligibility for tax credits to business firms, physicians, chiropractors, dentists, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, optometrists, dental hygienists, professional counselors, clinical social workers, clinical psychologists, marriage and family therapists, physical therapists, and pharmacists licensed pursuant to Title 54.1 who provide health care services within the scope of their licensure, without charge, to patients of a clinic operated by an organization that has received an allocation of tax credits from the Commissioner of Social Services and such clinic is organized in whole or in part for the delivery of health care services without charge, or to a clinic operated not for profit providing health care services for charges not exceeding those set forth in a scale prescribed by the State Board of Health pursuant to § 32.1-11 for charges to be paid by persons based upon ability to pay, shall be eligible for a tax credit pursuant to § 58.1-439.21 based on the time spent in providing health care services to patients of such clinic, regardless of where the services are delivered.

Notwithstanding any provision of this article limiting eligibility for tax credits, a pharmacist who donates pharmaceutical services to patients of a free clinic, which clinic is an organization exempt from taxation under the provisions of § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, with such pharmaceutical services performed at the direction of an approved neighborhood organization that has received an allocation of tax credits from the Commissioner of Social Services, shall be eligible for tax credits under this article based on the time spent in providing such pharmaceutical services, regardless of where the services are delivered.

Notwithstanding any provision of this article limiting eligibility for tax credits, mediators certified pursuant to guidelines promulgated by the Judicial Council of Virginia who provide services within the scope of such certification, without charge, at the direction of an approved neighborhood organization that provides court-referred mediation services and that has received an allocation of tax credits from the Commissioner of Social Services shall be eligible for tax credits under this article based on the time spent in providing such mediation services, regardless of where the services are delivered.

The value of such services, for purposes of determining the amount of the tax credit allowable, rendered by the physician, chiropractor, dentist, nurse, nurse practitioner, physician assistant, optometrist, dental hygienist, professional counselor, clinical social worker, clinical psychologist, marriage and family therapist, physical therapist, pharmacist, or mediator shall not exceed the lesser of (i) the reasonable cost for similar services from other providers or (ii) $125 per hour.

D. Notwithstanding any provision of this article limiting eligibility for tax credits and for tax credit allocations beginning with fiscal year 2015-2016, a physician specialist who donates specialty medical services to patients referred from an approved neighborhood organization (i) that has received an allocation of tax credits from the Commissioner of Social Services, (ii) whose sole purpose is to provide specialty medical referral services to patients of participating clinics or federally qualified health centers, and (iii) that is exempt from taxation under the provisions of § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code shall be eligible for tax credits under this article issued to such organization regardless of where the specialty medical services are delivered.

The value of such services, for purposes of determining the amount of tax credit allowable, rendered by the physician specialist shall not exceed the lesser of (a) the reasonable cost for similar services from other providers or (b) $125 per hour.

1981, c. 629, § 63.1-325; 1982, c. 178; 1984, c. 720; 1997, cc. 229, 640; 1998, c. 432; 1999, cc. 894, 917; 2002, cc. 103, 747, § 63.2-2004; 2003, c. 186; 2004, cc. 183, 657, 725; 2008, c. 585; 2009, c. 851; 2011, c. 132; 2012, c. 596; 2015, c. 153.

§ 58.1-439.23. Donations of contracting services.

A. A sole proprietor, partnership or limited liability company engaged in the business of providing contracting services shall be eligible for a tax credit under this article based on the time spent by the proprietor or a partner or member, respectively, who renders contracting services to a program that has received an allocation of tax credits from the Commissioner of Social Services. The value of the contracting services, for purposes of determining the amount of the tax credit allowable, rendered by the proprietor or a partner or member to an approved program shall not exceed the lesser of (i) the reasonable cost for similar services from other providers or (ii) $50 per hour.

B. A business firm shall be eligible for a tax credit under this article for the time spent by a salaried employee who renders contracting services to an approved program. The value of the contracting services, for purposes of determining the amount of tax credit allowed to a business firm for time spent by its salaried employee in rendering contracting services to an approved project, shall be equal to the salary that such employee was actually paid for the period of time that such employee rendered contracting services to the approved program.

1999, cc. 890, 909, § 63.1-325.1; 2002, c. 747, § 63.2-2005; 2008, c. 585.

§ 58.1-439.24. Donations by individuals.

For purposes of this section, the term "individual" means the same as that term is defined in § 58.1-302, but excluding any individual included in the definition of a "business firm" as such term is defined in § 58.1-439.18.

A. Notwithstanding any provision of this article limiting eligibility for tax credits, an individual making a monetary donation or a donation of marketable securities to a neighborhood organization approved under this article shall be eligible for a credit against taxes imposed by § 58.1-320 as provided in this section.

B. Notwithstanding any provision of this article specifying the amount of a tax credit, a tax credit issued to an individual making a monetary donation or a donation of marketable securities to an approved project shall be equal to 65 percent of the value of such donation; however, tax credits (i) shall not be issued for any donation made in the taxable year with a value of less than $500 and (ii) shall be issued only for the first $125,000 in value of donations made by the individual during the taxable year. The maximum aggregate donations of $125,000 for the taxable year for which tax credits may be issued and the minimum required donation of $500 shall apply on an individual basis.

C. An individual shall be eligible for a tax credit under this section only to the extent that sufficient tax credits allocated to the neighborhood organization approved under this article are available. Notwithstanding that this section establishes a tax credit of 65 percent of the value of the qualified donation, an individual may by written agreement accept a lesser tax credit percentage from a neighborhood organization for any otherwise qualified donation he has made.

D. The amount of credit allowed pursuant to this section, if such credit has been issued by the Superintendent of Public Instruction or the Commissioner of Social Services, shall not exceed the tax imposed pursuant to § 58.1-320 for such taxable year. Any credit not usable for the taxable year may be carried over for credit against the individual's income taxes until the earlier of (i) the full amount of the credit is used or (ii) the expiration of the fifth taxable year after the taxable year in which the tax credit has been issued to such individual. If an individual that is subject to the tax limitation imposed pursuant to this subsection is allowed another credit pursuant to any other section of the Code of Virginia, or has a credit carryover from a preceding taxable year, such individual shall be considered to have first utilized any credit allowed that does not have a carryover provision, and then any credit that is carried forward from a preceding taxable year, prior to the utilization of any credit allowed pursuant to this section.

E. A tax credit shall be issued by the Superintendent of Public Instruction or the Commissioner of Social Services to an individual only upon receipt of a certification made by a neighborhood organization to whom tax credits were allocated for an approved program pursuant to § 58.1-439.20.

The certification shall identify the type and value of the donation received, the individual making the donation, and the tax credit percentage to be used in determining the amount of the tax credit. The certification shall also include any written agreement under which an individual accepts a tax credit of less than 65 percent for a donation.

2000, c. 946, § 63.1-325.2; 2001, cc. 292, 300; 2002, cc. 563, 747, § 63.2-2006; 2005, c. 82; 2008, cc. 463, 585; 2009, c. 851; 2012, cc. 731, 842; 2013, cc. 713, 716; 2015, c. 56.

Article 13.3. Education Improvement Scholarships Tax Credits.

§ 58.1-439.25. (Applicable to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2024) Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Eligible pre-kindergarten child" means a child who is (i) a resident of Virginia; (ii) an at-risk four-year-old unable to obtain services through Head Start or Virginia Preschool Initiative programs; and (iii) enrolled in, eligible to attend, or attending a nonpublic pre-kindergarten program and whose family (a) does not have an annual household income in excess of 300 percent of the current poverty guidelines or 400 percent of such guidelines in cases in which an individualized education program has been written and finalized for the child in accordance with the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), regulations promulgated pursuant to IDEA, and regulations of the Board of Education; (b) is homeless as defined in 42 U.S.C. § 11302; or (c) includes a parent or guardian of the child who did not graduate from high school, and whose parent or guardian certifies to the scholarship foundation that the child was unable to obtain services through the Virginia Preschool Initiative in the public school division in which the child resides.

"Eligible student with a disability" means a child who is a resident of Virginia for whom an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) has been written and finalized in accordance with the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), regulations promulgated pursuant to IDEA, and regulations of the Board of Education. For purposes of this article, an eligible student with a disability need not qualify as a student as defined in this section.

"Nonpublic pre-kindergarten program" means a pre-kindergarten program that is not operated, directly or indirectly, by a federal, state, or local government entity and that is (i) a preschool program designed for child development and kindergarten preparation that complies with nonpublic school accreditation requirements administered by the Virginia Council for Private Education pursuant to § 22.1-19; (ii) participating in Virginia Quality with a current designation of at least Level 3 under such quality rating system; or (iii) a child day center, as defined in § 63.2-100, that is licensed by the Department of Social Services pursuant to Subtitle IV (§ 63.2-1700 et seq.) of Title 63.2 and implements a curriculum, professional development program, and coaching model developed and endorsed by a baccalaureate public institution of higher education, as defined in § 23.1-100.

"Poverty guidelines" means the poverty guidelines for the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia updated annually in the Federal Register by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under the authority of § 673(2) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981.

"Qualified educational expenses" means school-related tuition and instructional fees and materials, including textbooks, workbooks, and supplies used solely for school-related work.

"Scholarship foundation" means a nonstock, nonprofit corporation that is (i) exempt from taxation under § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended or renumbered; (ii) approved by the Department of Education in accordance with the provisions of § 58.1-439.27; and (iii) established to provide financial aid for the education of students or eligible students with a disability residing in the Commonwealth.

"Student" means a child who is a resident of Virginia and (i) in the current school year has enrolled and attended a public school in the Commonwealth for at least one-half of the year, (ii) for the school year that immediately preceded his receipt of a scholarship foundation scholarship was enrolled and attended a public school in the Commonwealth for at least one-half of the year, (iii) is a prior recipient of a scholarship foundation scholarship, (iv) is eligible to enter kindergarten or eligible to enter first grade, or (v) for the school year that immediately preceded his receipt of a scholarship foundation scholarship was domiciled in a state other than the Commonwealth and did not attend a nonpublic school in the Commonwealth for more than one-half of the school year. "Student" does not include an eligible pre-kindergarten child.

"Virginia Quality" means a quality rating and improvement system for early childhood programs administered in partnership between the Virginia Early Childhood Foundation and the Office of Early Childhood Development of the Department of Social Services.

2012, cc. 731, 842; 2013, cc. 713, 716; 2019, cc. 808, 817.

§ 58.1-439.25. (Applicable to taxable years beginning January 1, 2024) Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Eligible pre-kindergarten child" means a child who is (i) a resident of Virginia; (ii) an at-risk four-year-old unable to obtain services through Head Start or Virginia Preschool Initiative programs; and (iii) enrolled in, eligible to attend, or attending a nonpublic pre-kindergarten program and whose family (a) does not have an annual household income in excess of 300 percent of the current poverty guidelines or 400 percent of such guidelines in cases in which an individualized education program has been written and finalized for the child in accordance with the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), regulations promulgated pursuant to IDEA, and regulations of the Board of Education; (b) is homeless as defined in 42 U.S.C. § 11302; or (c) includes a parent or guardian of the child who did not graduate from high school, and whose parent or guardian certifies to the scholarship foundation that the child was unable to obtain services through the Virginia Preschool Initiative in the public school division in which the child resides.

"Eligible student with a disability" means a student (i) for whom an individualized educational program has been written and finalized in accordance with the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), regulations promulgated pursuant to IDEA, and regulations of the Board of Education; (ii) whose family's annual household income is not in excess of 400 percent of the current poverty guidelines; and (iii) who otherwise is a student as defined in this section.

"Nonpublic pre-kindergarten program" means a pre-kindergarten program that is not operated, directly or indirectly, by a federal, state, or local government entity and that is (i) a preschool program designed for child development and kindergarten preparation that complies with nonpublic school accreditation requirements administered by the Virginia Council for Private Education pursuant to § 22.1-19; (ii) participating in Virginia Quality with a current designation of at least Level 3 under such quality rating system; or (iii) a child day center, as defined in § 63.2-100, that is licensed by the Department of Social Services pursuant to Subtitle IV (§ 63.2-1700 et seq.) of Title 63.2 and implements a curriculum, professional development program, and coaching model developed and endorsed by a baccalaureate public institution of higher education, as defined in § 23.1-100.

"Poverty guidelines" means the poverty guidelines for the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia updated annually in the Federal Register by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under the authority of § 673(2) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981.

"Qualified educational expenses" means school-related tuition and instructional fees and materials, including textbooks, workbooks, and supplies used solely for school-related work.

"Scholarship foundation" means a nonstock, nonprofit corporation that is (i) exempt from taxation under § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended or renumbered; (ii) approved by the Department of Education in accordance with the provisions of § 58.1-439.27; and (iii) established to provide financial aid for the education of students residing in the Commonwealth.

"Student" means a child who is a resident of Virginia and (i) in the current school year has enrolled and attended a public school in the Commonwealth for at least one-half of the year, (ii) for the school year that immediately preceded his receipt of a scholarship foundation scholarship was enrolled and attended a public school in the Commonwealth for at least one-half of the year, (iii) is a prior recipient of a scholarship foundation scholarship, (iv) is eligible to enter kindergarten or eligible to enter first grade, or (v) for the school year that immediately preceded his receipt of a scholarship foundation scholarship was domiciled in a state other than the Commonwealth and did not attend a nonpublic school in the Commonwealth for more than one-half of the school year. "Student" does not include an eligible pre-kindergarten child.

"Virginia Quality" means a quality rating and improvement system for early childhood programs administered in partnership between the Virginia Early Childhood Foundation and the Office of Early Childhood Development of the Department of Social Services.

2012, cc. 731, 842; 2013, cc. 713, 716; 2019, c. 817.

§ 58.1-439.26. Tax credit for donations to certain scholarship foundations.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 30-19.1:11, for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2013, but before January 1, 2028, a person shall be eligible to earn a credit against any tax due under Article 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.) or Article 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.), Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.), Chapter 25 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.), or Article 2 (§ 58.1-2620 et seq.) of Chapter 26 in an amount equal to 65 percent of the value of the monetary or marketable securities donation made by the person to a scholarship foundation included on the list published annually by the Department of Education in accordance with the provisions of § 58.1-439.28.

No tax credit shall be allowed under this article if the value of the monetary or marketable securities donation made by an individual is less than $500. In addition, tax credits shall be issued only for the first $125,000 in value of donations made by the individual during the taxable year. The maximum aggregate donations of $125,000 for the taxable year for which tax credits may be issued and the minimum required donation of $500 shall apply on an individual basis. Such limitation on the maximum amount of tax credits issued to an individual shall not apply to credits issued to any business entity, including a sole proprietorship.

B. Tax credits shall be issued to persons making monetary or marketable securities donations to scholarship foundations by the Department of Education on a first-come, first-served basis in accordance with procedures established by the Department of Education under the following conditions:

1. The total amount of tax credits that may be issued each fiscal year under this article shall not exceed $25 million.

2. The amount of the credit shall not exceed the person's tax liability pursuant to Article 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.) or Article 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.), Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.), Chapter 25 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.), or Article 2 (§ 58.1-2620 et seq.) of Chapter 26, as applicable, for the taxable year for which the credit is claimed. Any credit not usable for the taxable year for which first allowed may be carried over for credit against the taxes imposed upon the person pursuant to Article 2 (§ 58.1-320 et seq.) or Article 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.), Chapter 12 (§ 58.1-1200 et seq.), Chapter 25 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.), or Article 2 (§ 58.1-2620 et seq.) of Chapter 26, as applicable, in the next five succeeding taxable years or until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken, whichever is sooner.

The amount of any credit attributable to a partnership, electing small business corporation (S corporation), or limited liability company shall be allocated to the individual partners, shareholders, or members, respectively, in proportion to their ownership or interest in such business entities.

C. In a form approved by the Department of Education, the person seeking to make a monetary or marketable securities donation to a scholarship foundation or a scholarship foundation on behalf of such person shall request preauthorization for a specified tax credit amount from the Superintendent of Public Instruction. The Department of Education's preauthorization notice shall accompany the monetary or marketable securities donation from the person to the scholarship foundation, which shall, within 40 days, return the notice to the Department of Education certifying the value and type of donation and date received. Upon receipt and approval by the Department of Education of the preauthorization notice with required supporting documentation and certification of the value and type of the donation by the scholarship foundation, the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall as soon as practicable, and in no case longer than 30 days, issue a tax credit certificate to the person eligible for the tax credit. The person shall attach the tax credit certificate to the applicable tax return filed with the Department of Taxation or the State Corporation Commission, as applicable. The Department of Education shall provide a copy of the tax credit certificate to the scholarship foundation.

Preauthorization notices not acted upon by a donor within 180 days of issuance shall be void. No tax credit shall be approved by the Department of Education for activities that are a part of a person's normal course of business.

2012, cc. 731, 842; 2013, cc. 713, 716; 2014, c. 176; 2016, cc. 751, 767.

§ 58.1-439.27. Scholarship foundation eligibility and requirements; list of foundations receiving donations.

A. Persons seeking to receive and administer tax-credit-approved funds shall submit information to the Department of Education, which shall determine whether an applicant is a scholarship foundation as defined in § 58.1-439.25. The Department of Education shall prescribe through guidelines what reasonable information shall be submitted by such persons. Notice of approval or denial, including reasons for denial, shall be issued by the Department of Education to the applicant within 60 days after the complete information is submitted. Any approval shall not be withheld unreasonably.

B. The Department of Education shall submit a list of all scholarship foundations that received donations for which tax credits were issued under this article to the Chairmen of the House and Senate Finance Committees no later than December 1 of each year. The list shall report such scholarships for the 12-month period ending on the immediately preceding June 30.

2012, cc. 731, 842; 2013, cc. 713, 716.

§ 58.1-439.28. (Applicable to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2024) Guidelines for scholarship foundations.

A. As a condition for qualification by the Department of Education, a scholarship foundation, as defined in § 58.1-439.25 and included on the list published annually by the Department of Education pursuant to this section, shall disburse an amount at least equal to 90 percent of the value of the donations it receives (for which tax credits were issued under this article) during each 12-month period ending on June 30 by the immediately following June 30 for qualified educational expenses through scholarships to students or eligible students with a disability. Tax-credit-derived funds not used for such scholarships may only be used for the administrative expenses of the scholarship foundation. Any scholarship foundation that fails to meet such disbursal requirement shall, for the first offense, be required to pay a civil penalty equal to the difference between 90 percent of the value of the tax-credit-derived donations it received in the applicable 12-month period and the amount that was actually disbursed. Such civil penalty shall be remitted by the scholarship foundation to the Department of Education within 30 days after the end of the one-year period and deposited to the general fund. For a second offense within a five-year period, the scholarship foundation shall be removed from the annual list published pursuant to this section and shall not be entitled to request preauthorization for additional tax credits, nor shall it be entitled to receive and administer additional tax-credit-derived funds for two years. After two years, the scholarship foundation shall be eligible to reapply to be included on the annual list to receive and administer tax-credit derived funds. If a scholarship foundation is authorized to be added to the annual list after such reapplication, the scholarship foundation shall not be considered to have any previous offenses for purposes of this subsection. The required disbursement under this section shall begin with donations received for the period January 1, 2013, through June 30, 2014.

