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Code of Virginia
11/29/2021

Motor Vehicles

Subtitle I. General Provisions; Department of Motor Vehicles

Chapter 1. General Provisions.

§ 46.2-100. Definitions.

As used in this title, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"All-terrain vehicle" means a motor vehicle having three or more wheels that is powered by a motor and is manufactured for off-highway use. "All-terrain vehicle" does not include four-wheeled vehicles commonly known as "go-carts" that have low centers of gravity and are typically used in racing on relatively level surfaces, nor does the term include any riding lawn mower.

"Antique motor vehicle" means every motor vehicle, as defined in this section, which was actually manufactured or designated by the manufacturer as a model manufactured in a calendar year not less than 25 years prior to January 1 of each calendar year and is owned solely as a collector's item.

"Antique trailer" means every trailer or semitrailer, as defined in this section, that was actually manufactured or designated by the manufacturer as a model manufactured in a calendar year not less than 25 years prior to January 1 of each calendar year and is owned solely as a collector's item.

"Autocycle" means a three-wheeled motor vehicle that has a steering wheel and seating that does not require the operator to straddle or sit astride and is manufactured to comply with federal safety requirements for motorcycles. Except as otherwise provided, an autocycle shall not be deemed to be a motorcycle.

"Automobile transporter" means any tractor truck, lowboy, vehicle, or combination, including vehicles or combinations that transport motor vehicles on their power unit, designed and used exclusively for the transportation of motor vehicles or used to transport cargo or general freight on a backhaul pursuant to the provisions of 49 U.S.C. § 31111(a)(1).

"Bicycle" means a device propelled solely by human power, upon which a person may ride either on or astride a regular seat attached thereto, having two or more wheels in tandem, including children's bicycles, except a toy vehicle intended for use by young children. For purposes of Chapter 8 (§ 46.2-800 et seq.), a bicycle shall be a vehicle while operated on the highway.

"Bicycle lane" means that portion of a roadway designated by signs and/or pavement markings for the preferential use of bicycles, electric power-assisted bicycles, motorized skateboards or scooters, and mopeds.

"Business district" means the territory contiguous to a highway where 75 percent or more of the property contiguous to a highway, on either side of the highway, for a distance of 300 feet or more along the highway, is occupied by land and buildings actually in use for business purposes.

"Camping trailer" means every vehicle that has collapsible sides and contains sleeping quarters but may or may not contain bathing and cooking facilities and is designed to be drawn by a motor vehicle.

"Cancel" or "cancellation" means that the document or privilege cancelled has been annulled or terminated because of some error, defect, or ineligibility, but the cancellation is without prejudice and reapplication may be made at any time after cancellation.

"Chauffeur" means every person employed for the principal purpose of driving a motor vehicle and every person who drives a motor vehicle while in use as a public or common carrier of persons or property.

"Circular intersection" means an intersection that has an island, generally circular in design, located in the center of the intersection, where all vehicles pass to the right of the island. Circular intersections include roundabouts, rotaries, and traffic circles.

"Commission" means the State Corporation Commission.

"Commissioner" means the Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles of the Commonwealth.

"Converted electric vehicle" means any motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle or autocycle, that has been modified subsequent to its manufacture to replace an internal combustion engine with an electric propulsion system. Such vehicles shall retain their original vehicle identification number, line-make, and model year. A converted electric vehicle shall not be deemed a "reconstructed vehicle" as defined in this section unless it has been materially altered from its original construction by the removal, addition, or substitution of new or used essential parts other than those required for the conversion to electric propulsion.

"Crosswalk" means that part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway measured from the curbs or, in the absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable roadway; or any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface.

"Decal" means a device to be attached to a license plate that validates the license plate for a predetermined registration period.

"Department" means the Department of Motor Vehicles of the Commonwealth.

"Disabled parking license plate" means a license plate that displays the international symbol of access in the same size as the numbers and letters on the plate and in a color that contrasts with the background.

"Disabled veteran" means a veteran who (i) has either lost, or lost the use of, a leg, arm, or hand; (ii) is blind; or (iii) is permanently and totally disabled as certified by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. A veteran shall be considered blind if he has a permanent impairment of both eyes to the following extent: central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye, with corrective lenses, or central visual acuity of more than 20/200, if there is a field defect in which the peripheral field has contracted to such an extent that the widest diameter of visual field subtends an angular distance no greater than 20 degrees in the better eye.

"Driver's license" means any license, including a commercial driver's license as defined in the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.) and a driver privilege card issued pursuant to § 46.2-328.3, issued under the laws of the Commonwealth authorizing the operation of a motor vehicle.

"Electric personal assistive mobility device" means a self-balancing two-nontandem-wheeled device that is designed to transport only one person and powered by an electric propulsion system that limits the device's maximum speed to 15 miles per hour or less. For purposes of Chapter 8 (§ 46.2-800 et seq.), an electric personal assistive mobility device shall be a vehicle when operated on a highway.

"Electric power-assisted bicycle" means a vehicle that travels on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground and is equipped with (i) pedals that allow propulsion by human power, (ii) a seat for the use of the rider, and (iii) an electric motor with an input of no more than 750 watts. Electric power-assisted bicycles shall be classified as follows:

1. "Class one" means an electric power-assisted bicycle equipped with a motor that provides assistance only when the rider is pedaling and that ceases to provide assistance when the bicycle reaches a speed of 20 miles per hour;

2. "Class two" means an electric power-assisted bicycle equipped with a motor that may be used exclusively to propel the bicycle and that ceases to provide assistance when the bicycle reaches the speed of 20 miles per hour; and

3. "Class three" means an electric power-assisted bicycle equipped with a motor that provides assistance only when the rider is pedaling and that ceases to provide assistance when the bicycle reaches the speed of 28 miles per hour.

For the purposes of Chapter 8 (§ 46.2-800 et seq.), an electric power-assisted bicycle shall be a vehicle when operated on a highway.

"Essential parts" means all integral parts and body parts, the removal, alteration, or substitution of which will tend to conceal the identity of a vehicle.

"Farm tractor" means every motor vehicle designed and used as a farm, agricultural, or horticultural implement for drawing plows, mowing machines, and other farm, agricultural, or horticultural machinery and implements, including self-propelled mowers designed and used for mowing lawns.

"Farm utility vehicle" means a vehicle that is powered by a motor and is designed for off-road use and is used as a farm, agricultural, or horticultural service vehicle, generally having four or more wheels, bench seating for the operator and a passenger, a steering wheel for control, and a cargo bed. "Farm utility vehicle" does not include pickup or panel trucks, golf carts, low-speed vehicles, or riding lawn mowers.

"Federal safety requirements" means applicable provisions of 49 U.S.C. § 30101 et seq. and all administrative regulations and policies adopted pursuant thereto.

"Financial responsibility" means the ability to respond in damages for liability thereafter incurred arising out of the ownership, maintenance, use, or operation of a motor vehicle, in the amounts provided for in § 46.2-472.

"Foreign market vehicle" means any motor vehicle originally manufactured outside the United States, which was not manufactured in accordance with 49 U.S.C. § 30101 et seq. and the policies and regulations adopted pursuant to that Act, and for which a Virginia title or registration is sought.

"Foreign vehicle" means every motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer that is brought into the Commonwealth otherwise than in the ordinary course of business by or through a manufacturer or dealer and that has not been registered in the Commonwealth.

"Golf cart" means a self-propelled vehicle that is designed to transport persons playing golf and their equipment on a golf course.

"Governing body" means the board of supervisors of a county, council of a city, or council of a town, as context may require.

"Gross weight" means the aggregate weight of a vehicle or combination of vehicles and the load thereon.

"Highway" means the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel in the Commonwealth, including the streets and alleys, and, for law-enforcement purposes, (i) the entire width between the boundary lines of all private roads or private streets that have been specifically designated "highways" by an ordinance adopted by the governing body of the county, city, or town in which such private roads or streets are located and (ii) the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place used for purposes of vehicular travel on any property owned, leased, or controlled by the United States government and located in the Commonwealth.

"Intersection" means (i) the area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curblines or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways that join one another at, or approximately at, right angles, or the area within which vehicles traveling on different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict; (ii) where a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of each roadway of such divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as a separate intersection, in the event such intersecting highway also includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of two roadways of such highways shall be regarded as a separate intersection; or (iii) for purposes only of authorizing installation of traffic-control devices, every crossing of a highway or street at grade by a pedestrian crosswalk.

"Lane-use control signal" means a signal face displaying indications to permit or prohibit the use of specific lanes of a roadway or to indicate the impending prohibition of such use.

"Law-enforcement officer" means any officer authorized to direct or regulate traffic or to make arrests for violations of this title or local ordinances authorized by law. For the purposes of access to law-enforcement databases regarding motor vehicle registration and ownership only, "law-enforcement officer" also includes city and county commissioners of the revenue and treasurers, together with their duly designated deputies and employees, when such officials are actually engaged in the enforcement of §§ 46.2-752, 46.2-753, and 46.2-754 and local ordinances enacted thereunder.

"License plate" means a device containing letters, numerals, or a combination of both, attached to a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer to indicate that the vehicle is properly registered with the Department.

"Light" means a device for producing illumination or the illumination produced by the device.

"Low-speed vehicle" means any four-wheeled electrically powered or gas-powered vehicle, except a motor vehicle or low-speed vehicle that is used exclusively for agricultural or horticultural purposes or a golf cart, whose maximum speed is greater than 20 miles per hour but not greater than 25 miles per hour and is manufactured to comply with safety standards contained in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, § 571.500.

"Manufactured home" means a structure subject to federal regulation, transportable in one or more sections, which in the traveling mode is eight body feet or more in width or 40 body feet or more in length, or, when erected on site, is 320 or more square feet, and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air conditioning, and electrical systems contained therein. "Manufactured home" does not include a park model recreational vehicle, which is a vehicle that is (i) designed and marketed as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, travel, or seasonal use; (ii) not permanently affixed to real property for use as a permanent dwelling; (iii) built on a single chassis mounted on wheels; and (iv) certified by the manufacturer as complying with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) A119.5 Park Model Recreational Vehicle Standard.

"Military surplus motor vehicle" means a multipurpose or tactical vehicle that was manufactured by or under the direction of the United States Armed Forces for off-road use and subsequently authorized for sale to civilians. "Military surplus motor vehicle" does not include specialized mobile equipment as defined in § 46.2-700, trailers, or semitrailers.

"Moped" means every vehicle that travels on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground that (i) has a seat that is no less than 24 inches in height, measured from the middle of the seat perpendicular to the ground; (ii) has a gasoline, electric, or hybrid motor that (a) displaces 50 cubic centimeters or less or (b) has an input of 1500 watts or less; (iii) is power-driven, with or without pedals that allow propulsion by human power; and (iv) is not operated at speeds in excess of 35 miles per hour. "Moped" does not include an electric power-assisted bicycle or a motorized skateboard or scooter. For purposes of this title, a moped shall be a motorcycle when operated at speeds in excess of 35 miles per hour. For purposes of Chapter 8 (§ 46.2-800 et seq.), a moped shall be a vehicle while operated on a highway.

"Motor-driven cycle" means every motorcycle that has a gasoline engine that (i) displaces less than 150 cubic centimeters; (ii) has a seat less than 24 inches in height, measured from the middle of the seat perpendicular to the ground; and (iii) has no manufacturer-issued vehicle identification number.

"Motor home" means every private motor vehicle with a normal seating capacity of not more than 10 persons, including the driver, designed primarily for use as living quarters for human beings.

"Motor vehicle" means every vehicle as defined in this section that is self-propelled or designed for self-propulsion except as otherwise provided in this title. Any structure designed, used, or maintained primarily to be loaded on or affixed to a motor vehicle to provide a mobile dwelling, sleeping place, office, or commercial space shall be considered a part of a motor vehicle. Except as otherwise provided, for the purposes of this title, any device herein defined as a bicycle, electric personal assistive mobility device, electric power-assisted bicycle, motorized skateboard or scooter, moped, or personal delivery device shall be deemed not to be a motor vehicle.

