Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 19.2. Criminal Procedure
Chapter 23. Central Criminal Records Exchange
1/19/2021

Chapter 23. Central Criminal Records Exchange.

§ 19.2-387. Exchange to operate as a division of Department of State Police; authority of Superintendent of State Police.

A. The Central Criminal Records Exchange shall operate as a separate division within the Department of State Police and shall be the sole criminal recordkeeping agency of the Commonwealth, except for (i) the Department of Juvenile Justice pursuant to Chapter 10 (§ 16.1-222 et seq.) of Title 16.1, (ii) the Department of Motor Vehicles, (iii) for purposes of the DNA data bank, the Department of Forensic Science, and (iv) for the purpose of making parole determinations pursuant to subdivisions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 of § 53.1-136, the Virginia Parole Board.

B. The Superintendent of State Police is hereby authorized to employ such personnel, establish such offices, and acquire such equipment as shall be necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter and is also authorized to enter into agreements with other state agencies for services to be performed for it by employees of such other agencies.

Code 1950, § 19.1-19.1:1; 1970, c. 101; 1975, c. 495; 1988, c. 541; 1990, c. 669; 1993, c. 313; 2001, cc. 203, 215; 2003, c. 431; 2005, cc. 868, 881; 2020, cc. 2, 529.

§ 19.2-387.1. Protective Order Registry; maintenance; access.

A. The Department of State Police shall keep and maintain a computerized Protective Order Registry. The purpose of the Registry shall be to assist the efforts of law-enforcement agencies to protect their communities and their citizens. The Department of State Police shall make Registry information available, upon request, to criminal justice agencies, including local law-enforcement agencies, through the Virginia Criminal Information Network (VCIN). Registry information provided under this section shall be used only for the purposes of the administration of criminal justice.

B. No liability shall be imposed upon any law-enforcement official who disseminates information or fails to disseminate information in good faith compliance with the requirements of this section, but this provision shall not be construed to grant immunity for gross negligence or willful misconduct.

2002, cc. 810, 818.

§ 19.2-387.2. National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact of 1998.

The National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact of 1998 is hereby enacted and entered into with all other jurisdictions legally joining therein in the form substantially as follows:

NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT.

The Contracting Parties agree to the following:

Overview.

A. In general. This Compact organizes an electronic information sharing system among the Federal Government and the States to exchange criminal history records for noncriminal justice purposes authorized by Federal or State law, such as background checks for governmental licensing and employment.

B. Obligations of parties. Under this Compact, the FBI and the Party States agree to maintain detailed databases of their respective criminal history records, including arrests and dispositions, and to make them available to the Federal Government and to Party States for authorized purposes. The FBI shall also manage the Federal data facilities that provide a significant part of the infrastructure for the system.

ARTICLE I. DEFINITIONS.

In this Compact:

"Attorney General" means the Attorney General of the United States.

"Compact officer" means:

1. With respect to the Federal Government, an official so designated by the Director of the FBI; and

2. With respect to a Party State, the chief administrator of the State's criminal history record repository or a designee of the chief administrator who is a regular full-time employee of the repository.

"Council" means the Compact Council established under Article VI.

"Criminal history records" means information collected by criminal justice agencies on individuals consisting of identifiable descriptions and notations of arrests, detentions, indictments, or other formal criminal charges, and any disposition arising therefrom, including acquittal, sentencing, correctional supervision, or release. "Criminal history records" does not include identification information such as fingerprint records if such information does not indicate involvement of the individual with the criminal justice system.

"Criminal history record repository" means the State agency designated by the Governor or other appropriate executive official or the legislature of a State to perform centralized recordkeeping functions for criminal history records and services in the State.

"Criminal justice" includes activities relating to the detection, apprehension, detention, pretrial release, post-trial release, prosecution, adjudication, correctional supervision, or rehabilitation of accused persons or criminal offenders. The administration of criminal justice includes criminal identification activities and the collection, storage, and dissemination of criminal history records.

"Criminal justice agency" means (i) courts; and (ii) a governmental agency or any subunit thereof that (a) performs the administration of criminal justice pursuant to a statute or Executive order; (b) allocates a substantial part of its annual budget to the administration of criminal justice; and (c) includes Federal and State inspectors general offices.

"Criminal justice services" means services provided by the FBI to criminal justice agencies in response to a request for information about a particular individual or as an update to information previously provided for criminal justice purposes.

"Criterion offense" means any felony or misdemeanor offense not included on the list of nonserious offenses published periodically by the FBI.

"Direct access" means access to the National Identification Index by computer terminal or other automated means not requiring the assistance of or intervention by any other party or agency.

"Executive order" means an order of the President of the United States or the chief executive officer of a State that has the force of law and that is promulgated in accordance with applicable law.

"FBI" means the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

"Interstate Identification Index System" or "III System" means the cooperative Federal-State system for the exchange of criminal history records and includes the National Identification Index, the National Fingerprint File and, to the extent of their participation in such system, the criminal history record repositories of the States and the FBI.

"National Fingerprint File" means a database of fingerprints, or other uniquely personal identifying information, relating to an arrested or charged individual maintained by the FBI to provide positive identification of record subjects indexed in the III System.

"National Identification Index" means an index maintained by the FBI consisting of names, identifying numbers, and other descriptive information relating to record subjects about whom there are criminal history records in the III System.

"National indices" means the National Identification Index and the National Fingerprint File.

"Noncriminal justice purposes" means uses of criminal history records for purposes authorized by Federal or State law other than purposes relating to criminal justice activities, including employment suitability, licensing determinations, immigration and naturalization matters, and national security clearances.

"Nonparty State" means a State that has not ratified this Compact.

"Party State" means a State that has ratified this Compact.

"Positive identification" means a determination, based upon a comparison of fingerprints or other equally reliable biometric identification techniques, that the subject of a record search is the same person as the subject of a criminal history record or records indexed in the III System. Identifications based solely upon a comparison of subjects' names or other nonunique identification characteristics or numbers, or combinations thereof, shall not constitute positive identification.

"Sealed record information" means:

1. With respect to adults, that portion of a record that is (i) not available for criminal justice uses; (ii) not supported by fingerprints or other accepted means of positive identification; or (iii) subject to restrictions on dissemination for noncriminal justice purposes pursuant to a court order related to a particular subject or pursuant to a Federal or State statute that requires action on a sealing petition filed by a particular record subject; and

2. With respect to juveniles, whatever each State determines is a sealed record under its own law and procedure.

"State" means any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

ARTICLE II. PURPOSES.

The purposes of this Compact are to:

1. Provide a legal framework for the establishment of a cooperative Federal-State system for the interstate and Federal-State exchange of criminal history records for noncriminal justice uses;

2. Require the FBI to permit use of the National Identification Index and the National Fingerprint File by each Party State, and to provide, in a timely fashion, Federal and State criminal history records to requesting States, in accordance with the terms of this Compact and with rules, procedures, and standards established by the Council under Article VI;

3. Require Party States to provide information and records for the National Identification Index and the National Fingerprint File and to provide criminal history records, in a timely fashion, to criminal history record repositories of other States and the Federal Government for noncriminal justice purposes, in accordance with the terms of this Compact and with rules, procedures, and standards established by the Council under Article VI;

4. Provide for the establishment of a Council to monitor III System operations and to prescribe system rules and procedures for the effective and proper operation of the III System for noncriminal justice purposes; and

5. Require the FBI and each Party State to adhere to III System standards concerning record dissemination and use, response times, system security, data quality, and other duly established standards, including those that enhance the accuracy and privacy of such records.

ARTICLE III. RESPONSIBILITY OF COMPACT PARTIES.

A. FBI responsibilities. The Director of the FBI shall:

1. Appoint an FBI Compact officer who shall:

a. Administer this Compact within the Department of Justice and among Federal agencies and other agencies and organizations that submit search requests to the FBI pursuant to subsection C of Article V;

b. Ensure that Compact provisions and rules, procedures, and standards prescribed by the Council under Article VI are complied with by the Department of Justice and the Federal agencies and other agencies and organizations referred to in subdivision A 1 a; and

c. Regulate the use of records received by means of the III System from Party States when such records are supplied by the FBI directly to other Federal agencies;

2. Provide to Federal agencies and to State criminal history record repositories, criminal history records maintained in its database for the noncriminal justice purposes described in Article IV, including:

a. Information from Nonparty States; and

b. Information from Party States that is available from the FBI through the III System, but is not available from the Party State through the III System;

3. Provide a telecommunications network and maintain centralized facilities for the exchange of criminal history records for both criminal justice purposes and the noncriminal justice purposes described in Article IV, and ensure that the exchange of such records for criminal justice purposes has priority over exchange for noncriminal justice purposes; and

4. Modify or enter into user agreements with Nonparty State criminal history record repositories to require them to establish record request procedures conforming to those prescribed in Article V.

B. State responsibilities. Each Party State shall:

1. Appoint a Compact officer who shall:

a. Administer this Compact within that State;

b. Ensure that Compact provisions and rules, procedures, and standards established by the Council under Article VI are complied with in the State; and

c. Regulate the in-State use of records received by means of the III System from the FBI or from other Party States;

2. Establish and maintain a criminal history record repository, which shall provide:

a. Information and records for the National Identification Index and the National Fingerprint File; and

b. The State's III System-indexed criminal history records for noncriminal justice purposes described in Article IV;

3. Participate in the National Fingerprint File; and

4. Provide and maintain telecommunications links and related equipment necessary to support the services set forth in this Compact.

C. Compliance with III System standards. In carrying out their responsibilities under this Compact, the FBI and each Party State shall comply with III System rules, procedures, and standards duly established by the Council concerning record dissemination and use, response times, data quality, system security, accuracy, privacy protection, and other aspects of III System operation.

D. Maintenance of record services.

1. Use of the III System for noncriminal justice purposes authorized in this Compact shall be managed so as not to diminish the level of services provided in support of criminal justice purposes.

2. Administration of Compact provisions shall not reduce the level of service available to authorized noncriminal justice users on the effective date of this Compact.

ARTICLE IV. AUTHORIZED RECORD DISCLOSURES.

A. State criminal history record repositories. To the extent authorized by 5 U.S.C. § 552a (commonly known as the "Privacy Act of 1974"), the FBI shall provide on request criminal history records (excluding sealed records) to State criminal history record repositories for noncriminal justice purposes allowed by Federal statute, Federal Executive order, or a State statute that has been approved by the Attorney General and that authorizes national indices checks.

B. Criminal justice agencies and other governmental or nongovernmental agencies. The FBI, to the extent authorized by 5 U.S.C. § 552a (commonly known as the "Privacy Act of 1974"), and State criminal history record repositories shall provide criminal history records (excluding sealed records) to criminal justice agencies and other governmental or nongovernmental agencies for noncriminal justice purposes allowed by Federal statute, Federal Executive order, or a State statute that has been approved by the Attorney General, that authorizes national indices checks.

C. Procedures. Any record obtained under this Compact may be used only for the official purposes for which the record was requested. Each Compact officer shall establish procedures, consistent with this Compact, and with rules, procedures, and standards established by the Council under Article VI, which procedures shall protect the accuracy and privacy of the records, and shall:

1. Ensure that records obtained under this Compact are used only by authorized officials for authorized purposes;

2. Require that subsequent record checks are requested to obtain current information whenever a new need arises; and

3. Ensure that record entries that may not legally be used for a particular noncriminal justice purpose are deleted from the response and, if no information authorized for release remains, an appropriate "no record" response is communicated to the requesting official.

ARTICLE V. RECORD REQUEST PROCEDURES.

A. Positive identification. Subject fingerprints or other approved forms of positive identification shall be submitted with all requests for criminal history record checks for noncriminal justice purposes.

B. Submission of State requests. Each request for a criminal history record check utilizing the national indices made under any approved State statute shall be submitted through that State's criminal history record repository. A State criminal history record repository shall process an interstate request for noncriminal justice purposes through the national indices only if such request is transmitted through another State criminal history record repository or the FBI.

C. Submission of Federal requests. Each request for criminal history record checks utilizing the national indices made under Federal authority shall be submitted through the FBI or, if the State criminal history record repository consents to process fingerprint submissions, through the criminal history record repository in the State in which such request originated. Direct access to the National Identification Index by entities other than the FBI and State criminal history records repositories shall not be permitted for noncriminal justice purposes.

D. Fees. A State criminal history record repository or the FBI:

1. May charge a fee, in accordance with applicable law, for handling a request involving fingerprint processing for noncriminal justice purposes; and

2. May not charge a fee for providing criminal history records in response to an electronic request for a record that does not involve a request to process fingerprints.

E. Additional search.

1. If a State criminal history record repository cannot positively identify the subject of a record request made for noncriminal justice purposes, the request, together with fingerprints or other approved identifying information, shall be forwarded to the FBI for a search of the national indices.

2. If, with respect to a request forwarded by a State criminal history record repository under subdivision 1, the FBI positively identifies the subject as having a III System-indexed record or records:

a. The FBI shall so advise the State criminal history record repository; and

b. The State criminal history record repository shall be entitled to obtain the additional criminal history record information from the FBI or other State criminal history record repositories.

ARTICLE VI. ESTABLISHMENT OF COMPACT COUNCIL.

A. Establishment.

1. In general. There is established a council to be known as the "Compact Council," which shall have the authority to promulgate rules and procedures governing the use of the III System for noncriminal justice purposes, not to conflict with FBI administration of the III System for criminal justice purposes.

2. Organization. The Council shall:

a. Continue in existence as long as this Compact remains in effect;

b. Be located, for administrative purposes, within the FBI; and

c. Be organized and hold its first meeting as soon as practicable after the effective date of this Compact.

B. Membership. The Council shall be composed of 15 members, each of whom shall be appointed by the Attorney General, as follows:

1. Nine members, each of whom shall serve a two-year term, who shall be selected from among the Compact officers of Party States based on the recommendation of the Compact officers of all Party States, except that, in the absence of the requisite number of Compact officers available to serve, the chief administrators of the criminal history record repositories of Nonparty States shall be eligible to serve on an interim basis.

2. Two at-large members, nominated by the Director of the FBI, each of whom shall serve a three-year term, of whom:

a. One shall be a representative of the criminal justice agencies of the Federal Government and may not be an employee of the FBI; and

b. One shall be a representative of the noncriminal justice agencies of the Federal Government.

3. Two at-large members, nominated by the Chairman of the Council, once the Chairman is elected pursuant to subsection C, each of whom shall serve a three-year term, of whom:

a. One shall be a representative of State or local criminal justice agencies; and

b. One shall be a representative of State or local noncriminal justice agencies.

4. One member, who shall serve a three-year term, and who shall simultaneously be a member of the FBI's advisory policy board on criminal justice information services, nominated by the membership of that policy board.

5. One member, nominated by the Director of the FBI, who shall serve a three-year term, and who shall be an employee of the FBI.

C. Chairman and Vice Chairman.

1. In general. From its membership, the Council shall elect a Chairman and a Vice Chairman of the Council, respectively. Both the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Council:

a. Shall be a Compact officer, unless there is no Compact officer on the Council who is willing to serve, in which case the Chairman may be an at-large member; and

b. Shall serve a two-year term and may be reelected to only one additional two-year term.

2. Duties of Vice Chairman. The Vice Chairman of the Council shall serve as the Chairman of the Council in the absence of the Chairman.

D. Meetings.

1. In general. The Council shall meet at least once each year at the call of the Chairman. Each meeting of the Council shall be open to the public. The Council shall provide prior public notice in the Federal Register of each meeting of the Council, including the matters to be addressed at such meeting.