B. By September 30 of each year beginning in 2016, the scholarship foundation shall provide the following information to the Department of Education: (i) the total number and value of donations received by the foundation during the 12-month period ending on June 30 of the prior calendar year for which tax credits were issued by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, (ii) the dates when such donations were received, and (iii) the total number and dollar amount of qualified educational expenses scholarships awarded from tax-credit-derived donations and disbursed by the scholarship foundation during the 24-month period ending on June 30 of the current calendar year. Any scholarship foundation that fails to provide this report by September 30 shall, for the first offense, be required to pay a $1,000 civil penalty. Such civil penalty shall be remitted by the scholarship foundation to the Department of Education by November 1 of the same year and deposited to the general fund. For a second offense within a five-year period, the scholarship foundation shall be removed from the annual list published pursuant to this section and shall not be entitled to request preauthorization for additional tax credits, nor shall it be entitled to receive and administer additional tax-credit-derived funds. After two years, the scholarship foundation shall be eligible to reapply to be included on the annual list to receive and administer tax-credit derived funds. If a scholarship foundation is authorized to be added to the annual list after such reapplication, the scholarship foundation shall not be considered to have any previous offenses for purposes of this subsection.

C. In awarding scholarships from tax-credit-derived funds, the scholarship foundation shall (i) provide scholarships for qualified educational expenses only to students whose family's annual household income is not in excess of 300 percent of the current poverty guidelines, eligible students with a disability whose family's annual household income is not in excess of 400 percent of the current poverty guidelines, or eligible pre-kindergarten children; (ii) not limit scholarships to students or eligible students with a disability of one school; and (iii) comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended. Payment of scholarships from tax-credit-derived funds by the eligible scholarship foundation shall be by individual warrant or check made payable to and mailed to the eligible school that the parent or legal guardian of the student or eligible student with a disability indicates. In mailing such scholarship payments, the eligible scholarship foundation shall include a written notice to the eligible school that the source of the scholarship was donations made by persons receiving tax credits for the same pursuant to this article.

D. 1. Scholarship foundations shall ensure that schools selected by students or eligible students with a disability to which tax-credit-derived funds may be paid (i) are in compliance with the Commonwealth's and locality's health and safety laws and codes; (ii) hold a valid occupancy permit as required by the locality; (iii) comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended; and (iv) are (a) for students in grades K through 12, nonpublic schools that comply with nonpublic school accreditation requirements as set forth in § 22.1-19 and administered by the Virginia Council for Private Education or nonpublic schools that maintain an assessment system that annually measures the progress of scholarship students or eligible students with a disability in reading and math using a national norm-referenced achievement test, including but not limited to the Stanford Achievement Test, California Achievement Test, and Iowa Test of Basic Skills and (b) for eligible pre-kindergarten children, nonpublic pre-kindergarten programs.

2. Each nonpublic pre-kindergarten program shall (i) provide to the eligible pre-kindergarten child a curriculum that is aligned with Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds as published by the Department of Education, or any successor standards published by the Department of Education; (ii) have maximum class sizes of 20 students with a teacher-student ratio of not fewer than two teachers for every 20 students; (iii) provide at least half-day services and operate for at least the school year; (iv) agree to provide the Department of Education with student information for each eligible pre-kindergarten child receiving a scholarship foundation scholarship for purposes of allowing the Department of Education to conduct studies comparing the academic performance of such children while attending primary or secondary school with other children attending primary or secondary school who have attended a pre-kindergarten program, including programs funded under the Virginia Preschool Initiative; and (v) require professional development of program teachers, which enables such teachers to engage in high-quality interactions with eligible pre-kindergarten children and provide high-quality instruction in accordance with the curriculum described under clause (i). Each nonpublic pre-kindergarten program teacher at a minimum shall have earned a certificate from a nationally recognized early childhood education certificate program, including but not limited to any early childhood education program provided or sponsored by the Virginia Community College System.

In awarding scholarships to eligible pre-kindergarten children, scholarship foundations shall award scholarships from tax-credit-derived funds only to such children who are enrolled in or attending nonpublic pre-kindergarten programs that meet the conditions of this subdivision as certified by the Virginia Council for Private Education or the Virginia Early Childhood Foundation.

3. Eligible schools shall compile the results of any national norm-referenced achievement test for each of its students or eligible students with a disability receiving tax-credit-derived scholarships and shall provide the respective parents or legal guardians of such students or eligible students with a disability with a copy of the results on an annual basis, beginning with the first year of testing of the student or eligible student with a disability. Such schools also shall annually provide to the Department of Education for each such student or eligible student with a disability the achievement test results, beginning with the first year of testing of the student or eligible student with a disability, and information that would allow the Department to aggregate the achievement test results by grade level, gender, family income level, number of years of participation in the scholarship program, and race. Beginning with the third year of testing and test-related data collection, the Department of Education shall ensure that the achievement test results and associated learning gains are published on the Department of Education's website in accordance with such classifications and in an aggregate form as to prevent the identification of any student or eligible student with a disability. Eligible schools shall annually provide to the Superintendent of Public Instruction graduation rates of its students or eligible students with a disability participating in the scholarship program in a manner consistent with nationally recognized standards. In publishing and disseminating achievement test results and other information, the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Department of Education shall ensure compliance with all student privacy laws.

The provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to eligible pre-kindergarten children.

E. 1. The aggregate amount of scholarships provided to each student or eligible student with a disability who does not meet the requirements of subdivision 2 for any single school year by all eligible scholarship foundations from eligible donations shall not exceed the lesser of (i) the actual qualified educational expenses of the student or (ii) 100 percent of the per-pupil amount distributed to the local school division (in which the student resides) as the state's share of the standards of quality costs using the composite index of ability to pay as defined in the general appropriation act.

2. a. Except as provided in subdivision 1, the aggregate amount of scholarships provided to each eligible student with a disability for any single school year by all eligible scholarship foundations from eligible donations shall not exceed the lesser of (i) the actual qualified educational expenses of the student or (ii) 300 percent of the per pupil amount distributed to the local school division (in which the eligible student with a disability resides) as the state's share of the standards of quality costs using the composite index of ability to pay as defined in the general appropriation act.

b. Except as provided in subdivision 1, scholarships may only be provided to an eligible student with a disability who is attending a school for students with disabilities, as defined in § 22.1-319, that (i) is licensed by the Department of Education to serve students with disabilities, (ii) complies with the nonpublic school accreditation requirements of the Virginia Association of Independent Schools, (iii) is exempt from taxation under § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, and (iv) does not receive public funds to supplement the cost of the education of the eligible student with a disability that is receiving the scholarship pursuant to this section.

3. In the case of eligible pre-kindergarten children, the aggregate amount of scholarships provided to each child for any single school year by all eligible scholarship foundations from eligible donations shall not exceed the lesser of the actual qualified educational expenses of the child or the state share of the grant per child under the Virginia Preschool Initiative for the locality in which the eligible pre-kindergarten child resides.

F. Scholarship foundations shall develop procedures for disbursing scholarships in quarterly or semester payments throughout the school year to ensure scholarships are portable.

G. Scholarship foundations that receive donations of marketable securities for which tax credits were issued under this article shall be required to sell such securities and convert the donation into cash immediately, but in no case more than 21 days after receipt of the donation.

H. Each scholarship foundation with total revenues (including the value of all donations)(i) in excess of $100,000 for the foundation's most recent fiscal year ended shall have an audit or review performed by an independent certified public accountant of the foundation's donations received in such year for which tax credits were issued under this article or (ii) of $100,000 or less for the foundation's most recent fiscal year ended shall have a compilation performed by an independent certified public accountant of the foundation's donations received in such year for which tax credits were issued under this article. A summary report of the audit, review, or compilation shall be made available to the public and the Department of Education upon request.

I. The Department of Education shall publish annually on its website a list of each scholarship foundation qualified under this article. Once a foundation has been qualified by the Department of Education, it shall remain qualified until the Department removes the foundation from its annual list. The Department of Education shall remove a foundation from the annual list if it no longer meets the requirements of this article. The Department of Education may periodically require a qualified foundation to submit updated or additional information for purposes of determining whether or not the foundation continues to meet the requirements of this article.

J. Actions of the Superintendent of Public Instruction or the Department of Education relating to the awarding of tax credits under this article and the qualification of scholarship foundations shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Decisions of the Superintendent of Public Instruction or the Department of Education shall be final and not subject to review or appeal.

2012, cc. 731, 842; 2013, cc. 713, 716; 2016, cc. 751, 767; 2019, cc. 808, 817.

§ 58.1-439.28. (Applicable to taxable years beginning January 1, 2024) Guidelines for scholarship foundations.

A. As a condition for qualification by the Department of Education, a scholarship foundation, as defined in § 58.1-439.25 and included on the list published annually by the Department of Education pursuant to this section, shall disburse an amount at least equal to 90 percent of the value of the donations it receives (for which tax credits were issued under this article) during each 12-month period ending on June 30 by the immediately following June 30 for qualified educational expenses through scholarships to eligible students. Tax-credit-derived funds not used for such scholarships may only be used for the administrative expenses of the scholarship foundation. Any scholarship foundation that fails to meet such disbursal requirement shall, for the first offense, be required to pay a civil penalty equal to 200 percent of the difference between 90 percent of the value of the tax-credit-derived donations it received in the applicable 12-month period and the amount that was actually disbursed. Such civil penalty shall be remitted by the scholarship foundation to the Department of Education within 30 days after the end of the one-year period and deposited to the general fund. For a second offense within a five-year period, the scholarship foundation shall be removed from the annual list published pursuant to this section and shall not be entitled to request preauthorization for additional tax credits, nor shall it be entitled to receive and administer additional tax-credit-derived funds for two years. After two years, the scholarship foundation shall be eligible to reapply to be included on the annual list to receive and administer tax-credit derived funds. If a scholarship foundation is authorized to be added to the annual list after such reapplication, the scholarship foundation shall not be considered to have any previous offenses for purposes of this subsection. The required disbursement under this section shall begin with donations received for the period January 1, 2013, through June 30, 2014.

B. By September 30 of each year beginning in 2016, the scholarship foundation shall provide the following information to the Department of Education: (i) the total number and value of donations received by the foundation during the 12-month period ending on June 30 of the prior calendar year for which tax credits were issued by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, (ii) the dates when such donations were received, and (iii) the total number and dollar amount of qualified educational expenses scholarships awarded from tax-credit-derived donations and disbursed by the scholarship foundation during the 24-month period ending on June 30 of the current calendar year. Any scholarship foundation that fails to provide this report by September 30 shall, for the first offense, be required to pay a $1,000 civil penalty. Such civil penalty shall be remitted by the scholarship foundation to the Department of Education by November 1 of the same year and deposited to the general fund. For a second offense within a five-year period, the scholarship foundation shall be removed from the annual list published pursuant to this section and shall not be entitled to request preauthorization for additional tax credits, nor shall it be entitled to receive and administer additional tax-credit-derived funds. After two years, the scholarship foundation shall be eligible to reapply to be included on the annual list to receive and administer tax-credit derived funds. If a scholarship foundation is authorized to be added to the annual list after such reapplication, the scholarship foundation shall not be considered to have any previous offenses for purposes of this subsection.

C. In awarding scholarships from tax-credit-derived funds, the scholarship foundation shall (i) provide scholarships for qualified educational expenses only to students whose family's annual household income is not in excess of 300 percent of the current poverty guidelines, eligible students with a disability, or eligible pre-kindergarten children; (ii) not limit scholarships to students of one school; and (iii) comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended. Payment of scholarships from tax-credit-derived funds by the eligible scholarship foundation shall be by individual warrant or check made payable to and mailed to the eligible school that the student's parent or legal guardian indicates. In mailing such scholarship payments, the eligible scholarship foundation shall include a written notice to the eligible school that the source of the scholarship was donations made by persons receiving tax credits for the same pursuant to this article.

D. Scholarship foundations shall ensure that schools selected by students to which tax-credit-derived funds may be paid (i) are in compliance with the Commonwealth's and locality's health and safety laws and codes; (ii) hold a valid occupancy permit as required by the locality; (iii) comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended; and (iv) are nonpublic schools that comply with nonpublic school accreditation requirements as set forth in § 22.1-19 and administered by the Virginia Council for Private Education or nonpublic schools that maintain an assessment system that annually measures scholarship students' progress in reading and math using a national norm-referenced achievement test, including but not limited to the Stanford Achievement Test, California Achievement Test, and Iowa Test of Basic Skills.

Eligible schools shall compile the results of any national norm-referenced achievement test for each of its students receiving tax-credit-derived scholarships and shall provide the respective parents or legal guardians of such students with a copy of the results on an annual basis, beginning with the first year of testing of the student. Such schools also shall annually provide to the Department of Education for each such student the achievement test results, beginning with the first year of testing of the student, and student information that would allow the Department to aggregate the achievement test results by grade level, gender, family income level, number of years of participation in the scholarship program, and race. Beginning with the third year of testing of each such student and test-related data collection, the Department of Education shall ensure that the achievement test results and associated learning gains are published on the Department of Education's website in accordance with such classifications and in an aggregate form as to prevent the identification of any student. Eligible schools shall annually provide to the Superintendent of Public Instruction graduation rates of its students participating in the scholarship program in a manner consistent with nationally recognized standards. In publishing and disseminating achievement test results and other information, the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Department of Education shall ensure compliance with all student privacy laws.

E. The aggregate amount of scholarships provided to each student for any single school year by all eligible scholarship foundations from eligible donations shall not exceed the lesser of (i) the actual qualified educational expenses of the student or (ii) 100 percent of the per-pupil amount distributed to the local school division (in which the student resides) as the state's share of the standards of quality costs using the composite index of ability to pay as defined in the general appropriation act.

F. Scholarship foundations shall develop procedures for disbursing scholarships in quarterly or semester payments throughout the school year to ensure scholarships are portable.

G. Scholarship foundations that receive donations of marketable securities for which tax credits were issued under this article shall be required to sell such securities and convert the donation into cash immediately, but in no case more than 21 days after receipt of the donation.

H. Each scholarship foundation with total revenues (including the value of all donations) (i) in excess of $100,000 for the foundation's most recent fiscal year ended shall have an audit or review performed by an independent certified public accountant of the foundation's donations received in such year for which tax credits were issued under this article or (ii) of $100,000 or less for the foundation's most recent fiscal year ended shall have a compilation performed by an independent certified public accountant of the foundation's donations received in such year for which tax credits were issued under this article. A summary report of the audit, review, or compilation shall be made available to the public and the Department of Education upon request.

I. The Department of Education shall publish annually on its website a list of each scholarship foundation qualified under this article. Once a foundation has been qualified by the Department of Education, it shall remain qualified until the Department removes the foundation from its annual list. The Department of Education shall remove a foundation from the annual list if it no longer meets the requirements of this article. The Department of Education may periodically require a qualified foundation to submit updated or additional information for purposes of determining whether or not the foundation continues to meet the requirements of this article.

J. Actions of the Superintendent of Public Instruction or the Department of Education relating to the awarding of tax credits under this article and the qualification of scholarship foundations shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Decisions of the Superintendent of Public Instruction or the Department of Education shall be final and not subject to review or appeal.

2012, cc. 731, 842; 2013, cc. 713, 716; 2016, cc. 751, 767; 2019, c. 817.

Article 14. Accounting, Returns, Procedures for Corporations.

§ 58.1-440. Accounting.

A. A corporate taxpayer's taxable year under this chapter shall be the same as his taxable year for federal income tax purposes.

B. If a taxpayer's taxable year is changed for federal income tax purposes, his taxable year for purposes of this chapter shall be similarly changed. If a taxable year of less than twelve months results from a change of taxable year, the Virginia taxable income shall be prorated under regulations of the Department.

C. A taxpayer's method of accounting under this chapter shall be the same as his method of accounting for federal income tax purposes. In the absence of any method of accounting for federal income tax purposes, Virginia taxable income shall be computed under such method as in the opinion of the Tax Commissioner clearly reflects income.

D. If a taxpayer's method of accounting is changed for federal income tax purposes, his method of accounting for purposes of this chapter shall be similarly changed. If a taxpayer's method of accounting is changed, other than from an accrual to an installment method, any additional tax which results from adjustments determined to be necessary solely by reason of the change shall not be greater than if such adjustments were ratably allocated and included for the taxable year of the change and the preceding taxable years, not in excess of two, during which the taxpayer used the method of accounting from which the change is made. If a taxpayer's method of accounting is changed from an accrual to an installment method, any additional tax for the year of such change of method and for any subsequent year which is attributable to the receipt of installment payments properly accrued in a prior year, shall be reduced by the portion of tax for any prior taxable year attributable to the accrual of such installment payments, in accordance with regulations of the Department.

E. In computing a taxpayer's Virginia taxable income for any taxable year under a method of accounting different from the method under which the taxpayer's Virginia taxable income was computed, there shall be taken into account those adjustments which are determined, under regulations prescribed by the Department of Taxation, to be necessary solely by reason of change in order to prevent amounts from being duplicated or omitted.

F. Notwithstanding any of the other provisions of this section, any accounting adjustments made for federal income tax purposes for any taxable year shall be applied in computing the taxpayer's taxable income for such year.

Code 1950, § 58-151.061; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-440.1. Accounting-deferred taxes.

In the case of a pipeline distribution company, a gas utility, a gas supplier or an electric supplier, as defined in § 58.1-400.2, that was subject to the tax imposed under § 58.1-2626 with respect to its gross receipts received during the year commencing January 1, 2000, and that on or after January 1, 2001, becomes subject to the corporate income tax pursuant to Article 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) of this chapter, net income shall be computed by taking into account the following adjustments:

In addition to the deductions for depreciation, amortization, or other cost recovery currently allowed by this Code, there shall be allowed deductions for the amortization of the Virginia tax basis of assets that are recoverable for financial accounting and/or income tax purposes placed in service prior to the adjustment date. For purposes of this section, (i) "Virginia tax basis" means the aggregate adjusted book basis less the aggregate adjusted tax basis of such assets as recorded on the company's books of accounts as of the last day of the tax year immediately preceding the adjustment date and (ii) "adjustment date" means the first day of the tax year in which such pipeline distribution company, gas utility, gas supplier or electric supplier becomes subject to the tax imposed by § 58.1-400.2 A. The amortization of the Virginia tax basis shall be computed using the straight-line method over a period of thirty years, beginning on the adjustment date. Gain or loss on the disposition or retirement of any such asset shall be computed using its adjusted federal tax basis, and the amortization of the Virginia tax basis shall continue thereafter without adjustment. The Department of Taxation shall promulgate regulations describing a reasonable method of allocating the Virginia tax basis in the event that a portion of the operations of a pipeline distribution company, gas utility, gas supplier or electric supplier are separated, spun-off, transferred to a separate company or otherwise disaggregated. For gas suppliers, pipeline distribution companies or gas utilities which are required to file an income tax return for a short taxable year pursuant to subsection E of § 58.1-400.2, a portion of the amortized Virginia tax basis will be disallowed based on the proration in computing Virginia taxable income. Such portion will be recovered as a deduction in the first taxable year after which this deduction is no longer applicable.