"Motorcycle" means every motor vehicle designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground and is capable of traveling at speeds in excess of 35 miles per hour. "Motorcycle" does not include any "autocycle," "electric personal assistive mobility device," "electric power-assisted bicycle," "farm tractor," "golf cart," "moped," "motorized skateboard or scooter," "utility vehicle," or "wheelchair or wheelchair conveyance" as defined in this section.

"Motorized skateboard or scooter" means every vehicle, regardless of the number of its wheels in contact with the ground, that (i) is designed to allow an operator to sit or stand, (ii) has no manufacturer-issued vehicle identification number, (iii) is powered in whole or in part by an electric motor, (iv) weighs less than 100 pounds, and (v) has a speed of no more than 20 miles per hour on a paved level surface when powered solely by the electric motor. "Motorized skateboard or scooter" includes vehicles with or without handlebars but does not include electric personal assistive mobility devices or electric power-assisted bicycles.

"Nonresident" means every person who is not domiciled in the Commonwealth, except: (i) any foreign corporation that is authorized to do business in the Commonwealth by the State Corporation Commission shall be a resident of the Commonwealth for the purpose of this title; in the case of corporations incorporated in the Commonwealth but doing business outside the Commonwealth, only such principal place of business or branches located within the Commonwealth shall be dealt with as residents of the Commonwealth; (ii) a person who becomes engaged in a gainful occupation in the Commonwealth for a period exceeding 60 days shall be a resident for the purposes of this title except for the purposes of Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.); (iii) a person, other than (a) a nonresident student as defined in this section or (b) a person who is serving a full-time church service or proselyting mission of not more than 36 months and who is not gainfully employed, who has actually resided in the Commonwealth for a period of six months, whether employed or not, or who has registered a motor vehicle, listing an address in the Commonwealth in the application for registration, shall be deemed a resident for the purposes of this title, except for the purposes of the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.).

"Nonresident student" means every nonresident person who is enrolled as a full-time student in an accredited institution of learning in the Commonwealth and who is not gainfully employed.

"Off-road motorcycle" means every motorcycle designed exclusively for off-road use by an individual rider with not more than two wheels in contact with the ground. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, for the purposes of this chapter off-road motorcycles shall be deemed to be "motorcycles."

"Operation or use for rent or for hire, for the transportation of passengers, or as a property carrier for compensation," and "business of transporting persons or property" mean any owner or operator of any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer operating over the highways in the Commonwealth who accepts or receives compensation for the service, directly or indirectly; but these terms do not mean a "truck lessor" as defined in this section and do not include persons or businesses that receive compensation for delivering a product that they themselves sell or produce, where a separate charge is made for delivery of the product or the cost of delivery is included in the sale price of the product, but where the person or business does not derive all or a substantial portion of its income from the transportation of persons or property except as part of a sales transaction.

"Operator" or "driver" means every person who either (i) drives or is in actual physical control of a motor vehicle on a highway or (ii) is exercising control over or steering a vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle.

"Owner" means a person who holds the legal title to a vehicle; however, if a vehicle is the subject of an agreement for its conditional sale or lease with the right of purchase on performance of the conditions stated in the agreement and with an immediate right of possession vested in the conditional vendee or lessee or if a mortgagor of a vehicle is entitled to possession, then the conditional vendee or lessee or mortgagor shall be the owner for the purpose of this title. In all such instances when the rent paid by the lessee includes charges for services of any nature or when the lease does not provide that title shall pass to the lessee on payment of the rent stipulated, the lessor shall be regarded as the owner of the vehicle, and the vehicle shall be subject to such requirements of this title as are applicable to vehicles operated for compensation. A "truck lessor" as defined in this section shall be regarded as the owner, and his vehicles shall be subject to such requirements of this title as are applicable to vehicles of private carriers.

"Passenger car" means every motor vehicle other than a motorcycle or autocycle designed and used primarily for the transportation of no more than 10 persons, including the driver.

"Payment device" means any credit card as defined in 15 U.S.C. § 1602 (k) or any "accepted card or other means of access" set forth in 15 U.S.C. § 1693a (1). For the purposes of this title, this definition shall also include a card that enables a person to pay for transactions through the use of value stored on the card itself.

"Personal delivery device" means a powered device operated primarily on sidewalks and crosswalks and intended primarily for the transport of property on public rights-of-way that does not exceed 500 pounds, excluding cargo, and is capable of navigating with or without the active control or monitoring of a natural person. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a personal delivery device shall not be considered a motor vehicle or a vehicle.

"Personal delivery device operator" means an entity or its agent that exercises direct physical control or monitoring over the navigation system and operation of a personal delivery device. For the purposes of this definition, "agent" means a person not less than 16 years of age charged by an entity with the responsibility of navigating and operating a personal delivery device. "Personal delivery device operator" does not include (i) an entity or person who requests the services of a personal delivery device to transport property or (ii) an entity or person who only arranges for and dispatches the requested services of a personal delivery device.

"Pickup or panel truck" means (i) every motor vehicle designed for the transportation of property and having a registered gross weight of 7,500 pounds or less or (ii) every motor vehicle registered for personal use, designed to transport property on its own structure independent of any other vehicle, and having a registered gross weight in excess of 7,500 pounds but not in excess of 10,000 pounds.

"Private road or driveway" means every way in private ownership and used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by other persons.

"Reconstructed vehicle" means every vehicle of a type required to be registered under this title materially altered from its original construction by the removal, addition, or substitution of new or used essential parts. Such vehicles, at the discretion of the Department, shall retain their original vehicle identification number, line-make, and model year. Except as otherwise provided in this title, this definition shall not include a "converted electric vehicle" as defined in this section.

"Replica vehicle" means every vehicle of a type required to be registered under this title not fully constructed by a licensed manufacturer but either constructed or assembled from components. Such components may be from a single vehicle, multiple vehicles, a kit, parts, or fabricated components. The kit may be made up of "major components" as defined in § 46.2-1600, a full body, or a full chassis, or a combination of these parts. The vehicle shall resemble a vehicle of distinctive name, line-make, model, or type as produced by a licensed manufacturer or manufacturer no longer in business and is not a reconstructed or specially constructed vehicle as herein defined.

"Residence district" means the territory contiguous to a highway, not comprising a business district, where 75 percent or more of the property abutting such highway, on either side of the highway, for a distance of 300 feet or more along the highway consists of land improved for dwelling purposes, or is occupied by dwellings, or consists of land or buildings in use for business purposes, or consists of territory zoned residential or territory in residential subdivisions created under Chapter 22 (§ 15.2-2200 et seq.) of Title 15.2.

"Revoke" or "revocation" means that the document or privilege revoked is not subject to renewal or restoration except through reapplication after the expiration of the period of revocation.

"Roadway" means that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the shoulder. A highway may include two or more roadways if divided by a physical barrier or barriers or an unpaved area.

"Safety zone" means the area officially set apart within a roadway for the exclusive use of pedestrians and that is protected or is so marked or indicated by plainly visible signs.

"School bus" means any motor vehicle, other than a station wagon, automobile, truck, or commercial bus, which is: (i) designed and used primarily for the transportation of pupils to and from public, private or religious schools, or used for the transportation of the mentally or physically handicapped to and from a sheltered workshop; (ii) painted yellow and bears the words "School Bus" in black letters of a specified size on front and rear; and (iii) is equipped with warning devices prescribed in § 46.2-1090. A yellow school bus may have a white roof provided such vehicle is painted in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Department of Education.

"Semitrailer" means every vehicle of the trailer type so designed and used in conjunction with a motor vehicle that some part of its own weight and that of its own load rests on or is carried by another vehicle.

"Shared-use path" means a bikeway that is physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or barrier and is located either within the highway right-of-way or within a separate right-of-way. Shared-use paths may also be used by pedestrians, skaters, users of wheel chairs or wheel chair conveyances, joggers, and other nonmotorized users and personal delivery devices.

"Shoulder" means that part of a highway between the portion regularly traveled by vehicular traffic and the lateral curbline or ditch.

"Sidewalk" means the portion of a street between the curb lines, or the lateral lines of a roadway, and the adjacent property lines, intended for use by pedestrians.

"Snowmobile" means a self-propelled vehicle designed to travel on snow or ice, steered by skis or runners, and supported in whole or in part by one or more skis, belts, or cleats.

"Special construction and forestry equipment" means any vehicle which is designed primarily for highway construction, highway maintenance, earth moving, timber harvesting or other construction or forestry work and which is not designed for the transportation of persons or property on a public highway.

"Specially constructed vehicle" means any vehicle that was not originally constructed under a distinctive name, make, model, or type by a generally recognized manufacturer of vehicles and not a reconstructed vehicle as herein defined.

"Stinger-steered automobile or watercraft transporter" means an automobile or watercraft transporter configured as a semitrailer combination wherein the fifth wheel is located on a drop frame behind and below the rearmost axle of the power unit.

"Superintendent" means the Superintendent of the Department of State Police of the Commonwealth.

"Suspend" or "suspension" means that the document or privilege suspended has been temporarily withdrawn, but may be reinstated following the period of suspension unless it has expired prior to the end of the period of suspension.

"Tow truck" means a motor vehicle for hire (i) designed to lift, pull, or carry another vehicle by means of a hoist or other mechanical apparatus and (ii) having a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of at least 10,000 pounds. "Tow truck" also includes vehicles designed with a ramp on wheels and a hydraulic lift with a capacity to haul or tow another vehicle, commonly referred to as "rollbacks." "Tow truck" does not include any "automobile or watercraft transporter," "stinger-steered automobile or watercraft transporter," or "tractor truck" as those terms are defined in this section.

"Towing and recovery operator" means a person engaged in the business of (i) removing disabled vehicles, parts of vehicles, their cargoes, and other objects to facilities for repair or safekeeping and (ii) restoring to the highway or other location where they either can be operated or removed to other locations for repair or safekeeping vehicles that have come to rest in places where they cannot be operated.

"Toy vehicle" means any motorized or propellant-driven device that has no manufacturer-issued vehicle identification number that is designed or used to carry any person or persons, on any number of wheels, bearings, glides, blades, runners, or a cushion of air. "Toy vehicle" does not include electric personal assistive mobility devices, electric power-assisted bicycles, mopeds, motorized skateboards or scooters, or motorcycles, nor does it include any nonmotorized or nonpropellant-driven devices such as bicycles, roller skates, or skateboards.

"Tractor truck" means every motor vehicle designed and used primarily for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry a load other than a part of the load and weight of the vehicle attached thereto.

"Traffic control device" means a sign, signal, marking, or other device used to regulate, warn, or guide traffic placed on, over, or adjacent to a street, highway, private road open to public travel, pedestrian facility, or shared-use path by authority of a public agency or official having jurisdiction, or in the case of a private road open to public travel, by authority of the private owner or private official having jurisdiction.

"Traffic infraction" means a violation of law punishable as provided in § 46.2-113, which is neither a felony nor a misdemeanor.

"Traffic lane" or "lane" means that portion of a roadway designed or designated to accommodate the forward movement of a single line of vehicles.

"Trailer" means every vehicle without motive power designed for carrying property or passengers wholly on its own structure and for being drawn by a motor vehicle, including manufactured homes.

"Truck" means every motor vehicle designed to transport property on its own structure independent of any other vehicle and having a registered gross weight in excess of 7,500 pounds. "Truck" does not include any pickup or panel truck.

"Truck lessor" means a person who holds the legal title to any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer that is the subject of a bona fide written lease for a term of one year or more to another person, provided that: (i) neither the lessor nor the lessee is a common carrier by motor vehicle or restricted common carrier by motor vehicle or contract carrier by motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-2000; (ii) the leased motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer is used exclusively for the transportation of property of the lessee; (iii) the lessor is not employed in any capacity by the lessee; (iv) the operator of the leased motor vehicle is a bona fide employee of the lessee and is not employed in any capacity by the lessor; and (v) a true copy of the lease, verified by affidavit of the lessor, is filed with the Commissioner.