2. Quorum. A majority of the Council or any committee of the Council shall constitute a quorum of the Council or of such committee, respectively, for the conduct of business. A lesser number may meet to hold hearings, take testimony, or conduct any business not requiring a vote.

E. Rules, procedures, and standards. The Council shall make available for public inspection and copying at the Council office within the FBI, and shall publish in the Federal Register, any rules, procedures, or standards established by the Council.

F. Assistance from FBI. The Council may request from the FBI such reports, studies, statistics, or other information or materials as the Council determines to be necessary to enable the Council to perform its duties under this Compact. The FBI, to the extent authorized by law, may provide such assistance or information upon such a request.

G. Committees. The Chairman may establish committees as necessary to carry out this Compact and may prescribe their membership, responsibilities, and duration.

ARTICLE VII. RATIFICATION OF COMPACT.

This Compact shall take effect upon being entered into by two or more States as between those States and the Federal Government. Upon subsequent entering into this Compact by additional States, it shall become effective among those States and the Federal Government and each Party State that has previously ratified it. When ratified, this Compact shall have the full force and effect of law within the ratifying jurisdictions. The form of ratification shall be in accordance with the laws of the executing State.

ARTICLE VIII. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

A. Relation of Compact to certain FBI activities. Administration of this Compact shall not interfere with the management and control of the Director of the FBI over the FBI's collection and dissemination of criminal history records and the advisory function of the FBI's advisory policy board chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) for all purposes other than noncriminal justice.

B. No authority for nonappropriated expenditures. Nothing in this Compact shall require the FBI to obligate or expend funds beyond those appropriated to the FBI.

C. Relating to Public Law 92 544. Nothing in this Compact shall diminish or lessen the obligations, responsibilities, and authorities of any State, whether a Party State or a Nonparty State, or of any criminal history record repository or other subdivision or component thereof, under the Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriation Act, 1973 (Public Law 92 544), or regulations and guidelines promulgated thereunder, including the rules and procedures promulgated by the Council under subsection A of Article VI, regarding the use and dissemination of criminal history records and information.

ARTICLE IX. RENUNCIATION.

A. In general. This Compact shall bind each Party State until renounced by the Party State.

B. Effect. Any renunciation of this Compact by a Party State shall:

1. Be effected in the same manner by which the Party State ratified this Compact; and

2. Become effective 180 days after written notice of renunciation is provided by the Party State to each other Party State and to the Federal Government.

ARTICLE X. SEVERABILITY.

The provisions of this Compact shall be severable, and if any phrase, clause, sentence, or provision of this Compact is declared to be contrary to the constitution of any participating State, or to the Constitution of the United States, or the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person, or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of this Compact and the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person, or circumstance shall not be affected thereby. If a portion of this Compact is held contrary to the constitution of any Party State, all other portions of this Compact shall remain in full force and effect as to the remaining Party States and in full force and effect as to the Party State affected, as to all other provisions.

ARTICLE XI. ADJUDICATION OF DISPUTES.

A. In general. The Council shall:

1. Have initial authority to make determinations with respect to any dispute regarding:

a. Interpretation of this Compact;

b. Any rule or standard established by the Council pursuant to Article V; and

c. Any dispute or controversy between any parties to this Compact; and

2. Hold a hearing concerning any dispute described in subdivision 1 at a regularly scheduled meeting of the Council and only render a decision based upon a majority vote of the members of the Council. Such decision shall be published pursuant to the requirements of subsection E of Article VI.

B. Duties of FBI. The FBI shall exercise immediate and necessary action to preserve the integrity of the III System, maintain system policy and standards, protect the accuracy and privacy of records, and to prevent abuses, until the Council holds a hearing on such matters.

C. Right of appeal. The FBI or a Party State may appeal any decision of the Council to the Attorney General, and thereafter may file suit in the appropriate district court of the United States, which shall have original jurisdiction of all cases or controversies arising under this Compact. Any suit arising under this Compact and initiated in a State court shall be removed to the appropriate district court of the United States in the manner provided by 28 U.S.C. § 1446, or other statutory authority.

2017, c. 319.

§ 19.2-387.3. Substantial Risk Order Registry; maintenance; access.

A. The Department of State Police shall keep and maintain a computerized Substantial Risk Order Registry (the Registry) for the entry of orders issued pursuant to § 19.2-152.13 or 19.2-152.14. The purpose of the Registry shall be to assist the efforts of law-enforcement agencies to protect their communities and their citizens. The Department of State Police shall make the Registry information available, upon request, to criminal justice agencies, including local law-enforcement agencies, through the Virginia Criminal Information Network. Registry information provided under this section shall be used only for the purposes of the administration of criminal justice as defined in § 9.1-101.

B. No liability shall be imposed upon any law-enforcement official who disseminates information or fails to disseminate information in good faith compliance with the requirements of this section, but this provision shall not be construed to grant immunity for gross negligence or willful misconduct.

2020, cc. 887, 888.

§ 19.2-388. Duties and authority of Exchange.

A. It shall be the duty of the Central Criminal Records Exchange to receive, classify, and file criminal history record information as defined in § 9.1-101 and other records required to be reported to it by §§ 16.1-299 and 19.2-390. The Exchange is authorized to prepare and furnish to all state and local law-enforcement officials and agencies; to clerks of circuit courts, general district courts, and juvenile and domestic relations district courts; and to corrections and penal officials, forms that shall be used for the making of such reports.

B. Juvenile records received pursuant to § 16.1-299 shall be maintained separately from adult records.

C. The Exchange shall submit periodic reports to the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court of Virginia, the clerk of each circuit court and district court, attorneys for the Commonwealth, and law-enforcement agencies containing a list of offenses with unapplied criminal history record information. Reports to the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court of Virginia shall be quarterly and shall include all such offenses within the Commonwealth identified by jurisdiction and by court. Reports to the clerk of each circuit court and district court shall be quarterly and shall include only such offenses that were submitted by the respective clerk of court. Reports to attorneys for the Commonwealth shall be quarterly and shall include only such offenses that were submitted by law-enforcement agencies and courts in the county or city served by the respective attorney for the Commonwealth. Reports to law-enforcement agencies shall be monthly and shall include only such offenses for which the respective law-enforcement agency executed the arrest or issued the summons. For each offense, the report shall include, if known, the name and any other identifying information of the defendant, any identifying court case information, the date of submission to the Exchange, and the reason the offense could not be applied to the criminal history record.

D. The Exchange shall review offenses containing unapplied criminal history record information and shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that such information, including any offense of which the Exchange is notified pursuant to subdivision A 12 of § 9.1-176.1, subdivision F 7 or 8 of § 19.2-305.1, subsection B of § 53.1-23, or subdivision 13 or 14 of § 53.1-145, is applied to criminal history records. The Exchange may request and shall receive from the clerk of each circuit court and district court, attorneys for the Commonwealth, law-enforcement agencies, the Department of Corrections, the Department of Forensic Science, and local probation and community corrections agencies cooperation and assistance to obtain positive identification or to reconcile any inconsistencies, errors, or omissions within such unapplied criminal history record information.

E. The Exchange shall submit a report to the Governor and General Assembly on or before November 1 of each year on the status of unapplied criminal history record information and any updates to fingerprinting policies and procedures. The report shall include the following, if known: (i) the total number of offenses submitted to the Exchange, identified by the year of the offense and the year the charge was filed for such offense, that contain unapplied criminal history record information and cannot be applied to criminal history records; (ii) the number of such offenses submitted to the Exchange without fingerprints or positive identification and the law-enforcement agencies that submitted those offenses; (iii) the number of such offenses submitted to the Exchange with an inconsistency, error, or omission and, for those offenses, the jurisdiction from which the offense was submitted; and (iv) efforts made by the Exchange to ensure that unapplied criminal history record information is applied to criminal history records, including any offenses of which the Exchange was notified pursuant to subdivision A 12 of § 9.1-176.1, subdivision F 7 or 8 of § 19.2-305.1, subsection B of § 53.1-23, or subdivision 13 or 14 of § 53.1-145.

Code 1950, § 19.1-19.2; 1966, c. 669; 1968, c. 537; 1970, c. 118; 1975, c. 495; 1976, c. 771; 1982, c. 33; 1993, cc. 468, 926; 1996, cc. 755, 914; 2019, cc. 782, 783.

§ 19.2-388.1. Fingerprints submitted by Live Scan device.

A. The Department of State Police (the Department) shall accept requests for background checks through the use of a Live Scan device certified by the Federal Bureau of Investigation by any agency or organization located within the Commonwealth that (i) is authorized to receive criminal history record information pursuant to § 19.2-392.02 and (ii) utilizes a fingerprint background check as a condition of licensure, certification, employment, or volunteer service. Any such agency or organization transmitting requests for background checks to the Department pursuant to this section shall be responsible for all costs associated with capturing, formatting, encrypting, and transmitting all required information in a manner prescribed by the Department.

B. The Department shall only provide the criminal history record information to the extent authorized by state or federal law, rules, and regulations. The Department may deny any such agency or organization access to criminal history record information if the Department finds that such agency or organization has failed to comply with state or federal law, rules, or regulations.

C. Participating agencies or organizations shall be required to enter into an agreement with the Department for the purposes of carrying out this section and may be required to submit other information or forms as prescribed by the Department.

2019, c. 620.

§ 19.2-389. (Effective until January 1, 2021) Dissemination of criminal history record information.

A. Criminal history record information shall be disseminated, whether directly or through an intermediary, only to:

1. Authorized officers or employees of criminal justice agencies, as defined by § 9.1-101, for purposes of the administration of criminal justice and the screening of an employment application or review of employment by a criminal justice agency with respect to its own employees or applicants, and dissemination to the Virginia Parole Board, pursuant to this subdivision, of such information on all state-responsible inmates for the purpose of making parole determinations pursuant to subdivisions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 of § 53.1-136 shall include collective dissemination by electronic means every 30 days. For purposes of this subdivision, criminal history record information includes information sent to the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to §§ 37.2-819 and 64.2-2014 when disseminated to any full-time or part-time employee of the State Police, a police department or sheriff's office that is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof, and who is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of the penal, traffic, or highway laws of the Commonwealth for the purposes of the administration of criminal justice;

2. Such other individuals and agencies that require criminal history record information to implement a state or federal statute or executive order of the President of the United States or Governor that expressly refers to criminal conduct and contains requirements or exclusions expressly based upon such conduct, except that information concerning the arrest of an individual may not be disseminated to a noncriminal justice agency or individual if an interval of one year has elapsed from the date of the arrest and no disposition of the charge has been recorded and no active prosecution of the charge is pending;

3. Individuals and agencies pursuant to a specific agreement with a criminal justice agency to provide services required for the administration of criminal justice pursuant to that agreement which shall specifically authorize access to data, limit the use of data to purposes for which given, and ensure the security and confidentiality of the data;

4. Individuals and agencies for the express purpose of research, evaluative, or statistical activities pursuant to an agreement with a criminal justice agency that shall specifically authorize access to data, limit the use of data to research, evaluative, or statistical purposes, and ensure the confidentiality and security of the data;

5. Agencies of state or federal government that are authorized by state or federal statute or executive order of the President of the United States or Governor to conduct investigations determining employment suitability or eligibility for security clearances allowing access to classified information;

6. Individuals and agencies where authorized by court order or court rule;

7. Agencies of any political subdivision of the Commonwealth, public transportation companies owned, operated or controlled by any political subdivision, and any public service corporation that operates a public transit system owned by a local government for the conduct of investigations of applicants for employment, permit, or license whenever, in the interest of public welfare or safety, it is necessary to determine under a duly enacted ordinance if the past criminal conduct of a person with a conviction record would be compatible with the nature of the employment, permit, or license under consideration;

7a. Commissions created pursuant to the Transportation District Act of 1964 (§ 33.2-1900 et seq.) of Title 33.2 and their contractors, for the conduct of investigations of individuals who have been offered a position of employment whenever, in the interest of public welfare or safety and as authorized in the Transportation District Act of 1964, it is necessary to determine if the past criminal conduct of a person with a conviction record would be compatible with the nature of the employment under consideration;

8. Public or private agencies when authorized or required by federal or state law or interstate compact to investigate (i) applicants for foster or adoptive parenthood or (ii) any individual, and the adult members of that individual's household, with whom the agency is considering placing a child or from whom the agency is considering removing a child due to abuse or neglect, on an emergency, temporary, or permanent basis pursuant to §§ 63.2-901.1 and 63.2-1505, subject to the restriction that the data shall not be further disseminated to any party other than a federal or state authority or court as may be required to comply with an express requirement of law;

9. To the extent permitted by federal law or regulation, public service companies as defined in § 56-1, for the conduct of investigations of applicants for employment when such employment involves personal contact with the public or when past criminal conduct of an applicant would be incompatible with the nature of the employment under consideration;

10. The appropriate authority for purposes of granting citizenship and for purposes of international travel, including, but not limited to, issuing visas and passports;

11. A person requesting a copy of his own criminal history record information as defined in § 9.1-101 at his cost, except that criminal history record information shall be supplied at no charge to a person who has applied to be a volunteer with (i) a Virginia affiliate of Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America; (ii) a volunteer fire company; (iii) the Volunteer Emergency Families for Children; (iv) any affiliate of Prevent Child Abuse, Virginia; (v) any Virginia affiliate of Compeer; or (vi) any board member or any individual who has been offered membership on the board of a Crime Stoppers, Crime Solvers or Crime Line program as defined in § 15.2-1713.1;

12. Administrators and board presidents of and applicants for licensure or registration as a child welfare agency as defined in § 63.2-100 for dissemination to the Commissioner of Social Services' representative pursuant to § 63.2-1702 for the conduct of investigations with respect to employees of and volunteers at such facilities, caretakers, and other adults living in family day homes or homes approved by family day systems, and foster and adoptive parent applicants of private child-placing agencies, pursuant to §§ 63.2-1719, 63.2-1720, 63.2-1720.1, 63.2-1721, and 63.2-1721.1, subject to the restriction that the data shall not be further disseminated by the facility or agency to any party other than the data subject, the Commissioner of Social Services' representative or a federal or state authority or court as may be required to comply with an express requirement of law for such further dissemination;

13. The school boards of the Commonwealth for the purpose of screening individuals who are offered or who accept public school employment and those current school board employees for whom a report of arrest has been made pursuant to § 19.2-83.1;

14. The Virginia Lottery for the conduct of investigations as set forth in the Virginia Lottery Law (§ 58.1-4000 et seq.) and casino gaming as set forth in Chapter 41 (§ 58.1-4100 et seq.) of Title 58.1, and the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services for the conduct of investigations as set forth in Article 1.1:1 (§ 18.2-340.15 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of Title 18.2;

15. Licensed nursing homes, hospitals and home care organizations for the conduct of investigations of applicants for compensated employment in licensed nursing homes pursuant to § 32.1-126.01, hospital pharmacies pursuant to § 32.1-126.02, and home care organizations pursuant to § 32.1-162.9:1, subject to the limitations set out in subsection E;

16. Licensed assisted living facilities and licensed adult day care centers for the conduct of investigations of applicants for compensated employment in licensed assisted living facilities and licensed adult day care centers pursuant to § 63.2-1720, subject to the limitations set out in subsection F;

17. The Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority for the conduct of investigations as set forth in § 4.1-103.1;

18. The State Board of Elections and authorized officers and employees thereof and general registrars appointed pursuant to § 24.2-110 in the course of conducting necessary investigations with respect to voter registration, limited to any record of felony convictions;

19. The Commissioner of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services for those individuals who are committed to the custody of the Commissioner pursuant to §§ 19.2-169.2, 19.2-169.6, 19.2-182.2, 19.2-182.3, 19.2-182.8, and 19.2-182.9 for the purpose of placement, evaluation, and treatment planning;