For rate-making and accounting purposes, the State Corporation Commission shall not require a pipeline distribution company or gas utility to amortize these deferred taxes over a period other than the thirty-year period prescribed herein, nor shall the State Corporation Commission require the treatment of accelerated depreciation different from that allowed for federal income taxes.

1999, c. 971; 2000, cc. 691, 706.

§ 58.1-441. Reports by corporations.

A. Every corporation organized under the laws of the Commonwealth, or having income from Virginia sources, other than a Subchapter S corporation subject to the return filing requirements of § 58.1-392, shall make a report to the Department on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of its taxable year. Such reports shall be made on forms prescribed by the Department and shall contain such information, including the gross receipts from any business carried on in the Commonwealth and a depreciation schedule of property used in such trade or business, as may be necessary for the proper enforcement of this chapter and be accompanied by a copy of any federal tax return or report filed for such taxable year. The Department shall not require any nonprofit organization created exclusively to assist a law-enforcement official or agency in apprehending and convicting perpetrators of crimes, to report on such returns, or otherwise, the names of individuals or amounts paid to such individuals by the organization for providing information about certain crimes.

Receivers, trustees in dissolution, trustees in bankruptcy, and assignees, operating the property or business of corporations must make returns of income for such corporations. If a receiver has full custody of and control over the business or property of a corporation, he shall be deemed to be operating such business or property, whether he is engaged in carrying on the business for which the corporation was organized or only in marshaling, selling, or disposing of its assets for purposes of liquidation.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, every organization to whom subdivision 5 of § 58.1-401 applies, and having unrelated business taxable income or other taxable income, shall make a report to the Department on or before the fifteenth day of the sixth month following the close of the organization's taxable year.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.062, 58-151.078; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, cc. 465, 827; 1978, c. 796; 1984, c. 675; 1988, c. 444; 2003, c. 376; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3.

§ 58.1-442. Separate, combined or consolidated returns of affiliated corporations.

A. Corporations which are affiliated within the meaning of § 58.1-302 may, for any taxable year, file separate returns, file a combined return or file a consolidated return of net income for the purpose of this chapter, and the taxes thereunder shall be computed and determined upon the basis of the type of return filed. Following an election to file on a separate, consolidated, or combined basis all returns thereafter filed shall be upon the same basis unless permission to change is granted by the Department.

B. For the purpose of subsection A:

1. A consolidated return shall mean a single return for a group of corporations affiliated within the meaning of § 58.1-302, prepared in accordance with the principles of § 1502 of the Internal Revenue Code and regulations promulgated thereunder. Permission to file a consolidated return shall not be denied to a group of affiliated corporations filing a consolidated federal return solely because two or more members of such affiliated group would be required to use different apportionment factors if separate returns were filed. The Tax Commissioner shall promulgate regulations setting forth the manner in which such an affiliated group shall compute its Virginia taxable income.

2. A combined return shall mean a single return for a group of corporations affiliated within the meaning of § 58.1-302, in which income or loss is separately determined in accordance with subdivisions a through d below:

a. Virginia taxable income or loss is computed separately for each corporation;

b. Allocable income is allocated to the state of commercial domicile separately for each corporation;

c. Apportionable income or loss is computed, utilizing separate apportionment factors for each corporation;

d. Income or loss computed in accordance with items a through c above is combined and reported on a single return for the affiliated group.

C. Notwithstanding subsection A, a group of corporations may apply to the Tax Commissioner for permission to change the basis of the type of return filed (i) from consolidated to separate or (ii) from separate or combined to consolidated, if such corporations are affiliated within the meaning of § 58.1-302 and the affiliated group of which they are members, as it has existed from time to time, has filed on the same basis for at least the preceding 20 years. Permission shall be granted if:

1. For the taxable year immediately preceding the taxable year for which the new election would be applicable, there would have been no decrease in tax liability computed under the proposed election as compared to the affiliated group's former filing method; and

2. The affiliated group agrees to file returns computing its Virginia income tax liability under both the new filing method and the former method and will pay the greater of the two amounts for the taxable year in which the new election is effective and for the immediately succeeding taxable year.

Code 1950, § 58-151.079; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 1990, c. 619; 2003, c. 166.

§ 58.1-443. Prohibition of worldwide consolidation or combination.

Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, the Department shall not require, and no corporation may elect, that a consolidation or combination of an affiliated group include any controlled foreign corporation, the income of which is derived from sources without the United States.

Code 1950, § 58-151.079:1; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-444. Several liability of affiliated corporations.

Each affiliated corporation which was included in the consolidated return for any part of the consolidated return year shall be jointly and severally liable for the tax for such year computed in accordance with § 58.1-442 and regulations prescribed by the Department for the filing of the consolidated return for such year.

No agreement entered into by one or more members of the affiliated group with any other member of such group or with any other person shall in any case have the effect of reducing the liability prescribed under this section.

Code 1950, § 58-151.080; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 243; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-445. Consolidation of accounts.

In any case of two or more related trades or businesses liable to taxation under this chapter owned or controlled directly or indirectly by the same interests, the Department may, and at the request of the taxpayer shall, if necessary in order to make an accurate distribution or apportionment of gains, profits, income, deductions or capital between or among such related trades or businesses, consolidate the accounts of such related trades or businesses.

Code 1950, § 58-151.082; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-445.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1998, c. 253, effective December 31, 1998.

§ 58.1-446. Price manipulation; intercorporate transactions; parent corporations and subsidiaries.

When any corporation liable to taxation under this chapter by agreement or otherwise conducts the business of such corporation in such manner as either directly or indirectly to benefit the members or stockholders of the corporation, or any of them, or any person or persons directly or indirectly interested in such business, by either buying or selling its products or the goods or commodities in which it deals at more or less than a fair price which might be obtained therefor, or when such a corporation sells its products, goods or commodities to another corporation or acquires and disposes of the products, goods or commodities of another corporation in such manner as to create a loss or improper taxable income, and such other corporation by stock ownership, agreement or otherwise controls or is controlled by the corporation liable to taxation under this chapter, the Department may require such facts as it deems necessary for the proper computation provided by this chapter and may for the purpose determine the amount which shall be deemed to be the Virginia taxable income of the business of such corporation for the taxable year. In determining such income, the Department shall have regard to the fair profits which, but for any agreement, arrangement or understanding, might be, or could have been, obtained from dealing in such products, goods or commodities.

Any corporation liable to taxation under this chapter and either owned or controlled by or owning or controlling, either directly or indirectly, another corporation may be required by the Department to make a report consolidated with such other corporation showing the combined gross and net income and such other information as the Department may require, but excluding intercorporate stockholdings and the intercorporate accounts. In case it appears to the Department that any arrangements exist in such a manner as improperly to reflect the business done or the Virginia taxable income earned from business done in this Commonwealth, the Department may, in such manner as it may determine, equitably adjust the tax. In all cases mentioned in this paragraph, such other corporations not otherwise liable to taxation under this chapter shall, for the purposes of this chapter, be deemed to be doing business in Virginia through the agency of the corporation liable to taxation under this chapter.

Code 1950, § 58-151.083; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-447. Execution of returns of corporations.

The return of a corporation with respect to income shall be signed by any officer duly authorized so to act. In the case of a return made for a corporation by a fiduciary, such fiduciary shall sign the return. The fact that an individual's name is signed on the return shall be prima facie evidence that such individual is authorized to sign the return on behalf of the corporation.

Code 1950, § 58-151.084; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-448. Forms to be furnished.

Duplicate blank forms of reports shall be furnished by mail by the Department to the taxpayer at least thirty days before the time for filing returns, but failure to secure such a blank shall not release any corporation from the obligation of making any report herein required.

Code 1950, § 58-151.085; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-449. Supplemental reports.

The Department may require a further or supplemental report under this chapter to contain further information and data necessary for the computation of the tax herein provided.

Code 1950, § 58-151.086; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-450. Failure of corporation to make report or return.

Any corporation which fails to make any report or return required by this chapter within the time required shall be liable to a penalty equal to six percent of the amount of taxes assessable thereon if the failure is for not more than one month, with an additional six percent for each additional month or fraction thereof during which such failure to file continues, not exceeding thirty percent in the aggregate. In no case, however, shall the penalty be less than $100, and such minimum penalty shall apply whether or not any tax is due for the period for which the filing of a report or return is required. Such penalty is to be assessed and collected by the Department, in the manner provided for the assessment and collection of taxes under this chapter or in a civil action, at the instance of the Department. In addition such corporation shall be compellable by mandamus to make such report or return.

Code 1950, § 58-151.087; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 1989, cc. 629, 642; 1991, cc. 316, 331.

§ 58.1-451. Fraudulent returns, etc., of corporations; penalty.

Any officer of any corporation who makes a fraudulent return or statement with intent to evade the payment of the taxes prescribed by this chapter shall be liable to a penalty of not more than $1,000, to be assessed and collected in the manner prescribed in § 58.1-450.

Code 1950, § 58-151.088; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-452. Fraudulent returns; criminal liability; penalty.

In addition to other penalties provided by law, any officer of any corporation who makes a fraudulent return or statement with intent to evade the payment of the taxes prescribed by this chapter shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony. A prosecution under this section shall be commenced within five years next after the commission of the offense.

Code 1950, § 58-151.089; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 2003, c. 180.

§ 58.1-453. Extension of time for filing returns by corporations.

A. In accordance with procedures established by the Tax Commissioner, any corporation may elect an extension of time within which to file the income tax return required under this chapter to the date six months after such due date or 30 days after the extended date for filing the federal income tax return, whichever is later, provided that the estimated tax due is paid in accordance with the provisions of subsection B.

B. Any taxpayer desiring an extension of time in accordance with the provisions of subsection A shall, on or before the original due date for the filing of such return, in accordance with the procedures established by the Tax Commissioner pay the full amount properly estimated as the balance of the tax due for the taxable year after giving effect to any estimated tax payments under § 58.1-491 and any tax credit under § 58.1-499. If any amount of the balance of the tax due is underestimated, interest at the rate prescribed in § 58.1-15 will be assessed on such amount from the original due date for filing of the income tax return to the date of payment. In addition to interest, if the underestimation of the balance of tax due exceeds 10 percent of the actual tax liability, there shall be added to the tax as a penalty an amount equal to two percent per month for each month or fraction thereof from the original due date for the filing of the income tax return to the date of payment.

C. If the return is not filed, or the full amount of the tax due is not paid, on or before the extended due date elected under subsection A, the penalty imposed by § 58.1-450 or 58.1-455 shall apply as if no extension had been granted.

Code 1950, § 58-151.090; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1976, c. 720; 1984, c. 675; 1991, cc. 362, 456; 2005, c. 100.

§ 58.1-454. Department may estimate corporation's tax when no return filed.

If any report or return required to be made by any corporation under this chapter is not made as herein required, the Department is authorized to make an estimate of the net income of such corporation and of the amount of tax due under this chapter, from any information in its possession, and to order and state an account according to such estimate for the taxes, penalties and interest due to the Commonwealth from such corporation.

Code 1950, § 58-151.091; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-455. Time of payment of corporation income taxes; penalty and interest for nonpayment.

A. Every corporation liable for income tax shall pay the same to the Department at the time fixed by law for filing the return. The full amount of the tax payable as shown on the face of the return shall be so paid. A corporation may file its return and pay its tax in full in the closing days of its taxable year provided it is able to prepare a complete return.

If any payment is not made in full when due, there shall be added to the entire tax or to any unpaid balance of the tax, a penalty of six percent of the amount thereof, if the failure is for not more than one month, with an additional six percent for each additional month or fraction thereof during which such failure to pay continues, not exceeding thirty percent in the aggregate. The entire tax or any unpaid balance of the tax, together with such penalty, will immediately become collectible. Interest upon such tax or any unpaid balance of the tax, and on the accrued penalty, shall be added at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the date the tax or any unpaid balance of the tax was originally due until paid. In the case of an additional tax assessed by the Department, if the return was made in good faith and the understatement of the amount in the return was not due to any fault of the taxpayer, there shall be no penalty on the additional tax because of such understatement, but interest shall be added to the amount of the deficiency at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the time the return was required by law to be filed until paid.

The penalty under this subsection shall not be applicable to any month or fraction thereof for which the corporation is subject to the penalty imposed under § 58.1-450. In no event shall the total amount of penalty assessed under this subsection and under § 58.1-450 exceed thirty percent in the aggregate.

B. If the understatement is false or fraudulent with intent to evade the tax, a penalty of 100 percent shall be added together with interest on the tax at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the time the return was required by law to be filed until paid.

Nothing contained in this section shall prevent the taxpayer from applying to the circuit court of the county or the city wherein the corporation is located for a correction of the assessment made by the Department, with right of appeal in the manner provided by law.

Code 1950, § 58-151.093; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 396; 1984, c. 675; 1989, cc. 629, 642; 1991, cc. 316, 331.

Article 16. Income Tax Withholding.

§ 58.1-460. Definitions.

For the purposes of this article:

"Employee" includes an individual, whether a resident or a nonresident of the Commonwealth, who performs or performed any service in the Commonwealth for wages, or a resident of the Commonwealth who performs or performed any service in the service outside the Commonwealth for wages. The word "employee" also includes an officer, employee, or elected official of the United States, the Commonwealth, or any other state or any territory, or any political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia, or any agency or instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing or an officer of a corporation. The term shall not include the beneficial owner of an individual retirement account (IRA) or simplified employee pension plan (SEPP).

"Employer" means the Commonwealth, or any political subdivision thereof, the United States, or any agency or instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing, or the person, whether a resident or a nonresident of the Commonwealth, for whom an individual performs or performed any service as an employee or from whom a person receives a prize in excess of $5,001 pursuant to the Virginia Lottery Law (§ 58.1-4000 et seq.), except that:

1. If the person, governmental unit, or agency thereof, for whom the individual performs or performed the service does not have control of the payment of the wages for such services, the term "employer" (except as used in the definition of "wages" herein) means the person having control of the payment of such wages, and

2. In the case of a person paying wages on behalf of a nonresident person not engaged in trade or business within the Commonwealth or on behalf of any governmental unit or agency thereof not located within the Commonwealth, the term, "employer" (except as used in the definition of "wages" herein) means such person. The term shall not include a financial institution, corporation, partnership or other person or entity with respect to benefits paid as custodian, trustee or depository for an individual retirement account (IRA) or simplified employee pension plan (SEPP).

"Miscellaneous payroll period" means a payroll period other than a daily, weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, monthly, quarterly, semiannual, or annual payroll period.

"Payroll period" means a period for which a payment of wages is ordinarily made to the employee by his employer.

"Wages" means wages as defined under § 3401 (a) of the Internal Revenue Code, as well as any other amounts from which federal income tax is withheld under the provisions of §§ 3402 and 3405 of the Internal Revenue Code and also includes all prizes in excess of $5,001 paid by the Virginia Lottery; however, such term shall not include amounts paid pursuant to individual retirement plans and simplified employee pension plans as defined in §§ 7701 (a)(37) and 408 (c) of the Internal Revenue Code and shall not include remuneration paid for acting in or service as a member of the crew of a (i) motion picture feature film, (ii) television series or commercial, or (iii) promotional film filmed totally or partially in the Commonwealth by an individual or corporation which conducts business in the Commonwealth for less than 90 days of the tax year and when such film, series or commercial is processed, edited and marketed outside the Commonwealth. Every such individual or corporation shall, immediately subsequent to the filming of such portion of the film, series or commercial filmed in the Commonwealth, file with the Commissioner on forms furnished the Department, a list of the names and social security account numbers of each actor or crew member who is a resident of the Commonwealth and is compensated by such individual or corporation.

Code 1950, § 58-151.1; 1962, c. 612; 1980, c. 629; 1984, c. 675; 1987, c. 531; 1991, cc. 362, 456; 1992, c. 519; 1993, c. 54; 2014, c. 225.

§ 58.1-461. Requirement of withholding.

Every employer making payment of wages shall deduct and withhold with respect to the wages of each employee for each payroll period an amount determined as follows: Such amount which, if an equal amount was collected for each similar payroll period with respect to a similar amount of wages for each payroll period during an entire calendar year, would aggregate or approximate the income tax liability of such employee under this chapter after making allowance for the personal exemptions to which such employee could be entitled on the basis of his status during such payroll period and after making allowance for withholding purposes for a standard deduction from wages in accordance with the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes and after making an allowance for any credit available to the employee as provided by § 58.1-332, and without making allowance for any other deductions. In determining the amount to be deducted and withheld under this article, the wages may, at the election of the employer, be computed to the nearest dollar.

An employer shall not be required to deduct any amount upon a payment of wages to an employee if there is in effect with respect to such payment a withholding exemption certificate, in such form and containing such other information as the Tax Commissioner may prescribe, furnished by the employee to the employer, certifying that the employee: (i) incurred no liability for income tax imposed by this chapter for his preceding taxable year; and (ii) anticipates that he will incur no liability for income tax imposed by this chapter for his current taxable year.

Code 1950, § 58-151.2; 1962, c. 612; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 827; 1984, cc. 675, 682.

§ 58.1-462. Withholding tables.

The amount of tax to be withheld for each individual shall be based upon tables to be prepared and distributed by the Tax Commissioner. The tables shall be computed for the several permissible withholding periods and shall take account of the number of exemptions allowed under the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes and the standard deduction as provided in § 58.1-461. The amounts computed for withholding shall be such that the amount withheld for any individual during his taxable year shall approximate in the aggregate as closely as practicable the tax which is levied and imposed under this chapter for that taxable year, upon his salary, wages or compensation for personal services of any kind for the employer.

Code 1950, § 58-151.3; 1962, c. 612; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-463. Other methods of withholding.

The Tax Commissioner may grant permission to employers who do not desire to use the withholding tax tables provided in accordance with § 58.1-462, to determine the amount of tax to be withheld by use of a method of withholding other than withholding tax tables, provided such method will withhold from each employee substantially the same amount of tax as would be withheld by use of the withholding tax tables. Employers who desire to determine the amount of tax to be withheld by a method other than by use of the withholding tax tables shall obtain permission from the Tax Commissioner before the beginning of a payroll period for which the employer desires to withhold the tax by such other method. Applications to use such other method must be accompanied by evidence establishing the need for the use of such method.