"Utility vehicle" means a motor vehicle that is (i) designed for off-road use, (ii) powered by a motor, and (iii) used for general maintenance, security, agricultural, or horticultural purposes. "Utility vehicle" does not include riding lawn mowers.

"Vehicle" means every device in, on or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn on a highway, except personal delivery devices and devices moved by human power or used exclusively on stationary rails or tracks. For the purposes of Chapter 8 (§ 46.2-800 et seq.), bicycles, electric personal assistive mobility devices, electric power-assisted bicycles, motorized skateboards or scooters, and mopeds shall be vehicles while operated on a highway.

"Watercraft transporter" means any tractor truck, lowboy, vehicle, or combination, including vehicles or combinations that transport watercraft on their power unit, designed and used exclusively for the transportation of watercraft.

"Wheel chair or wheel chair conveyance" means a chair or seat equipped with wheels, typically used to provide mobility for persons who, by reason of physical disability, are otherwise unable to move about as pedestrians. "Wheel chair or wheel chair conveyance" includes both three-wheeled and four-wheeled devices. So long as it is operated only as provided in § 46.2-677, a self-propelled wheel chair or self-propelled wheel chair conveyance shall not be considered a motor vehicle.

Code 1950, §§ 46-1, 46-169, 46-185, 46-186, 46-343; 1954, c. 59; 1958, cc. 501, 541, §§ 46.1-1, 46.1-161; 1964, c. 618; 1966, c. 643; 1968, cc. 285, 641, 653, 685; 1972, cc. 433, 609; 1974, c. 347; 1975, cc. 382, 426; 1976, c. 372; 1977, cc. 252, 585; 1978, cc. 36, 550, 605; 1979, c. 100; 1980, c. 51; 1981, c. 585; 1983, c. 386; 1984, cc. 404, 780; 1985, c. 447; 1986, cc. 72, 613; 1987, c. 151; 1988, cc. 107, 452, 865; 1989, cc. 645, 705, 727; 1990, cc. 45, 418; 1992, c. 98; 1993, c. 133; 1994, c. 866; 1996, cc. 943, 994; 1997, cc. 9, 186, 486, 783, 904; 1998, c. 888; 1999, cc. 67, 77; 2001, c. 834; 2002, cc. 214, 234, 254; 2003, cc. 29, 46; 2004, cc. 746, 796; 2005, cc. 310, 928; 2006, cc. 529, 538, 540, 874, 891, 896; 2007, cc. 209, 325, 366, 393; 2010, c. 135; 2011, c. 128; 2012, c. 177; 2013, cc. 128, 400, 783; 2014, cc. 53, 256; 2016, cc. 428, 500, 764; 2017, cc. 251, 370, 554, 788; 2018, c. 555; 2019, c. 780; 2020, cc. 59, 260, 1269; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 421.

§ 46.2-100.1. Certified mail; subsequent mail or notices may be sent by regular mail.

Whenever in this title the Commissioner or the Department is required to send any mail or notice by certified mail and such mail or notice is sent certified mail, return receipt requested, then any subsequent, identical mail or notice that is sent by the Commissioner or the Department may be sent by regular mail.

2011, c. 566.

§ 46.2-101. Applicability of title to vehicles on certain toll roads and parking facilities.

This title shall apply to any vehicle and any person operating or owning a vehicle operated on any toll facility controlled by the Department of Transportation or any political subdivision of the Commonwealth.

This title shall also apply to any vehicle and any person operating or owning a vehicle operated on or in parking lots, parking garages, or other parking facilities owned, controlled, or leased by the Commonwealth or any of its agencies, instrumentalities, or political subdivisions.

1958, c. 541, § 46.1-21; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-102. Enforcement by law-enforcement officers; officers to be uniformed; officers to be paid fixed salaries.

State police officers and law-enforcement officers of every county, city, town, or other political subdivision of the Commonwealth shall enforce the provisions of this title punishable as felonies, misdemeanors, or traffic infractions. Additionally, notwithstanding § 52-22, state police officers may enforce local ordinances, adopted under subsection G of § 46.2-752, requiring the obtaining and displaying of local motor vehicle licenses. Fifty percent of the revenue collected from such enforcement shall be remitted by the locality to the Department of State Police and disposed of by the Department to cover its costs of operation. Every law-enforcement officer shall be uniformed at the time of the enforcement or shall display his badge or other sign of authority. All officers making arrests incident to the enforcement of this title shall be paid fixed salaries for their services and shall have no interest in, nor be permitted by law to accept the benefit of, any fine or fee resulting from the arrest or conviction of an offender against any provision of this title.

With the consent of the landowner, any such officer or other uniformed employee of the local law-enforcement agency may patrol the landowner's property to enforce state, county, city, or town motor vehicle registration and licensing requirements.

Any law-enforcement officer may patrol the streets and roads within subdivisions of real property or within a condominium pursuant to the Virginia Condominium Act (§ 55.1-1900 et seq.) or land submitted to a horizontal property regime pursuant to the Horizontal Property Act (§ 55.1-2000 et seq.), which streets and roads are maintained by the owners of the lots or parcels of land within the subdivision or the owners of condominium units within any horizontal property regime or any association of owners, on the request or with the consent of the owners or association of owners, to enforce the provisions of this title punishable as felonies, misdemeanors, or traffic infractions.

Code 1950, § 46-14; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-6; 1972, c. 700; 1975, c. 516; 1980, c. 523; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 132.

§ 46.2-103. Stopping vehicles for inspection or to secure information.

Except as prohibited by § 19.2-59, on his request or signal, any law-enforcement officer who is in uniform or displays his badge or other sign of authority may:

1. Stop any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer to inspect its equipment, operation, manufacturer's serial or engine number; or

2. Stop any property-carrying motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer to inspect its contents or load or to obtain other necessary information.

Nothing in this section, however, shall be construed to authorize the establishment on any highway of police check-points where the only vehicles subject to inspection are motorcycles.

Code 1950, § 46-16; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-8; 1989, c. 727; 2012, c. 11.

§ 46.2-104. Possession of registration cards; exhibiting registration card and licenses; failure to carry license or registration card.

The operator of any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer being operated on the highways in the Commonwealth, shall have in his possession: (i) the registration card issued by the Department or the registration card issued by the state or country in which the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer is registered, and (ii) his driver's license, learner's permit, or temporary driver's permit.

The owner or operator of any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer shall stop on the signal of any law-enforcement officer who is in uniform or shows his badge or other sign of authority and shall, on the officer's request, exhibit his registration card, driver's license, learner's permit, or temporary driver's permit and write his name in the presence of the officer, if so required, for the purpose of establishing his identity.

Every person licensed by the Department as a driver or issued a learner's or temporary driver's permit who fails to carry his license or permit, and the registration card for the vehicle which he operates, shall be guilty of a traffic infraction and upon conviction punished by a fine of ten dollars. However, if any person summoned to appear before a court for failure to display his license, permit, or registration card presents, before the return date of the summons, to the court a license or permit issued to him prior to the time the summons was issued or a registration card, as the case may be, or appears pursuant to the summons and produces before the court a license or permit issued to him prior to the time the summons was issued or a registration card, as the case may be, he shall, upon payment of all applicable court costs, have complied with the provisions of this section.

Code 1950, §§ 46-15, 46-80; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-7; 1964, c. 205; 1972, c. 362; 1978, cc. 500, 605; 1984, c. 780; 1988, c. 74; 1989, c. 727; 2008, cc. 551, 691; 2009, c. 756.

§ 46.2-105. Making false affidavit or swearing falsely, perjury.

Any person who knowingly makes any false affidavit or knowingly swears or affirms falsely to any matter or thing required by this title or the Commissioner incidental to his administration of this title to be sworn to or affirmed shall be guilty of perjury.

Code 1950, § 46-66; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-15; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-105.1. Unlawful procurement of certificate, license, or permit; unauthorized possession of examination or answers; unlawful distribution of false operator's license; penalty.

A. It shall be unlawful:

1. For any person to procure, or assist another to procure, through theft, fraud, or other illegal means, a certificate, license, or permit, from the Department of Motor Vehicles;

2. For any person, other than an authorized agent of the Department of Motor Vehicles, to procure or have in his possession or furnish to another person, prior to the beginning of an examination, any question intended to be used by the Department of Motor Vehicles in conducting an examination;

3. For any person to receive or furnish to any person taking an examination, prior to or during an examination, any written or printed material purporting to be answers to questions intended to be used by the Department of Motor Vehicles in conducting an examination;

4. For any person to communicate by any means to any person taking an examination, during an examination, any information purporting to be answers to questions intended to be used by the Department of Motor Vehicles in conducting an examination;

5. For any person to attempt to procure, through theft, fraud or other illegal means, any questions intended to be used by the Department of Motor Vehicles in conducting an examination, or the answers to the questions; or

6. To promise or offer any valuable or other consideration to a person having access to the questions or answers as an inducement to procure for delivery to the promisor, or any other person, a copy or copies of any questions or answers.

B. If an examination is divided into separate parts, each of the parts shall be deemed an examination for the purposes of this section.

C. Any violation of any provision of subsection A of this section shall be punishable as a Class 2 misdemeanor.

D. Any person or entity other than the Department of Motor Vehicles that sells, gives, or distributes, or attempts to sell, give or distribute any document purporting to be a license to operate a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

1990, c. 964; 2006, c. 871; 2015, c. 464.

§ 46.2-105.2. Obtaining documents from the Department when not entitled thereto; penalty.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to obtain a Virginia driver's license, special identification card, vehicle registration, certificate of title, or other document issued by the Department if such person has not satisfied all legal and procedural requirements for the issuance thereof, or is otherwise not legally entitled thereto, including obtaining any document issued by the Department through the use of counterfeit, forged, or altered documents.

B. It shall be unlawful to aid any person to obtain any driver's license, special identification card, vehicle registration, certificate of title, or other document in violation of the provisions of subsection A.

C. It shall be unlawful to knowingly possess or use for any purpose any driver's license, special identification card, vehicle registration, certificate of title, or other document obtained in violation of the provisions of subsection A.

D. A violation of any provision of this section shall constitute a Class 2 misdemeanor if a person is charged and convicted of a violation of this section that involved the unlawful obtaining or possession of any document issued by the Department for the purpose of engaging in any age-limited activity, including but not limited to obtaining, possessing, or consuming alcoholic beverages. However, if a person is charged and convicted of any other violation of this section, such offense shall constitute a Class 6 felony.

E. Whenever it appears to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that any driver's license, special identification card, vehicle registration, certificate of title, or other document issued by the Department has been obtained in violation of this section, it may be cancelled by the Commissioner, who shall mail notice of the cancellation to the address of record maintained by the Department.

1992, c. 99; 2002, cc. 767, 834; 2003, cc. 817, 819.

§ 46.2-106. Reciprocal agreements entered into by Governor.

The Governor may enter into reciprocal agreements on behalf of the Commonwealth with the appropriate authorities of any state of the United States with respect to all taxes imposed by the Commonwealth and by any other state of the United States on motor vehicles, the operation of motor vehicles, or any transaction incident to the operation of motor vehicles.

Except as provided in this section, all agreements entered into by the Governor with respect to any subject of reciprocity as to which provision is expressly made by statute shall conform to the provisions of that statute. As to any other subject of reciprocity appropriate to the powers vested in the Governor by this section, the Governor may agree to whatever terms and conditions as in his judgment are best calculated to promote the interests of the Commonwealth. Except as provided in this section, it is the policy of the Commonwealth to grant reciprocity to the residents of another state when that state grants reciprocity to the residents of the Commonwealth.