20. Any alcohol safety action program certified by the Commission on the Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program for (i) assessments of habitual offenders under § 46.2-360, (ii) interventions with first offenders under § 18.2-251, or (iii) services to offenders under § 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266, or 18.2-266.1;

21. Residential facilities for juveniles regulated or operated by the Department of Social Services, the Department of Education, or the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services for the purpose of determining applicants' fitness for employment or for providing volunteer or contractual services;

22. The Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services and facilities operated by the Department for the purpose of determining an individual's fitness for employment pursuant to departmental instructions;

23. Pursuant to § 22.1-296.3, the governing boards or administrators of private elementary or secondary schools which are accredited pursuant to § 22.1-19 or a private organization coordinating such records information on behalf of such governing boards or administrators pursuant to a written agreement with the Department of State Police;

24. Public institutions of higher education and nonprofit private institutions of higher education for the purpose of screening individuals who are offered or accept employment;

25. Members of a threat assessment team established by a local school board pursuant to § 22.1-79.4, by a public institution of higher education pursuant to § 23.1-805, or by a private nonprofit institution of higher education, for the purpose of assessing or intervening with an individual whose behavior may present a threat to safety; however, no member of a threat assessment team shall redisclose any criminal history record information obtained pursuant to this section or otherwise use any record of an individual beyond the purpose that such disclosure was made to the threat assessment team;

26. Executive directors of community services boards or the personnel director serving the community services board for the purpose of determining an individual's fitness for employment, approval as a sponsored residential service provider, or permission to enter into a shared living arrangement with a person receiving medical assistance services pursuant to a waiver pursuant to §§ 37.2-506 and 37.2-607;

27. Executive directors of behavioral health authorities as defined in § 37.2-600 for the purpose of determining an individual's fitness for employment, approval as a sponsored residential service provider, or permission to enter into a shared living arrangement with a person receiving medical assistance services pursuant to a waiver pursuant to §§ 37.2-506 and 37.2-607;

28. The Commissioner of Social Services for the purpose of locating persons who owe child support or who are alleged in a pending paternity proceeding to be a putative father, provided that only the name, address, demographics and social security number of the data subject shall be released;

29. Authorized officers or directors of agencies licensed pursuant to Article 2 (§ 37.2-403 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of Title 37.2 by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services for the purpose of determining if any applicant who accepts employment in any direct care position or requests approval as a sponsored residential service provider or permission to enter into a shared living arrangement with a person receiving medical assistance services pursuant to a waiver has been convicted of a crime that affects his fitness to have responsibility for the safety and well-being of individuals with mental illness, intellectual disability, or substance abuse pursuant to §§ 37.2-416, 37.2-506, and 37.2-607;

30. The Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles, for the purpose of evaluating applicants for and holders of a motor carrier certificate or license subject to the provisions of Chapters 20 (§ 46.2-2000 et seq.) and 21 (§ 46.2-2100 et seq.) of Title 46.2;

31. The chairmen of the Committees for Courts of Justice of the Senate or the House of Delegates for the purpose of determining if any person being considered for election to any judgeship has been convicted of a crime;

32. Heads of state agencies in which positions have been identified as sensitive for the purpose of determining an individual's fitness for employment in positions designated as sensitive under Department of Human Resource Management policies developed pursuant to § 2.2-1201.1;

33. The Office of the Attorney General, for all criminal justice activities otherwise permitted under subdivision A 1 and for purposes of performing duties required by the Civil Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators Act (§ 37.2-900 et seq.);

34. Shipyards, to the extent permitted by federal law or regulation, engaged in the design, construction, overhaul, or repair of nuclear vessels for the United States Navy, including their subsidiary companies, for the conduct of investigations of applications for employment or for access to facilities, by contractors, leased laborers, and other visitors;

35. Any employer of individuals whose employment requires that they enter the homes of others, for the purpose of screening individuals who apply for, are offered, or have accepted such employment;

36. Public agencies when and as required by federal or state law to investigate (i) applicants as providers of adult foster care and home-based services or (ii) any individual with whom the agency is considering placing an adult on an emergency, temporary, or permanent basis pursuant to § 63.2-1601.1, subject to the restriction that the data shall not be further disseminated by the agency to any party other than a federal or state authority or court as may be required to comply with an express requirement of law for such further dissemination, subject to limitations set out in subsection G;

37. The Department of Medical Assistance Services, or its designee, for the purpose of screening individuals who, through contracts, subcontracts, or direct employment, volunteer, apply for, are offered, or have accepted a position related to the provision of transportation services to enrollees in the Medicaid Program or the Family Access to Medical Insurance Security (FAMIS) Program, or any other program administered by the Department of Medical Assistance Services;

38. The State Corporation Commission for the purpose of investigating individuals who are current or proposed members, senior officers, directors, and principals of an applicant or person licensed under Chapter 16 (§ 6.2-1600 et seq.) or Chapter 19 (§ 6.2-1900 et seq.) of Title 6.2. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if an application is denied based in whole or in part on information obtained from the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to Chapter 16 or 19 of Title 6.2, the Commissioner of Financial Institutions or his designee may disclose such information to the applicant or its designee;

39. The Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation for the purpose of investigating individuals for initial licensure pursuant to § 54.1-2106.1;

40. The Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services and the Department for the Blind and Vision Impaired for the purpose of evaluating an individual's fitness for various types of employment and for the purpose of delivering comprehensive vocational rehabilitation services pursuant to Article 11 (§ 51.5-170 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 51.5 that will assist the individual in obtaining employment;

41. Bail bondsmen, in accordance with the provisions of § 19.2-120;

42. The State Treasurer for the purpose of determining whether a person receiving compensation for wrongful incarceration meets the conditions for continued compensation under § 8.01-195.12;

43. The Department of Social Services and directors of local departments of social services for the purpose of screening individuals seeking to enter into a contract with the Department of Social Services or a local department of social services for the provision of child care services for which child care subsidy payments may be provided;

44. The Department of Juvenile Justice to investigate any parent, guardian, or other adult members of a juvenile's household when completing a predispositional or postdispositional report required by § 16.1-273 or a Board of Juvenile Justice regulation promulgated pursuant to § 16.1-233; and

45. Other entities as otherwise provided by law.

Upon an ex parte motion of a defendant in a felony case and upon the showing that the records requested may be relevant to such case, the court shall enter an order requiring the Central Criminal Records Exchange to furnish the defendant, as soon as practicable, copies of any records of persons designated in the order on whom a report has been made under the provisions of this chapter.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter to the contrary, upon a written request sworn to before an officer authorized to take acknowledgments, the Central Criminal Records Exchange, or the criminal justice agency in cases of offenses not required to be reported to the Exchange, shall furnish a copy of conviction data covering the person named in the request to the person making the request; however, such person on whom the data is being obtained shall consent in writing, under oath, to the making of such request. A person receiving a copy of his own conviction data may utilize or further disseminate that data as he deems appropriate. In the event no conviction data is maintained on the data subject, the person making the request shall be furnished at his cost a certification to that effect.

B. Use of criminal history record information disseminated to noncriminal justice agencies under this section shall be limited to the purposes for which it was given and may not be disseminated further.

C. No criminal justice agency or person shall confirm the existence or nonexistence of criminal history record information for employment or licensing inquiries except as provided by law.

D. Criminal justice agencies shall establish procedures to query the Central Criminal Records Exchange prior to dissemination of any criminal history record information on offenses required to be reported to the Central Criminal Records Exchange to ensure that the most up-to-date disposition data is being used. Inquiries of the Exchange shall be made prior to any dissemination except in those cases where time is of the essence and the normal response time of the Exchange would exceed the necessary time period. A criminal justice agency to whom a request has been made for the dissemination of criminal history record information that is required to be reported to the Central Criminal Records Exchange may direct the inquirer to the Central Criminal Records Exchange for such dissemination. Dissemination of information regarding offenses not required to be reported to the Exchange shall be made by the criminal justice agency maintaining the record as required by § 15.2-1722.

E. Criminal history information provided to licensed nursing homes, hospitals and to home care organizations pursuant to subdivision A 15 shall be limited to the convictions on file with the Exchange for any offense specified in §§ 32.1-126.01, 32.1-126.02, and 32.1-162.9:1.

F. Criminal history information provided to licensed assisted living facilities and licensed adult day care centers pursuant to subdivision A 16 shall be limited to the convictions on file with the Exchange for any offense specified in § 63.2-1720.

G. Criminal history information provided to public agencies pursuant to subdivision A 36 shall be limited to the convictions on file with the Exchange for any offense set forth in clause (i) of the definition of barrier crime in § 19.2-392.02.

H. Upon receipt of a written request from an employer or prospective employer, the Central Criminal Records Exchange, or the criminal justice agency in cases of offenses not required to be reported to the Exchange, shall furnish at the employer's cost a copy of conviction data covering the person named in the request to the employer or prospective employer making the request, provided that the person on whom the data is being obtained has consented in writing to the making of such request and has presented a photo-identification to the employer or prospective employer. In the event no conviction data is maintained on the person named in the request, the requesting employer or prospective employer shall be furnished at his cost a certification to that effect. The criminal history record search shall be conducted on forms provided by the Exchange.

I. Nothing in this section shall preclude the dissemination of a person's criminal history record information pursuant to the rules of court for obtaining discovery or for review by the court.

Code 1950, § 19.1-19.2; 1966, c. 669; 1968, c. 537; 1970, c. 118; 1975, c. 495; 1976, c. 771; 1977, c. 626; 1978, c. 350; 1979, c. 480; 1981, c. 207; 1985, c. 360; 1987, cc. 130, 131; 1988, c. 851; 1989, c. 544; 1990, c. 766; 1991, c. 342; 1992, cc. 422, 641, 718, 746, 791, 844; 1993, cc. 48, 313, 348; 1994, cc. 34, 670, 700, 830; 1995, cc. 409, 645, 731, 781, 809; 1996, cc. 428, 432, 747, 881, 927, 944; 1997, cc. 169, 177, 606, 691, 721, 743, 796, 895; 1998, cc. 113, 405, 445, 882; 1999, cc. 383, 685; 2001, cc. 552, 582; 2002, cc. 370, 587, 606; 2003, c. 731; 2005, cc. 149, 914, 928; 2006, cc. 257, 277, 644; 2007, cc. 12, 361, 495, 572; 2008, cc. 387, 689, 863; 2009, cc. 667, 813, 840; 2010, cc. 189, 340, 406, 456, 524, 563, 862; 2011, cc. 432, 449; 2012, cc. 40, 189, 386, 476, 507, 803, 835; 2013, cc. 165, 176, 261, 407, 491, 582; 2014, cc. 225, 454; 2015, cc. 38, 343, 540, 730, 758, 770; 2016, cc. 454, 554, 574; 2017, cc. 421, 431, 809; 2018, c. 49; 2020, cc. 2, 529, 1197, 1248.

§ 19.2-389. (Effective January 1, 2021 and until July 1, 2021) Dissemination of criminal history record information.

A. Criminal history record information shall be disseminated, whether directly or through an intermediary, only to:

1. Authorized officers or employees of criminal justice agencies, as defined by § 9.1-101, for purposes of the administration of criminal justice and the screening of an employment application or review of employment by a criminal justice agency with respect to its own employees or applicants, and dissemination to the Virginia Parole Board, pursuant to this subdivision, of such information on all state-responsible inmates for the purpose of making parole determinations pursuant to subdivisions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 of § 53.1-136 shall include collective dissemination by electronic means every 30 days. For purposes of this subdivision, criminal history record information includes information sent to the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to §§ 37.2-819 and 64.2-2014 when disseminated to any full-time or part-time employee of the State Police, a police department or sheriff's office that is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof, and who is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of the penal, traffic or highway laws of the Commonwealth for the purposes of the administration of criminal justice;

2. Such other individuals and agencies that require criminal history record information to implement a state or federal statute or executive order of the President of the United States or Governor that expressly refers to criminal conduct and contains requirements or exclusions expressly based upon such conduct, except that information concerning the arrest of an individual may not be disseminated to a noncriminal justice agency or individual if an interval of one year has elapsed from the date of the arrest and no disposition of the charge has been recorded and no active prosecution of the charge is pending;

3. Individuals and agencies pursuant to a specific agreement with a criminal justice agency to provide services required for the administration of criminal justice pursuant to that agreement which shall specifically authorize access to data, limit the use of data to purposes for which given, and ensure the security and confidentiality of the data;

4. Individuals and agencies for the express purpose of research, evaluative, or statistical activities pursuant to an agreement with a criminal justice agency that shall specifically authorize access to data, limit the use of data to research, evaluative, or statistical purposes, and ensure the confidentiality and security of the data;

5. Agencies of state or federal government that are authorized by state or federal statute or executive order of the President of the United States or Governor to conduct investigations determining employment suitability or eligibility for security clearances allowing access to classified information;

6. Individuals and agencies where authorized by court order or court rule;

7. Agencies of any political subdivision of the Commonwealth, public transportation companies owned, operated or controlled by any political subdivision, and any public service corporation that operates a public transit system owned by a local government for the conduct of investigations of applicants for employment, permit, or license whenever, in the interest of public welfare or safety, it is necessary to determine under a duly enacted ordinance if the past criminal conduct of a person with a conviction record would be compatible with the nature of the employment, permit, or license under consideration;

7a. Commissions created pursuant to the Transportation District Act of 1964 (§ 33.2-1900 et seq.) of Title 33.2 and their contractors, for the conduct of investigations of individuals who have been offered a position of employment whenever, in the interest of public welfare or safety and as authorized in the Transportation District Act of 1964, it is necessary to determine if the past criminal conduct of a person with a conviction record would be compatible with the nature of the employment under consideration;

8. Public or private agencies when authorized or required by federal or state law or interstate compact to investigate (i) applicants for foster or adoptive parenthood or (ii) any individual, and the adult members of that individual's household, with whom the agency is considering placing a child or from whom the agency is considering removing a child due to abuse or neglect, on an emergency, temporary, or permanent basis pursuant to §§ 63.2-901.1 and 63.2-1505, subject to the restriction that the data shall not be further disseminated to any party other than a federal or state authority or court as may be required to comply with an express requirement of law;

9. To the extent permitted by federal law or regulation, public service companies as defined in § 56-1, for the conduct of investigations of applicants for employment when such employment involves personal contact with the public or when past criminal conduct of an applicant would be incompatible with the nature of the employment under consideration;

10. The appropriate authority for purposes of granting citizenship and for purposes of international travel, including, but not limited to, issuing visas and passports;

11. A person requesting a copy of his own criminal history record information as defined in § 9.1-101 at his cost, except that criminal history record information shall be supplied at no charge to a person who has applied to be a volunteer with (i) a Virginia affiliate of Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America; (ii) a volunteer fire company; (iii) the Volunteer Emergency Families for Children; (iv) any affiliate of Prevent Child Abuse, Virginia; (v) any Virginia affiliate of Compeer; or (vi) any board member or any individual who has been offered membership on the board of a Crime Stoppers, Crime Solvers or Crime Line program as defined in § 15.2-1713.1;

12. Administrators and board presidents of and applicants for licensure or registration as a child welfare agency as defined in § 63.2-100 for dissemination to the Commissioner of Social Services' representative pursuant to § 63.2-1702 for the conduct of investigations with respect to employees of and volunteers at such facilities, caretakers, and other adults living in family day homes or homes approved by family day systems, and foster and adoptive parent applicants of private child-placing agencies, pursuant to §§ 63.2-1719, 63.2-1720, 63.2-1720.1, 63.2-1721, and 63.2-1721.1, subject to the restriction that the data shall not be further disseminated by the facility or agency to any party other than the data subject, the Commissioner of Social Services' representative or a federal or state authority or court as may be required to comply with an express requirement of law for such further dissemination;