Code 1950, § 58-151.4; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-464. Miscellaneous payroll period applicable to withholding in payment of certain wages; withholding on basis of average wages.

A. If wages are paid with respect to a period which is not a payroll period, the amount to be deducted and withheld shall be that applicable in the case of a miscellaneous payroll period containing a number of days including Sundays and holidays, equal to the number of days in the period with respect to which such wages are paid.

B. In any case in which wages are paid by an employer without regard to any payroll period or other period, the amount to be deducted and withheld shall be that applicable in the case of a miscellaneous payroll period containing a number of days equal to the number of days, including Sundays and holidays, which have elapsed since the date of the last payment of such wages by such employer during the calendar year, or the date of commencement of employment with such employer during such year, or January 1 of such year, whichever is the later.

C. The Tax Commissioner may, by regulations, authorize employers:

1. To estimate the wages which will be paid to any employee in any quarter of the calendar year;

2. To determine the amount to be deducted and withheld upon each payment of wages to such employee during such quarter as if the appropriate average of the wages so estimated constituted the actual wages paid; and

3. To deduct and withhold upon any payment of wages to such employee during such quarter such amount as may be necessary to adjust the amount actually deducted and withheld upon the wages of such employee during such quarter to the amount that would be required to be deducted and withheld during such quarter without regard to this subsection C.

Code 1950, § 58-151.5; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-465. Overlapping pay periods, and payment by agent or fiduciary.

The manner of withholding and the amount to be deducted and withheld under this article shall be determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Tax Commissioner under which the withholding exemption allowed to the employee in any calendar year shall approximate the withholding exemption allowable with respect to an annual payroll period, if a payment of wages is made to an employee by an employer:

1. With respect to a payroll period or other period, any part of which is included in a payroll period or other period with respect to which wages are also paid to such employee by such employer;

2. Without regard to any payroll period or other period, but on or prior to the expiration of a payroll period or other period with respect to which wages are also paid to such employee by such employer;

3. With respect to a period beginning in one and ending in another calendar year; or

4. Through an agent, fiduciary, or other person who also has the control, receipt, custody, or disposal of, or pays, the wages payable by another employer to such employee.

Code 1950, § 58-151.6; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-466. Additional withholding.

The Tax Commissioner is authorized to provide by regulations, under such conditions and to such extent as he deems proper, for withholding in addition to that otherwise required under this article in cases in which the employer and the employee agree to such additional withholding. Such additional withholding shall for all purposes be considered tax required to be deducted and withheld under this article.

Code 1950, § 58-151.7; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-467. Failure of employer to withhold tax; payment by recipient of wages.

If the employer, in violation of the provisions of this article, fails to deduct and withhold the tax under this article, and thereafter the tax against which such tax may be credited is paid, the tax so required to be deducted and withheld shall not be collected from the employer. This section shall in no case relieve the employer from liability for any penalties or additions to the tax otherwise applicable in respect of such failure to deduct and withhold.

Code 1950, § 58-151.8; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-468. Failure of employer to pay over tax withheld.

In the event that any employer deducts and withholds taxes from the compensation of an employee but fails to pay over the money so deducted and withheld to the Commonwealth, such employee shall not be held liable for the payment of such taxes but shall be entitled to a credit for the moneys so deducted and withheld as if the same had legally been paid over by the employer as required by this chapter. The burden of proving that such an employer deducted and lawfully withheld state income tax shall rest upon the employee.

Code 1950, § 58-151.8:1; 1970, c. 369; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-469. Included and excluded wages.

If the remuneration paid by an employer to an employee for services performed during one-half or more of any payroll period of not more than thirty-one consecutive days constitutes wages, all the remuneration paid by such employer to such employee for such period shall be deemed to be wages; but if the remuneration paid by an employer to an employee for services performed during more than one-half of any such payroll period does not constitute wages, then none of the remuneration paid by such employer to such employee for such period shall be deemed to be wages.

Code 1950, § 58-151.9; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-470. Withholding exemption certificates.

A. An employee receiving wages shall be entitled to the exemptions for which such employee qualifies under the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes.

B. Every employee shall at the time of commencing employment furnish his employer with a signed withholding exemption certificate relating to the withholding exemptions which he claims, which in no event shall exceed the sum of exemptions to which he is entitled.

C. Withholding exemption certificates shall take effect as of the beginning of the first payroll period ending, or the first payment of wages made without regard to a payroll period, on or after the date on which such certificate is so furnished, provided that certificates furnished before January 1, 1983, shall be considered as furnished on that date.

D. A withholding exemption certificate which takes effect under this section shall continue in effect with respect to the employer until another such certificate takes effect under this section. If a withholding exemption certificate is furnished to take the place of an existing certificate, the employer at his option may continue the old certificate in force with respect to all wages paid on or before the first status determination date, January 1 or July 1, which occurs at least thirty days after the date on which such new certificate is furnished.

E. If, on any day during the calendar year, the sum of withholding exemptions to which the employee will be, or may reasonably be expected to be, entitled at the beginning of his next taxable year is different from the sum of exemptions to which the employee is entitled on such day, the employee shall in such cases and at such times as the Tax Commissioner may prescribe, furnish the employer with a withholding exemption certificate relating to the exemptions which he claims with respect to such next taxable year, which shall in no event exceed the sum of exemptions to which he will be, or may reasonably be expected to be, so entitled. Exemption certificates furnished pursuant to this subsection shall not take effect with respect to any payment of wages made in the calendar year in which the certificate is furnished.

F. If, on any day during the calendar year, the sum of withholding exemptions to which the employee is entitled is less than the sum of withholding exemptions claimed by the employee on the withholding exemption certificate then in effect with respect to him, the employee shall, within ten days thereafter, furnish the employer with a new withholding exemption certificate relating to the withholding exemptions which the employee then claims, which shall in no event exceed the sum of exemptions to which he is entitled on such day. If, on any day during the calendar year, the sum of withholding exemptions to which the employee is entitled is greater than the sum of withholding exemptions claimed, the employee may furnish the employer with a new withholding exemption certificate relating to the withholding exemptions which the employee then claims, which shall in no event exceed the sum of exemptions to which he is entitled on such day.

G. Withholding exemption certificates shall be in such form and contain such information as the Tax Commissioner may prescribe.

Code 1950, § 58-151.11; 1962, c. 612; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-471. Fraudulent withholding exemption certificate or failure to supply information.

Any individual required to supply information to his employer under this article who willfully supplies false or fraudulent information, or who willfully fails to supply information thereunder which would require an increase in the tax to be withheld under this article, shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 58-151.12; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-472. Employer's returns and payments of withheld taxes.

Every employer required to deduct and withhold from an employee's wages under this article shall make return and pay over to the Tax Commissioner the amount required to be withheld hereunder as follows:

1. Every employer whose monthly liability is less than $100 or who is subject to subdivision 3 shall make return and pay over the required amount on or before the last day of the month following the close of each quarterly period;

2. Every employer whose average monthly liability can reasonably be expected to be $100 or more shall file a return and pay the tax monthly, on or before the twenty-fifth day of the following month;

3. Every employer whose average monthly liability can reasonably be expected to be $1,000 or more and the aggregate amount required to be withheld by any employer exceeds $500 shall, in addition to the requirements of subdivision 1, file a form with the Tax Commissioner within three banking days following the close of any period for which the employer is required to deposit federal withholding tax and pay the amount so withheld, except when a payment is due within three days of the due date for the filing of the quarterly returns, then such payment shall be made with such return. Any employer otherwise required to file a return and pay the withholding tax pursuant to this subdivision that has no more than five employees subject to withholding under this article may request a waiver from the Tax Commissioner authorizing the employer to file the return and pay the withholding tax pursuant to subdivision 2.

The Tax Commissioner may authorize an employer to file seasonal returns when in his opinion the administration of the tax imposed under this article would be enhanced. Any employer making payment under subdivision 3 will be deemed to have met the requirements hereof if at least ninety percent of actual tax liability for such period is paid. Employers authorized to file seasonal returns under this paragraph shall file each return on or before the twentieth of the month following the close of the reporting period.

The returns and forms filed under this section shall be in such electronic medium and contain such information as the Tax Commissioner may prescribe.

Code 1950, § 58-151.13; 1962, c. 612; 1968, c. 12; 1970, c. 540; 1972, c. 827; 1973, c. 279; 1974, c. 636; 1975, c. 49; 1977, cc. 396, 663; 1981, c. 283; 1984, c. 675; 1988, c. 899; 1991, cc. 362, 456; 2007, c. 753; 2015, c. 156; 2016, cc. 660, 676.

§ 58.1-473. Jeopardy assessments.

If the Tax Commissioner, in any case, has reason to believe that the collection of moneys, required by this article to be withheld by the employer, is in jeopardy, he may require the employer to make such return and pay to the Tax Commissioner such amounts required to be withheld at any time the Tax Commissioner may designate therefor subsequent to the time when such amounts should have been deducted from wages and withheld.

Code 1950, § 58-151.13; 1962, c. 612; 1968, c. 12; 1970, c. 540; 1972, c. 827; 1973, c. 279; 1974, c. 636; 1975, c. 49; 1977, cc. 396, 663; 1981, c. 283; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-474. Liability of employer for failure to withhold.

Every employer who fails to withhold or pay to the Tax Commissioner any sums required by this article to be withheld and paid shall be personally and individually liable therefor. Any sum or sums withheld in accordance with the provisions of this article shall be deemed to be held in trust for the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 58-151.13; 1962, c. 612; 1968, c. 12; 1970, c. 540; 1972, c. 827; 1973, c. 279; 1974, c. 636; 1975, c. 49; 1977, cc. 396, 663; 1981, c. 283; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-475. Penalty for failure to withhold.

A. Any employer required under the provisions of this article to deduct and withhold from wages and make returns and payments of amounts withheld to the Tax Commissioner, who fails to withhold such amounts or to make such returns, or who fails to remit amounts collected to the Tax Commissioner, or otherwise fails to remit to the Tax Commissioner as required by this article, shall be subject to a penalty equal to six percent of the amount that should have been properly withheld and paid over to the Tax Commissioner if the failure is for not more than one month, with an additional six percent for each additional month or fraction thereof during which such failure continues, not exceeding thirty percent in the aggregate. In no case however, shall the penalty be less than ten dollars and such minimum penalty shall apply whether or not any tax is due for the period for which the filing of such return was required.

Interest at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, shall accrue on the tax until paid, or until an assessment is made, after which interest shall accrue as provided in § 58.1-15. Such penalty and interest shall be assessed by the Tax Commissioner and shall be collected by him in the same manner as the collection of taxes may be enforced under this title.

B. Upon failure of any employer to pay over any amounts withheld or required to be withheld by the employer under this article, the Tax Commissioner may make assessments and enforce the collection of such amounts, including penalties, by any legal process provided for the enforcement of the collection of taxes under this title.

Code 1950, § 58-151.13; 1962, c. 612; 1968, c. 12; 1970, c. 540; 1972, c. 827; 1973, c. 279; 1974, c. 636; 1975, c. 49; 1977, cc. 396, 663; 1981, c. 283; 1984, c. 675; 1991, cc. 316, 331.

§ 58.1-476. Continuation of employer liability until notice.

Once an employer has become liable to a return of withholding, he must continue to file a return even though no tax has been withheld, until such time as he notifies the Tax Commissioner, in writing, that he no longer has employees or that he is no longer liable for such returns. If an employer requests in writing that he be permitted to change from a monthly return to a quarterly return on the ground that his withholding has become less than $300 for each quarter, such change shall be permitted only at the beginning of a calendar year.

Code 1950, § 58-151.13; 1962, c. 612; 1968, c. 12; 1970, c. 540; 1972, c. 827; 1973, c. 279; 1974, c. 636; 1975, c. 49; 1977, cc. 396, 663; 1981, c. 283; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-477. Extensions.

The Tax Commissioner may grant an employer a reasonable extension of time for filing any return under this article whenever in his judgment good cause exists. Whenever under the terms of such an extension the payment of any amount or amounts of money to the Tax Commissioner by the employer is postponed for a longer period than ten days from the time the same would be otherwise due and payable, such employer shall be charged with interest on such amount or amounts at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the time such amount or amounts were originally due and payable to the date of payment under the terms of the extension.

Code 1950, § 58-151.13; 1962, c. 612; 1968, c. 12; 1970, c. 540; 1972, c. 827; 1973, c. 279; 1974, c. 636; 1975, c. 49; 1977, cc. 396, 663; 1981, c. 283; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-478. Withholding tax statements for employees; employers must file annual returns with Tax Commissioner; penalties.

A. Every person required to deduct and withhold from an employee's wages under this article shall furnish to each such employee in respect to the remuneration paid by such person to such employee during the calendar year, on or before January 31 of the succeeding year, or if his employment is terminated before the close of such calendar year, on the day on which the last payment of remuneration is made, a written statement in duplicate showing the following: (i) the name of such person; (ii) the name of the employee and his social security account number; (iii) the total amount of wages; and (iv) the total amount deducted and withheld under this article by such employer.

B. The written statements required to be furnished pursuant to this section in respect of any remuneration shall be furnished at such other times, shall contain such other information, and shall be in such form as the Tax Commissioner may by regulations prescribe.

C. 1. Every employer shall file an annual return with the Tax Commissioner, setting forth such information as the Tax Commissioner may require, not later than January 31 of the calendar year succeeding the calendar year in which wages were withheld from employees, and such annual return shall be accompanied by an additional copy of each of the written statements furnished to each employee under subsections A and B.

2. Every employer shall file the annual return and copies of written statements required under this subsection using an electronic medium using a format prescribed by the Tax Commissioner. Waivers shall be granted only if the Tax Commissioner finds that this requirement creates an unreasonable burden on the employer. All requests for waiver shall be submitted to the Tax Commissioner in writing.

D. The Tax Commissioner shall have the authority to require every employer to furnish the names and social security numbers of all employees whose wages or withholding amounts for the taxable year are below levels specified by the Tax Commissioner.

Code 1950, § 58-151.14; 1962, c. 612; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 1987, c. 9; 1998, c. 335; 2001, cc. 297, 307; 2010, cc. 36, 151; 2016, cc. 660, 676.

§ 58.1-478.1. Information furnished to the Department of Taxation.

No person required to deduct and withhold from another employee's wages and to file a return or report of the same, through use of an electronic medium, with the Department of Taxation as provided under this article, shall be required to provide his own social security number for purposes of fulfilling his duty in filing the return or report. However, nothing in this section shall relieve such person who is filing the return or report from including his name, social security number, wages, taxes deducted and withheld, and other information required under this article in any file, batch, return, report, or statement that incorporates the same information for all employees of the organization and that is required under this article to be submitted to the Department.

2007, c. 770.

§ 58.1-479. Refund to employer; time limitation; procedure.

A. Where there has been an overpayment to the Tax Commissioner by the employer under this article, the Tax Commissioner shall order a refund or give credit to the employer only to the extent that the amount of such overpayment was not deducted and withheld from the employee's wages under this article. Every such refund shall be made out of the state treasury on the order of the Tax Commissioner upon the Comptroller.

B. Unless written application for refund or credit is received by the Tax Commissioner from the employer within two years from the date the overpayment was made, no refund or credit shall be allowed.

C. Any employer aggrieved by any action of the Tax Commissioner under this section may proceed in court under §§ 58.1-1825 through 58.1-1830 as though the case involved an assessment of income taxes, except that (i) the limitation shall be two years from the date the alleged overpayment was made, and (ii) the time which shall elapse from the filing of the written application with the Tax Commissioner under subsection B to the time when the Tax Commissioner takes final action with respect to such application shall be excluded from the computation of the period of two years.

Code 1950, § 58-151.16; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-480. Withheld amounts credited to individual taxpayer; withholding statement to be filed with return.

The amount deducted and withheld under this article during any calendar year from the wages of any individual shall be allowed to the recipient of the income as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year beginning in such calendar year. If more than one taxable year begins in a calendar year, such amount shall be allowed as a credit against the tax for the last taxable year so beginning. As a prerequisite to obtaining such credit the individual taxpayer must file with his income tax return one copy of the withholding statement provided for by § 58.1-478.

Code 1950, § 58-151.17; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-481. Withheld taxes not deductible in computing taxable income.

The tax deducted and withheld under this article shall not be allowed as a deduction either to the employer or to the recipient of the income in computing taxable income under this chapter.

Code 1950, § 58-151.18; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-482. Certain nonresidents; reciprocity with other states.

If the income tax law of another state of the United States or of the District of Columbia results in its residents being allowed a credit under § 58.1-332 sufficient to offset all taxes required by this article to be withheld from the wages of an employee, the Tax Commissioner may by regulation relieve the employers of such employees from the withholding requirements of this article with respect to such employees.

Code 1950, § 58-151.19; 1962, c. 612; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-483. Withholding state income taxes of federal employees by federal agencies.

The Tax Commissioner is hereby designated as the proper official to make request for and to enter into agreements with the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States to provide for compliance with this article by the head of each department or agency of the United States in withholding state income taxes from wages of federal employees and paying the same to the Commonwealth. The Tax Commissioner is hereby authorized, empowered and directed to make request for and to enter into such agreements.

Code 1950, § 58-151.20; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-484. Liability of employer for payment of tax required to be withheld.

The employer shall be liable for the payment to the Tax Commissioner of the amounts required to be deducted and withheld under this article and an employer who has withheld and paid such amounts to the Tax Commissioner shall not otherwise be liable to any person for the amount of any such payment.

Code 1950, § 58-151.10; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-485. Willful failure by employer to make return, to withhold tax, to pay it or to furnish employee with withholding statement; penalty.

Willful failure by any employer to (i) make any return required by this article to the Tax Commissioner, (ii) withhold the required tax or to pay it to the Tax Commissioner as specified, or both, or (iii) furnish an employee the written statement required by § 58.1-478 shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 58-151.15; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-485.1. False claims of employment status; penalty.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly coerce or threaten an individual to falsely declare his employment status for the purpose of evading the withholding or payment of taxes required under this article.

B. It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly and falsely claim an individual's employment status for the purpose of evading the withholding or payment of taxes required under this article.

C. In addition to any other penalties provided by law, any violation of this section is punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor.

D. As used in this section "employment status" has the same meaning as defined by the United States Internal Revenue Code.

2006, c. 393.

§ 58.1-486. Bad checks.

If any check tendered for any amount due under this chapter is not paid by the bank on which it is drawn and such person fails to pay the Commissioner the amount due the Commonwealth within five days after the Commissioner has given him written notice by registered or certified mail or in person by an agent that such check was returned unpaid, the person by whom such check was tendered shall be guilty of a violation of § 18.2-182.1.