All agreements entered into by the Governor pursuant to this section shall be reduced to writing, and a copy shall be furnished to the Secretary of the Commonwealth and the Superintendent of State Police.

Code 1950, §§ 46-21, 46-22; 1956, c. 354; 1958, c. 541, §§ 46.1-19, 46.1-20; 1964, c. 253; 1989, c. 727; 1995, cc. 744, 803; 2003, c. 299.

§ 46.2-107. Lists of vehicles used for rent or hire, or by contract carriers.

Every person engaged in hiring or renting motor vehicles for the transportation of passengers or property and every contract carrier by motor vehicle of passengers or property who operates, or who should operate, under a permit issued by the State Corporation Commission or by the Interstate Commerce Commission, as provided by law, shall furnish to the Commissioner, whenever required to do so, a list and description of motor vehicles used in his business.

Code 1950, § 46-157; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-151; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-108. Records required of persons renting motor vehicles without drivers; inspections; insurance.

A. Every person engaged in the business of renting motor vehicles without drivers who rents any vehicle without a driver, otherwise than as a part of a bona fide transaction involving the sale of the motor vehicle, shall maintain a record of the identity of the person to whom the vehicle is rented and the exact time the vehicle is the subject of the rental or in possession of the person renting and having the use of the vehicle. These records shall be public records and open to inspection by any person damaged as to his person or property by the operation of the vehicle or by law-enforcement personnel in the discharge of their duties. Any person who has been damaged as to his person or property may require a production of the written record in person or by his authorized agent or attorney.

B. It shall be unlawful for any person who rents a motor vehicle as provided in this section to fail to make or have in possession or to refuse an inspection of the record required in this section.

C. The Commissioner shall prescribe and the owner shall use the form for the keeping of the record provided in this section.

D. No person engaged in the business of renting automobiles and trucks without drivers shall rent any vehicle without a driver unless the vehicle is an insured motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-705. A violation of this subsection shall constitute a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 46-191; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-14; 1960, c. 141; 1972, c. 373; 1978, c. 605; 1980, c. 9; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-109. Reports by persons in charge of garages and repair shops; vehicles equipped with bullet-proof glass or smoke projectors or struck by bullets.

The person in charge of any garage or repair shop to which is brought any motor vehicle equipped with bullet-proof glass or any smoke screen device or that shows evidence of having been struck by a bullet shall report in writing, on forms furnished by the Superintendent of State Police, to the nearest police station or to the State Police, within twenty-four hours after the motor vehicle is received, the engine number, registration number, serial number or identification number, and the name and address of the owner or operator of the vehicle if known.

Code 1950, §§ 46-17.1, 46-17.3; 1952, c. 538; 1958, c. 541, §§ 46.1-10, 46.1-12; 1960, c. 119; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-110. Right to inspect vehicles in garages.

Any law-enforcement officer or Department officer or employee who is in uniform or exhibits a badge or other sign of authority shall have the right to inspect any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer in any public garage or repair shop for the purpose of locating stolen motor vehicles, trailers, and semitrailers and for investigating the title and registration of motor vehicles, trailers, and semitrailers. For this purpose the owner of any garage or repair shop shall permit any law-enforcement officer or Department officer or employee freely to make investigation as authorized in this section.

Code 1950, § 46-17; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-9; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-111. Flares and other signals relating to stopped commercial motor vehicles.

A. Whenever any commercial motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-341.4 is stopped on any roadway or on the shoulder of any highway in the Commonwealth at any time for any cause other than stops necessary to comply with traffic control devices, lawfully installed signs, or signals of law-enforcement officers, the operator of such vehicle shall immediately activate the vehicular hazard warning signal flashers and as soon as possible, but in any event within 10 minutes of stopping, place or cause to be placed on the roadway or shoulder three red reflectorized triangular warning devices of a type approved by the Superintendent. One of the red reflectorized triangular warning devices shall be placed in the center of the lane of traffic or shoulder occupied by the stopped vehicle and not less than 100 feet therefrom in the direction of traffic approaching in that lane, a second not less than 100 feet from such vehicle in the opposite direction and a third at the traffic side of such vehicle not closer than 10 feet from its front or rear. However, if such vehicle is stopped within 500 feet of a curve or crest of a hill, or other obstruction to view, the red reflectorized triangular warning devices in that direction shall be so placed as to afford ample warning to other users of the highway, but in no case less than 500 feet from the stopped vehicle. Vehicular hazard warning signal flashers shall continue to flash until the operator has placed the three red reflectorized triangular warning devices required in this subsection. The placement of red reflectorized triangular warning devices is not required within the corporate limits of cities unless, during the time which lights are required to be illuminated on motor vehicles by § 46.2-1030, the street or highway lighting is insufficient to make such vehicle clearly discernable at a distance of 500 feet to a person on the highway. Flares or torches of a type approved by the Superintendent may be used in lieu of red reflectorized warning devices. In the event that the operator of the stopped vehicle elects to use flares or torches in lieu of red reflectorized triangular warning devices, the operator shall ensure that at least one flare or torch remains lighted at each of the prescribed locations as long as the vehicle is stopped. If gasoline or any other flammable liquid or combustible liquid or gas seeps or leaks from a fuel container or a commercial motor vehicle stopped upon a highway, no emergency warning signal producing a flame shall be lighted or placed except at such a distance from any such liquid or gas as will ensure the prevention of a fire or explosion.

The exception provided in this subsection with respect to highways within the corporate limits of cities shall not apply to any portion of any interstate highway within the corporate limits of any city. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any vehicle in a work zone protected by flagmen or approved temporary traffic control channeling devices, as required by the Virginia Work Area Protection Manual or to any vehicle displaying a flashing amber light authorized by § 46.2-1025 when such vehicle is (i) used for the principal purpose of towing or servicing disabled vehicles, or (ii) engaged in road or utility construction or maintenance.

B. If any such vehicle is used for the transportation of flammable liquids in bulk, whether loaded or empty, or for transporting inflammable gases, red reflectorized triangular warning devices or red electric lanterns of a type approved by the Superintendent of State Police shall be used. Such reflectors or lanterns shall be lighted and placed on the roadway in the manner provided in subsection A of this section.

C. [Repealed.]

Code 1950, §§ 46-260, 46-261, 46-262; 1950, p. 698; 1956, c. 56; 1958, c. 541, §§ 46.1-255 to 46.1-257; 1960, c. 156; 1966, c. 122; 1968, c. 155; 1970, c. 190; 1989, c. 727; 1999, c. 77; 2003, c. 971.

§ 46.2-112. Tampering with odometer; penalty; civil liability.

A. It shall be unlawful to knowingly cause, either personally or through an agent, the changing, tampering with, disconnection, or nonconnection of any odometer or similar device designed to show by numbers or words the distance which a motor vehicle has traveled or the use it has sustained.

B. It shall be unlawful for any person to sell a motor vehicle if he knows or should reasonably know that the odometer or similar device of the motor vehicle has been changed, tampered with, or disconnected to reflect a lesser mileage or use, unless he gives clear and unequivocal notice of such tampering, etc., or of his reasonable belief thereof, to the purchaser in writing prior to the sale. In a prosecution under this subsection, evidence that a person or his agent has changed, tampered with, disconnected, or failed to connect an odometer or similar device of a motor vehicle shall constitute prima facie evidence of knowledge thereof.

C. It shall be unlawful for any person to advertise for sale, sell, or use any device designed primarily for the purpose of resetting the odometer or similar device of a motor vehicle in any manner.

D. The provisions of this section shall not apply to the following:

1. The changing of odometer or similar device readings registered in the course of predelivery testing of any motor vehicle by its manufacturer prior to its delivery to a dealer.

2. Any necessary repair or replacement of an odometer or similar device, provided that the repaired or replaced odometer or similar device is forthwith set at a reading determined by the reading on the device immediately prior to repair or replacement plus a bona fide estimate of the use of the vehicle sustained between the period when the device ceased to accurately record that use and the time of repair or replacement. Compliance with the requirements of 49 USC § 32704 of the Federal Odometer Act in the service, repair, or replacement of an odometer shall be deemed compliance with this subdivision.

3. Passenger vehicles having a capacity in excess of 15 persons.

4. Trucks having a net weight in excess of 10,000 pounds.

E. Any person convicted of a violation of the provisions of subsections A through D shall, for a first offense, be fined not more than $10,000 and sentenced to a term of confinement in jail for not more than 12 months, either or both. Any person convicted of a subsequent offense under this section shall be fined not more than $50,000 and sentenced to a term of confinement in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than five years, either or both, for each offense if the offense is committed with the intent thereby to defraud another. Each violation of this section shall constitute a separate offense.

F. Any person who with intent to defraud violates subsection A or B shall be liable in a civil action in an amount equal to three times the amount of actual damages sustained or $3,000, whichever is greater. In the case of a successful action to enforce the foregoing liability, the costs of the action, together with reasonable attorney fees as determined by the court, shall be assessed against the person committing the violation. An action under this subsection shall be brought within two years from the date on which liability arises. For the purpose of this subsection, liability arises when the injured party discovers, or with due diligence should have discovered, the violation.

1972, c. 851, §§ 46.1-15.1 to 46.1-15.3; 1978, c. 294; 1986, c. 490; 1989, c. 727; 2012, cc. 32, 122.

§ 46.2-113. Violations of this title; penalties.

It shall be unlawful for any person to violate any of the provisions of this title, or any regulation adopted pursuant to this title, or local ordinances adopted pursuant to the authority granted in § 46.2-1300. Unless otherwise stated, these violations shall constitute traffic infractions punishable by a fine of not more than that provided for a Class 4 misdemeanor under § 18.2-11.

If it is found by the judge of a court of proper jurisdiction that the violation of any provision of this title (i) was a serious traffic violation as defined in § 46.2-341.20 and (ii) that such violation was committed while operating a vehicle or combination of vehicles used to transport property that either: (a) has a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds or (b) has a gross combination weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds inclusive of a towed vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 10,000 pounds, the judge may assess, in addition to any other penalty assessed, a further monetary penalty not exceeding $500.

1976, c. 135, § 46.1-16.01; 1977, c. 585; 1982, c. 681; 1989, c. 727; 1992, c. 533; 1997, c. 637; 2003, c. 844.

§ 46.2-114. Disposition of fines and forfeitures.

All fines or forfeitures collected on conviction of any person charged with a violation of any of the provisions of this title punishable as felonies, misdemeanors, or traffic infractions shall be paid into the state treasury to be credited to the Literary Fund unless a different form of payment is required specifically by this title.

Code 1950, § 46-20; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-18; 1989, c. 727; 2012, c. 408.

§ 46.2-115. Inapplicability of title on Tangier Island; adoption of local ordinances; penalties.

Except for this section, no provisions of this title shall apply in the Town of Tangier.

The council of the Town of Tangier may adopt such ordinances paralleling any provision of this title and adapt their provisions to suit the Town's unique situation. No penalty for any violation of any such ordinance, however, shall exceed the penalty imposed for a violation of the parallel provision of this title.

1995, c. 670.

§ 46.2-116. Registration with Department of Criminal Justice Services required for tow truck drivers; penalty.

A. As used in this section and §§ 46.2-117, 46.2-118, and 46.2-119:

"Consumer" means a person who (i) has vested ownership, dominion, or title to the vehicle; (ii) is the authorized agent of the owner as defined in clause (i); or (iii) is an employee, agent, or representative of an insurance company representing any party involved in a collision that resulted in a police-requested tow who represents in writing that the insurance company had obtained the oral or written consent of the title owner or his agent or the lessee of the vehicle to obtain possession of the vehicle.

"Department" means the Department of Criminal Justice Services.

"Tow truck driver" means an individual who drives a tow truck as defined in § 46.2-100.