13. The school boards of the Commonwealth for the purpose of screening individuals who are offered or who accept public school employment and those current school board employees for whom a report of arrest has been made pursuant to § 19.2-83.1;

14. The Virginia Lottery for the conduct of investigations as set forth in the Virginia Lottery Law (§ 58.1-4000 et seq.) and casino gaming as set forth in Chapter 41 (§ 58.1-4100 et seq.) of Title 58.1, and the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services for the conduct of investigations as set forth in Article 1.1:1 (§ 18.2-340.15 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of Title 18.2;

15. Licensed nursing homes, hospitals and home care organizations for the conduct of investigations of applicants for compensated employment in licensed nursing homes pursuant to § 32.1-126.01, hospital pharmacies pursuant to § 32.1-126.02, and home care organizations pursuant to § 32.1-162.9:1, subject to the limitations set out in subsection E;

16. Licensed assisted living facilities and licensed adult day care centers for the conduct of investigations of applicants for compensated employment in licensed assisted living facilities and licensed adult day care centers pursuant to § 63.2-1720, subject to the limitations set out in subsection F;

17. The Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority for the conduct of investigations as set forth in § 4.1-103.1;

18. The State Board of Elections and authorized officers and employees thereof and general registrars appointed pursuant to § 24.2-110 in the course of conducting necessary investigations with respect to voter registration, limited to any record of felony convictions;

19. The Commissioner of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services for those individuals who are committed to the custody of the Commissioner pursuant to §§ 19.2-169.2, 19.2-169.6, 19.2-182.2, 19.2-182.3, 19.2-182.8, and 19.2-182.9 for the purpose of placement, evaluation, and treatment planning;

20. Any alcohol safety action program certified by the Commission on the Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program for (i) assessments of habitual offenders under § 46.2-360, (ii) interventions with first offenders under § 18.2-251, or (iii) services to offenders under § 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266, or 18.2-266.1;

21. Residential facilities for juveniles regulated or operated by the Department of Social Services, the Department of Education, or the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services for the purpose of determining applicants' fitness for employment or for providing volunteer or contractual services;

22. The Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services and facilities operated by the Department for the purpose of determining an individual's fitness for employment pursuant to departmental instructions;

23. Pursuant to § 22.1-296.3, the governing boards or administrators of private elementary or secondary schools which are accredited pursuant to § 22.1-19 or a private organization coordinating such records information on behalf of such governing boards or administrators pursuant to a written agreement with the Department of State Police;

24. Public institutions of higher education and nonprofit private institutions of higher education for the purpose of screening individuals who are offered or accept employment;

25. Members of a threat assessment team established by a local school board pursuant to § 22.1-79.4, by a public institution of higher education pursuant to § 23.1-805, or by a private nonprofit institution of higher education, for the purpose of assessing or intervening with an individual whose behavior may present a threat to safety; however, no member of a threat assessment team shall redisclose any criminal history record information obtained pursuant to this section or otherwise use any record of an individual beyond the purpose that such disclosure was made to the threat assessment team;

26. Executive directors of community services boards or the personnel director serving the community services board for the purpose of determining an individual's fitness for employment, approval as a sponsored residential service provider, or permission to enter into a shared living arrangement with a person receiving medical assistance services pursuant to a waiver pursuant to §§ 37.2-506 and 37.2-607;

27. Executive directors of behavioral health authorities as defined in § 37.2-600 for the purpose of determining an individual's fitness for employment, approval as a sponsored residential service provider, or permission to enter into a shared living arrangement with a person receiving medical assistance services pursuant to a waiver pursuant to §§ 37.2-506 and 37.2-607;

28. The Commissioner of Social Services for the purpose of locating persons who owe child support or who are alleged in a pending paternity proceeding to be a putative father, provided that only the name, address, demographics and social security number of the data subject shall be released;

29. Authorized officers or directors of agencies licensed pursuant to Article 2 (§ 37.2-403 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of Title 37.2 by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services for the purpose of determining if any applicant who accepts employment in any direct care position or requests approval as a sponsored residential service provider or permission to enter into a shared living arrangement with a person receiving medical assistance services pursuant to a waiver has been convicted of a crime that affects his fitness to have responsibility for the safety and well-being of individuals with mental illness, intellectual disability, or substance abuse pursuant to §§ 37.2-416, 37.2-506, and 37.2-607;

30. The Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles, for the purpose of evaluating applicants for and holders of a motor carrier certificate or license subject to the provisions of Chapters 20 (§ 46.2-2000 et seq.) and 21 (§ 46.2-2100 et seq.) of Title 46.2;

31. The chairmen of the Committees for Courts of Justice of the Senate or the House of Delegates for the purpose of determining if any person being considered for election to any judgeship has been convicted of a crime;

32. Heads of state agencies in which positions have been identified as sensitive for the purpose of determining an individual's fitness for employment in positions designated as sensitive under Department of Human Resource Management policies developed pursuant to § 2.2-1201.1;

33. The Office of the Attorney General, for all criminal justice activities otherwise permitted under subdivision A 1 and for purposes of performing duties required by the Civil Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators Act (§ 37.2-900 et seq.);

34. Shipyards, to the extent permitted by federal law or regulation, engaged in the design, construction, overhaul, or repair of nuclear vessels for the United States Navy, including their subsidiary companies, for the conduct of investigations of applications for employment or for access to facilities, by contractors, leased laborers, and other visitors;

35. Any employer of individuals whose employment requires that they enter the homes of others, for the purpose of screening individuals who apply for, are offered, or have accepted such employment;

36. Public agencies when and as required by federal or state law to investigate (i) applicants as providers of adult foster care and home-based services or (ii) any individual with whom the agency is considering placing an adult on an emergency, temporary, or permanent basis pursuant to § 63.2-1601.1, subject to the restriction that the data shall not be further disseminated by the agency to any party other than a federal or state authority or court as may be required to comply with an express requirement of law for such further dissemination, subject to limitations set out in subsection G;

37. The Department of Medical Assistance Services, or its designee, for the purpose of screening individuals who, through contracts, subcontracts, or direct employment, volunteer, apply for, are offered, or have accepted a position related to the provision of transportation services to enrollees in the Medicaid Program or the Family Access to Medical Insurance Security (FAMIS) Program, or any other program administered by the Department of Medical Assistance Services;

38. The State Corporation Commission for the purpose of investigating individuals who are current or proposed members, senior officers, directors, and principals of an applicant or person licensed under Chapter 16 (§ 6.2-1600 et seq.) or Chapter 19 (§ 6.2-1900 et seq.) of Title 6.2. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if an application is denied based in whole or in part on information obtained from the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to Chapter 16 or 19 of Title 6.2, the Commissioner of Financial Institutions or his designee may disclose such information to the applicant or its designee;

39. The Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation for the purpose of investigating individuals for initial licensure pursuant to § 54.1-2106.1;

40. The Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services and the Department for the Blind and Vision Impaired for the purpose of evaluating an individual's fitness for various types of employment and for the purpose of delivering comprehensive vocational rehabilitation services pursuant to Article 11 (§ 51.5-170 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 51.5 that will assist the individual in obtaining employment;

41. Bail bondsmen, in accordance with the provisions of § 19.2-120;

42. The State Treasurer for the purpose of determining whether a person receiving compensation for wrongful incarceration meets the conditions for continued compensation under § 8.01-195.12;

43. The Department of Social Services and directors of local departments of social services for the purpose of screening individuals seeking to enter into a contract with the Department of Social Services or a local department of social services for the provision of child care services for which child care subsidy payments may be provided;

44. The Department of Juvenile Justice to investigate any parent, guardian, or other adult members of a juvenile's household when completing a predispositional or postdispositional report required by § 16.1-273 or a Board of Juvenile Justice regulation promulgated pursuant to § 16.1-233;

45. The State Corporation Commission, for the purpose of screening applicants for insurance licensure under Chapter 18 (§ 38.2-1800 et seq.) of Title 38.2; and

46. Other entities as otherwise provided by law.

Upon an ex parte motion of a defendant in a felony case and upon the showing that the records requested may be relevant to such case, the court shall enter an order requiring the Central Criminal Records Exchange to furnish the defendant, as soon as practicable, copies of any records of persons designated in the order on whom a report has been made under the provisions of this chapter.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter to the contrary, upon a written request sworn to before an officer authorized to take acknowledgments, the Central Criminal Records Exchange, or the criminal justice agency in cases of offenses not required to be reported to the Exchange, shall furnish a copy of conviction data covering the person named in the request to the person making the request; however, such person on whom the data is being obtained shall consent in writing, under oath, to the making of such request. A person receiving a copy of his own conviction data may utilize or further disseminate that data as he deems appropriate. In the event no conviction data is maintained on the data subject, the person making the request shall be furnished at his cost a certification to that effect.

B. Use of criminal history record information disseminated to noncriminal justice agencies under this section shall be limited to the purposes for which it was given and may not be disseminated further.

C. No criminal justice agency or person shall confirm the existence or nonexistence of criminal history record information for employment or licensing inquiries except as provided by law.

D. Criminal justice agencies shall establish procedures to query the Central Criminal Records Exchange prior to dissemination of any criminal history record information on offenses required to be reported to the Central Criminal Records Exchange to ensure that the most up-to-date disposition data is being used. Inquiries of the Exchange shall be made prior to any dissemination except in those cases where time is of the essence and the normal response time of the Exchange would exceed the necessary time period. A criminal justice agency to whom a request has been made for the dissemination of criminal history record information that is required to be reported to the Central Criminal Records Exchange may direct the inquirer to the Central Criminal Records Exchange for such dissemination. Dissemination of information regarding offenses not required to be reported to the Exchange shall be made by the criminal justice agency maintaining the record as required by § 15.2-1722.

E. Criminal history information provided to licensed nursing homes, hospitals and to home care organizations pursuant to subdivision A 15 shall be limited to the convictions on file with the Exchange for any offense specified in §§ 32.1-126.01, 32.1-126.02, and 32.1-162.9:1.

F. Criminal history information provided to licensed assisted living facilities and licensed adult day care centers pursuant to subdivision A 16 shall be limited to the convictions on file with the Exchange for any offense specified in § 63.2-1720.

G. Criminal history information provided to public agencies pursuant to subdivision A 36 shall be limited to the convictions on file with the Exchange for any offense set forth in clause (i) of the definition of barrier crime in § 19.2-392.02.

H. Upon receipt of a written request from an employer or prospective employer, the Central Criminal Records Exchange, or the criminal justice agency in cases of offenses not required to be reported to the Exchange, shall furnish at the employer's cost a copy of conviction data covering the person named in the request to the employer or prospective employer making the request, provided that the person on whom the data is being obtained has consented in writing to the making of such request and has presented a photo-identification to the employer or prospective employer. In the event no conviction data is maintained on the person named in the request, the requesting employer or prospective employer shall be furnished at his cost a certification to that effect. The criminal history record search shall be conducted on forms provided by the Exchange.

I. Nothing in this section shall preclude the dissemination of a person's criminal history record information pursuant to the rules of court for obtaining discovery or for review by the court.

Code 1950, § 19.1-19.2; 1966, c. 669; 1968, c. 537; 1970, c. 118; 1975, c. 495; 1976, c. 771; 1977, c. 626; 1978, c. 350; 1979, c. 480; 1981, c. 207; 1985, c. 360; 1987, cc. 130, 131; 1988, c. 851; 1989, c. 544; 1990, c. 766; 1991, c. 342; 1992, cc. 422, 641, 718, 746, 791, 844; 1993, cc. 48, 313, 348; 1994, cc. 34, 670, 700, 830; 1995, cc. 409, 645, 731, 781, 809; 1996, cc. 428, 432, 747, 881, 927, 944; 1997, cc. 169, 177, 606, 691, 721, 743, 796, 895; 1998, cc. 113, 405, 445, 882; 1999, cc. 383, 685; 2001, cc. 552, 582; 2002, cc. 370, 587, 606; 2003, c. 731; 2005, cc. 149, 914, 928; 2006, cc. 257, 277, 644; 2007, cc. 12, 361, 495, 572; 2008, cc. 387, 689, 863; 2009, cc. 667, 813, 840; 2010, cc. 189, 340, 406, 456, 524, 563, 862; 2011, cc. 432, 449; 2012, cc. 40, 189, 386, 476, 507, 803, 835; 2013, cc. 165, 176, 261, 407, 491, 582; 2014, cc. 225, 454; 2015, cc. 38, 343, 540, 730, 758, 770; 2016, cc. 454, 554, 574; 2017, cc. 421, 431, 809; 2018, c. 49; 2019, c. 675; 2020, cc. 2, 529, 1197, 1248.

§ 19.2-389. (Effective July 1, 2021) Dissemination of criminal history record information.

A. Criminal history record information shall be disseminated, whether directly or through an intermediary, only to:

1. Authorized officers or employees of criminal justice agencies, as defined by § 9.1-101, for purposes of the administration of criminal justice and the screening of an employment application or review of employment by a criminal justice agency with respect to its own employees or applicants, and dissemination to the Virginia Parole Board, pursuant to this subdivision, of such information on all state-responsible inmates for the purpose of making parole determinations pursuant to subdivisions 1, 2, 4, and 6 of § 53.1-136 shall include collective dissemination by electronic means every 30 days. For purposes of this subdivision, criminal history record information includes information sent to the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to §§ 37.2-819 and 64.2-2014 when disseminated to any full-time or part-time employee of the State Police, a police department or sheriff's office that is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof, and who is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of the penal, traffic or highway laws of the Commonwealth for the purposes of the administration of criminal justice;

2. Such other individuals and agencies that require criminal history record information to implement a state or federal statute or executive order of the President of the United States or Governor that expressly refers to criminal conduct and contains requirements or exclusions expressly based upon such conduct, except that information concerning the arrest of an individual may not be disseminated to a noncriminal justice agency or individual if an interval of one year has elapsed from the date of the arrest and no disposition of the charge has been recorded and no active prosecution of the charge is pending;

3. Individuals and agencies pursuant to a specific agreement with a criminal justice agency to provide services required for the administration of criminal justice pursuant to that agreement which shall specifically authorize access to data, limit the use of data to purposes for which given, and ensure the security and confidentiality of the data;

4. Individuals and agencies for the express purpose of research, evaluative, or statistical activities pursuant to an agreement with a criminal justice agency that shall specifically authorize access to data, limit the use of data to research, evaluative, or statistical purposes, and ensure the confidentiality and security of the data;

5. Agencies of state or federal government that are authorized by state or federal statute or executive order of the President of the United States or Governor to conduct investigations determining employment suitability or eligibility for security clearances allowing access to classified information;

6. Individuals and agencies where authorized by court order or court rule;

7. Agencies of any political subdivision of the Commonwealth, public transportation companies owned, operated or controlled by any political subdivision, and any public service corporation that operates a public transit system owned by a local government for the conduct of investigations of applicants for employment, permit, or license whenever, in the interest of public welfare or safety, it is necessary to determine under a duly enacted ordinance if the past criminal conduct of a person with a conviction record would be compatible with the nature of the employment, permit, or license under consideration;

7a. Commissions created pursuant to the Transportation District Act of 1964 (§ 33.2-1900 et seq.) of Title 33.2 and their contractors, for the conduct of investigations of individuals who have been offered a position of employment whenever, in the interest of public welfare or safety and as authorized in the Transportation District Act of 1964, it is necessary to determine if the past criminal conduct of a person with a conviction record would be compatible with the nature of the employment under consideration;