1984, c. 675; 1992, c. 763.

Article 16.1. Withholding by Pass-Through Entities.

§ 58.1-486.1. Definitions.

"Owner" means the same as that term is defined in § 58.1-390.1.

"Pass-through entity" means the same as that term is defined in § 58.1-390.1.

"Taxable year" when used in regard to pass-through entities means the taxable year of the pass-through entity for federal income tax purposes. If a pass-through entity does not have a taxable year for federal tax purposes, its tax year for purposes of this article shall be the calendar year.

2007, c. 796.

§ 58.1-486.2. Withholding tax on Virginia source income of nonresident owners.

A. For the privilege of doing business in the Commonwealth, a pass-through entity that has taxable income for the taxable year derived from or connected with Virginia sources, any portion of which is allocable to a nonresident owner, shall pay a withholding tax under this section, except as provided in subsection C.

B. 1. The amount of withholding tax payable by any pass-through entity under this article shall be equal to five percent of the nonresident owner's share of income from Virginia sources of all nonresident owners as determined under this chapter, which may lawfully be taxed by the Commonwealth and which is allocable to a nonresident owner.

2. When determining the amount of withholding tax due under this section, the pass-through entity may apply any tax credits allowable under the Code of Virginia to the pass-through entity that pass through to nonresident owners; provided that in no event may the application of any credit or credits reduce the tax liability of any nonresident owner under this article to less than zero.

C. Withholding shall not be required:

1. For any nonresident owner, other than a nonresident corporation, who is exempt from the tax imposed by this article. An owner shall be exempt from the tax imposed by this article only if the owner is, by reason of the owner's purpose or activities, exempt from paying federal income taxes on the owner's Virginia source income. The pass-through entity may rely on the written statement of the owner claiming to be exempt from the tax imposed by this article provided the pass-through entity discloses the name and federal taxpayer identification number for all such owners in its return for the taxable year filed under § 58.1-392;

2. For any nonresident owner that is a corporation that is exempt from the tax imposed by Article 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.). For purposes of this subdivision, a corporation is exempt from the tax imposed by Article 10 only if the corporation, by reason of its purpose or activities, is exempt from paying federal income taxes on the corporation's Virginia source income. The pass-through entity may rely on the written statement of the person claiming to be exempt from the tax imposed by Article 10 provided the pass-through entity discloses the name and federal taxpayer identification number for all such corporations in its return for the taxable year filed under § 58.1-392;

3. When compliance will cause undue hardship on the pass-through entity. However, no pass-through entity shall be exempt under this subdivision from complying with the withholding requirements of this section unless the Tax Commissioner, in his discretion, approves in writing the pass-through entity's written petition for exemption from the withholding requirements of this section based on undue hardship. The Tax Commissioner may prescribe the form and contents of such a petition and specify standards for when a pass-through entity will not be required to comply with the withholding requirements of this section due to undue hardship. The standards for undue hardship, determined by the Tax Commissioner in his discretion, shall take into account (among other relevant factors) the ability of a pass-through entity to comply at reasonable cost with the withholding requirements of this section and the cost to the Commonwealth of collecting the tax directly from a nonresident owner who does not voluntarily file a return and pay the amount of tax due under this chapter with respect to his allocable Virginia taxable income; or

4. (Effective until October 1, 2019) For any nonresident person of the Commonwealth when the pass-through entity owns and leases four or fewer dwelling units in the Commonwealth, provided the pass-through entity discloses the name and federal taxpayer identification number for all such owners in its return for the taxable year filed under § 58.1-392. For the purposes of this subdivision, the term "person" shall mean the same as that term is defined in § 55-248.4.

4. (Effective October 1, 2019) For any nonresident person of the Commonwealth when the pass-through entity owns and leases four or fewer dwelling units in the Commonwealth, provided the pass-through entity discloses the name and federal taxpayer identification number for all such owners in its return for the taxable year filed under § 58.1-392. For the purposes of this subdivision, the term "person" shall mean the same as that term is defined in § 55.1-1200.

D. 1. Each pass-through entity required to withhold tax under this section shall pay the amount required to be withheld to the Tax Commissioner at the same time that the return under Article 9 (§ 58.1-390.1 et seq.), if required, is to be filed.

2. An extension of time for filing the return under § 58.1-393.1 shall not extend the time for paying the amount of withholding tax due under this section. In cases of an extension of time for filing, the pass-through entity shall pay, by the due date specified in subsection A of § 58.1-392, at least 90 percent of the withholding tax due for the taxable year or 100 percent of the tax paid under this section for the prior taxable year, if that taxable year was a taxable year of 12 months and tax was paid under this section for that taxable year. The remaining portion of the tax due under this section, if any, shall be paid at the time the pass-through entity files the return required under § 58.1-392. If the balance due is paid by the last day of the extension period for filing such return and the amount of tax due with that return is 10 percent or less of the tax due under this section for the taxable year, no penalty shall be imposed with respect to the balance so remitted. In addition to interest, if the underestimation of the balance of tax due exceeds 10 percent of the actual tax liability, there shall be added to the tax as a penalty an amount equal to two percent per month of the balance of tax due for each month or fraction thereof from the original due date for the filing of the withholding tax return to the date of payment. If the amount of withholding tax due under this section for the taxable year is less than the estimated withholding taxes paid for the taxable year by the pass-through entity, the excess shall be refunded to the pass-through entity or, at its election, established as a credit against withholding tax due under this section for the then current taxable year.

3. The Tax Commissioner may, if he believes it necessary for the protection of trust fund moneys due the Commonwealth, require any pass-through entity to pay over to the Tax Commissioner the tax deducted and withheld under this section at any earlier time or times.

E. 1. Each nonresident owner shall be allowed a credit for that owner's share of the tax withheld by the pass-through entity under this section; provided, that when the distribution is to a corporation taxable under Article 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.), the credit allowed by this subsection shall be applied against the corporation's liability for tax under this chapter.

2. A nonresident owner's share of any withholding tax paid by the pass-through entity shall be treated as distributed to such nonresident owner on the earlier of (i) the day on which such tax was paid to the Tax Commissioner by the pass-through entity or (ii) the last day of the taxable year for which such tax was paid by the pass-through entity.

F. 1. Every pass-through entity required to deduct and withhold tax under this section shall furnish to each nonresident owner a written statement, as prescribed by the Tax Commissioner, showing (i) the amount of its allocable Virginia taxable income, whether or not distributed for federal income tax purposes by such pass-through entity to such nonresident owner; (ii) the amount deducted and withheld as tax under this section; and (iii) such other information as the Tax Commissioner may require.

2. A copy of the written statements required by this subsection shall be filed with the Virginia return filed under § 58.1-392 by the pass-through entity for its taxable year to which the distribution relates. The written statement shall be furnished to each nonresident owner on or before the due date of the pass-through entity's return under § 58.1-392 for the taxable year, including extensions of time for filing such return, or a later date as may be allowed by the Tax Commissioner.

G. Every pass-through entity required to deduct and withhold tax under this section is hereby made liable for the payment of the tax due under this section for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2008. Any amount of tax withheld under this section shall be held in trust for the Tax Commissioner. No nonresident owner shall have a right of action against the pass-through entity in respect to any moneys withheld from such owner's distributive share and paid over to the Tax Commissioner in compliance with or in intended compliance with this section.

H. If any pass-through entity fails to deduct and withhold tax as required by this section, and thereafter the tax against which such tax may be credited is paid, the tax so required to be deducted and withheld under this section shall not be collected from the pass-through entity, but the pass-through entity shall not be relieved from liability for any penalties or interest or additions to tax otherwise applicable in respect of such failure to withhold.

2007, c. 796; 2010, c. 120; 2011, c. 766.

§ 58.1-486.3. Penalty.

A. If any payment is not made in full when due, there shall be added to the entire tax or to any unpaid balance of the tax a penalty of six percent of the amount thereof, if the failure is for not more than one month, with an additional six percent for each additional month or fraction thereof during which such failure to pay continues, not exceeding 30 percent in the aggregate. The entire tax or any unpaid balance of the tax, together with such penalty and interest, shall immediately become collectible. Interest upon such tax or any unpaid balance of the tax and on the accrued penalty shall be added at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15 from the date the tax or any unpaid balance of the tax was originally due until paid. In the case of an additional tax assessed by the Department, if the return was made in good faith and the understatement of the amount in the return was not due to any fault of the taxpayer, there shall be no penalty on the additional tax because of such understatement, but interest shall be added to the amount of the deficiency at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15 from the time the return was required by law to be filed until paid.

B. In any month or fraction thereof for which the pass-through entity is subject to the penalty imposed under § 58.1-394.1 and the penalty under this section, the greater of the two penalties shall apply.

C. The penalty under this section shall not apply to any tax attributable to income that was included in a return filed pursuant to § 58.1-395.

2010, c. 120.

Article 19. Estimated Tax.

§ 58.1-490. Declarations of estimated tax.

A. Every resident and nonresident individual shall make a declaration of his estimated tax for every taxable year, if his Virginia tax liability can reasonably be expected to exceed an amount, to be determined under regulations promulgated by the Tax Commissioner, which takes into account the additions, subtractions, and deductions set forth in §§ 58.1-322.01, 58.1-322.02, 58.1-322.03, and 58.1-322.04, the credits set forth in Articles 3 (§ 58.1-332 et seq.) and 13.2 (§ 58.1-439.18 et seq.), and the filing exclusions set forth in § 58.1-321. Every estate with respect to any taxable year ending two or more years after the date of death of the decedent and every trust shall make a declaration of its estimated tax for every taxable year, if its Virginia taxable income can reasonably be expected to exceed the amount specified by regulation for individuals as set forth above.

B. For purposes of this article, "estimated tax" means the amount which an individual estimates to be his income tax under this chapter for the taxable year, less the amount which he estimates to be the sum of any credits allowable against the tax.

C. For purposes of this section, the declaration shall be the first voucher.

D. In the case of a husband and wife, a single declaration under this section may be made by them jointly, in which case the liability with respect to the estimated tax shall be joint and several. No joint declaration may be made if either the husband or the wife is a nonresident of the Commonwealth unless both are required by this chapter to file a return, if they are separated under a decree of divorce or of separate maintenance, or if they have different taxable years. If a joint declaration is made but a joint return is not made for the taxable year, the estimated tax for such year may be treated as the estimated tax of either the husband or the wife, or may be divided between them.

E. A declaration of estimated tax of an individual other than a farmer, fisherman, or merchant seaman shall be filed on or before May 1 of the taxable year, except that if the requirements of subsection A are first met:

1. The declaration shall be filed on or before June 15; or

2. After June 1 and before September 2 of the taxable year, the declaration shall be filed on or before September 15; or

3. After September 1 of the taxable year, the declaration shall be filed on or before January 15 of the succeeding year.

F. A declaration of estimated tax of an individual having an estimated gross income from (i) farming (including oyster farming); (ii) fishing; or (iii) working as a merchant seaman for the taxable year, which is at least two-thirds of his total estimated gross income for the taxable year, may be filed at any time on or before January 15 of the succeeding year, in lieu of the time otherwise prescribed.

G. A declaration of estimated tax of an individual having a total estimated tax for the taxable year of $40 or less may be filed at any time on or before January 15 of the succeeding year under regulations of the Tax Commissioner.

H. An individual may amend a declaration under regulations of the Tax Commissioner.

I. If on or before March 1 of the succeeding taxable year an individual files his return for the taxable year for which the declaration is required, and pays therewith the full amount of the tax shown to be due on the return:

1. Such return shall be considered as his declaration if no declaration was required to be filed during the taxable year, but is otherwise required to be filed on or before January 15.

2. Such return shall be considered as the amendment permitted by subsection H to be filed on or before January 15 if the tax shown on the return is greater than the estimated tax shown in a declaration previously made.

J. This section shall apply to a taxable year other than a calendar year by the substitution of the months of such fiscal year for the corresponding months specified in this section.

K. An individual having a taxable year of less than 12 months shall make a declaration in accordance with regulations of the Tax Commissioner.

L. The declaration of estimated tax for an individual who is unable to make a declaration by reason of any disability shall be made and filed by his guardian, committee, fiduciary or other person charged with the care of his person or property (other than a receiver in possession of only a part of his property), or by his duly authorized agent.

M. The declaration of estimated tax for a trust or estate shall be made by the fiduciary. For purposes of the estimated tax imposed in this article, any reference to an "individual" shall be deemed to include the fiduciary required to file a declaration for a trust or estate. Any overpayment of estimated tax with respect to any trust or estate shall be refunded to the fiduciary. A beneficiary of a trust or estate shall not be entitled to a credit against the beneficiary's individual income tax for any overpayment of estimated tax by a trust or estate.

Code 1950, § 58-151.21; 1962, c. 612; 1970, c. 102; 1971, Ex. Sess., cc. 171, 261; 1978, c. 157; 1984, c. 675; 1985, c. 221; 1987, cc. 484, 599; 1988, c. 248; 1997, c. 257; 2000, c. 415; 2009, c. 34; 2011, c. 851; 2017, c. 444.

§ 58.1-491. Payments of estimated tax.

A. The estimated tax with respect to which a declaration is required shall be paid as follows:

1. If the declaration is filed on or before May 1 of the taxable year, the estimated tax shall be paid in four equal installments. The first installment shall be paid at the time of the filing of the declaration, and the second, third and fourth installments shall be paid on the following June 15, September 15, and January 15, respectively.

2. If the declaration is filed after May 1 and not after June 15 of the taxable year, and is not required to be filed on or before May 1 of the taxable year, the estimated tax shall be paid in three equal installments. The first installment shall be paid at the time of the filing of the declaration, and the second and third installments shall be paid on the following September 15 and January 15, respectively.

3. If the declaration is filed after June 15 and not after September 15 of the taxable year, and is not required to be filed on or before June 15 of the taxable year, the estimated tax shall be paid in two equal installments. The first installment shall be paid at the time of the filing of the declaration, and the second shall be paid on the following January 15.

4. If the declaration is filed after September 15 of the taxable year, and is not required to be filed on or before September 15 of the taxable year, the estimated tax shall be paid in full at the time of the filing of the declaration.

5. If the declaration is filed after the time prescribed therefor, or after the expiration of any extension of time therefor, subdivisions 2, 3, and 4 of this subsection shall not apply, and there shall be paid at the time of such filing all installments of estimated tax payable at or before such time, and the remaining installments shall be paid at the times at which, and in the amounts in which, they would have been payable if the declaration had been filed when due.

B. If an individual referred to in subsection F of § 58.1-490 (relating to income from farming or fishing) makes a declaration of estimated tax after September 15 of the taxable year and on or before the following January 15, the estimated tax shall be paid in full at the time of the filing of the declaration.

C. If any amendment of a declaration is filed, the remaining installments, if any, shall be ratably increased or decreased (as the case may be) to reflect any increase or decrease in the estimated tax by reason of such amendment, and if any amendment is made after September 15 of the taxable year, any increase in the estimated tax by reason thereof shall be paid at the time of making such amendment.

D. This section shall apply to a taxable year of less than twelve months in accordance with regulations of the Tax Commissioner.

E. This section shall apply to a taxable year other than a calendar year by the substitution of the months of such fiscal year for the corresponding months specified in this section.

F. An individual may elect to pay any installment of his estimated tax prior to the date prescribed for its payment. An individual may also elect to file a declaration of estimated tax in the closing days of a calendar year for his taxable year about to begin, and may pay in full the amount of his estimated tax for such taxable year at the time he files the declaration.

G. Payment of the estimated tax, or any installment thereof, shall be considered payment on account of the tax for the taxable year.

H. The Tax Commissioner may grant a reasonable extension of time for payment of estimated tax (or any installment), or for filing any declaration pursuant to this article, on condition that the taxpayer shall pay interest on the amount involved at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the time the payment was due until the time of payment. Except for a taxpayer who is outside the United States, no such extension shall exceed six months.

Code 1950, § 58-151.22; 1962, c. 612; 1978, c. 157; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-491.1. Payments estimated by certain members of the armed services.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this article, estimated tax declarations and installment payments shall not be required of any individual qualifying for an extension under subdivision 1 or 2 of subsections F and G of § 58.1-344 during the period of such extension.

1991, cc. 346, 361; 1996, c. 401.

§ 58.1-492. Failure by individual, trust or estate to pay estimated tax.

A. In the case of any underpayment of estimated tax by an individual, trust or estate, except as provided in subsection C, there shall be added to the tax under this chapter for the taxable year an amount determined at the rate established for interest, under § 58.1-15, upon the amount of the underpayment (determined below), for the period of the underpayment (determined under subsection B). The amount of such addition to the tax shall be reported and paid at the time of filing the individual income tax return or the fiduciary income tax return for the taxable year.

The amount of the underpayment shall be the excess of:

1. The amount of the installment which would be required to be paid if the estimated tax were equal to ninety percent (sixty-six and two-thirds percent in the case of an individual referred to in § 58.1-490 F, relating to income from farming) of the tax shown on the return for the taxable year, or if no return was filed, ninety percent (sixty-six and two-thirds percent in the case of individuals referred to in § 58.1-490 F, relating to income from farming) of the tax for such year; or 100 percent of the tax shown on the return of the taxpayer for the preceding taxable year, whichever is less, over

2. The amount, if any, of the installment paid on or before the last date prescribed for such payment.

B. The period of the underpayment shall run from the date the installment was required to be paid to whichever of the following dates is the earlier:

1. May 1, if a calendar year, or the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of the taxable year, if a fiscal year.

2. With respect to any portion of the underpayment, the date on which such portion is paid. For purposes of this subdivision a payment of estimated tax on any installment date shall be considered a payment of any previous underpayment only to the extent such payment exceeds the amount of the installment determined under subdivision A 1 for such installment date.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections A and B, the addition to the tax with respect to any underpayment of any installment shall not be imposed if the total amount of all payments of estimated tax made on or before the last date prescribed for the payment of such installment equals or exceeds whichever of the following is the lesser:

1. The amount which would have been required to be paid on or before such date if estimated tax were whichever of the following is the least:

a. The tax shown on the return of the individual, trust or estate for the preceding taxable year, if a return showing a liability for tax was filed by the individual, trust or estate for the preceding taxable year and such preceding year was a taxable year of twelve months;

b. An amount equal to the tax computed, at the rates applicable to the taxable year, on the basis of the taxpayer's status with respect to personal exemptions for the taxable year, otherwise on the basis of the facts shown on his return for, and the law applicable to, the preceding year; or

c. An amount equal to ninety percent (sixty-six and two-thirds percent in the case of individuals referred to in § 58.1-490 F, relating to income from farming) of the tax for the taxable year computed by placing on an annualized basis the taxable income for the months in the taxable year ending before the month in which the installment is required to be paid. For purposes of this paragraph the taxable income shall be placed on an annualized basis by:

(i) Multiplying by twelve (or, in the case of a taxable year of less than twelve months, the number of months in the taxable year) the taxable income (computed without deduction of personal exemptions) for the months in the taxable year ending before the month in which the installment is required to be paid, or, for a trust or estate, the months in the taxable year ending before the date that is one month before the month in which the installment is required to be paid;

(ii) Dividing the resulting amount by the number of months in the taxable year ending before the month in which such installment date falls, or, for a trust or estate, the months in the taxable year ending before the date that is one month before the month in which the installment is required to be paid; and

(iii) Deducting from such amount the deductions for personal exemptions allowable for the taxable year (such personal exemptions being determined as of the last date prescribed for payment of the installment); or

2. An amount equal to ninety percent of the tax computed, at the rates applicable to the taxable year, on the basis of the actual taxable income for the months in the taxable year ending before the month in which the installment is required to be paid.