"Towing and recovery operator" means any person engaging in the business of providing or offering to provide services involving the use of a tow truck and services incidental to use of a tow truck. "Towing and recovery operator" shall not include a franchised motor vehicle dealer as defined in § 46.2-1500 using a tow truck owned by a dealer when transporting a vehicle to or from a repair facility owned by the dealer when the dealer does not receive compensation from the vehicle owner for towing of the vehicle or when transporting a vehicle in which the dealer has an ownership or security interest.

B. On and after January 1, 2013, no tow truck driver shall drive any tow truck without being registered with the Department, except that this requirement shall not apply to any holder of a tow truck driver authorization document issued pursuant to former § 46.2-2814 until the expiration date of such document. The Department may offer a temporary registration or driver authorization document that is effective upon the submission of an application and that expires upon the issuance or denial of a permanent registration. Every applicant for an initial registration or renewal of registration pursuant to this section shall submit his registration application, fingerprints, and personal descriptive information to the Department and a nonrefundable application fee of $100. The Department shall forward the personal descriptive information along with the applicant's fingerprints through the Central Criminal Records Exchange to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the purpose of obtaining a national criminal history record check regarding such applicant. The cost of the fingerprinting and criminal history record check shall be paid by the applicant.

The Central Criminal Records Exchange, upon receipt of an applicant's record or notification that no record exists, shall make a report to the Department. If an applicant is denied registration as a tow truck driver because of the information appearing in his criminal history record, the Department shall notify the applicant that information obtained from the Central Criminal Records Exchange contributed to such denial. The information shall not be disseminated except as provided in this section.

C. 1. No registration shall be issued to any person who (i) is required to register with the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1 or in a substantially similar law of any other state, the United States, or any foreign jurisdiction; (ii) has been convicted within the 15 years prior to the date of the application of a violent crime as defined in subsection C of § 17.1-805 unless such person held a valid tow truck driver authorization document on January 1, 2013, issued by the Board of Towing and Recovery Operators pursuant to former Chapter 28 (§ 46.2-2800 et seq.), and has not been convicted of a violent crime as defined in subsection C of § 17.1-805 subsequent to the abolition of the Board; or (iii) has been convicted within the 15 years prior to the date of the application of any crime involving the driving of a tow truck, including drug or alcohol offenses, but not traffic infraction convictions.

2. The Department may deny a registration to any person who (i) has been convicted more than 15 years prior to the date of the application of a violent crime as defined in subsection C of § 17.1-805 or (ii) has been convicted more than 15 years prior to the date of the application of any crime involving the driving of a tow truck, including drug or alcohol offenses. The Department shall deny a registration to a person described in clause (i) or (ii) if the person has not completed all terms of probation or parole related to such conviction.

3. Any person registered pursuant to this section shall report to the Department within 10 days of conviction any convictions for felonies or misdemeanors that occur while he is registered with the Department.

D. Any tow truck driver failing to register with the Department as required by this section is guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor. A tow truck driver registered with the Department shall have such registration in his possession whenever driving a tow truck on the highways.

E. Registrations issued by the Department pursuant to this section shall be valid for a period not to exceed 24 months, unless revoked or suspended by the Department in accordance with § 46.2-117.

2012, cc. 803, 835; 2014, cc. 59, 441; 2017, c. 503; 2020, cc. 829, 1237.

§ 46.2-117. Revocation and suspension of registration of tow truck driver; notice and hearing; assessment of costs.

A. Upon receipt of written notice from the Division of Consumer Counsel of the Office of the Attorney General that it has obtained a civil judgment against a tow truck driver for a violation of subsection A of § 46.2-118 or § 46.2-1217, 46.2-1231, or 46.2-1233.1 or upon the failure of a tow truck driver to report to the Department within 10 days any conviction for a felony or misdemeanor that occurred while he is registered in accordance with § 46.2-116, the Department may revoke or suspend the registration of a tow truck driver after notice and hearing as provided in subsection C.

B. Furthermore, the Department shall, after notice and hearing as provided in subsection C, revoke or suspend the registration of a tow truck driver for:

1. Conviction of any crime for which a person must register with the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1 or in a substantially similar law of any other state, the United States, or any foreign jurisdiction;

2. Conviction of a violent crime as defined in subsection C of § 17.1-805; or

3. Conviction of any crime involving the driving of a tow truck, including drug or alcohol offenses, but not traffic infraction convictions.

C. Before suspending or revoking any registration, reasonable notice of such proposed action shall be given to the tow truck driver by the Department in accordance with the provisions of § 2.2-4020 of the Administrative Process Act. In suspending or revoking the registration of a tow truck driver, the Department may assess the tow truck driver the cost of conducting the hearing unless the Department determines that the violation was inadvertent or done in a good faith belief that such act did not violate a statute. Any costs assessed by the Department shall be limited to (i) the reasonable hourly rate of the hearing officer and (ii) the actual cost of recording the hearing.

2012, cc. 803, 835; 2020, c. 829.

§ 46.2-118. Prohibited acts by tow truck drivers and towing and recovery operators.

A. No tow truck driver shall:

1. Use fraud or deceit in the offering or delivering of towing and recovery services;

2. Conduct his business or offer services in such a manner as to endanger the health and welfare of the public;

3. Use alcohol or drugs to the extent such use renders him unsafe to provide towing and recovery services;

4. Obtain any fee by fraud or misrepresentation;

5. Remove or tow a trespassing vehicle, as provided in § 46.2-1231, or a vehicle towed or removed at the request of a law-enforcement officer to any location outside the Commonwealth; or

6. Violate, or assist, induce, or cooperate with others to violate, any provision of law related to the offering or delivery of towing and recovery services.

B. No towing and recovery operator shall:

1. Use fraud or deceit in the offering or delivering of towing and recovery services;

2. Conduct his business or offer services in such a manner as to endanger the health and welfare of the public;

3. Use alcohol or drugs to the extent such use renders him unsafe to provide towing and recovery services;

4. Neglect to maintain on record at the towing and recovery operator's principal office a list of all drivers employed by the towing and recovery operator;

5. Obtain any fee by fraud or misrepresentation;

6. Advertise services in any manner that deceives, misleads, or defrauds the public;

7. Advertise or offer services under a name other than one's own name;

8. Fail to accept for payment cash, insurance company check, certified check, money order, or at least one of two commonly used, nationally recognized credit cards, except those towing and recovery operators who have an annual gross income of less than $10,000 derived from the performance of towing and recovery services shall not be required to accept credit cards, other than when providing police-requested towing as defined in § 46.2-1217, but shall be required to accept personal checks;

9. Fail to display at the towing and recovery operator's principal office in a conspicuous place a listing of all towing, recovery, and processing fees for vehicles;

10. Fail to have readily available at the towing and recovery operator's principal office, at the customer's request, the maximum fees normally charged by the towing and recovery operator for basic services for towing and initial hookup of vehicles;

11. Knowingly charge excessive fees for towing, storage, or administrative services or charge fees for services not rendered;

12. Fail to maintain all towing records, which shall include itemized fees, for a period of one year from the date of service;

13. Willfully invoice payment for any services not stipulated or otherwise incorporated in a contract for services rendered between the towing and recovery operator and any locality or political subdivision of the Commonwealth;

14. Employ a driver required to register with the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1;

15. Remove or tow a trespassing vehicle, as provided in § 46.2-1231, or a vehicle towed or removed at the request of a law-enforcement officer to any location outside the Commonwealth;

16. Refuse, at the towing and recovery operator's place of business, to make change, up to $100, for the owner of the vehicle towed without the owner's consent if the owner pays in cash for charges for towing and storage of the vehicle;

17. Violate, or assist, induce, or cooperate with others to violate, any provision of law related to the offering or delivery of towing and recovery services; or

18. Fail to provide the owner of a stolen vehicle written notice of his right under law to be reimbursed for towing and storage of his vehicle out of the state treasury from the appropriation for criminal charges as required in § 46.2-1209.

C. No tow truck driver as defined in § 46.2-116 or towing and recovery operator as defined in § 46.2-100 shall knowingly permit another person to occupy a motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-100 while such motor vehicle is being towed.

2012, cc. 803, 835; 2015, c. 217; 2020, c. 829.

§ 46.2-119. Complaints against tow truck drivers or towing and recovery operators; enforcement by the Office of the Attorney General.

A. Any consumer aggrieved by the actions of a (i) tow truck driver for an alleged violation of subsection A of § 46.2-118 or § 46.2-1217, 46.2-1231, or 46.2-1233.1 or (ii) towing and recovery operator for an alleged violation of subsection B of § 46.2-118 or § 46.2-1217, 46.2-1231, or 46.2-1233.1 may file a complaint with the Division of Consumer Counsel of the Office of the Attorney General for appropriate action in accordance with this section and any other applicable law.

B. The Attorney General may cause an action to be brought in the appropriate circuit court in the name of the Commonwealth to enjoin any violation of § 46.2-118, 46.2-1217, 46.2-1231, or 46.2-1233.1. The circuit court having jurisdiction may enjoin such violations notwithstanding the existence of an adequate remedy at law. In any action under this section, it shall not be necessary that damages or intent be proved to establish a violation. The standard of proof at trial shall be a preponderance of the evidence. The circuit court may issue temporary or permanent injunctions to restrain and prevent violations of § 46.2-118, 46.2-1217, 46.2-1231, or 46.2-1233.1.

C. In any action brought under this section, the Attorney General may recover damages and such other relief allowed by law, including restitution on behalf of consumers injured by violations of § 46.2-118, 46.2-1217, 46.2-1231, or 46.2-1233.1, as well as costs and reasonable expenses incurred by the Commonwealth in investigating and preparing the case, including attorney fees.

2012, cc. 803, 835.

Chapter 2. Department of Motor Vehicles.

Article 1. Powers and Duties of Department, Generally

§ 46.2-200. Department of Motor Vehicles.

There shall be a Department of Motor Vehicles in the executive department, responsible to the Secretary of Transportation. The Department shall be under the supervision and management of the Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles.

The Department shall be responsible for the administration of the motor vehicle license, registration and title laws; the issuance, suspension, and revocation of driver's licenses; the examination of applicants for and holders of driver's licenses; the administration, training, disciplining, and assignment of examiners of applicants for driver's licenses; the administration of the safety responsibility laws, fuel tax laws, the provisions of this title relating to transportation safety, and dealer licensing laws; the registration of carriers of passengers or property and vehicles that may be required to be registered under the International Registration Plan or pay road tax as described under Chapter 27 (§ 58.1-2700 et seq.) of Title 58.1 under the International Fuel Tax Agreement; the audit of carriers of passengers or property for compliance with registration and road tax requirements; proof of financial responsibility; and any other services that may be required to create a single point of contact for motor carriers operating within and without the Commonwealth, including the operation of permanent and mobile motor carrier service centers.

Code 1950, § 46-26; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-25; 1984, cc. 778, 780; 1989, c. 727; 1990, cc. 1, 317; 1995, cc. 744, 803; 1997, c. 283; 2001, cc. 70, 82.

§ 46.2-201. Appointment of Commissioner; term; vacancies.

The Commissioner shall be appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly, if in session when such appointment is made and if not in session, then at its next succeeding session. He shall hold his office at the pleasure of the Governor for a term coincident with that of each Governor making the appointment or until his successor shall be appointed and qualified. Vacancies shall be filled for the unexpired term in the same manner as original appointments are made.

Code 1950, § 46-24; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-23; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-202. Oath and bond; salary.

The Commissioner, before entering on the discharge of his duties, shall take an oath that he will faithfully and impartially discharge all the duties of his office, and he shall be bonded in accordance with § 2.2-1840. The Commissioner shall receive the salary appropriated for the purpose.

Code 1950, § 46-25; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-24; 1989, c. 727; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 152.

§ 46.2-203. Regulations; violation; forms for applications, certificates, licenses, etc.