8. Public or private agencies when authorized or required by federal or state law or interstate compact to investigate (i) applicants for foster or adoptive parenthood or (ii) any individual, and the adult members of that individual's household, with whom the agency is considering placing a child or from whom the agency is considering removing a child due to abuse or neglect, on an emergency, temporary, or permanent basis pursuant to §§ 63.2-901.1 and 63.2-1505, subject to the restriction that the data shall not be further disseminated to any party other than a federal or state authority or court as may be required to comply with an express requirement of law;

9. To the extent permitted by federal law or regulation, public service companies as defined in § 56-1, for the conduct of investigations of applicants for employment when such employment involves personal contact with the public or when past criminal conduct of an applicant would be incompatible with the nature of the employment under consideration;

10. The appropriate authority for purposes of granting citizenship and for purposes of international travel, including, but not limited to, issuing visas and passports;

11. A person requesting a copy of his own criminal history record information as defined in § 9.1-101 at his cost, except that criminal history record information shall be supplied at no charge to a person who has applied to be a volunteer with (i) a Virginia affiliate of Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America; (ii) a volunteer fire company; (iii) the Volunteer Emergency Families for Children; (iv) any affiliate of Prevent Child Abuse, Virginia; (v) any Virginia affiliate of Compeer; or (vi) any board member or any individual who has been offered membership on the board of a Crime Stoppers, Crime Solvers or Crime Line program as defined in § 15.2-1713.1;

12. Administrators and board presidents of and applicants for licensure or registration as a child welfare agency as defined in § 63.2-100 for dissemination to the Commissioner of Social Services' representative pursuant to § 63.2-1702 for the conduct of investigations with respect to employees of and volunteers at such facilities, caretakers, and foster and adoptive parent applicants of private child-placing agencies, pursuant to §§ 63.2-1719, 63.2-1720, and 63.2-1721, subject to the restriction that the data shall not be further disseminated by the facility or agency to any party other than the data subject, the Commissioner of Social Services' representative or a federal or state authority or court as may be required to comply with an express requirement of law for such further dissemination;

13. The school boards of the Commonwealth for the purpose of screening individuals who are offered or who accept public school employment and those current school board employees for whom a report of arrest has been made pursuant to § 19.2-83.1;

14. The Virginia Lottery for the conduct of investigations as set forth in the Virginia Lottery Law (§ 58.1-4000 et seq.) and casino gaming as set forth in Chapter 41 (§ 58.1-4100 et seq.) of Title 58.1, and the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services for the conduct of investigations as set forth in Article 1.1:1 (§ 18.2-340.15 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of Title 18.2;

15. Licensed nursing homes, hospitals and home care organizations for the conduct of investigations of applicants for compensated employment in licensed nursing homes pursuant to § 32.1-126.01, hospital pharmacies pursuant to § 32.1-126.02, and home care organizations pursuant to § 32.1-162.9:1, subject to the limitations set out in subsection E;

16. Licensed assisted living facilities and licensed adult day care centers for the conduct of investigations of applicants for compensated employment in licensed assisted living facilities and licensed adult day care centers pursuant to § 63.2-1720, subject to the limitations set out in subsection F;

17. The Virginia Alcoholic Beverage Control Authority for the conduct of investigations as set forth in § 4.1-103.1;

18. The State Board of Elections and authorized officers and employees thereof and general registrars appointed pursuant to § 24.2-110 in the course of conducting necessary investigations with respect to voter registration, limited to any record of felony convictions;

19. The Commissioner of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services for those individuals who are committed to the custody of the Commissioner pursuant to §§ 19.2-169.2, 19.2-169.6, 19.2-182.2, 19.2-182.3, 19.2-182.8, and 19.2-182.9 for the purpose of placement, evaluation, and treatment planning;

20. Any alcohol safety action program certified by the Commission on the Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program for (i) assessments of habitual offenders under § 46.2-360, (ii) interventions with first offenders under § 18.2-251, or (iii) services to offenders under § 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266, or 18.2-266.1;

21. Residential facilities for juveniles regulated or operated by the Department of Social Services, the Department of Education, or the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services for the purpose of determining applicants' fitness for employment or for providing volunteer or contractual services;

22. The Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services and facilities operated by the Department for the purpose of determining an individual's fitness for employment pursuant to departmental instructions;

23. Pursuant to § 22.1-296.3, the governing boards or administrators of private elementary or secondary schools which are accredited pursuant to § 22.1-19 or a private organization coordinating such records information on behalf of such governing boards or administrators pursuant to a written agreement with the Department of State Police;

24. Public institutions of higher education and nonprofit private institutions of higher education for the purpose of screening individuals who are offered or accept employment;

25. Members of a threat assessment team established by a local school board pursuant to § 22.1-79.4, by a public institution of higher education pursuant to § 23.1-805, or by a private nonprofit institution of higher education, for the purpose of assessing or intervening with an individual whose behavior may present a threat to safety; however, no member of a threat assessment team shall redisclose any criminal history record information obtained pursuant to this section or otherwise use any record of an individual beyond the purpose that such disclosure was made to the threat assessment team;

26. Executive directors of community services boards or the personnel director serving the community services board for the purpose of determining an individual's fitness for employment, approval as a sponsored residential service provider, or permission to enter into a shared living arrangement with a person receiving medical assistance services pursuant to a waiver pursuant to §§ 37.2-506 and 37.2-607;

27. Executive directors of behavioral health authorities as defined in § 37.2-600 for the purpose of determining an individual's fitness for employment, approval as a sponsored residential service provider, or permission to enter into a shared living arrangement with a person receiving medical assistance services pursuant to a waiver pursuant to §§ 37.2-506 and 37.2-607;

28. The Commissioner of Social Services for the purpose of locating persons who owe child support or who are alleged in a pending paternity proceeding to be a putative father, provided that only the name, address, demographics and social security number of the data subject shall be released;

29. Authorized officers or directors of agencies licensed pursuant to Article 2 (§ 37.2-403 et seq.) of Chapter 4 of Title 37.2 by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services for the purpose of determining if any applicant who accepts employment in any direct care position or requests approval as a sponsored residential service provider or permission to enter into a shared living arrangement with a person receiving medical assistance services pursuant to a waiver has been convicted of a crime that affects his fitness to have responsibility for the safety and well-being of individuals with mental illness, intellectual disability, or substance abuse pursuant to §§ 37.2-416, 37.2-506, and 37.2-607;

30. The Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles, for the purpose of evaluating applicants for and holders of a motor carrier certificate or license subject to the provisions of Chapters 20 (§ 46.2-2000 et seq.) and 21 (§ 46.2-2100 et seq.) of Title 46.2;

31. The chairmen of the Committees for Courts of Justice of the Senate or the House of Delegates for the purpose of determining if any person being considered for election to any judgeship has been convicted of a crime;

32. Heads of state agencies in which positions have been identified as sensitive for the purpose of determining an individual's fitness for employment in positions designated as sensitive under Department of Human Resource Management policies developed pursuant to § 2.2-1201.1;

33. The Office of the Attorney General, for all criminal justice activities otherwise permitted under subdivision A 1 and for purposes of performing duties required by the Civil Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators Act (§ 37.2-900 et seq.);

34. Shipyards, to the extent permitted by federal law or regulation, engaged in the design, construction, overhaul, or repair of nuclear vessels for the United States Navy, including their subsidiary companies, for the conduct of investigations of applications for employment or for access to facilities, by contractors, leased laborers, and other visitors;

35. Any employer of individuals whose employment requires that they enter the homes of others, for the purpose of screening individuals who apply for, are offered, or have accepted such employment;

36. Public agencies when and as required by federal or state law to investigate (i) applicants as providers of adult foster care and home-based services or (ii) any individual with whom the agency is considering placing an adult on an emergency, temporary, or permanent basis pursuant to § 63.2-1601.1, subject to the restriction that the data shall not be further disseminated by the agency to any party other than a federal or state authority or court as may be required to comply with an express requirement of law for such further dissemination, subject to limitations set out in subsection G;

37. The Department of Medical Assistance Services, or its designee, for the purpose of screening individuals who, through contracts, subcontracts, or direct employment, volunteer, apply for, are offered, or have accepted a position related to the provision of transportation services to enrollees in the Medicaid Program or the Family Access to Medical Insurance Security (FAMIS) Program, or any other program administered by the Department of Medical Assistance Services;

38. The State Corporation Commission for the purpose of investigating individuals who are current or proposed members, senior officers, directors, and principals of an applicant or person licensed under Chapter 16 (§ 6.2-1600 et seq.), Chapter 19 (§ 6.2-1900 et seq.), or Chapter 26 (§ 6.2-2600 et seq.) of Title 6.2. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if an application is denied based in whole or in part on information obtained from the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to Chapter 16, 19, or 26 of Title 6.2, the Commissioner of Financial Institutions or his designee may disclose such information to the applicant or its designee;

39. The Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation for the purpose of investigating individuals for initial licensure pursuant to § 54.1-2106.1;

40. The Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services and the Department for the Blind and Vision Impaired for the purpose of evaluating an individual's fitness for various types of employment and for the purpose of delivering comprehensive vocational rehabilitation services pursuant to Article 11 (§ 51.5-170 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 51.5 that will assist the individual in obtaining employment;

41. Bail bondsmen, in accordance with the provisions of § 19.2-120;

42. The State Treasurer for the purpose of determining whether a person receiving compensation for wrongful incarceration meets the conditions for continued compensation under § 8.01-195.12;

43. The Department of Education or its agents or designees for the purpose of screening individuals seeking to enter into a contract with the Department of Education or its agents or designees for the provision of child care services for which child care subsidy payments may be provided;

44. The Department of Juvenile Justice to investigate any parent, guardian, or other adult members of a juvenile's household when completing a predispositional or postdispositional report required by § 16.1-273 or a Board of Juvenile Justice regulation promulgated pursuant to § 16.1-233;

45. The State Corporation Commission, for the purpose of screening applicants for insurance licensure under Chapter 18 (§ 38.2-1800 et seq.) of Title 38.2;

46. Administrators and board presidents of and applicants for licensure or registration as a child day program or family day system, as such terms are defined in § 22.1-289.02, for dissemination to the Superintendent of Public Instruction's representative pursuant to § 22.1-289.013 for the conduct of investigations with respect to employees of and volunteers at such facilities pursuant to §§ 22.1-289.034 through 22.1-289.037, subject to the restriction that the data shall not be further disseminated by the facility or agency to any party other than the data subject, the Superintendent of Public Instruction's representative, or a federal or state authority or court as may be required to comply with an express requirement of law for such further dissemination; and

47. Other entities as otherwise provided by law.

Upon an ex parte motion of a defendant in a felony case and upon the showing that the records requested may be relevant to such case, the court shall enter an order requiring the Central Criminal Records Exchange to furnish the defendant, as soon as practicable, copies of any records of persons designated in the order on whom a report has been made under the provisions of this chapter.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter to the contrary, upon a written request sworn to before an officer authorized to take acknowledgments, the Central Criminal Records Exchange, or the criminal justice agency in cases of offenses not required to be reported to the Exchange, shall furnish a copy of conviction data covering the person named in the request to the person making the request; however, such person on whom the data is being obtained shall consent in writing, under oath, to the making of such request. A person receiving a copy of his own conviction data may utilize or further disseminate that data as he deems appropriate. In the event no conviction data is maintained on the data subject, the person making the request shall be furnished at his cost a certification to that effect.

B. Use of criminal history record information disseminated to noncriminal justice agencies under this section shall be limited to the purposes for which it was given and may not be disseminated further.

C. No criminal justice agency or person shall confirm the existence or nonexistence of criminal history record information for employment or licensing inquiries except as provided by law.

D. Criminal justice agencies shall establish procedures to query the Central Criminal Records Exchange prior to dissemination of any criminal history record information on offenses required to be reported to the Central Criminal Records Exchange to ensure that the most up-to-date disposition data is being used. Inquiries of the Exchange shall be made prior to any dissemination except in those cases where time is of the essence and the normal response time of the Exchange would exceed the necessary time period. A criminal justice agency to whom a request has been made for the dissemination of criminal history record information that is required to be reported to the Central Criminal Records Exchange may direct the inquirer to the Central Criminal Records Exchange for such dissemination. Dissemination of information regarding offenses not required to be reported to the Exchange shall be made by the criminal justice agency maintaining the record as required by § 15.2-1722.

E. Criminal history information provided to licensed nursing homes, hospitals and to home care organizations pursuant to subdivision A 15 shall be limited to the convictions on file with the Exchange for any offense specified in §§ 32.1-126.01, 32.1-126.02, and 32.1-162.9:1.

F. Criminal history information provided to licensed assisted living facilities and licensed adult day care centers pursuant to subdivision A 16 shall be limited to the convictions on file with the Exchange for any offense specified in § 63.2-1720.

G. Criminal history information provided to public agencies pursuant to subdivision A 36 shall be limited to the convictions on file with the Exchange for any offense set forth in clause (i) of the definition of barrier crime in § 19.2-392.02.

H. Upon receipt of a written request from an employer or prospective employer, the Central Criminal Records Exchange, or the criminal justice agency in cases of offenses not required to be reported to the Exchange, shall furnish at the employer's cost a copy of conviction data covering the person named in the request to the employer or prospective employer making the request, provided that the person on whom the data is being obtained has consented in writing to the making of such request and has presented a photo-identification to the employer or prospective employer. In the event no conviction data is maintained on the person named in the request, the requesting employer or prospective employer shall be furnished at his cost a certification to that effect. The criminal history record search shall be conducted on forms provided by the Exchange.

I. Nothing in this section shall preclude the dissemination of a person's criminal history record information pursuant to the rules of court for obtaining discovery or for review by the court.

Code 1950, § 19.1-19.2; 1966, c. 669; 1968, c. 537; 1970, c. 118; 1975, c. 495; 1976, c. 771; 1977, c. 626; 1978, c. 350; 1979, c. 480; 1981, c. 207; 1985, c. 360; 1987, cc. 130, 131; 1988, c. 851; 1989, c. 544; 1990, c. 766; 1991, c. 342; 1992, cc. 422, 641, 718, 746, 791, 844; 1993, cc. 48, 313, 348; 1994, cc. 34, 670, 700, 830; 1995, cc. 409, 645, 731, 781, 809; 1996, cc. 428, 432, 747, 881, 927, 944; 1997, cc. 169, 177, 606, 691, 721, 743, 796, 895; 1998, cc. 113, 405, 445, 882; 1999, cc. 383, 685; 2001, cc. 552, 582; 2002, cc. 370, 587, 606; 2003, c. 731; 2005, cc. 149, 914, 928; 2006, cc. 257, 277, 644; 2007, cc. 12, 361, 495, 572; 2008, cc. 387, 689, 863; 2009, cc. 667, 813, 840; 2010, cc. 189, 340, 406, 456, 524, 563, 862; 2011, cc. 432, 449; 2012, cc. 40, 189, 386, 476, 507, 803, 835; 2013, cc. 165, 176, 261, 407, 491, 582; 2014, cc. 225, 454; 2015, cc. 38, 343, 540, 730, 758, 770; 2016, cc. 454, 554, 574; 2017, cc. 421, 431, 809; 2018, c. 49; 2020, cc. 2, 529, 860, 861, 1197, 1198, 1248, 1250.

§ 19.2-389.1. Dissemination of juvenile record information.