D. For purposes of applying this section:

1. The estimated tax shall be computed without any reduction for the amount which the individual estimates as his credit under § 58.1-480 (relating to tax withheld at source on wages);

2. The amount of the credit allowed under § 58.1-480 for the taxable year shall be deemed a payment of estimated tax, and an equal part of such amount shall be deemed paid on each installment date (determined under § 58.1-491) for such taxable year, unless the taxpayer establishes the dates on which all amounts were actually withheld, in which case the amounts so withheld shall be deemed payments of estimated tax on the dates on which such amounts were actually withheld; and

3. There shall be no addition to tax imposed for underpayment of estimated tax of $150 or less for the taxable year.

E. The application of this section to taxable years of less than twelve months shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Tax Commissioner.

Code 1950, § 58-151.23; 1962, c. 612; 1972, c. 827; 1977, c. 396; 1983, c. 575; 1984, c. 675; 1985, c. 221; 1987, cc. 484, 599, 611; 1990, c. 335; 1991, cc. 362, 456; 2000, c. 388.

§ 58.1-493. Declarations of estimated tax to be filed with commissioner of revenue of county or city.

A. Every resident individual who is required by this article to file a declaration of estimated tax shall file his declaration with the commissioner of the revenue for the county or city in which he resides, and every nonresident individual who is required by this article to file a declaration of estimated tax shall file his declaration with the commissioner of the revenue for the county or city in which all or a part of his income from sources within the Commonwealth was derived. Forms for use by taxpayers in preparing their declarations of estimated tax shall be supplied by the Department to the commissioners of the revenue, who shall mail or deliver them to the taxpayers needing them so far as ascertainable not later than January 15 of each year. Failure of any taxpayer to receive any such form shall not relieve him of his obligation to file a declaration of estimated tax.

B. Every trust or estate which is required by this article to file a declaration of estimated tax shall file the declaration with the commissioner of the revenue for the county or city in which the fiduciary qualified or, if there has been no qualification in this state, in the city or county in which the fiduciary resides, does business or has an office or wherein the beneficiaries or any of them may reside.

Code 1950, § 58-151.24; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675; 1987, c. 484.

§ 58.1-494. Sheets or forms for recording declarations of estimated tax; recording.

The commissioner of the revenue shall, for recording declarations of estimated tax, make out assessment sheets or forms daily as and when declarations are received, and shall continue so to make out such sheets or forms daily until all declarations so received by him have been entered on such sheets or forms. The commissioner of the revenue shall each day deliver the original and, if the Department so prescribes, one copy of each such sheet or form so made out that day to the treasurer of the county or city.

Code 1950, § 58-151.25; 1962, c. 612; 1968, c. 343; 1981, c. 96; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-495. Payment of estimated tax; notice of installment due; information to be transmitted to Department.

The estimated tax with respect to which a declaration is required by this article shall be paid as specified in § 58.1-491 to the treasurer of the county or city with whose commissioner of the revenue the taxpayer files his declaration of estimated tax.

In every case the taxpayer may make his first payment to the treasurer of the county or city by attaching such payment to his declaration when he files it with the commissioner of the revenue. The commissioner of the revenue shall transmit all such payments to the treasurer at the time he delivers to the treasurer the sheets or forms mentioned in § 58.1-494 or, if memorandum assessments are made, at the time such memorandum assessments are certified to the treasurer.

Within ten days after the close of each month each county and city treasurer shall transmit to the Department in such form as the Department may prescribe such information and data as may be required by the Department with respect to all collections of estimated tax throughout the next preceding month.

Code 1950, § 58-151.26; 1962, c. 612; 1977, c. 396; 1979, c. 33; 1981, c. 96; 1982, c. 530; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-496. Willful failure or refusal to file declaration of estimated tax, or making false and fraudulent statement, a misdemeanor.

Any person required under this article to file a declaration of estimated tax who willfully fails or refuses to file such declaration, at the time or times required by this article, and any person who, with intent to defraud the Commonwealth, makes any false statement in any such declaration, shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 58-151.27; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-497. Section 58.1-306 applicable to declaration of estimated tax.

Section 58.1-306 (relating to special instances in which an individual taxpayer may file an income tax return with the Department of Taxation) shall also apply to a declaration of estimated tax.

Code 1950, § 58-151.28; 1962, c. 612; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 565; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-498. Oaths or affirmations unnecessary on returns, declarations and reports; misdemeanor to file false return, declaration or report.

No return, declaration, or report filed under this article need be verified by the oath or affirmation of the person or persons who are required by law to file the same. Any such person who willfully files any such return, declaration or report which he does not believe to be true and correct as to every material matter shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 58-151.30; 1962, c. 612; 1984, c. 675; 1996, c. 315.

§ 58.1-499. Refunds to individual taxpayers; crediting overpayment against estimated tax for ensuing year.

A. In the case of any overpayment of any tax, addition to tax, interest or penalties imposed on an individual income taxpayer by this chapter, whether by reason of excessive withholding, overestimating and overpaying estimated tax, error on the part of the taxpayer, or an erroneous assessment of tax, the Tax Commissioner shall order a refund of the amount of the overpayment to the taxpayer. The overpayment shall be refunded out of the state treasury on the order of the Tax Commissioner upon the Comptroller.

B. If a refund of an overpayment of individual income tax payments is made payable jointly to a husband and wife who receive a final divorce decree after filing a joint income tax return, separate income tax returns on a single form, an amendment thereto, or other claim resulting in the issuance of a refund, the Tax Commissioner shall order the reissuance of the refund in separate checks to the husband and to the wife if the unnegotiated joint refund check is returned to Department with a certification, in a form satisfactory to the Department, made by one spouse that the other spouse refuses to endorse the joint refund check or cannot be located. In making such certification, the spouse returning the check shall agree to indemnify the Commonwealth for any amounts that the Commonwealth may be required to pay to the other spouse with respect to such refund. A certified copy of the final divorce decree, including any agreement with respect to the division of property between the spouses, shall be provided with the certification. If the final divorce decree addresses the apportionment or ownership of the refunded amount, the refund shall be apportioned and separate payments ordered as provided therein. If the final divorce decree does not address the apportionment or ownership of the refunded amount, the amount of the refund shall be divided equally between the husband and wife. The reissuance of refund payments pursuant to this subsection shall not affect the joint and several liability of the husband and wife for tax liabilities for the period for which the return or returns were filed.

C. Whenever the annual income tax return of an individual income taxpayer indicates in the place provided thereon that the taxpayer has overpaid his tax for the taxable year by reason of excessive withholding or overestimating and overpaying estimated tax, or both, the amount of the overpayment as shown on his return, subject to correction for error, may be credited against the estimated income tax for the ensuing year at the taxpayer's election and according to regulations prescribed by the Department and such overpayments by either a husband or wife on a separate return may be credited to the tax for the ensuing year of either of them or may be credited to their joint tax at the election of the person to whom the overpayment is payable; or otherwise such amount shall be refunded to him as soon as practicable. Interest on such refund shall be allowed and computed in accordance with § 58.1-1833. The making of any refund shall not absolve any taxpayer of any income tax liability which may in fact exist and the Tax Commissioner may make an assessment for any deficiency in the manner provided by law.

D. No refund under this section, however, shall be made for any overpayment of less than one dollar except on special written application of the taxpayer, nor shall any refund of any amount under this section be made, whether on discovery by the Department or on written application of the taxpayer, if such discovery is not made or such written application is not received within three years from the last day prescribed by law for the timely filing of the return, or within sixty days from the final determination of any change or correction in the liability of the taxpayer for any federal tax upon which the state tax is based, whichever is later.

E. Notwithstanding the provisions of the Setoff Debt Collection Act, Article 21 (§ 58.1-520 et seq.) of this chapter, whenever any taxpayer is entitled to a refund under this section, or under § 58.1-309 or §§ 58.1-1821 through 58.1-1830 and such taxpayer owes the Commonwealth a past due income tax, or balance thereof, for any year, the amount of such refund may be credited on such past due income tax or balance, to the extent indicated.

Code 1950, § 58-151.31; 1962, c. 612; 1966, c. 244; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 250; 1984, c. 675; 1997, c. 355.

Article 20. Estimated Taxes of Corporations.

§ 58.1-500. Declarations of estimated income tax required; contents, etc.

A. Every corporation subject to taxation under this chapter shall make a declaration of estimated tax for the taxable year if its income tax imposed by this chapter, for such taxable year, reduced by any credits allowable against the tax, can reasonably be expected to exceed $1,000.

B. For purposes of this article, "estimated tax" means the amount which the corporation estimates as the amount of the income tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year less the amount which the corporation estimates as the sum of any credits allowable against the tax.

C. The declaration shall contain such pertinent information as the Commissioner may by forms or regulations prescribe.

D. A corporation may make amendments of a declaration filed during the taxable year under regulations prescribed by the Tax Commissioner, not exceeding the number specified in § 58.1-501.

E. A corporation with a taxable year of less than twelve months shall make a declaration in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Tax Commissioner.

Code 1950, § 58-151.36; 1968, c. 14; 1970, c. 588; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-501. Time for filing declarations of estimated income tax.

A. The declaration of estimated tax shall be filed as follows:

If the requirements of subsection A of § 58.1-500 are first met:

1. Before the first day of the fourth month of the taxable year, the declaration shall be filed on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month of the taxable year.

2. After the last day of the third month and before the first day of the sixth month of the taxable year, the declaration shall be filed on or before the fifteenth day of the sixth month of the taxable year.

3. After the last day of the fifth month and before the first day of the ninth month of the taxable year, the declaration shall be filed on or before the fifteenth day of the ninth month of the taxable year.

4. After the last day of the eighth month and before the first day of the twelfth month of the taxable year, the declaration shall be filed on or before the fifteenth day of the twelfth month of the taxable year.

B. An amendment of a declaration may be filed in any interval between installment dates prescribed for the taxable year, but only one amendment may be filed in each such interval.

C. The application of this section to taxable years of less than twelve months shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Tax Commissioner.

Code 1950, § 58-151.37; 1968, c. 14; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-502. Installment payment of estimated income tax.

A. The amount of estimated tax with respect to which a declaration is required under § 58.1-500 shall be paid in installments as follows:

1. If the declaration is required to be filed by the fifteenth day of the fourth month of the taxable year, twenty-five percent of the estimated tax shall be paid on the fifteenth day of the fourth, sixth, ninth and twelfth month of the taxable year.

2. If the declaration is required to be filed by the fifteenth day of the sixth month of the taxable year, one-third of the estimated tax shall be paid on the fifteenth day of the sixth, ninth and twelfth month of the taxable year.

3. If the declaration is required to be filed by the fifteenth day of the ninth month of the taxable year, one-half of the estimated tax shall be paid on the fifteenth day of the ninth and twelfth month of the taxable year.

4. If the declaration is required to be filed by the fifteenth day of the twelfth month of the taxable year, 100 percent of the estimated tax shall be paid on the fifteenth day of the twelfth month of the taxable year.

B. A declaration is timely filed if it is not required by § 58.1-501 A to be filed on a date (determined without regard to any extension of time for filing the declaration) before the date it is actually filed.

C. If the declaration is filed after the time prescribed in § 58.1-501 A (determined without regard to any extension of time for filing the declaration), there shall be paid at the time of such filing all installments of estimated tax which would have been payable on or before such time if the declaration had been filed within such prescribed time, and the remaining installments shall be paid at the times at which, and in the amounts in which, they would have been payable if the declaration had been so filed.

D. If any amendment of a declaration is filed, the amount of each remaining installment (if any) shall be the amount which would have been payable if the new estimate had been made when the first estimate for the taxable year was made, increased or decreased (as the case may be), by the amount computed by dividing: 1. the difference between (i) the amount of estimated tax required to be paid before the date on which the amendment is made, and (ii) the amount of estimated tax which would have been required to be paid before such date if the new estimate had been made when the first estimate was made, by 2. the number of installments remaining to be paid on or after the date on which the amendment is made.

E. The application of this section to taxable years of less than twelve months shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Tax Commissioner.

F. Payment of the estimated income tax, or any installment thereof, shall be considered payment on account of the income tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year.

G. The Tax Commissioner may grant a reasonable extension of time for payment of estimated tax (or any installment), or for filing any declaration pursuant to this article, on condition that the taxpayer shall pay interest on the amount involved at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the time the payment was due until the time of payment. No such extension shall exceed six months.

Code 1950, § 58-151.38; 1968, c. 14; 1977, c. 396; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-503. Where declarations filed and how payments made; crediting or refunding overpayments.

Every corporation required by this article to file a declaration of estimated income tax shall file the same with and make payment to the Department.

Code 1950, § 58-151.39; 1968, c. 14; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-504. Failure to pay estimated income tax.

A. In case of any underpayment of estimated tax by a corporation, except as provided in subsection D, there shall be added to the tax for the taxable year an amount determined at the rate established for interest under § 58.1-15, upon the amount of the underpayment (determined under subsection B) for the period of the underpayment (determined under subsection C).

B. For purposes of subsection A, the amount of the underpayment shall be the excess of:

1. The amount of the installment which would be required to be paid if the estimated tax were equal to ninety percent of the tax shown on the return for the taxable year or, if no return was filed, ninety percent of the tax for such year, over

2. The amount, if any, of the installment paid on or before the last date prescribed for payment.

C. The period of the underpayment shall run from the date the installment was required to be paid to whichever of the following dates is the earlier:

1. The fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of the taxable year.

2. With respect to any portion of the underpayment, the date on which such portion is paid. For purposes of this subdivision, a payment of estimated tax on any installment date shall be considered a payment of any previous underpayment only to the extent such payment exceeds the amount of the installment determined under subdivision B 1 for such installment date.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections A, B and C, the addition to the tax with respect to any underpayment of any installment shall not be imposed if the total amount of all payments of estimated tax made on or before the last date prescribed for the payment of such installment equals or exceeds the amount which would have been required to be paid on or before such date if the estimated tax were whichever of the following is the lesser:

1. The tax shown on the return of the corporation for the preceding taxable year, if a return showing a liability for tax was filed by the corporation for the preceding taxable year and such preceding year was a taxable year of twelve months.

2. An amount equal to the tax computed at the rate applicable to the taxable year but otherwise on the basis of the facts shown on the return of the corporation for, and the law applicable to, the preceding taxable year.

3. An amount equal to ninety percent of the tax for the taxable year computed by placing on an annualized basis the taxable income:

a. For the first three months of the taxable year, in the case of the installment required to be paid in the fourth month,

b. For the first three months or for the first five months of the taxable year, in the case of the installment required to be paid in the sixth month,

c. For the first six months or for the first eight months of the taxable year, in the case of the installment required to be paid in the ninth month, and

d. For the first nine months or for the first eleven months of the taxable year, in the case of the installment required to be paid in the twelfth month of the taxable year. For purposes of this subdivision, the taxable income shall be placed on an annualized basis by (i) multiplying by twelve the taxable income referred to in subdivision D 3 and (ii) dividing the resulting amount by the number of months in the taxable year (three, five, six, eight, nine, or eleven, as the case may be) referred to in subsection A.

E. For purposes of subsection B, subdivisions D 2 and D 3, the term "tax" means the excess of the tax imposed by this chapter over the sum of any credits allowable against the tax.

F. The application of this to taxable years of less than twelve months shall be in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner.

G. Pipeline distribution companies as defined in § 58.1-2600 and gas utilities, gas suppliers and electric suppliers as defined in § 58.1-400.2 that become subject to taxation under this chapter and prior thereto paid the annual license tax based on gross receipts, shall make estimated tax payments during the first year, or short taxable year under subsection E of § 58.1-400.2, they are so subject, and notwithstanding subsection D, any excesses described in subsection B shall constitute an underpayment for such year.

Code 1950, § 58-151.40; 1968, c. 14; 1977, c. 396; 1983, c. 575; 1984, c. 675; 1999, c. 971; 2000, cc. 691, 706.

Article 20.1. Virginia Land Conservation Incentives Act of 1999.

§ 58.1-510. Purpose.

The purpose of this act is to supplement existing land conservation programs to further encourage the preservation and sustainability of Virginia's unique natural resources, wildlife habitats, open spaces and forested resources.

1999, cc. 968, 983.

§ 58.1-511. Definitions.

For the purposes of the article:

"Interest in real property" means any right in real property, including access thereto or improvements thereon, or water, including but not limited to an open-space easement or conservation easement, provided such interest complies with the requirements of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code § 170 (h), partial interest, mineral right, remainder or future interest, or other interest or right in real property.

"Land" or "lands" means real property, with or without improvements thereon; rights-of-way, water and riparian rights; easements; privileges and all other rights or interests of any land or description in, relating to or connected with real property.

"Public or Private Conservation Agency" means any Virginia governmental body, or any private not-for-profit charitable corporation or trust authorized to do business in the Commonwealth and organized and operated for natural resources, land conservation or historic preservation purposes, and having tax-exempt status as a public charity under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and having the power to acquire, hold and maintain land and/or interests in land for such purposes.

1999, cc. 968, 983; 2005, c. 940.

§ 58.1-512. Land preservation tax credits for individuals and corporations.

A. 1. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2000, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax liability imposed by §§ 58.1-320 and 58.1-400, an amount equal to 50 percent of the fair market value of any land or interest in land located in Virginia that is conveyed for the purpose of agricultural and forestal use, open space, natural resource, and/or biodiversity conservation, or land, agricultural, watershed and/or historic preservation, as an unconditional donation by the landowner/taxpayer to a public or private conservation agency eligible to hold such land and interests therein for conservation or preservation purposes. For such conveyances made on or after January 1, 2007, the tax credit shall be 40 percent of the fair market value of the land or interest in land so conveyed.

2. a. If the Commonwealth or an instrumentality thereof operates a facility on a conveyance, including charging fees for the use of such facility, such operation shall not disqualify the conveyance from eligibility for the tax credit, so long as any fees are used for conservation or preservation purposes.

b. If the Commonwealth or an instrumentality thereof enters into an agreement with a third party to lease or manage a facility on a conveyance, the fact that such third party is operated primarily as a business with intent for profit shall not disqualify the conveyance from eligibility for the tax credit, so long as such agreement is for conservation or preservation purposes.