Subject to the provisions of Chapter 40 (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) of Title 2.2, the Commissioner may adopt reasonable administrative regulations necessary to carry out the laws administered by the Department and may enforce these regulations and laws through the agencies of the Commonwealth he may designate. A violation of any such regulation shall constitute a Class 4 misdemeanor. He shall also provide suitable forms for applications, certificates of title, registration cards, license plates, and driver's licenses. Unless otherwise required in this title, he shall provide all other forms requisite for the purpose of this title.

Code 1950, § 46-27; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-26; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-203.1. Provision of updated addresses by persons completing forms; acknowledgment of future receipt of official notices.

Whenever any person completes a form for an application, certificate of title, registration card, license plate, driver's license, and any other form requisite for the purpose of this title, or whenever any person is issued a summons for a violation of the motor vehicle laws of the Commonwealth, he shall provide his current address on the form or summons. By signing the form or summons, the person acknowledges that (i) the address is correct; (ii) any official notice, including an order of suspension, will be sent by (a) prepaid first class mail to the address on the signed form with the most current date or (b) by other means of communication, including email or other electronic address, if such electronic address is provided to the Department on the signed form; and (iii) the notice shall be deemed to have been accepted by the person if sent to any such address.

1993, c. 24; 2020, cc. 701, 964, 965.

§ 46.2-203.2. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Emergency contact information program.

A. As used in this section, "emergency contact" means a person 18 years of age or older whom the customer may designate to be contacted by a law-enforcement officer in an emergency situation.

B. The Department may establish an emergency contact information program to assist law-enforcement personnel in emergency situations. To establish such a program, a person who currently holds a learner's permit, temporary driver's license, driver's license, commercial driver's license, or special identification card issued by the Department or completes an application for the same may voluntarily submit emergency contact information for inclusion in his customer record with the Department. Such emergency contact information may include the name, relationship to the customer, address, and telephone number for an individual the customer designates as a contact in the event of an emergency situation.

C. Any person voluntarily submitting emergency contact information to the Department for inclusion in the applicant's customer record is responsible for maintaining current emergency contact information with the Department. Each applicant submitting emergency contact information to the Department shall certify in his application that he has notified the person he has designated as an emergency contact that such information will be supplied to the Department. The Department shall provide a method by which applicants submitting emergency contact information to the Department may submit such information electronically pursuant to § 46.2-216.1. Customers may add, modify, or delete information at any time. Such modifications or deletions will overwrite all previously provided information.

D. In the event of an emergency situation, the Department shall make emergency contact information in customer records electronically available to a law-enforcement officer who in the exercise of his official duties requires assistance in reaching a customer's emergency contact. Emergency contact information provided to the Department by the customer shall only be disclosed as permitted in this section and shall not be considered a public record subject to disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act and shall not be subject to disclosure by court order or other means of discovery.

E. In the absence of gross negligence or willful misconduct, the Department, its employees, and law-enforcement officers shall be immune from any civil or criminal liability in connection with the maintenance and use of emergency contact information voluntarily provided by customers for use in an emergency situation.

2015, c. 162.

§ 46.2-203.2. (Effective January 1, 2022) Emergency contact information program.

A. As used in this section, "emergency contact" means a person 18 years of age or older whom the customer may designate to be contacted by a law-enforcement officer in an emergency situation.

B. The Department may establish an emergency contact information program to assist law-enforcement personnel in emergency situations. To establish such a program, a person who currently holds a credential issued by the Department under Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.) or completes an application for the same may voluntarily submit emergency contact information for inclusion in his customer record with the Department. Such emergency contact information may include the name, relationship to the customer, address, and telephone number for an individual the customer designates as a contact in the event of an emergency situation.

C. Any person voluntarily submitting emergency contact information to the Department for inclusion in the applicant's customer record is responsible for maintaining current emergency contact information with the Department. Each applicant submitting emergency contact information to the Department shall certify in his application that he has notified the person he has designated as an emergency contact that such information will be supplied to the Department. The Department shall provide a method by which applicants submitting emergency contact information to the Department may submit such information electronically pursuant to § 46.2-216.1. Customers may add, modify, or delete information at any time. Such modifications or deletions will overwrite all previously provided information.

D. In the event of an emergency situation, the Department shall make emergency contact information in customer records electronically available to a law-enforcement officer who in the exercise of his official duties requires assistance in reaching a customer's emergency contact. Emergency contact information provided to the Department by the customer shall only be disclosed as permitted in this section and shall not be considered a public record subject to disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act and shall not be subject to disclosure by court order or other means of discovery.

E. In the absence of gross negligence or willful misconduct, the Department, its employees, and law-enforcement officers shall be immune from any civil or criminal liability in connection with the maintenance and use of emergency contact information voluntarily provided by customers for use in an emergency situation.

2015, c. 162; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 544.

§ 46.2-204. Medical Advisory Board.

For the purpose of enabling the Department of Motor Vehicles to comply with its responsibilities under this title, there is hereby created a Medical Advisory Board for the Department. The Board shall consist of seven licensed physicians currently practicing medicine in Virginia appointed by the Governor. Appointments to the Board shall be for four-year terms and vacancies shall be filled by appointment for the unexpired portion of a term. The Governor shall designate the chairman of the Board.

The Commissioner may refer to the Board for an advisory opinion the case of any person applying for a driver's license or renewal thereof, or of any person whose license has been suspended or revoked, or of any person being examined under the provisions of § 46.2-322, when he has cause to believe that such person suffers from a physical or mental disability or disease which will prevent his exercising reasonable and ordinary control over a motor vehicle while driving it on the highways. The Medical Advisory Board shall provide guidance and recommendations to the Department regarding any case of a person examined under the provisions of § 46.2-322 who appeals the outcome of the examination pursuant to § 46.2-321 if the basis for such appeal is related to the medical evidence in the case. However, appeals related to the examinee's (i) failure to follow procedures, (ii) failure to pass knowledge or behind-the-wheel tests, or (iii) evaluation by a driver rehabilitation specialist are not required to be referred to the Board. The Board shall submit to the Department its recommendations for consideration prior to the scheduled appeal proceedings. In addition, the Board shall assist the Commissioner through the development of medical and health standards for use in the issuance of driver's licenses by the Department to avoid the issuance of licenses to persons suffering from any physical or mental disability or disease that will prevent their exercising reasonable and ordinary control over a motor vehicle while driving it on the highways.

The Board shall meet at the pleasure of the Commissioner. Each member shall serve without compensation but shall be reimbursed for his necessary expenses from funds appropriated to the Department of Motor Vehicles.

1968, c. 168, § 46.1-26.1; 1974, c. 453; 1980, c. 728; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 2017, c. 120.

§ 46.2-205. Department offices and agencies; agreements with dealers.

A. The Commissioner shall maintain his office in the Commonwealth at a location which he determines to be appropriate. He may appoint agents and maintain branch offices in the Commonwealth in whatever locations he determines to be necessary to carry out this title.

The personnel of each branch office and each agency shall be appointed by the Commissioner and shall be bonded in an amount fixed by the Commissioner. The person in charge of the branch office and each agency shall deposit daily in the local bank, or at such other intervals as may be designated by the Commissioner, to the account of the State Treasurer, all moneys collected, and shall submit daily to the Commissioner, or at such other intervals as may be designated by the Commissioner, a complete record of what each deposit is intended to cover. The Commissioner shall not be held liable in the event of the loss of any moneys collected by such agents resulting from their failure to deposit such money to the account of the State Treasurer.

The compensation of the personnel of each branch office and each agency is to be fixed by the Commissioner. The compensation fixed for each nonautomated agency for the purpose of maintaining adequate annual service to the public shall be three and one-half percent of the first $500,000 of gross collections made by the agency, two percent of the next $500,000 of gross collections made by the agency, and one percent of all gross collections in excess of $1,000,000 made by the agency during each fiscal year.

The compensation fixed for each automated agency for the purpose of maintaining adequate annual service to the public shall be three and one-half percent of gross collections made by the agency during each fiscal year.

The compensation awarded shall belong to the agents for their services under this section, and the Commissioner shall cause to be paid all freight, cartage, premium on bond and postage, but not any extra clerk hire or other expenses occasioned by their duties.

B. The Commissioner may enter into an agreement with any Virginia-licensed motor vehicle dealer, recreational vehicle dealer, trailer dealer, or motorcycle dealer to act as an agent of the Commissioner as provided in subsection A. Motor vehicle dealers, recreational vehicle dealers, trailer dealers, and motorcycle dealers who act as agents of the Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles as authorized in this subsection shall be compensated as provided in subsection A.

Code 1950, §§ 46-29, 46-31; 1950, p. 299; 1954, c. 585; 1958, c. 541, §§ 46.1-28, 46.1-30; 1970, c. 754; 1972, c. 408, 609; 1974, c. 48; 1979, c. 20; 1989, c. 727; 1999, c. 308; 2002, c. 110; 2003, c. 991; 2015, c. 615.

§ 46.2-205.1. Expired.

Expired.

§ 46.2-205.2. Agreements with other agencies or contractors for other agencies; collection of fees.

The Commissioner may enter into an agreement with an agency of the Commonwealth, any other state, or the federal government, or where the underlying contract permits, a contractor for such state or federal agency, to conduct customer service transactions on behalf of that agency for the benefit of Virginia residents. For each such transaction conducted, the Department shall collect from the customer any transaction fee required by the responsible agency or contractor and remit the same to that agency or contractor in accordance with the terms of the agreement. However, the Department may receive a portion of the transaction fee required by the responsible agency or contractor in accordance with the terms of the agreement in order to defray the costs of the transaction to the Department. The Department may also impose and collect a processing fee to be used to defray the costs of the transaction to the Department. The amount of the processing fee, if imposed, shall be $2, unless otherwise specified by law. Any transaction fees received from the responsible agency or contractor or processing fees imposed and collected by the Department from the agency, contractor, or customer under this section shall be paid into the state treasury and set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department.

For purposes of this section, "state," when applied to a part of the United States, means any of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands.

2012, cc. 215, 222; 2016, c. 368.

§ 46.2-206. Disposition of fees.

Except as otherwise provided in this title, all fees and moneys collected pursuant to the provisions of Chapters 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 through 26 of this title shall be paid into the state treasury, and warrants for the expenditure of funds necessary for the proper enforcement of this title shall be issued by the Comptroller on certificates of the Commissioner or his representatives, designated by him and bonded, that the parties are entitled thereto, and shall be paid by the State Treasurer out of such funds, not exceeding the amount appropriated in the general appropriation bill.

These funds, except as is otherwise provided in this section, shall constitute special funds within the Commonwealth Transportation Fund to be expended (i) under the direction of the Commissioner of Highways for the construction, reconstruction, and maintenance of roads and bridges in the primary state highway system, interstate system, and secondary state highway system and (ii) as authorized by the Commissioner for the expenses incident to the maintenance of the Department, including its customer service centers, and for other expenses incurred in the enforcement of this title. Any funds available for construction or reconstruction under the provisions of this section shall be, as nearly as possible, equitably apportioned by the Commonwealth Transportation Commission among the several construction districts. Beginning July 1, 1998, any balances remaining in these funds at the end of the fiscal year shall be available for use in subsequent years for the purposes set forth in this section, and any interest income on such funds shall accrue to the respective individual special funds.

There may be paid out of these funds such sums as may be provided by law for (i) contributions toward the construction, reconstruction, and maintenance of streets in cities or towns and (ii) the operation and maintenance of the Department of Transportation, the Department of Rail and Public Transportation, the Department of Aviation, the Virginia Port Authority, the Department of State Police, and the Department of Motor Vehicles.

Code 1950, § 46-179; 1958, cc. 541, 626, § 46.1-167; 1983, c. 566; 1987, c. 696; 1989, c. 727; 1997, c. 423.

§ 46.2-206.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2008, cc. 656 and 657, cl. 1, effective March 27, 2008.

§ 46.2-207. Uncollected checks and electronic payments tendered for license fees or taxes; penalty.