Record information maintained in the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to the provisions of § 16.1-299 shall be disseminated only (i) to make the determination as provided in §§ 18.2-308.2 and 18.2-308.2:2 of eligibility to possess or purchase a firearm; (ii) to aid in the preparation of a pretrial investigation report prepared by a local pretrial services agency established pursuant to Article 5 (§ 19.2-152.2 et seq.) of Chapter 9, a presentence or post-sentence investigation report pursuant to § 19.2-264.5 or 19.2-299 or in the preparation of the discretionary sentencing guidelines worksheets pursuant to subsection C of § 19.2-298.01; (iii) to aid local community-based probation services agencies established pursuant to the Comprehensive Community Corrections Act for Local-Responsible Offenders (§ 9.1-173 et seq.) with investigating or serving adult local-responsible offenders and all court service units serving juvenile delinquent offenders; (iv) for fingerprint comparison utilizing the fingerprints maintained in the Automated Fingerprint Information System (AFIS) computer; (v) to attorneys for the Commonwealth to secure information incidental to sentencing and to attorneys for the Commonwealth and probation officers to prepare the discretionary sentencing guidelines worksheets pursuant to subsection C of § 19.2-298.01; (vi) to any full-time or part-time employee of the State Police, a police department or sheriff's office that is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof, and who is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of the penal, traffic or highway laws of the Commonwealth, for purposes of the administration of criminal justice as defined in § 9.1-101; (vii) to the Department of Forensic Science to verify its authority to maintain the juvenile's sample in the DNA data bank pursuant to § 16.1-299.1; (viii) to the Office of the Attorney General, for all criminal justice activities otherwise permitted and for purposes of performing duties required by the Civil Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators Act (§ 37.2-900 et seq.); (ix) to the Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission for research purposes; (x) to members of a threat assessment team established by a school board pursuant to § 22.1-79.4, by a public institution of higher education pursuant to § 23.1-805, or by a private nonprofit institution of higher education, to aid in the assessment or intervention with individuals whose behavior may present a threat to safety; however, no member of a threat assessment team shall redisclose any juvenile record information obtained pursuant to this section or otherwise use any record of an individual beyond the purpose that such disclosure was made to the threat assessment team; (xi) to any full-time or part-time employee of the State Police or a police department or sheriff's office that is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof for the purpose of screening any person for full-time or part-time employment with the State Police or a police department or sheriff's office that is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof; (xii) to the State Health Commissioner or his designee for the purpose of screening any person who applies to be a volunteer with or an employee of an emergency medical services agency as provided in § 32.1-111.5; and (xiii) to the chief law-enforcement officer of a locality, or his designee who shall be an individual employed as a public safety official of the locality, that has adopted an ordinance in accordance with §§ 15.2-1503.1 and 19.2-389 for the purpose of screening any person who applies to be a volunteer with or an employee of an emergency medical services agency as provided in § 32.1-111.5.

1993, cc. 468, 926; 1996, cc. 755, 870, 914; 2002, c. 701; 2003, cc. 107, 432; 2005, cc. 868, 881, 914; 2006, c. 502; 2007, c. 133; 2010, cc. 456, 524; 2011, c. 622; 2012, c. 386; 2016, c. 554; 2018, cc. 143, 148.

§ 19.2-389.2. Background checks of applicants of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority.

The police department of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority as established in Chapter 10 (§ 5.1-152 et seq.) of Title 5.1 may require an applicant, upon conditional offer of employment with the Authority, to submit to fingerprinting and to provide personal descriptive information to be forwarded along with the applicant's fingerprints through the Central Criminal Records Exchange and the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the purpose of obtaining criminal history record information regarding such applicant.

The Central Criminal Records Exchange, upon receipt of an applicant's record or notification that no record exists, shall make a report to the chief of the police department of the Authority or his designee, provided the designee is an employee of the police department of the Authority. In determining whether a criminal conviction directly relates to a position, the Authority shall consider the following criteria: (i) the nature and seriousness of the crime; (ii) the relationship of the crime to the work to be performed in the position applied for; (iii) the extent to which the position applied for might offer an opportunity to engage in further criminal activity of the same type as that in which the applicant had been involved; (iv) the relationship of the crime to the ability, capacity, or fitness required to perform the duties and discharge the responsibilities of the position being sought; (v) the extent and nature of the applicant's past criminal activity; (vi) the age of the applicant at the time of the commission of the crime; (vii) the amount of time that has elapsed since the applicant's last involvement in the commission of a crime; (viii) the conduct and work activity of the applicant prior to and following the criminal activity; and (ix) evidence of the applicant's rehabilitation or rehabilitative effort while incarcerated or following release.

If an applicant is denied employment because of information appearing in his criminal history record, the Authority shall notify the applicant that information obtained from the Central Criminal Records Exchange contributed to such denial. The criminal history record information obtained pursuant to this section shall be used solely to determine an applicant's eligibility for employment by the Authority and access to restricted areas of Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Washington Dulles International Airport in compliance with 49 U.S.C. § 44936 and shall otherwise be confidential.

2014, c. 57.

§ 19.2-389.3. Marijuana possession; limits on dissemination of criminal history record information; prohibited practices by employers, educational institutions, and state and local governments; penalty.

A. Records relating to the arrest, criminal charge, or conviction of a person for a violation of § 18.2-250.1, including any violation charged under § 18.2-250.1 that was deferred and dismissed pursuant to § 18.2-251, maintained in the Central Criminal Records Exchange shall not be open for public inspection or otherwise disclosed, provided that such records may be disseminated (i) to make the determination as provided in § 18.2-308.2:2 of eligibility to possess or purchase a firearm; (ii) to aid in the preparation of a pretrial investigation report prepared by a local pretrial services agency established pursuant to Article 5 (§ 19.2-152.2 et seq.) of Chapter 9, a pre-sentence or post-sentence investigation report pursuant to § 19.2-264.5 or 19.2-299 or in the preparation of the discretionary sentencing guidelines worksheets pursuant to subsection C of § 19.2-298.01; (iii) to aid local community-based probation services agencies established pursuant to the Comprehensive Community Corrections Act for Local-Responsible Offenders (§ 9.1-173 et seq.) with investigating or serving adult local-responsible offenders and all court service units serving juvenile delinquent offenders; (iv) for fingerprint comparison utilizing the fingerprints maintained in the Automated Fingerprint Information System computer; (v) to attorneys for the Commonwealth to secure information incidental to sentencing and to attorneys for the Commonwealth and probation officers to prepare the discretionary sentencing guidelines worksheets pursuant to subsection C of § 19.2-298.01; (vi) to any full-time or part-time employee of the State Police, a police department, or sheriff's office that is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof, and who is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of the penal, traffic, or highway laws of the Commonwealth, for purposes of the administration of criminal justice as defined in § 9.1-101; (vii) to the Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission for research purposes; (viii) to any full-time or part-time employee of the State Police or a police department or sheriff's office that is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof for the purpose of screening any person for full-time or part-time employment with the State Police or a police department or sheriff's office that is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof; (ix) to the State Health Commissioner or his designee for the purpose of screening any person who applies to be a volunteer with or an employee of an emergency medical services agency as provided in § 32.1-111.5; (x) to any full-time or part-time employee of the Department of Forensic Science for the purpose of screening any person for full-time or part-time employment with the Department of Forensic Science; (xi) to the chief law-enforcement officer of a locality, or his designee who shall be an individual employed as a public safety official of the locality, that has adopted an ordinance in accordance with §§ 15.2-1503.1 and 19.2-389 for the purpose of screening any person who applies to be a volunteer with or an employee of an emergency medical services agency as provided in § 32.1-111.5; and (xii) to any full-time or part-time employee of the Department of Motor Vehicles, any employer as defined in § 46.2-341.4, or any medical examiner as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 390.5 for the purpose of complying with the regulations of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.

B. An employer or educational institution shall not, in any application, interview, or otherwise, require an applicant for employment or admission to disclose information concerning any arrest, criminal charge, or conviction against him when the record relating to such arrest, criminal charge, or conviction is not open for public inspection pursuant to subsection A. An applicant need not, in answer to any question concerning any arrest, criminal charge, or conviction, include a reference to or information concerning any arrest, criminal charge, or conviction when the record relating to such arrest, criminal charge, or conviction is not open for public inspection pursuant to subsection A.

C. Agencies, officials, and employees of the state and local governments shall not, in any application, interview, or otherwise, require an applicant for a license, permit, registration, or governmental service to disclose information concerning any arrest, criminal charge, or conviction against him when the record relating to such arrest, criminal charge, or conviction is not open for public inspection pursuant to subsection A. An applicant need not, in answer to any question concerning any arrest, criminal charge, or conviction, include a reference to or information concerning any arrest, criminal charge, or conviction when the record relating to such arrest, criminal charge, or conviction is not open for public inspection pursuant to subsection A. Such an application may not be denied solely because of the applicant's refusal to disclose information concerning any such arrest, criminal charge, or conviction.

D. A person who willfully violates subsection B or C is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor for each violation.

2020, cc. 1285, 1286.

§ 19.2-390. Reports to be made by local law-enforcement officers, conservators of the peace, clerks of court, Secretary of the Commonwealth and Corrections officials to State Police; material submitted by other agencies.

A. 1. Every state official or agency having the power to arrest, the sheriffs of counties, the police officials of cities and towns, and any other local law-enforcement officer or conservator of the peace having the power to arrest for a felony shall make a report to the Central Criminal Records Exchange, on forms provided by it, of any arrest, including those arrests involving the taking into custody of, or service of process upon, any person on charges resulting from an indictment, presentment or information, the arrest on capias or warrant for failure to appear, and the service of a warrant for another jurisdiction, for each charge when any person is arrested on any of the following charges:

a. Treason;

b. Any felony;

c. Any offense punishable as a misdemeanor under Title 54.1;

d. Any misdemeanor punishable by confinement in jail (i) under Title 18.2 or 19.2, or any similar ordinance of any county, city or town, (ii) under § 20-61, or (iii) under § 16.1-253.2; or

e. (Effective until July 1, 2021) Any offense in violation of § 3.2-6570, 4.1-309.1, 5.1-13, 15.2-1612, 46.2-339, 46.2-341.21, 46.2-341.24, 46.2-341.26:3, 46.2-817, 58.1-3141, 58.1-4018.1, 60.2-632, 63.2-1509, or 63.2-1727.

e. (Effective July 1, 2021) Any offense in violation of § 3.2-6570, 4.1-309.1, 5.1-13, 15.2-1612, 22.1-289.041, 46.2-339, 46.2-341.21, 46.2-341.24, 46.2-341.26:3, 46.2-817, 58.1-3141, 58.1-4018.1, 60.2-632, or 63.2-1509.

The reports shall contain such information as is required by the Exchange and shall be accompanied by fingerprints of the individual arrested for each charge. Effective January 1, 2006, the corresponding photograph of the individual arrested shall accompany the report. Fingerprint cards prepared by a law-enforcement agency for inclusion in a national criminal justice file shall be forwarded to the Exchange for transmittal to the appropriate bureau. Nothing in this section shall preclude each local law-enforcement agency from maintaining its own separate photographic database. Fingerprints and photographs required to be taken pursuant to this subsection or subdivision A 3c of § 19.2-123 may be taken at the facility where the magistrate is located, including a regional jail, even if the accused is not committed to jail.

2. For persons arrested and released on summonses in accordance with subsection B of § 19.2-73 or § 19.2-74, such report shall not be required until (i) a conviction is entered and no appeal is noted or if an appeal is noted, the conviction is upheld upon appeal or the person convicted withdraws his appeal; (ii) the court defers or dismisses the proceeding pursuant to § 18.2-57.3, 18.2-251, or 19.2-303.2; or (iii) an acquittal by reason of insanity pursuant to § 19.2-182.2 is entered. Upon such conviction or acquittal, the court shall remand the individual to the custody of the office of the chief law-enforcement officer of the county or city. It shall be the duty of the chief law-enforcement officer, or his designee who may be the arresting officer, to ensure that such report is completed for each charge after a determination of guilt or acquittal by reason of insanity. The court shall require the officer to complete the report immediately following the person's conviction or acquittal, and the individual shall be discharged from custody forthwith, unless the court has imposed a jail sentence to be served by him or ordered him committed to the custody of the Commissioner of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services.

3. For persons arrested on a capias for any allegation of a violation of the terms or conditions of a suspended sentence or probation for a felony offense pursuant to § 18.2-456, 19.2-306, or 53.1-165, a report shall be made to the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to subdivision 1. Upon finding such person in violation of the terms or conditions of a suspended sentence or probation for such felony offense, the court shall order that the fingerprints and photograph of such person be taken by a law-enforcement officer for each such offense and submitted to the Central Criminal Records Exchange.

4. For any person served with a show cause for any allegation of a violation of the terms or conditions of a suspended sentence or probation for a felony offense pursuant to § 18.2-456, 19.2-306, or 53.1-165, such report to the Central Criminal Records Exchange shall not be required until such person is found to be in violation of the terms or conditions of a suspended sentence or probation for such felony offense. Upon finding such person in violation of the terms or conditions of a suspended sentence or probation for such felony offense, the court shall order that the fingerprints and photograph of such person be taken by a law-enforcement officer for each such offense and submitted to the Central Criminal Records Exchange.

5. If the accused is in custody when an indictment or presentment is found or made, or information is filed, and no process is awarded, the attorney for the Commonwealth shall so notify the court of such at the time of first appearance for each indictment, presentment, or information for which a report is required upon arrest pursuant to subdivision 1, and the court shall order that the fingerprints and photograph of the accused be taken for each offense by a law-enforcement officer or by the agency that has custody of the accused at the time of first appearance. The law-enforcement officer or agency taking the fingerprints and photograph shall submit a report to the Central Criminal Records Exchange for each offense.

B. Within 72 hours following the receipt of (i) a warrant or capias for the arrest of any person on a charge of a felony or (ii) a Governor's warrant of arrest of a person issued pursuant to § 19.2-92, the law-enforcement agency which received the warrant shall enter the person's name and other appropriate information required by the Department of State Police into the "information systems" known as the Virginia Criminal Information Network (VCIN), established and maintained by the Department pursuant to Chapter 2 (§ 52-12 et seq.) of Title 52 and the National Crime Information Center (NCIC), maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The report shall include the person's name, date of birth, social security number and such other known information which the State Police or Federal Bureau of Investigation may require. Where feasible and practical, the magistrate or court issuing the warrant or capias may transfer information electronically into VCIN. When the information is electronically transferred to VCIN, the court or magistrate shall forthwith forward the warrant or capias to the local police department or sheriff's office. When criminal process has been ordered destroyed pursuant to § 19.2-76.1, the law-enforcement agency destroying such process shall ensure the removal of any information relating to the destroyed criminal process from the VCIN and NCIC.

B1. Within 72 hours following the receipt of a written statement issued by a parole officer pursuant to § 53.1-149 or 53.1-162 authorizing the arrest of a person who has violated the provisions of his post-release supervision or probation, the law-enforcement agency that received the written statement shall enter, or cause to be entered, the person's name and other appropriate information required by the Department of State Police into the "information systems" known as the Virginia Criminal Information Network (VCIN), established and maintained by the Department pursuant to Chapter 2 (§ 52-12 et seq.) of Title 52.