B. The fair market value of qualified donations made under this section shall be determined in accordance with § 58.1-512.1 and substantiated by a "qualified appraisal" prepared by a "qualified appraiser," as those terms are defined under applicable federal law and regulations governing charitable contributions. The value of the donated interest in land that qualifies for credit under this section, as determined according to appropriate federal law and regulations, shall be subject to the limits established by United States Internal Revenue Code § 170(e). In order to qualify for a tax credit under this section, the qualified appraisal shall be signed by the qualified appraiser, who must be licensed in the Commonwealth of Virginia as provided in § 54.1-2011, and a copy of the appraisal shall be submitted to the Department. In the event that any appraiser falsely or fraudulently overstates the value of the contributed property in an appraisal that the appraiser has signed, the Department may disallow further appraisals signed by the appraiser and shall refer the appraiser to the Real Estate Appraiser Board for appropriate disciplinary action pursuant to § 54.1-2013, which may include, but need not be limited to, revocation of the appraiser's license. Any appraisal that, upon audit by the Department, is determined to be false or fraudulent, may be disregarded by the Department in determining the fair market value of the property and the amount of tax credit to be allowed under this section.

C. 1. The amount of the credit that may be claimed by each taxpayer, including credit claimed by applying unused credits as provided under subsection C of § 58.1-513, shall not exceed $50,000 for 2000 taxable years; $75,000 for 2001 taxable years; $100,000 for each of 2002 through 2008 taxable years; $50,000 for each of 2009, 2010, and 2011 taxable years; $100,000 for each of 2012, 2013, and 2014 taxable years; $20,000 for each of 2015, 2016, and 2017 taxable years; and $50,000 for 2018 taxable years and for each taxable year thereafter. However, for any fee simple donation of land conveyed to the Commonwealth on or after January 1, 2015, the amount of the credit claimed shall not exceed $100,000 for each taxable year, provided that no part of the charitable contributions deduction under § 170 of the Internal Revenue Code related to such fee simple donation is allowable by reason of a sale or exchange of property. In addition, for each taxpayer, in any one taxable year the credit used may not exceed the amount of individual, fiduciary or corporate income tax otherwise due. Any portion of the credit that is unused in any one taxable year may be carried over for a maximum of 10 consecutive taxable years following the taxable year in which the credit originated until fully expended. A credit shall not be reduced by the amount of unused credit that could have been claimed in a prior year by the taxpayer but was unclaimed. For taxpayers affected by the credit reduction for taxable years 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015 and thereafter, any portion of the credit that is unused in any one taxable year may be carried over for a maximum of 13 consecutive taxable years following the taxable year in which the credit originated until fully expended.

2. Qualified donations shall include the conveyance of a fee interest in real property or the conveyance in perpetuity of a less-than-fee interest in real property, such as a conservation restriction, preservation restriction, agricultural preservation restriction, or watershed preservation restriction, provided that such less-than-fee interest qualifies as a charitable deduction under § 170(h) of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

The Department of Conservation and Recreation shall compile an annual report on qualified donations of less-than-fee interests accepted by any public or private conservation agency in the respective calendar year and shall submit the report by December 1 of each year to the Chairmen of the House Committee on Appropriations, House Committee on Finance, and the Senate Committee on Finance. In preparing such report, the Department of Conservation and Recreation shall consult and coordinate with the Department of Taxation and the Departments of Forestry and Agriculture and Consumer Services to provide an estimate of the number of acres of land currently being used for "production agriculture and silviculture" as defined in § 3.2-300 that have been protected by qualified donations of less-than-fee interests. This report shall include information, when available, on land qualifying for credits being used for "production agriculture and silviculture" that have onsite operational best management practices, which are designed to reduce the amount of nutrients and sediment entering public waters. In addition, the report shall include information, when available, on riparian buffers, both vegetated/forested buffers and no-plow buffers, required by deed restriction on land qualifying for credits in order to protect water quality. This information shall be reported in summary fashion as appropriate to preserve confidentiality of information. Qualified donations shall not include the conveyance of a fee interest, or a less-than-fee interest, in real property by a charitable organization that (i) meets the definition of "holder" in § 10.1-1009 and (ii) holds one or more conservation easements acquired pursuant to the authority conferred on a "holder" by § 10.1-1010.

3. Any fee interest, or a less-than-fee interest, in real property that has been dedicated as open space within, or as part of, a residential subdivision or any other type of residential or commercial development; dedicated as open space in, or as part of, any real estate development plan; or dedicated for the purpose of fulfilling density requirements to obtain approvals for zoning, subdivision, site plan, or building permits shall not be a qualified donation under this article.

4. Qualified donations shall be eligible for the tax credit herein described if such donations are made to the Commonwealth of Virginia, an instrumentality thereof, or a charitable organization described in § 501(c)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, if such charitable organization (i) meets the requirements of § 509(a)(2) or (ii) meets the requirements of § 509(a)(3) and is controlled by an organization described in § 509(a)(2).

5. The preservation, agricultural preservation, historic preservation or similar use and purpose of such property shall be assured in perpetuity. In the case of conveyances of a fee interest to a charitable organization that is a "holder" as defined in § 10.1-1009, the credit shall not be allowed until the charitable organization agrees that subsequent conveyances of the fee interest in the property will be (i) subject to a previous conveyance in perpetuity of a conservation easement, as that term is defined in § 10.1-1009, or subject to the conveyance in perpetuity of an open-space easement, as that term is defined in § 10.1-1700, or (ii) conveyed to the Commonwealth of Virginia or to a federal conservation agency. No credit shall be allowed with respect to any subsequent conveyances by the charitable organization.

D. The issuance of tax credits under this article for donations made on and after January 1, 2007, shall be in accordance with procedures and deadlines established by the Department and shall be administered under the following conditions:

1. The taxpayer shall apply for a credit after completing the donation by submitting a form or forms prescribed by the Department in consultation with the Department of Conservation and Recreation. If the application requests a credit of $1 million or more or if the donation meets the conditions of subdivision 3 c, then a copy of the application shall also be filed with the Department of Conservation and Recreation by the taxpayer. The application shall include, but not be limited to:

a. A description of the conservation purpose or purposes being served by the donation;

b. The fair market value of land being donated in the absence of any easement or other restriction;

c. The public benefit derived from the donation;

d. The extent to which water quality best management practices will be implemented on the property; and

e. Whether the property is fully or partially forested and a forest management plan is included in the terms of the donation.

2. Applications for otherwise qualified donations of a less-than-fee interest shall be accompanied by an affidavit describing how the donated interest in land meets the requirements of § 170(h) of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the regulations adopted thereunder. The application with accompanying affidavit shall be submitted to the Department of Taxation, with a copy also provided to the Department of Conservation and Recreation.

3. a. No credit in the amount of $1 million or more shall be issued with respect to a donation unless the conservation value of the donation has been verified by the Director of the Department of Conservation and Recreation, based on the criteria adopted by the Virginia Land Conservation Foundation for this purpose. Such criteria and subsequent amendments shall be exempt from the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.), but the Virginia Land Conservation Foundation shall provide for adequate public participation, including adequate notice and opportunity to provide comments on the proposed criteria. The Director shall act on applications within 90 days of his receipt of a complete application and shall notify the taxpayer and the Department of Taxation of his action.

b. For purposes of determining whether a credit requires verification of the conservation value, the credits allowed under this article with respect to donations of any other portion of a recorded parcel of land within the preceding 11 years shall be aggregated with the credit claimed for the current donation. This subdivision shall not apply if (i) all owners of the parcel who have been allowed credit for a qualified donation are not affiliated with the person or entity seeking credit for the current donation of a different portion of the parcel and (ii) in the case of an individual seeking credit, the individual has not previously made a qualified donation for any portion of the parcel and is not an immediate family member of any such owners.

c. If (i) the real property that is the subject of the donation was partitioned from or part of another parcel of land and any other portion of such parcel, or any land partitioned from such parcel of land, has been allowed a tax credit under this article (or an application for tax credit is pending) within three years of such donation and (ii) the tax credit that would otherwise be allowed to the donor for such donation is at least $250,000, then no credit under this article shall be issued with respect to such donation described in clause (i) unless the conservation value of the donation has been verified by the Director of the Department of Conservation and Recreation. The Director shall act on applications within 90 days of his receipt of a complete application and shall notify the taxpayer and the Department of Taxation of his action. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed or interpreted (a) as allowing additional tax credit for any land or interest in land previously conveyed for which tax credit has already been allowed under this article or (b) affecting the validity of any tax credit allowed under this article for a prior conveyance of any land or interest in land.

4. a. Tax credits shall be issued on a calendar year basis, and in no case shall the Department issue more than the maximum allowed for the calendar year. The maximum amount of credits that may be issued in a calendar year shall be $100 million plus any credits previously issued under this article but subsequently disallowed or invalidated by the Department. Credits previously issued but subsequently disallowed or invalidated shall be reissued in a subsequent calendar year. All credits shall be issued in the order that each complete application is filed. For filings by mail or a recognized commercial delivery service, the postmark or confirmation of shipment shall determine the date of filing. If within 30 days after an application for credits has been filed the Tax Commissioner provides written notice to the donor that he has determined that the preparation of a second qualified appraisal is warranted, the application shall not be deemed complete until the fair market value of the donation has been finally determined by the Tax Commissioner. The Tax Commissioner shall make a final determination within 180 days of notifying the donor, unless the donor has filed an appeal. The donor shall have the right to appeal any decision of the Department in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 18 (§ 58.1-1800 et seq.). If more than one complete application is filed at the same time, the credits with respect to those applications shall be issued in the order that the conveyances were recorded in the appropriate circuit court of the Commonwealth. In the event that a credit requires verification of the conservation value by the Department of Conservation and Recreation and such verification has not been received at the time the maximum $100 million allowed is reached for the calendar year of the donation, such credit shall not be issued for that calendar year but shall be issued in the calendar year that the conservation value of the credit is verified by the Department of Conservation and Recreation.

No credit shall be allowed for any land or interest in land conveyed unless (i) for a conveyance made before January 1, 2020, a complete application for tax credit with regard to the conveyance has been filed with the Department by December 31 of the third year following the calendar year of the conveyance or (ii) for a conveyance made on or after January 1, 2020, a complete application for tax credit with regard to the conveyance has been filed with the Department by December 31 of the second year following the calendar year of the conveyance. For filings by mail or a recognized commercial delivery service, the postmark or confirmation of shipment shall determine the date of filing. Solely for purposes of this condition, any application for which the Tax Commissioner has given written notice to the donor that the preparation of a second qualified appraisal is warranted shall be deemed timely filed, provided that the application was otherwise complete as of such filing deadline.

b. Beginning with calendar year 2008, the $100 million amount contained in subdivision 4 a shall be increased by an amount equal to $100 million multiplied by the percentage by which the consumer price index for all-urban consumers published by the United States Department of Labor (CPI-U) for the 12-month period ending August 31 of the preceding year exceeds the CPI-U for the 12-month period ending August 31, 2006.

c. Beginning with calendar year 2015, the maximum amount of credits that may be issued in a calendar year shall not exceed $75 million. In no case shall the Department issue any tax credit for a donation from any allocation or pool of tax credits attributable to a calendar year prior to the year in which the complete tax credit application for the donation was filed.

Beginning with the submission due on or before December 20, 2015, and in each year thereafter, the Governor shall include in "The Budget Bill" submitted pursuant to subsection A of § 2.2-1509 or in his amendments to the general appropriation act in effect submitted pursuant to subsection E of § 2.2-1509 a recommended appropriation from the general fund equal to the difference between the amount calculated pursuant to subdivision b and $75 million, but not more than $20 million, to be allocated as follows: 80 percent to the Virginia Land Conservation Fund to be used in accordance with § 10.1-1020, with no less than 50 percent of such appropriation to be used for fee simple acquisitions with public access or acquisitions of easements with public access; 10 percent to the Virginia Battlefield Preservation Fund to be used in accordance with § 10.1-2202.4; and 10 percent to the Virginia Farmland Preservation Fund to be used in accordance with § 3.2-201.

5. a. Any taxpayer that has been issued a tax credit by the Department shall be allowed to use such credit for his or its taxable year that begins in the calendar year for which such credit was issued and for succeeding taxable years in accordance with the 10 consecutive taxable year carryforward provisions of this article, except for any taxpayer affected by the credit limitation for taxable years 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015 and taxable years thereafter. Such a taxpayer shall be allowed to use such credit for his or its taxable year that begins in the calendar year for which such credit was issued and for succeeding taxable years in accordance with the 13 consecutive taxable year carryforward provisions of this article.

b. Any taxpayer to whom a credit has been transferred may use such credit for the taxable year in which the transfer occurred and unused amounts may be carried forward to succeeding taxable years, but in no event may such transferred credit be used more than 11 years after it was originally issued by the Department or in any taxable year of such taxpayer that ended prior to the date of transfer, except for any taxpayer affected by the credit limitation for taxable years 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015 and taxable years thereafter. Such a taxpayer may use such credit for the taxable year in which the transfer occurred and unused amounts may be carried forward to succeeding taxable years, but in no event may such transferred credit be used more than 14 years after it was originally issued by the Department or in any taxable year of such taxpayer that ended prior to the date of transfer.

6. Neither the verification of conservation value by the Department of Conservation and Recreation nor the issuance of a credit by the Department of Taxation shall in any way be construed or interpreted as prohibiting the Department of Taxation or the Tax Commissioner from auditing any credit claimed pursuant to the provisions of this article or from assessing tax relating to the claiming of any credit under this article.

E. In any review or appeal before the Tax Commissioner or in any court in the Commonwealth the burden of proof shall be on the taxpayer to show that the fair market value and conservation value at the time of the qualified donation is consistent with this section and that all requirements of this article have been satisfied.

1999, cc. 968, 983; 2005, c. 940; 2006, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 4, 5; 2009, cc. 12, 510; 2010, cc. 246, 265, 321, 384; 2011, cc. 212, 296, 377, 672; 2013, c. 798; 2015, cc. 235, 467, 680; 2017, c. 424; 2019, cc. 183, 649.

§ 58.1-512.1. Determination of fair market value of donation.

A. Each appraisal estimating the value of any donation upon which credits are to be based shall employ proper methodology and be appropriately supported by market evidence. The Department of Taxation shall establish and make publicly available guidelines that incorporate, as applicable (without limitation), requirements under § 170(h) of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP). The Department shall update the guidelines as necessary as determined by the Tax Commissioner. Such guidelines shall be exempt from the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) but the Department shall provide for adequate public participation, including adequate notice and opportunity to provide comments on the proposed guidelines.

B. For purposes of any appraisal for a conveyance under the provisions of this article, the value for any structures or other improvements to land shall be determined in accordance with law. For any otherwise qualified donation of a less-than-fee interest under this article, however, no more than 25% of the total credit allowed shall be for reductions in value to any structures and other improvements to land.

C. The fair market value of any property with respect to a qualified donation shall not exceed the value for the highest and best use (i) that is consistent with existing zoning requirements; (ii) for which the property was adaptable and needed or likely to be needed in the reasonably near future in the immediate area in which the property is located; (iii) that considers factors such as, by way of illustration and not limitation, slopes, flood plains, and soil conditions of the property; and (iv) for which existing roads serving the property are sufficient to support commercial or residential development in the event that is the highest and best use proposed for the property. Any appraisal submitted in support of an application for a credit under this article shall include an affidavit by the appraiser that to the best of his knowledge and belief the valuation complies with this section and shall set forth in the affidavit or refer to the specific portion of the appraisal setting forth the facts and basis for this knowledge and belief.

2006, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 4, 5.

§ 58.1-513. Limitations; transfer of credit; gain or loss from tax credit.

A. Any taxpayer claiming a tax credit under this article shall not claim a credit under any similar Virginia law for costs related to the same project. To the extent a credit is taken in accordance with this article, no subtraction allowed for the gain on the sale of (i) land dedicated to open-space use or (ii) an easement dedicated to open-space use under subdivision 14 of § 58.1-322.02 shall be allowed for three years following the year in which the credit is taken. Any building which serves as the basis, in whole or in part, of a tax credit under this article shall not serve as the basis of the tax credit allowed under § 58.1-339.2 for a period of five years following the donation on which the credit is based; and any building which serves as the basis for the tax credit allowed under § 58.1-339.2 shall not serve as the basis, in whole or in part, for a tax credit under this article for a period of five years following the completion of the rehabilitation project on which the credit is based.

B. Any tax credits that arise under this article from the donation of land or an interest in land made by a pass-through tax entity such as a trust, estate, partnership, limited liability company or partnership, limited partnership, subchapter S corporation or other fiduciary shall be used either by such entity if it is the taxpayer on behalf of such entity or by the member, manager, partner, shareholder or beneficiary, as the case may be, in proportion to their interest in such entity in the event that income, deductions and tax liability pass through such entity to such member, manager, partner, shareholder or beneficiary or as set forth in the agreement of said entity. Such tax credits shall not be claimed by both the entity and the member, manager, partner, shareholder or beneficiary for the same donation.

C. 1. Any taxpayer holding a credit under this article may transfer unused but otherwise allowable credit for use by another taxpayer on Virginia income tax returns. A taxpayer who transfers any amount of credit under this article shall file a notification of such transfer to the Department in accordance with procedures and forms prescribed by the Tax Commissioner.

2. A fee of two percent of the value of the donated interest shall be imposed upon any transfer arising from the sale by any taxpayer of credits under this article and upon the distribution of a portion of credits under this article to a member, manager, partner, shareholder or beneficiary pursuant to subsection B. The two percent fee shall not apply to a distribution of credits to a nonresident owner of a pass-through entity when such credits are applied by the pass-through entity to the withholding tax pursuant to subdivision B 2 of § 58.1-486.2. Revenues generated by such fees first shall be used by the Department of Taxation and the Department of Conservation and Recreation for their costs in implementing this article but in no event shall such amount exceed 50 percent of the total revenue generated by the fee on an annual basis. The remainder of such revenues shall be transferred to the Virginia Land Conservation Fund for distribution to the public or private conservation agencies or organizations, excluding federal governmental entities, that are responsible for enforcing the conservation and preservation purposes of the donated interests. Distribution of such revenues shall be made annually by the Virginia Land Conservation Foundation proportionally based on a three-year average of the number of donated interests accepted by the public or private conservation agencies or organizations, excluding federal governmental entities, during the immediately preceding three-year period.