The penalty set forth in subsection C of § 2.2-614.1, or ten percent of the amount of the check or electronic payment, whichever is greater, shall be in addition to any other penalties imposed by the Motor Vehicle Laws of Virginia, except in a case where there is a specific penalty set forth by statute for the nonpayment or late payment of fees or taxes, in which case subsection C of § 2.2-614.1 shall apply only in the amount it exceeds the specific penalty. All moneys collected by the Commissioner from the penalties imposed under this section and § 2.2-614.1 shall be paid into the state treasury and set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department of Motor Vehicles.

1972, c. 67, § 46.1-35.1; 1974, c. 210; 1976, c. 20; 1982, c. 671; 1987, c. 696; 1989, c. 727; 2001, c. 800; 2002, c. 719.

§ 46.2-208. Records of Department; when open for inspection; release of privileged information.

A. The following information shall be considered privileged and unless otherwise provided for in this title shall not be released except as provided in subsection B:

1. Personal information as defined in § 2.2-3801;

2. Driver information, defined as all data that relates to driver's license status and driver activity;

3. Special identification card information, defined as all data that relates to identification card status; and

4. Vehicle information, including all descriptive vehicle data and title, registration, and vehicle activity data, but excluding crash data.

B. The Commissioner shall release such information only under the following conditions:

1. Notwithstanding other provisions of this section, medical information included in personal information shall be released only to a physician, physician assistant, or nurse practitioner in accordance with a proceeding under §§ 46.2-321 and 46.2-322.

2, 3. [Repealed.]

4. Upon the request of (i) the subject of the information, (ii) the parent of a minor who is the subject of the information, (iii) the guardian of the subject of the information, (iv) the authorized agent or representative of the subject of the information, or (v) the owner of the vehicle that is the subject of the information, the Commissioner shall provide him with the requested information and a complete explanation of it. Requests for such information need not be made in writing or in person and may be made orally or by telephone, provided that the Department is satisfied that there is adequate verification of the requester's identity. When so requested in writing by (a) the subject of the information, (b) the parent of a minor who is the subject of the information, (c) the guardian of the subject of the information, (d) the authorized agent or representative of the subject of the information, or (e) the owner of the vehicle that is the subject of the information, the Commissioner shall verify and, if necessary, correct the personal information provided and furnish driver, special identification card, or vehicle information. If the requester is requesting such information in the scope of his official business as counsel from a public defender's office or as counsel appointed by a court, such records shall be provided free of charge.

5. Upon the written request of any insurance carrier or surety, or authorized agent of either, the Commissioner shall furnish to such requester information in the record of any person subject to the provisions of this title. The transcript shall include any record of any conviction of a violation of any provision of any statute or ordinance relating to the operation or ownership of a motor vehicle or of any injury or damage in which he was involved and a report filed pursuant to § 46.2-373. No such report of any conviction or crash shall be made after 60 months from the date of the conviction or crash unless the Commissioner or court used the conviction or crash as a reason for the suspension or revocation of a driver's license or driving privilege, in which case the revocation or suspension and any conviction or crash pertaining thereto shall not be reported after 60 months from the date that the driver's license or driving privilege has been reinstated. The response of the Commissioner under this subdivision shall not be admissible in evidence in any court proceedings.

6. Upon the written request of any business organization or its authorized agent, in the conduct of its business, the Commissioner shall compare personal information supplied by the requester with that contained in the Department's records and, when the information supplied by the requester is different from that contained in the Department's records, provide the requester with correct information as contained in the Department's records. Personal information provided under this subdivision shall be used solely for the purpose of pursuing remedies that require locating an individual.

7. Upon the written request of any business organization or its authorized agent, the Commissioner shall provide vehicle information to the requester. Disclosures made under this subdivision shall not include any personal information, driver information, or special identification card information and shall not be subject to the limitations contained in subdivision 6.

8. Upon the written request of any motor vehicle rental or leasing company or its authorized agent, the Commissioner shall (i) compare personal information supplied by the requester with that contained in the Department's records and, when the information supplied by the requester is different from that contained in the Department's records, provide the requester with correct information as contained in the Department's records and (ii) provide the requester with driver information of any person subject to the provisions of this title. Such information shall include any record of any conviction of a violation of any provision of any statute or ordinance relating to the operation or ownership of a motor vehicle or of any injury or damage in which the subject of the information was involved and a report of which was filed pursuant to § 46.2-373. No such information shall include any record of any conviction or crash more than 60 months after the date of such conviction or crash unless the Commissioner or court used the conviction or crash as a reason for the suspension or revocation of a driver's license or driving privilege, in which case the revocation or suspension and any conviction or crash pertaining thereto shall cease to be included in such information after 60 months from the date on which the driver's license or driving privilege was reinstated. The response of the Commissioner under this subdivision shall not be admissible in evidence in any court proceedings.

9. Upon the request of any federal, state, or local governmental entity, local government group self-insurance pool, law-enforcement officer, attorney for the Commonwealth, or court, or the authorized agent of any of the foregoing, the Commissioner shall compare personal information supplied by the requester with that contained in the Department's records and, when the information supplied by the requester is different from that contained in the Department's records, provide the requester with correct information as contained in the Department's records. The Commissioner shall also provide driver, special identification card, and vehicle information as requested pursuant to this subdivision. The Commissioner may release other appropriate information to the governmental entity upon request. Upon request in accordance with this subdivision, the Commissioner shall furnish a certificate, under seal of the Department, setting forth a distinguishing number or license plate of a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, together with the name and address of its owner. The certificate shall be prima facie evidence in any court in the Commonwealth of the ownership of the vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer to which the distinguishing number or license plate has been assigned by the Department. However, the Commissioner shall not release any photographs pursuant to this subdivision unless the requester provides the depicted individual's name and other sufficient identifying information contained on such individual's record. The information in this subdivision shall be provided free of charge.

The Department shall release to a requester information that is required for a requester to carry out the requester's official functions in accordance with this subdivision. If the requester has entered into an agreement with the Department, such agreement shall be in a manner prescribed by the Department, and such agreement shall contain the legal authority that authorizes the performance of the requester's official functions and a description of how such information will be used to carry out such official functions. If the Commissioner determines that sufficient authority has not been provided by the requester to show that the purpose for which the information shall be used is one of the requester's official functions, the Commissioner shall refuse to enter into any agreement. If the requester submits a request for information in accordance with this subdivision without an existing agreement to receive the information, the request shall be in a manner prescribed by the Department, and such request shall contain the legal authority that authorizes the performance of the requester's official functions and a description of how such information will be used to carry out such official functions. If the Commissioner determines that sufficient authority has not been provided by the requester to show that the purpose for which such information shall be used is one of the requester's official functions, the Commissioner shall deny such request.

Notwithstanding the provisions of this subdivision, the Department shall not disseminate to any federal, state, or local government entity, law-enforcement officer, or law-enforcement agency any privileged information for any purposes related to civil immigration enforcement unless (i) the subject of the information provides consent or (ii) the requesting agency presents a lawful judicial order, judicial subpoena, or judicial warrant. When responding to a lawful judicial order, judicial subpoena, or judicial warrant, the Department shall disclose only those records or information specifically requested. Within three business days of receiving a request for information for the purpose of civil immigration enforcement, the Commissioner shall send a notification to the individual about whom such information was requested that such a request was made and the identity of the entity that made such request.

The Department shall not enter into any agreement pursuant to subsection E with a requester pursuant to this subdivision unless the requester certifies that the information obtained will not be used for civil immigration purposes or knowingly disseminated to any third party for any purpose related to civil immigration enforcement.

10. Upon the request of the driver licensing authority in any foreign country, the Commissioner shall provide whatever driver and vehicle information the requesting authority shall require to carry out its official functions. The information shall be provided free of charge.

11. a. For the purpose of obtaining information regarding noncommercial driver's license holders, upon the written request of any employer, prospective employer, or authorized agent of either, and with the written consent of the individual concerned, the Commissioner shall (i) compare personal information supplied by the requester with that contained in the Department's records and, when the information supplied by the requester is different from that contained in the Department's records, provide the requester with correct information as contained in the Department's records and (ii) provide the requester with driver information in the form of a transcript of an individual's record, including all convictions, all crashes, any type of driver's license that the individual currently possesses, and all driver's license suspensions, revocations, cancellations, or forfeiture, provided that such individual's position or the position that the individual is being considered for involves the operation of a motor vehicle.

b. For the purpose of obtaining information regarding commercial driver's license holders, upon the written request of any employer, prospective employer, or authorized agent of either, the Commissioner shall (i) compare personal information supplied by the requester with that contained in the Department's records and, when the information supplied by the requester is different from that contained in the Department's records, provide the requester with correct information as contained in the Department's records and (ii) provide the requester with driver information in the form of a transcript of such individual's record, including all convictions, all crashes, any type of driver's license that the individual currently possesses, and all driver's license suspensions, revocations, cancellations, forfeitures, or disqualifications, provided that such individual's position or the position that the individual is being considered for involves the operation of a commercial motor vehicle.

12. Upon the written request of any member of a volunteer fire company or volunteer emergency medical services agency and with written consent of the individual concerned, or upon the request of an applicant for membership in a volunteer fire company or to serve as volunteer emergency medical services personnel, the Commissioner shall (i) compare personal information supplied by the requester with that contained in the Department's records and, when the information supplied by the requester is different from that contained in the Department's records, provide the requester with correct information as contained in the Department's records and (ii) provide driver information in the form of a transcript of the individual's record, including all convictions, all crashes, any type of driver's license that the individual currently possesses, and all license suspensions, revocations, cancellations, or forfeitures. Such transcript shall be provided free of charge if the request is accompanied by appropriate written evidence that the person is a member of or applicant for membership in a volunteer fire company or a volunteer emergency medical services agency and the transcript is needed by the requester to establish the qualifications of the member, volunteer, or applicant to operate equipment owned by the volunteer fire company or volunteer emergency medical services agency.

13. Upon the written request of a Virginia affiliate of Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, a Virginia affiliate of Compeer, or the Virginia Council of the Girl Scouts of the USA, and with the consent of the individual who is the subject of the information and has applied to be a volunteer with the requester, or on the written request of a Virginia chapter of the American Red Cross, a Virginia chapter of the Civil Air Patrol, or Faith in Action, and with the consent of the individual who is the subject of the information and applied to be a volunteer vehicle operator with the requester, the Commissioner shall (i) compare personal information supplied by the requester with that contained in the Department's records and, when the information supplied by the requester is different from that contained in the Department's records, provide the requester with correct information as contained in the Department's records and (ii) provide driver information in the form of a transcript of the applicant's record, including all convictions, all crashes, any type of driver's license that the individual currently possesses, and all license suspensions, revocations, cancellations, or forfeitures. Such transcript shall be provided at a fee that is one-half the normal charge if the request is accompanied by appropriate written evidence that the person has applied to be a volunteer or volunteer vehicle operator with the requester as provided in this subdivision.

14. On the written request of any person who has applied to be a volunteer with a court-appointed special advocate program pursuant to § 9.1-153, the Commissioner shall provide a transcript of the applicant's record, including all convictions, all crashes, any type of driver's license that the individual currently possesses, and all license suspensions, revocations, cancellations, or forfeitures. Such transcript shall be provided free of charge if the request is accompanied by appropriate written evidence that the person has applied to be a volunteer with a court-appointed special advocate program pursuant to § 9.1-153.

15, 16. [Repealed.]

17. Upon the request of an attorney representing a person involved in a motor vehicle crash, the Commissioner shall provide the vehicle information for any vehicle involved in the crash and the name and address of the owner of any such vehicle.

18. Upon the request, in the course of business, of any authorized agent of an insurance company or of any not-for-profit entity organized to prevent and detect insurance fraud, or perform rating and underwriting activities, the Commissioner shall provide (i) all vehicle information, the owner's name and address, descriptive data and title, registration, and vehicle activity data, as requested, or (ii) the driver name, license number and classification, date of birth, and address information for each driver under the age of 22 licensed in the Commonwealth, provided that such request includes the driver's license number or address information of such driver. Use of such information shall be limited to use in connection with insurance claims investigation activities, antifraud activities, rating, or underwriting.