C. For offenses not charged on a summons in accordance with subsection B of § 19.2-73 or § 19.2-74, the clerk of each circuit court and district court shall make an electronic report to the Central Criminal Records Exchange of (i) any dismissal, including a dismissal pursuant to § 18.2-57.3, 18.2-251, or 19.2-303.2, indefinite postponement or continuance, charge still pending due to mental incompetency or incapacity, deferral, nolle prosequi, acquittal, or conviction of, including any sentence imposed, or failure of a grand jury to return a true bill as to, any person charged with an offense listed in subsection A, including any action that may have resulted from an indictment, presentment or information, or any finding that the person is in violation of the terms or conditions of a suspended sentence or probation for a felony offense and (ii) any adjudication of delinquency based upon an act that, if committed by an adult, would require fingerprints to be filed pursuant to subsection A. For offenses listed in subsection A and charged on a summons in accordance with subsection B of § 19.2-73 or § 19.2-74, such electronic report by the clerk of each circuit court and district court to the Central Criminal Records Exchange may be submitted but shall not be required until (a) a conviction is entered and no appeal is noted or, if an appeal is noted, the conviction is upheld upon appeal or the person convicted withdraws his appeal; (b) the court defers or dismisses the proceeding pursuant to § 18.2-57.3, 18.2-251, or 19.2-303.2; or (c) an acquittal by reason of insanity pursuant to § 19.2-182.2 is entered. The clerk of each circuit court shall make an electronic report to the Central Criminal Records Exchange of any finding that a person charged on a summons is in violation of the terms or conditions of a suspended sentence or probation for a felony offense. In the case of offenses not required to be reported to the Exchange by subsection A, the reports of any of the foregoing dispositions shall be filed by the law-enforcement agency making the arrest with the arrest record required to be maintained by § 15.2-1722. Upon conviction of any person, including juveniles tried and convicted in the circuit courts pursuant to § 16.1-269.1, whether sentenced as adults or juveniles, for an offense for which registration is required as defined in § 9.1-902, the clerk shall within seven days of sentencing submit a report to the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry. The report to the Registry shall include the name of the person convicted and all aliases that he is known to have used, the date and locality of the conviction for which registration is required, his date of birth, social security number, and last known address, and specific reference to the offense for which he was convicted. No report of conviction or adjudication in a district court shall be filed unless the period allowed for an appeal has elapsed and no appeal has been perfected. In the event that the records in the office of any clerk show that any conviction or adjudication has been nullified in any manner, he shall also make a report of that fact to the Exchange and, if appropriate, to the Registry. In addition, each clerk of a circuit court, upon receipt of certification thereof from the Supreme Court, shall report to the Exchange or the Registry, or to the law-enforcement agency making the arrest in the case of offenses not required to be reported to the Exchange, on forms provided by the Exchange or Registry, as the case may be, any reversal or other amendment to a prior sentence or disposition previously reported. When criminal process is ordered destroyed pursuant to § 19.2-76.1, the clerk shall report such action to the law-enforcement agency that entered the warrant or capias into the VCIN.

D. In addition to those offenses enumerated in subsection A, the Central Criminal Records Exchange may receive, classify, and file any other fingerprints, photographs, and records of arrest or confinement submitted to it by any law-enforcement agency or any correctional institution or the Department of Corrections. Unless otherwise prohibited by law, any such fingerprints, photographs, and records received by the Central Criminal Records Exchange from any correctional institution or the Department of Corrections may be classified and filed as criminal history record information.

E. Corrections officials, sheriffs, and jail superintendents of regional jails, responsible for maintaining correctional status information, as required by the regulations of the Department of Criminal Justice Services, with respect to individuals about whom reports have been made under the provisions of this chapter shall make reports of changes in correctional status information to the Central Criminal Records Exchange. The reports to the Exchange shall include any commitment to or release or escape from a state or local correctional facility, including commitment to or release from a parole or probation agency.

F. Any pardon, reprieve or executive commutation of sentence by the Governor shall be reported to the Exchange by the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth.

G. Officials responsible for reporting disposition of charges, and correctional changes of status of individuals under this section, including those reports made to the Registry, shall adopt procedures reasonably designed at a minimum (i) to ensure that such reports are accurately made as soon as feasible by the most expeditious means and in no instance later than 30 days after occurrence of the disposition or correctional change of status and (ii) to report promptly any correction, deletion, or revision of the information.

H. Upon receiving a correction, deletion, or revision of information, the Central Criminal Records Exchange shall notify all criminal justice agencies known to have previously received the information.

I. As used in this section:

"Chief law-enforcement officer" means the chief of police of cities and towns and sheriffs of counties, unless a political subdivision has otherwise designated its chief law-enforcement officer by appropriate resolution or ordinance, in which case the local designation shall be controlling.

"Electronic report" means a report transmitted to, or otherwise forwarded to, the Central Criminal Records Exchange in an electronic format approved by the Exchange. The report shall contain the name of the person convicted and all aliases which he is known to have used, the date and locality of the conviction, his date of birth, social security number, last known address, and specific reference to the offense including the Virginia Code section and any subsection, the Virginia crime code for the offense, and the offense tracking number for the offense for which he was convicted.

Code 1950, § 19.1-19.3; 1966, c. 669; 1968, c. 724; 1970, c. 191; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 107; 1974, c. 575; 1975, cc. 495, 584; 1976, cc. 336, 572, 771; 1978, cc. 467, 825; 1979, c. 378; 1981, c. 529; 1982, cc. 33, 535; 1990, cc. 100, 692; 1992, c. 391; 1993, cc. 448, 468, 926; 1994, cc. 362, 428, 432; 1996, cc. 429, 755, 806, 914; 1997, cc. 27, 509, 747, 801; 2001, cc. 516, 536, 565; 2003, cc. 27, 584, 727; 2004, cc. 284, 406; 2005, cc. 187, 229; 2008, cc. 73, 246; 2009, cc. 249, 813, 840; 2010, c. 273; 2013, c. 614; 2018, cc. 51, 178; 2019, cc. 115, 782, 783; 2020, cc. 91, 92, 860, 861.

§ 19.2-390.01. Use of Virginia crime code references required.

If any criminal warrant, indictment, information, presentment, petition, summons, charging document issued by a magistrate, or dispositional document from a criminal trial, involves a jailable offense, it shall include the Virginia crime code references for the particular offense or offenses covered. When Virginia crime codes are provided on charging and dispositional documents, the Virginia crime codes shall be recorded and stored for adult offenders in: criminal history computer systems maintained by the State Police; court case management computer systems maintained by the Supreme Court of Virginia; probation and parole case management computer systems maintained by the Department of Corrections and the Virginia Parole Board; pretrial and community-based probation case management computer systems maintained by the Department of Criminal Justice Services; and jail management computer systems maintained by the State Compensation Board. The Department of Juvenile Justice shall record and store Virginia crime codes for particular offenses related to juveniles in case management computer systems.

Virginia crime codes shall only be used to facilitate administration and research, and shall not have any legal standing as they relate to a particular offense or offenses.

2003, c. 148; 2007, c. 133.

§ 19.2-390.02. Policies and procedures for law enforcement to conduct in-person and photo lineups.

The Department of State Police and each local police department and sheriff's office shall establish a written policy and procedure for conducting in-person and photographic lineups.

2005, cc. 187, 229.

§ 19.2-390.03. Development and dissemination of model policy on fingerprinting and reports to the Central Criminal Records Exchange.

The Department of State Police shall develop a model policy on the collection of fingerprints and reporting of criminal history record information to the Central Criminal Records Exchange as required by § 19.2-390. The Department shall disseminate such policy to all law-enforcement agencies within the Commonwealth.

2019, cc. 782, 783.

§ 19.2-390.04. Custodial interrogations; recording.

A. For purposes of this section:

"Custodial interrogation" means any interview conducted by a law-enforcement officer in such circumstances that would lead a reasonable person to consider himself to be in custody associated with arrest and during which the law-enforcement officer takes actions or asks questions that are reasonably likely to elicit responses from the person that could incriminate him.

"Place of detention" means a police station, sheriff's office, jail, detention center, or other similar facility in which suspects may be detained.

B. A law-enforcement officer conducting a custodial interrogation of any person at a place of detention shall cause an audiovisual recording of the entirety of such custodial interrogation to be made. If such law-enforcement officer is unable to cause an audiovisual recording of such custodial interrogation to be made, the law-enforcement officer shall cause an audio recording of such custodial interrogation to be made.

This subsection shall not apply when a law-enforcement officer conducting a custodial interrogation has good cause not to record such custodial interrogation. Good cause shall include those circumstances where (i) the recording equipment fails, (ii) the recording equipment is unavailable, or (iii) exigent circumstances relating to public safety exist that prevent the recording of such custodial interrogation.

C. The failure of a law-enforcement officer to cause an audiovisual or audio recording to be made in accordance with subsection B shall not affect the admissibility of the statements made by the subject of the custodial interrogation, but such failure may be considered in determining the weight given to such evidence.

D. Any audiovisual or audio recording made in accordance to subsection B shall be preserved until such time as (i) the person is acquitted or the charges against the person are otherwise dismissed and further prosecution of such charges is prohibited by law or (ii) if convicted or adjudicated delinquent, the person has completed service of his sentence and any modification of his sentence.

E. Any policies, standards, and guidelines for the maintenance, exchange, storage, use, sharing, distribution, and security of data developed and adopted pursuant to Chapter 20.1 of Title 2.2 (§ 2.2-2005 et. seq.) shall not apply to any audiovisual or audio recording made in accordance with subsection B. Any policies, standards, and guidelines for the maintenance, exchange, storage, use, sharing, distribution, and security of data for any audiovisual or audio recording made in accordance with subsection B shall be developed and adopted by the law-enforcement agency employing the law-enforcement officer causing the audiovisual or audio recording to be made in accordance with subsection B.

2020, c. 1126.

§ 19.2-390.1. Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry; maintenance; access.

The Department of State Police shall keep and maintain a Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry, separate and apart from all other records maintained by it.

The Superintendent of State Police shall organize, equip, and staff, within the Department of State Police, the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry. The Superintendent shall appoint and designate personnel as he deems necessary to carry out all duties and assignments related to the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry as required by Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1.

1994, c. 362; 1996, cc. 418, 542, 880; 1997, cc. 670, 672, 747; 1998, cc. 785, 834; 2000, c. 250; 2003, c. 584; 2006, cc. 857, 914.

§ 19.2-390.2. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2003, c. 584, cl. 2.

§ 19.2-390.3. Child Pornography Registry; maintenance; access.

A. The Office of the Attorney General, in cooperation with the Department of State Police, shall keep and maintain a Child Pornography Registry (the Registry) to be located within the State Police, separate and apart from all other records maintained by either department. The purpose of the Registry shall be to assist the efforts of law-enforcement agencies statewide to protect their communities from repeat child pornographers and to protect children from becoming victims of criminal offenders by aiding in identifying victims and perpetrators. Criminal justice agencies, including law-enforcement agencies, may request of the State Police a search and comparison of child pornography images contained within the Registry with those images obtained by criminal justice agencies during the course of official investigations.

B. The Registry shall include copies of all known or suspected "child pornography," as that term is defined in subsection A of § 18.2-374.1, obtained during the course of a criminal investigation, or presented as evidence and used in any conviction for any offense enumerated in §§ 18.2-374.1 and 18.2-374.1:1.

C. Registry information provided under this section shall be used for the purposes of the administration of criminal justice, for victim identification, or for the protection of the public in general and children in particular. Use of the information or the images contained therein for purposes not authorized by this section is prohibited and a willful violation of this section with the intent to harass or intimidate another is a Class 6 felony.

D. The Virginia Criminal Information Network and any form or document used by the Department of State Police to disseminate information from the Registry shall provide notice that any unauthorized possession, use, or dissemination of the information or images is a crime punishable as a Class 6 felony.

2003, cc. 935, 938; 2019, cc. 3, 42.

§ 19.2-391. Records to be made available to Exchange by state officials and agencies; duplication of records.

Each state official and agency shall make available to the Central Criminal Records Exchange such of their records as are pertinent to its functions and shall cooperate with the Exchange in the development and use of equipment and facilities on a joint basis, where feasible. No state official or agency shall maintain records which are a duplication of the records on deposit in the Central Criminal Records Exchange, except to the extent necessary for efficient internal administration of such agency. Furthermore, the Virginia Parole Board may receive and use electronically disseminated criminal history record information from the Central Criminal Records Exchange as required to make parole determinations pursuant to subdivisions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 of § 53.1-136, provided the data is (i) temporarily stored with the Board solely for operational purposes, (ii) purged within 30 days of receipt of updated data by the Board, and (iii) accessed and viewed solely by Parole Board members and authorized staff pursuant to §§ 9.1-101 and 9.1-130.

Code 1950, § 19.1-19.4; 1966, c. 669; 1975, c. 495; 1993, c. 313; 2020, cc. 2, 529.

§ 19.2-392. Fingerprints and photographs by police authorities.

A. All duly constituted police authorities having the power of arrest may take the fingerprints and photographs of: (i) any person arrested by them and charged with a felony or a misdemeanor an arrest for which is to be reported by them to the Central Criminal Records Exchange, (ii) any person who pleads guilty or is found guilty after being summoned in accordance with subsection B of § 19.2-73 or § 19.2-74, (iii) any person charged with an offense that has been deferred by the court pursuant to §§ 18.2-57.3, 18.2-251, or 19.2-303.2, or (iv) upon the order of a court, any person found in contempt or in violation of the terms or conditions of a suspended sentence or probation for a felony offense pursuant to § 18.2-456, 19.2-306, or 53.1-165. Such authorities shall make such records available to the Central Criminal Records Exchange. Such authorities are authorized to provide, on the request of duly appointed law-enforcement officers, copies of any fingerprint records they may have, and to furnish services and technical advice in connection with the taking, classifying and preserving of fingerprints and fingerprint records.

B. Such police authorities may establish and collect a reasonable fee not to exceed $10 for the first card and $5 for each successive card for the taking of fingerprints when voluntarily requested by any person for purposes other than criminal violations.

Code 1950, § 19.1-19.6; 1968, c. 722; 1975, c. 495; 1978, c. 825; 1985, c. 306; 2005, c. 347; 2019, cc. 782, 783; 2020, cc. 91, 92, 93, 189.

§ 19.2-392.01. Judges may require taking of fingerprints and photographs in certain misdemeanor cases.

The judge of a district court may, in his discretion, on motion of the attorney for the Commonwealth, require the duly constituted police officers of the county, city or town within the territorial jurisdiction of the court to take the fingerprints and photograph of any person who has been arrested and charged with a misdemeanor other than a misdemeanor which is a violation of any provision of Title 46.2.

1995, c. 407; 1996, cc. 755, 914.

§ 19.2-392.02. (Effective until July 1, 2021) National criminal background checks by businesses and organizations regarding employees or volunteers providing care to children or the elderly or disabled.