3. If the individual taxpayer who originally earned the tax credit holds unused credit under this article, he may provide through a will, bequest, or other instrument of transfer that, upon his death, his unused credit shall be transferred to a designated beneficiary. If such taxpayer dies without a will, his unused credit shall be transferred to the next person who is eligible to receive according to the rules of intestate succession as described in § 64.2-200; however, if two or more persons are eligible to receive according to such rules, the administrator of the taxpayer's estate shall choose one such person to whom to transfer such taxpayer's unused credit. The two percent fee described in subdivision 2 shall not apply to a transfer of unused credits pursuant to this subdivision. The carryover period for such transferred credits shall not be extended; instead, such credits shall be subject to the original carryover period as determined pursuant to subdivision C 1 of § 58.1-512.

D. To the extent included in and not otherwise subtracted from federal adjusted gross income pursuant to § 58.1-322.02 or federal taxable income pursuant to § 58.1-402, there shall be subtracted any amount of gain or income recognized by a taxpayer on the application of a tax credit under this article against a Virginia income tax liability.

E. The transfer of the credit and its application against a tax liability shall not create gain or loss for the transferor or the transferee of such credit.

F. A pass-through tax entity, such as a partnership, limited liability company or Subchapter S corporation, may appoint a tax matters representative, who shall be a general partner, member/manager or shareholder, and register that representative with the Tax Commissioner. The Tax Commissioner shall be entitled to deal with the tax matters representative as representative of the taxpayers to whom credits have been allocated or transferred by the entity under this article with respect to those credits. In the event a pass-through tax entity allocates or transfers tax credits arising under this article to its partners, members or shareholders and the allocated or transferred credits shall be disallowed, in whole or in part, such that an assessment of additional tax against a taxpayer shall be made, the Tax Commissioner shall first make written demand for payment of any additional tax, together with interest and penalties, from the tax matters representative. In the event such payment demand is not satisfied, the Tax Commissioner shall proceed to collection against the taxpayers in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 18 (§ 58.1-1800 et seq.).

1999, cc. 968, 983; 2002, c. 347; 2004, c. 635; 2005, c. 255; 2006, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 4, 5; 2010, cc. 229, 248; 2012, c. 232; 2017, cc. 444, 725; 2018, c. 560.

Article 21. Setoff Debt Collection Act.

§ 58.1-520. (Contingent expiration) Definitions.

As used in this article:

"Claimant agency" means any administrative unit of state, county, city or town government, including department, institution, commission, authority, or the office of Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court, any circuit or district court and the Internal Revenue Service. All state agencies and institutions shall participate in the setoff program.

"Debtor" means any individual having a delinquent debt or account with any claimant agency which obligation has not been satisfied by court order, set aside by court order, or discharged in bankruptcy.

"Delinquent debt" means any liquidated sum due and owing any claimant agency, or any restitution ordered paid to a clerk of the court pursuant to Title 19.2, including any amount of court costs or fines which have accrued through contract, subrogation, tort, operation of law, or any other legal theory regardless of whether there is an outstanding judgment for that sum which is legally collectible and for which a collection effort has been or is being made.

"Mailing date of notice" means the date of notice appearing thereon.

"Refund" means any individual's Virginia state or local income tax refund payable pursuant to § 58.1-309. This term also includes any refund belonging to a debtor resulting from the filing of a joint income tax return or a refund belonging to a debtor resulting from the filing of a return where husband and wife have elected to file a combined return and separately state their Virginia taxable incomes under the provisions of § 58.1-324 B 2.

Code 1950, § 58-19.7; 1981, c. 408; 1982, c. 621; 1983, c. 545; 1984, cc. 269, 675; 1986, c. 322; 1988, c. 544; 1989, cc. 77, 245; 1994, c. 197; 1996, cc. 363, 413; 2013, c. 766.

§ 58.1-520. (Contingent effective date) Definitions.

As used in this article:

"Claimant agency" means any administrative unit of state, county, city or town government, including department, institution, commission, authority, or the office of Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court, any circuit or district court and the Internal Revenue Service. All state agencies and institutions shall participate in the setoff program.

"Debtor" means any individual having a delinquent debt or account with any claimant agency which obligation has not been satisfied by court order, set aside by court order, or discharged in bankruptcy.

"Delinquent debt" means any liquidated sum due and owing any claimant agency, or any restitution ordered paid to a clerk of the court pursuant to Title 19.2, including any amount of court costs or fines which have accrued through contract, subrogation, tort, operation of law, or any other legal theory regardless of whether there is an outstanding judgment for that sum which is legally collectible and for which a collection effort has been or is being made.

"Mailing date of notice" means the date of notice appearing thereon.

"Refund" means any individual's (i) Virginia state or local income tax refund payable pursuant to § 58.1-309 or (ii) federal income tax refund payable pursuant to § 6402 of the Internal Revenue Code. This term also includes any refund belonging to a debtor resulting from the filing of a joint income tax return or a refund belonging to a debtor resulting from the filing of a return where husband and wife have elected to file a combined return and separately state their Virginia taxable incomes under the provisions of § 58.1-324 B 2.

Code 1950, § 58-19.7; 1981, c. 408; 1982, c. 621; 1983, c. 545; 1984, cc. 269, 675; 1986, c. 322; 1988, c. 544; 1989, cc. 77, 245; 1994, c. 197; 1996, cc. 363, 413; 2009, cc. 571, 787; 2013, c. 766.

§ 58.1-520.1. Recovery of administrative costs.

Any county, city or town may collect, in addition to the amount of delinquent debt collected pursuant to the provisions of this article, the administrative costs associated with collection of the debt in an amount not to exceed twenty-five dollars per claim.

1994, c. 484.

§ 58.1-521. Remedy additional; mandatory usage; obtaining identifying information.

A. The collection remedy under this article is in addition to and not in substitution for any other remedy available by law.

B. Except for county, city or town governments, which may utilize the provisions of this article, all claimant agencies shall submit, for collection under the procedure established by this article, all delinquent debts which they are owed.

C. All claimant agencies, whenever possible, shall obtain the full name, social security number, address, and any other identifying information, required by rules promulgated by the Tax Commissioner for implementation of this article, from any person for whom the agencies provide any service or transact any business and who the claimant agencies can foresee may become a debtor under the terms of this article.

Code 1950, § 58-19.8; 1981, c. 408; 1983, c. 258; 1984, cc. 675, 720; 1986, c. 322.

§ 58.1-522. Participation in setoff program not permitted where debt below certain levels.

If the claimant agency determines that the administrative cost, as defined in the rules promulgated by the Tax Commissioner, of utilizing this article will exceed the amount of the delinquent debt, then such claimant agency shall not participate in the setoff program below such levels determined economically infeasible.

Code 1950, § 58-19.9; 1981, c. 408; 1982, c. 621; 1984, cc. 675, 720.

§ 58.1-523. Department to aid in collection of sums due claimant agencies through setoff.

Subject to the limitations contained in this article, the Department, upon request, shall render assistance in the collection of any delinquent account or debt owing to any claimant agency. This assistance shall be provided by setting off any refunds belonging to the debtor from the Department by the sum certified by the claimant agency as due and owing.

Code 1950, § 58-19.10; 1981, c. 408; 1982, c. 621; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-524. Notification of Department by claimant agency; action of Department.

A. A claimant agency seeking to attempt collection of a delinquent debt through setoff shall notify the Department and supply information necessary to identify the debtor whose refund is sought to be setoff. Notification to the Department and the furnishing of identifying information must occur on or before a date specified by the Department. The claimant agency shall verify that the delinquent debt is valid before notifying the Department requesting setoff, and shall promptly notify the Department when subsequent payments or other events render all or a portion of the debt invalid.

B. The Department, upon receipt of notification, shall determine whether the debtor to the claimant agency is entitled to a refund from the Department. Upon determination by the Department that a debtor specified by the claimant agency qualifies for such a refund, the Department shall notify the claimant agency that a refund is pending, specify its sum, and indicate the debtor's address as listed on the tax return.

C. The Department, upon certification as hereinafter provided in this article, shall set off the certified debt against the refund to which the debtor would otherwise be entitled.

Code 1950, § 58-19.11; 1981, c. 408; 1982, c. 621; 1984, c. 675; 1996, cc. 363, 413.

§ 58.1-525. Notification of intention to set off and right to hearing.

A. The claimant agency, upon receipt of notification from the Department that a debtor is entitled to a refund, within ten days shall mail a written notification to the debtor at his or her last known address and shall send evidence of same in the manner required by rules promulgated by the Tax Commissioner to the Department of its assertion of rights to the refund or any part thereof. The notification shall inform the debtor of the claimant agency's intention to direct the Department to apply the refund or any portion thereof against the debt certified as due and owing.

B. The contents of the written notification to the debtor and the Department's notification of the setoff claim shall clearly set forth the basis for the claim to the refund, the intention to apply the refund against the debt to the claimant agency, the debtor's opportunity to give written notice of intent to contest the validity of the claim before the claimant agency within thirty days of the date of the mailing of the notice, the mailing address to which the application for a hearing must be sent, and the fact that failure to apply for a hearing in writing within the thirty-day period will be deemed a waiver of the opportunity to contest the claim causing final setoff by default.

C. The written application by the debtor for a hearing shall be effective upon mailing the application postage prepaid and properly addressed to the claimant agency.

Code 1950, § 58-19.12; 1981, c. 408; 1982, c. 621; 1984, c. 675; 1986, c. 322; 1996, cc. 363, 413.

§ 58.1-526. Hearing procedure.

A. If a claimant agency other than the Internal Revenue Service receives written application of the debtor's intention to contest at a hearing the claim upon which the intended setoff is based, it shall grant a hearing according to procedures established by that agency under its operating statutes to determine whether the claim is valid. Additionally, it shall be determined at the hearing whether the claimed sum asserted as due and owing is correct, and if not, an adjustment to the claim shall be made. A debtor of the Internal Revenue Service shall contest the claim only in accordance with federal law and procedures.

B. Pending final determination at the hearing of the validity of the debt asserted by the claimant agency, no action shall be taken in furtherance of collection through the setoff procedure allowed under this article.

C. No person hearing the debtor's application contesting the claimant agency's claim shall have been involved in the prior circumstances which have culminated in such dispute.

D. No issue may be considered at the hearing which has been previously litigated.

E. In the case of setoff arising out of delinquent local taxes, the scope of the hearing shall be limited to determining whether the setoff is a tax obligation that remains due and owing to the locality, and shall not address the underlying basis of the tax obligation.

Code 1950, § 58-19.13; 1981, c. 408; 1982, c. 621; 1984, cc. 675, 720; 1996, cc. 363, 413; 1997, c. 496.

§ 58.1-527. Appeals from hearings.

A. Within thirty days after the decision of the claimant agency upon a hearing pursuant to § 58.1-526 has become final, the debtor aggrieved thereby may secure judicial review thereof by commencing an action in the circuit court of the county or of the city, or if the city has no circuit court, then in the circuit court of the county in which such city is geographically located, in which the debtor resides or in which the principal office of the claimant agency is geographically located. In such action against the claimant agency for review of its decision, the claimant agency shall be named a defendant in a petition for judicial review. This section shall not be construed to confer jurisdiction on the circuit court to review questions of federal income tax law when the claimant agency is the Internal Revenue Service.

B. Such petition shall also state the grounds upon which review is sought and shall be served upon the head of the claimant agency or upon such person as the claimant agency may designate. With its answer, the claimant agency shall certify and file with the court all documents and papers and a transcript of all testimony taken in the matter, together with its findings of fact and decision therein. In any judicial proceedings under this article, the findings of the claimant agency as to the facts shall be sustained if supported by the evidence. Such actions and the questions so certified shall be heard in a summary manner at the earliest possible date. An appeal may be taken from the decision of such court to the Supreme Court in conformity with the general law governing appeals in equity cases.

C. It shall not be necessary in any proceeding under this section to enter exceptions to the rulings of the claimant agency, and no bond shall be required upon an appeal to any court.

D. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, if the claimant agency is otherwise subject to the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.), appeals of such agency's decision as it relates to the debtor shall be held in accordance with Article 5 (§ 2.2-4025 et seq.) of the Administrative Process Act.

Code 1950, § 58-19.14; 1981, c. 408; 1982, c. 621; 1984, c. 675; 1996, cc. 363, 413, 573.

§ 58.1-528. Certification of debt by claimant agency; finalization of setoff.

A. Upon final determination of the debt due and owing the claimant agency or upon the debtor's default for failure to comply with § 58.1-525, the claimant agency shall within twenty days notify the Department to setoff the refund against the debt. If the claimant agency fails to notify the Department within twenty days, the Department shall no longer be obligated to hold the refund for setoff.

B. Upon receipt by the Department of a notification of final determination and setoff from the claimant agency, the Department shall finalize the setoff by transferring the proceeds collected for credit or payment in accordance with the provisions of § 58.1-532 and by refunding any remaining balance to the debtor as if setoff had not occurred.

Code 1950, § 58-19.15; 1981, c. 408; 1982, c. 621; 1984, c. 675; 1996, cc. 363, 413.

§ 58.1-529. Notice of final setoff.

Upon the finalization of setoff under the provisions of this article, the Department shall notify the debtor in writing of the action taken along with an accounting of the action taken on any refund. If there is an outstanding balance after setoff, the notice under this section shall accompany the balance when disbursed.

Code 1950, § 58-19.16; 1981, c. 408; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-530. (Contingent expiration -- see Editor's note) Priorities in claims to be setoff.

Priority in multiple claims to refunds allowed to be setoff under the provisions of this article shall be in the order in time which a claimant agency has filed a written notice with the Department of its intention to effect collection through setoff under this article. However, claims filed by any court or administrative unit of state government shall have priority over claims filed by any county, city or town; and claims filed by any court, administrative unit of state government, county, city or town shall have priority over claims filed by the Internal Revenue Service. Notwithstanding the priority set forth above according to time of filing, the Department has priority over all other claimant agencies for collection by setoff whenever it is a competing agency for a refund.

Code 1950, § 58-19.17; 1981, c. 408; 1983, c. 545; 1984, c. 675; 1996, cc. 363, 413.

§ 58.1-530. (Contingent effective date -- see Editor's note) Priorities in claims to be setoff.

Priority in multiple claims to refunds allowed to be setoff under the provisions of this article shall be determined by the following classifications and in priority order as follows:

1. Claims of the Department;

2. Claims filed by the Department of Social Services, Division of Child Support Enforcement;

3. Claims filed by any court or other administrative unit of state government;

4. Claims filed by any county, city, or town; and

5. Claims filed by the Internal Revenue Service.

Priority for claims within the same classification shall be determined by the order in time in which the claimant agency filed a written notice with the Department of its intention to effect collection through setoff under this article. Claims filed by counties, cities and towns for an offset of the federal income tax refund shall be limited to claims for delinquent local taxes.

Code 1950, § 58-19.17; 1981, c. 408; 1983, c. 545; 1984, c. 675; 1996, cc. 363, 413; 2009, cc. 571, 787.

§ 58.1-531. Disposition of proceeds collected; Department's annual statement of costs.

A. Upon effecting final setoffs, the Department shall periodically pay to the respective claimant agencies the proceeds collected on their behalf. However, with respect to amounts collected under this article for any county, city or town, the Department is authorized to deduct a sum, not in excess of twenty-five percent of the amount collected, to offset the cost of making such collection.

B. The Department shall provide the Governor and the chairmen of the House and Senate Finance Committees and the House Appropriations Committee with an annual statement setting forth the Department's cost of administering this article.

Code 1950, § 58-19.18; 1981, c. 408; 1982, c. 621; 1983, c. 545; 1984, cc. 675, 720; 1988, c. 331; 1989, c. 77.

§ 58.1-531.1. Errors in setoff program.

If as a result of an error by the Department of Taxation or the claimant agency a taxpayer has his refund set off erroneously and is denied all or a portion of his income tax refund, interest shall be paid to the taxpayer at the rate provided in § 58.1-15 and shall accrue in the manner provided in § 58.1-1833.

1988, c. 331; 1989, c. 77.

§ 58.1-532. Accounting to claimant agency; confidentiality; credit to debtor's obligation.

A. Simultaneously with the transmittal of proceeds collected to a claimant agency, the Department shall provide the agency with an accounting of the setoffs finalized for which payment is being made. The accounting, whenever possible, shall include the full names of the debtors and the debtors' social security numbers. No federal tax return information shall be divulged by the Department under any circumstances.

B. Upon receipt by a claimant agency of proceeds collected on a claimant agency's behalf by the Department and an accounting of the proceeds as specified under this section, the claimant agency shall credit the debtor's obligation.

Code 1950, § 58-19.19; 1981, c. 408; 1982, c. 621; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-533. Confidentiality exemption; use of information obtained.

A. Notwithstanding § 58.1-3 or any other provision of law prohibiting disclosure by the Department of the contents of taxpayer records or information and notwithstanding any confidentiality statute of any claimant agency, all information exchanged among the Department, claimant agency, and the debtor necessary to accomplish and effectuate the intent of this article shall be lawful.

B. The information obtained by a claimant agency from the Department in accordance with the exemption allowed by subsection A shall only be used by a claimant agency in the pursuit of its debt collection duties and practices and any person employed by, or formerly employed by, a claimant agency who discloses any such information for any other purpose, except as otherwise allowed by § 58.1-3, shall be penalized in accordance with the terms of that section.

Code 1950, § 58-19.20; 1981, c. 408; 1982, c. 621; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-534. Rules and regulations.

The Tax Commissioner shall promulgate all rules which he deems necessary in order to implement the intent of this article.

Code 1950, § 58-19.21; 1981, c. 408; 1984, cc. 675, 720.

§ 58.1-535. Application of funds on deposit.

A. In addition to the collection remedy provided in this article, if a claimant agency has on deposit any funds which are due to the debtor, the claimant agency may apply such funds to the payment of any delinquent debt which the debtor owes to the claimant agency, provided that the claimant agency first provides written notification to the debtor of its intent to apply the funds against the debt.

B. The contents of the written notification to the debtor shall clearly set forth the basis for the claim to the funds on deposit, the intention to apply the funds against the debt to the claimant agency, and the right of the debtor to contest the validity of the claim before the claimant agency.

C. If as the result of an error by the claimant agency a debtor is denied all or a portion of his funds under the provisions of this section, interest shall be paid by the claimant agency to the debtor at the overpayment rate provided in § 58.1-15 for the time such funds were denied, except that a county, city or town shall pay interest in the manner prescribed in § 58.1-3916 or § 58.1-3918.

D. As used in this section:

"Debtor" means any individual, business or group having a delinquent debt or account with any claimant agency which obligation has not been satisfied by court order, set aside by court order, or discharged in bankruptcy.

"Funds on deposit" means any funds of a debtor that a claimant agency may have in its possession, including overpayments of taxes and any funds due to a debtor arising from a contractual agreement with a claimant agency.

1988, cc. 563, 768; 1989, c. 77; 1999, c. 631.

Article 22. Local Income Tax.

§ 58.1-540. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2013, c. 766, cl. 4.

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