A. For purposes of this section:

"Barrier crime" means (i) a felony violation of § 16.1-253.2; any violation of § 18.2-31, 18.2-32, 18.2-32.1, 18.2-32.2, 18.2-33, 18.2-35, 18.2-36, 18.2-36.1, 18.2-36.2, 18.2-41, or 18.2-42; any felony violation of § 18.2-46.2, 18.2-46.3, 18.2-46.3:1, or 18.2-46.3:3; any violation of § 18.2-46.5, 18.2-46.6, or 18.2-46.7; any violation of subsection A or B of § 18.2-47; any violation of § 18.2-48, 18.2-49, or 18.2-50.3; any violation of § 18.2-51, 18.2-51.1, 18.2-51.2, 18.2-51.3, 18.2-51.4, 18.2-51.5, 18.2-51.6, 18.2-52, 18.2-52.1, 18.2-53, 18.2-53.1, 18.2-54.1, 18.2-54.2, 18.2-55, 18.2-55.1, 18.2-56, 18.2-56.1, 18.2-56.2, 18.2-57, 18.2-57.01, 18.2-57.02, 18.2-57.2, 18.2-58, 18.2-58.1, 18.2-59, 18.2-60, or 18.2-60.1; any felony violation of § 18.2-60.3 or 18.2-60.4; any violation of § 18.2-61, 18.2-63, 18.2-64.1, 18.2-64.2, 18.2-67.1, 18.2-67.2, 18.2-67.3, 18.2-67.4, 18.2-67.4:1, 18.2-67.4:2, 18.2-67.5, 18.2-67.5:1, 18.2-67.5:2, 18.2-67.5:3, 18.2-77, 18.2-79, 18.2-80, 18.2-81, 18.2-82, 18.2-83, 18.2-84, 18.2-85, 18.2-86, 18.2-87, 18.2-87.1, or 18.2-88; any felony violation of § 18.2-279, 18.2-280, 18.2-281, 18.2-282, 18.2-282.1, 18.2-286.1, or 18.2-287.2; any violation of § 18.2-289, 18.2-290, 18.2-300, 18.2-308.4, or 18.2-314; any felony violation of § 18.2-346, 18.2-348, or 18.2-349; any violation of § 18.2-355, 18.2-356, 18.2-357, or 18.2-357.1; any violation of subsection B of § 18.2-361; any violation of § 18.2-366, 18.2-369, 18.2-370, 18.2-370.1, 18.2-370.2, 18.2-370.3, 18.2-370.4, 18.2-370.5, 18.2-370.6, 18.2-371.1, 18.2-374.1, 18.2-374.1:1, 18.2-374.3, 18.2-374.4, 18.2-379, 18.2-386.1, or 18.2-386.2; any felony violation of § 18.2-405 or 18.2-406; any violation of § 18.2-408, 18.2-413, 18.2-414, 18.2-423, 18.2-423.01, 18.2-423.1, 18.2-423.2, 18.2-433.2, 18.2-472.1, 18.2-474.1, 18.2-477, 18.2-477.1, 18.2-477.2, 18.2-478, 18.2-479, 18.2-480, 18.2-481, 18.2-484, 18.2-485, 37.2-917, or 53.1-203; or any substantially similar offense under the laws of another jurisdiction; (ii) any violation of § 18.2-89, 18.2-90, 18.2-91, 18.2-92, 18.2-93, or 18.2-94 or any substantially similar offense under the laws of another jurisdiction; (iii) any felony violation of § 18.2-248, 18.2-248.01, 18.2-248.02, 18.2-248.03, 18.2-248.1, 18.2-248.5, 18.2-251.2, 18.2-251.3, 18.2-255, 18.2-255.2, 18.2-258, 18.2-258.02, 18.2-258.1, or 18.2-258.2 or any substantially similar offense under the laws of another jurisdiction; (iv) any felony violation of § 18.2-250 or any substantially similar offense under the laws of another jurisdiction; (v) any offense set forth in § 9.1-902 that results in the person's requirement to register with the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry pursuant to § 9.1-901, including any finding that a person is not guilty by reason of insanity in accordance with Chapter 11.1 (§ 19.2-182.2 et seq.) of Title 19.2 of an offense set forth in § 9.1-902 that results in the person's requirement to register with the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry pursuant to § 9.1-901; any substantially similar offense under the laws of another jurisdiction; or any offense for which registration in a sex offender and crimes against minors registry is required under the laws of the jurisdiction where the offender was convicted; or (vi) any other felony not included in clause (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), or (v) unless five years have elapsed from the date of the conviction.

"Barrier crime information" means the following facts concerning a person who has been arrested for, or has been convicted of, a barrier crime, regardless of whether the person was a juvenile or adult at the time of the arrest or conviction: full name, race, sex, date of birth, height, weight, fingerprints, a brief description of the barrier crime or offenses for which the person has been arrested or has been convicted, the disposition of the charge, and any other information that may be useful in identifying persons arrested for or convicted of a barrier crime.

"Care" means the provision of care, treatment, education, training, instruction, supervision, or recreation to children or the elderly or disabled.

"Department" means the Department of State Police.

"Employed by" means any person who is employed by, volunteers for, seeks to be employed by, or seeks to volunteer for a qualified entity.

"Identification document" means a document made or issued by or under the authority of the United States government, a state, a political subdivision of a state, a foreign government, political subdivision of a foreign government, an international governmental or an international quasi-governmental organization that, when completed with information concerning a particular individual, is of a type intended or commonly accepted for the purpose of identification of individuals.

"Provider" means a person who (i) is employed by a qualified entity and has, seeks to have, or may have unsupervised access to a child or to an elderly or disabled person to whom the qualified entity provides care; (ii) is a volunteer of a qualified entity and has, seeks to have, or may have unsupervised access to a child to whom the qualified entity provides care; or (iii) owns, operates, or seeks to own or operate a qualified entity.

"Qualified entity" means a business or organization that provides care to children or the elderly or disabled, whether governmental, private, for profit, nonprofit, or voluntary, except organizations exempt pursuant to subdivision A 7 of § 63.2-1715.

B. A qualified entity may request the Department of State Police to conduct a national criminal background check on any provider who is employed by such entity. No qualified entity may request a national criminal background check on a provider until such provider has:

1. Been fingerprinted; and

2. Completed and signed a statement, furnished by the entity, that includes (i) his name, address, and date of birth as it appears on a valid identification document; (ii) a disclosure of whether or not the provider has ever been convicted of or is the subject of pending charges for a criminal offense within or outside the Commonwealth, and if the provider has been convicted of a crime, a description of the crime and the particulars of the conviction; (iii) a notice to the provider that the entity may request a background check; (iv) a notice to the provider that he is entitled to obtain a copy of any background check report, to challenge the accuracy and completeness of any information contained in any such report, and to obtain a prompt determination as to the validity of such challenge before a final determination is made by the Department; and (v) a notice to the provider that prior to the completion of the background check the qualified entity may choose to deny the provider unsupervised access to children or the elderly or disabled for whom the qualified entity provides care.

C. Upon receipt of (i) a qualified entity's written request to conduct a background check on a provider, (ii) the provider's fingerprints, and (iii) a completed, signed statement as described in subsection B, the Department shall make a determination whether the provider has been convicted of or is the subject of charges of a barrier crime. To conduct its determination regarding the provider's barrier crime information, the Department shall access the national criminal history background check system, which is maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and is based on fingerprints and other methods of identification, and shall access the Central Criminal Records Exchange maintained by the Department. If the Department receives a background report lacking disposition data, the Department shall conduct research in whatever state and local recordkeeping systems are available in order to obtain complete data. The Department shall make reasonable efforts to respond to a qualified entity's inquiry within 15 business days.

D. Any background check conducted pursuant to this section for a provider employed by a private entity shall be screened by the Department of State Police. If the provider has been convicted of or is under indictment for a barrier crime, the qualified entity shall be notified that the provider is not qualified to work or volunteer in a position that involves unsupervised access to children or the elderly or disabled.

E. Any background check conducted pursuant to this section for a provider employed by a governmental entity shall be provided to that entity.

F. In the case of a provider who desires to volunteer at a qualified entity and who is subject to a national criminal background check, the Department and the Federal Bureau of Investigation may each charge the provider the lesser of $18 or the actual cost to the entity of the background check conducted with the fingerprints.

G. The failure to request a criminal background check pursuant to subsection B shall not be considered negligence per se in any civil action.

H. [Expired.]

2000, c. 860; 2005, c. 217; 2015, cc. 758, 770; 2017, c. 809; 2018, cc. 9, 810; 2019, c. 617.

§ 19.2-392.02. (Effective July 1, 2021) National criminal background checks by businesses and organizations regarding employees or volunteers providing care to children or the elderly or disabled.

A. For purposes of this section:

"Barrier crime" means (i) a felony violation of § 16.1-253.2; any violation of § 18.2-31, 18.2-32, 18.2-32.1, 18.2-32.2, 18.2-33, 18.2-35, 18.2-36, 18.2-36.1, 18.2-36.2, 18.2-41, or 18.2-42; any felony violation of § 18.2-46.2, 18.2-46.3, 18.2-46.3:1, or 18.2-46.3:3; any violation of § 18.2-46.5, 18.2-46.6, or 18.2-46.7; any violation of subsection A or B of § 18.2-47; any violation of § 18.2-48, 18.2-49, or 18.2-50.3; any violation of § 18.2-51, 18.2-51.1, 18.2-51.2, 18.2-51.3, 18.2-51.4, 18.2-51.5, 18.2-51.6, 18.2-52, 18.2-52.1, 18.2-53, 18.2-53.1, 18.2-54.1, 18.2-54.2, 18.2-55, 18.2-55.1, 18.2-56, 18.2-56.1, 18.2-56.2, 18.2-57, 18.2-57.01, 18.2-57.02, 18.2-57.2, 18.2-58, 18.2-58.1, 18.2-59, 18.2-60, or 18.2-60.1; any felony violation of § 18.2-60.3 or 18.2-60.4; any violation of § 18.2-61, 18.2-63, 18.2-64.1, 18.2-64.2, 18.2-67.1, 18.2-67.2, 18.2-67.3, 18.2-67.4, 18.2-67.4:1, 18.2-67.4:2, 18.2-67.5, 18.2-67.5:1, 18.2-67.5:2, 18.2-67.5:3, 18.2-77, 18.2-79, 18.2-80, 18.2-81, 18.2-82, 18.2-83, 18.2-84, 18.2-85, 18.2-86, 18.2-87, 18.2-87.1, or 18.2-88; any felony violation of § 18.2-279, 18.2-280, 18.2-281, 18.2-282, 18.2-282.1, 18.2-286.1, or 18.2-287.2; any violation of § 18.2-289, 18.2-290, 18.2-300, 18.2-308.4, or 18.2-314; any felony violation of § 18.2-346, 18.2-348, or 18.2-349; any violation of § 18.2-355, 18.2-356, 18.2-357, or 18.2-357.1; any violation of subsection B of § 18.2-361; any violation of § 18.2-366, 18.2-369, 18.2-370, 18.2-370.1, 18.2-370.2, 18.2-370.3, 18.2-370.4, 18.2-370.5, 18.2-370.6, 18.2-371.1, 18.2-374.1, 18.2-374.1:1, 18.2-374.3, 18.2-374.4, 18.2-379, 18.2-386.1, or 18.2-386.2; any felony violation of § 18.2-405 or 18.2-406; any violation of § 18.2-408, 18.2-413, 18.2-414, 18.2-423, 18.2-423.01, 18.2-423.1, 18.2-423.2, 18.2-433.2, 18.2-472.1, 18.2-474.1, 18.2-477, 18.2-477.1, 18.2-477.2, 18.2-478, 18.2-479, 18.2-480, 18.2-481, 18.2-484, 18.2-485, 37.2-917, or 53.1-203; or any substantially similar offense under the laws of another jurisdiction; (ii) any violation of § 18.2-89, 18.2-90, 18.2-91, 18.2-92, 18.2-93, or 18.2-94 or any substantially similar offense under the laws of another jurisdiction; (iii) any felony violation of § 18.2-248, 18.2-248.01, 18.2-248.02, 18.2-248.03, 18.2-248.1, 18.2-248.5, 18.2-251.2, 18.2-251.3, 18.2-255, 18.2-255.2, 18.2-258, 18.2-258.02, 18.2-258.1, or 18.2-258.2 or any substantially similar offense under the laws of another jurisdiction; (iv) any felony violation of § 18.2-250 or any substantially similar offense under the laws of another jurisdiction; (v) any offense set forth in § 9.1-902 that results in the person's requirement to register with the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry pursuant to § 9.1-901, including any finding that a person is not guilty by reason of insanity in accordance with Chapter 11.1 (§ 19.2-182.2 et seq.) of Title 19.2 of an offense set forth in § 9.1-902 that results in the person's requirement to register with the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry pursuant to § 9.1-901; any substantially similar offense under the laws of another jurisdiction; or any offense for which registration in a sex offender and crimes against minors registry is required under the laws of the jurisdiction where the offender was convicted; or (vi) any other felony not included in clause (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), or (v) unless five years have elapsed from the date of the conviction.

"Barrier crime information" means the following facts concerning a person who has been arrested for, or has been convicted of, a barrier crime, regardless of whether the person was a juvenile or adult at the time of the arrest or conviction: full name, race, sex, date of birth, height, weight, fingerprints, a brief description of the barrier crime or offenses for which the person has been arrested or has been convicted, the disposition of the charge, and any other information that may be useful in identifying persons arrested for or convicted of a barrier crime.

"Care" means the provision of care, treatment, education, training, instruction, supervision, or recreation to children or the elderly or disabled.

"Department" means the Department of State Police.

"Employed by" means any person who is employed by, volunteers for, seeks to be employed by, or seeks to volunteer for a qualified entity.

"Identification document" means a document made or issued by or under the authority of the United States government, a state, a political subdivision of a state, a foreign government, political subdivision of a foreign government, an international governmental or an international quasi-governmental organization that, when completed with information concerning a particular individual, is of a type intended or commonly accepted for the purpose of identification of individuals.

"Provider" means a person who (i) is employed by a qualified entity and has, seeks to have, or may have unsupervised access to a child or to an elderly or disabled person to whom the qualified entity provides care; (ii) is a volunteer of a qualified entity and has, seeks to have, or may have unsupervised access to a child to whom the qualified entity provides care; or (iii) owns, operates, or seeks to own or operate a qualified entity.

"Qualified entity" means a business or organization that provides care to children or the elderly or disabled, whether governmental, private, for profit, nonprofit, or voluntary, except organizations exempt pursuant to subdivision A 7 of § 22.1-289.030.

B. A qualified entity may request the Department of State Police to conduct a national criminal background check on any provider who is employed by such entity. No qualified entity may request a national criminal background check on a provider until such provider has:

1. Been fingerprinted; and

2. Completed and signed a statement, furnished by the entity, that includes (i) his name, address, and date of birth as it appears on a valid identification document; (ii) a disclosure of whether or not the provider has ever been convicted of or is the subject of pending charges for a criminal offense within or outside the Commonwealth, and if the provider has been convicted of a crime, a description of the crime and the particulars of the conviction; (iii) a notice to the provider that the entity may request a background check; (iv) a notice to the provider that he is entitled to obtain a copy of any background check report, to challenge the accuracy and completeness of any information contained in any such report, and to obtain a prompt determination as to the validity of such challenge before a final determination is made by the Department; and (v) a notice to the provider that prior to the completion of the background check the qualified entity may choose to deny the provider unsupervised access to children or the elderly or disabled for whom the qualified entity provides care.

C. Upon receipt of (i) a qualified entity's written request to conduct a background check on a provider, (ii) the provider's fingerprints, and (iii) a completed, signed statement as described in subsection B, the Department shall make a determination whether the provider has been convicted of or is the subject of charges of a barrier crime. To conduct its determination regarding the provider's barrier crime information, the Department shall access the national criminal history background check system, which is maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and is based on fingerprints and other methods of identification, and shall access the Central Criminal Records Exchange maintained by the Department. If the Department receives a background report lacking disposition data, the Department shall conduct research in whatever state and local recordkeeping systems are available in order to obtain complete data. The Department shall make reasonable efforts to respond to a qualified entity's inquiry within 15 business days.

D. Any background check conducted pursuant to this section for a provider employed by a private entity shall be screened by the Department of State Police. If the provider has been convicted of or is under indictment for a barrier crime, the qualified entity shall be notified that the provider is not qualified to work or volunteer in a position that involves unsupervised access to children or the elderly or disabled.

E. Any background check conducted pursuant to this section for a provider employed by a governmental entity shall be provided to that entity.

F. In the case of a provider who desires to volunteer at a qualified entity and who is subject to a national criminal background check, the Department and the Federal Bureau of Investigation may each charge the provider the lesser of $18 or the actual cost to the entity of the background check conducted with the fingerprints.

G. The failure to request a criminal background check pursuant to subsection B shall not be considered negligence per se in any civil action.

H. [Expired.]

2000, c. 860; 2005, c. 217; 2015, cc. 758, 770; 2017, c. 809; 2018, cc. 9, 810; 2019, c. 617; 2020, cc. 860, 861.