19. [Repealed.]

20. Upon the written request of the compliance agent of a private security services business, as defined in § 9.1-138, which is licensed by the Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services, the Commissioner shall provide the name and address of the owner of the vehicle under procedures determined by the Commissioner.

21. Upon the request of the operator of a toll facility, a traffic light photo-monitoring system acting on behalf of a government entity, or the Dulles Access Highway, or an authorized agent or employee of a toll facility operator or traffic light photo-monitoring system operator acting on behalf of a government entity or the Dulles Access Highway, for the purpose of obtaining vehicle owner data under subsection M of § 46.2-819.1 or subsection H of § 15.2-968.1 or subsection N of § 46.2-819.5. Information released pursuant to this subdivision shall be limited to the name and address of the owner of the vehicle having failed to pay a toll or having failed to comply with a traffic light signal or having improperly used the Dulles Access Highway and the vehicle information, including all descriptive vehicle data and title and registration data of the same vehicle.

22-26. [Repealed.]

27. Upon the written request of the executor or administrator of a deceased person's estate, the Department shall, if the deceased person had been issued a driver's license or special identification card by the Department, supply the requester with a hard copy image of any photograph of the deceased person kept in the Department's records.

28. [Repealed.]

29. a. Upon written agreement, the Commissioner may digitally verify the authenticity and validity of a driver's license, learner's permit, or special identification card to the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators, a motor vehicle dealer as defined in § 46.2-1500, or another organization approved by the Commissioner.

b. Upon written agreement, the Commissioner may release minimum information as needed in the Department's record through any American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators service program created for the purpose of the exchange of information to any business, government agency, or authorized agent who would otherwise be authorized to receive the information requested pursuant to this section.

30. Upon the request of the operator of a video-monitoring system as defined in § 46.2-844 acting on behalf of a government entity, the Commissioner shall provide vehicle owner data pursuant to subsection B of § 46.2-844. Information released pursuant to this subdivision shall be limited to the name and address of the owner of the vehicle having passed a stopped school bus and the vehicle information, including all descriptive vehicle data and title and registration data for such vehicle.

31. Upon the request of the operator of a photo speed monitoring device as defined in § 46.2-882.1 acting on behalf of a government entity, the Commissioner shall provide vehicle owner data pursuant to subsection B of § 46.2-882.1. Information released pursuant to this subdivision shall be limited to the name and address of the owner of the vehicle having committed a violation of § 46.2-873 or 46.2-878.1 and the vehicle information, including all descriptive vehicle data and title and registration data, for such vehicle.

32. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section other than subdivision 33, the Department shall not release, except upon request by the subject of the information, the guardian of the subject of the information, the parent of a minor who is the subject of the information, or the authorized agent of the subject of the information, or pursuant to a court order, (i) proof documents submitted for the purpose of obtaining a driving credential or a special identification card, (ii) the information in the Department's records indicating the type of proof documentation that was provided, or (iii) applications relating to the issuance of a driving credential or a special identification card. As used in this subdivision, "proof document" means any document not originally created by the Department that is submitted to the Department for the issuance of any driving credential or special identification card. "Proof document" does not include any information contained on a driving credential or special identification card.

33. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the Department may release the information in the Department's records that it deems reasonable and necessary for the purpose of federal compliance audits.

C. Information disclosed or furnished shall be assessed a fee as specified in § 46.2-214, unless as otherwise provided in this section.

D. Upon the receipt of a completed application and payment of applicable processing fees, the Commissioner may enter into an agreement with any governmental authority or business to exchange information specified in this section by electronic or other means.

E. The Department shall not release any privileged information pursuant to this title unless the Department has entered into a written agreement authorizing such release. The Department shall require the requesting entity to specify the purpose authorized pursuant to this title that forms the basis for the request and provide the permissible purpose as defined under 18 U.S.C. § 2721(b). Privileged information requested by an entity that has been altered or aggregated may be used only for the original purposes specified in the written agreement consistent with this title. The requesting entity shall disseminate privileged information only to third parties subject to the original purpose specified in the written agreement consistent with this title. Any agreement that does not allow third-party distribution shall include a statement that such distribution is prohibited. Such agreement may limit the scope of any authorized distribution consistent with this title. Privileged information distributed to any third party shall only be further distributed by such third party subject to the original purpose specified and consistent with this title, or unless such third party is the subject of the information, the parent of a minor who is the subject of the information, the guardian of the subject of the information, the authorized agent or representative of the subject of the information, or the owner of the vehicle that is the subject of the information.

Any agreement entered into pursuant to this subsection between the Department and the Department of State Police shall specify (i) that privileged information shall be distributed only to authorized personnel of an entity meeting the definition of a criminal justice agency as defined in § 9.1-101 and other comparable local, state, and federal criminal justice agencies and entities issued a Virginia S-Originating Agency Identification (S-ORI) status; (ii) that privileged information shall be accessed, used, and disseminated only for the administration of criminal justice as defined in § 9.1-101; and (iii) that no local, state, or federal government entity, through the Virginia Criminal Information Network (VCIN) or any other method of dissemination controlled by the Department of State Police, has access to information stored by the Department in violation of the protections contained in this section. The Department of State Police shall notify the Department prior to when a new entity is to be granted S-ORI status and provide a copy of the S-ORI application to the Department. The Department of State Police shall not allow any entity to access Department data through VCIN if the Department objects in writing to the entity obtaining such data.

The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to (a) requests for information made pursuant to subdivision B 4; (b) a request made by an entity authorized to receive privileged information pursuant to subsection B, provided that such request is made on a form provided by the Department, other than a written agreement, that requires the requester to certify that such entity is entitled to receive such information pursuant to this title, state the purpose authorized pursuant to subsection B that forms the basis for the request, explain why the information requested is necessary to accomplish the stated purpose, and certify that the information will be used only for the stated purpose and the information received shall not be disseminated to third parties unless there is authorization to do so; or (c) the release of information to a law-enforcement officer or agency during an emergency situation, provided that (1) the requesting entity is authorized to receive such information pursuant to subdivision B 9, (2) the timely release of such information is in the interest of public safety, and (3) the requesting entity completes the form required pursuant to clause (b) within 48 hours of the release of such information.

F. Any person that receives any privileged information that such person knows or has reason to know was received in violation of this title shall not disseminate any such information and shall notify the Department of the receipt of such privileged information.

G. The Department shall conduct audits annually based on a risk assessment to ensure that privileged information released by the Department pursuant to this title is being used as authorized by law and pursuant to the agreements entered into by the Department. If the Department finds that privileged information has been used in a manner contrary to law or the relevant agreement, the Department may revoke access.

H. Any request for privileged information by an authorized agent of a governmental entity shall be governed by the provisions of subdivision B 9.

Code 1950, § 46-32; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-31; 1964, c. 42; 1976, c. 505; 1979, c. 611; 1980, c. 23; 1982, c. 226; 1986, c. 607; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 1991, c. 307; 1993, cc. 48, 348; 1994, cc. 304, 700, 830, 959; 1995, cc. 118, 657, 676, 686; 1998, cc. 147, 802; 1998, Sp. Sess. I, c. 2; 2002, cc. 131, 710; 2003, c. 768; 2004, cc. 811, 855; 2005, cc. 376, 443; 2006, cc. 396, 846, 859; 2007, cc. 79, 156, 188, 447; 2009, c. 664; 2010, cc. 15, 175, 813, 865; 2011, c. 321; 2013, cc. 673, 789; 2015, cc. 502, 503; 2016, c. 753; 2017, c. 547; 2019, cc. 543, 544; 2020, cc. 701, 1232; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 421.

§ 46.2-208.1. Electronic transfer of information in Department records for voter registration purposes.

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-208, the Commissioner shall provide for the electronic transfer of information from the Department's records to the Department of Elections and the general registrars for the purpose of voter registration as required by Chapter 4 (§ 24.2-400 et seq.) of Title 24.2, including but not limited to the purposes of § 24.2-410.1. Except as provided in §§ 24.2-404 and 24.2-444, the Department of Elections and the general registrars shall not make information provided by the Department available to the public and shall not provide such information to any third party.

1999, c. 118; 2006, cc. 926, 940; 2011, c. 528; 2020, c. 701.

§ 46.2-208.2. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2020, c. 701, cl. 2, effective April 6, 2020.

§ 46.2-208.3. Notice by Department.

The Department may send notice of a driver's license renewal pursuant to § 46.2-330 or a vehicle registration renewal in the form of a postcard to a customer at the address shown on the records of the Department. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-208, the Department may put sufficient information on the face of the postcard to provide the recipient with adequate notice of renewal. Such information shall only be disclosed as permitted in this section.

2020, c. 701.

§ 46.2-209. Release of information in Department records for motor vehicle research purposes.

A. For the purposes of this section, "privileged information" means:

1. Personal information as defined in § 2.2-3801;

2. Driver information, defined as all data that relates to driver's license status and driver activity;

3. Special identification card information, defined as all data that relates to identification card status; and

4. Vehicle information, defined as title number and registration number.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections A and E of § 46.2-208, the Commissioner may furnish privileged information for motor vehicle research purposes, or in other cases wherein, in his opinion, highway safety or the general welfare of the public will be promoted by furnishing the information, and the recipient of the information has agreed in writing with the Commissioner or his designee that the information furnished will be used for no purpose other than the purpose for which it was furnished. No such information shall be used for solicitation of sales. The Commissioner shall not disclose, pursuant to this section, an individual's social security number or lack thereof, driver's license or special identification card number, Individual Tax ID Number, country of origin, immigration status, or place of birth or the type of document issued to the individual pursuant to Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.).

C. No privileged information released pursuant to this section shall be distributed by any recipient of such information to a third party for a purpose other than the purpose for which it was furnished. Privileged information requested by an entity that has been altered or aggregated may only be used for the original purposes specified in the written agreement and shall be subject to the protections of this section. Any agreement that does not allow third-party distribution shall include a statement that such distribution is prohibited. Such agreement may limit the scope of any authorized distribution.

1976, c. 505, § 46.1-31.1; 1989, c. 727; 1994, c. 959; 1995, c. 118; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 421.

§ 46.2-209.1. Release of vehicle information by Department to prospective vehicle purchasers.

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A of § 46.2-208, the Commissioner may furnish vehicle information to a prospective purchaser of that vehicle, if the prospective purchaser completes an application therefor, including the vehicle's make, model, year, and vehicle identification number, and pays the fee prescribed by the Commissioner. Such information furnished by the Commissioner may be provided from the Department's own records, or may be obtained by the Commissioner through the National Motor Vehicle Title Information System or any other nationally recognized system providing similar information.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the release of any personal information, driver information, or special identification card information as defined in § 46.2-208.

2000, cc. 87, 92, 235, 257; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 421.

§ 46.2-210. List of registrations and titles.

The Commissioner shall have prepared a list of registrations and titles and furnish it to the commissioner of the revenue of each county and city without cost. The Commissioner shall not make such list available to the public, nor shall any commissioner of the revenue make such list available to any third party.

Code 1950, § 46-33; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-32; 1989, c. 727; 1994, c. 959.

§ 46.2-211. Commissioner to advise local commissioners of revenue of situs of certain vehicles.

Before issuing any registration or certificate of title for any tractor truck, or any three-axle truck, trailer, or semitrailer with a registered gross weight in excess of 26,000 pounds, the Commissioner shall determine the county, city, or town in which the vehicle is or will be normally garaged or parked, and shall advise each commissioner of the revenue of the situs of such vehicles as may be in his jurisdiction. The provisions of this section shall not apply to motor vehicles and rolling stock of certificated intrastate common carriers, or electric power, gas, pipeline transmission, railroad, telegraph, telephone, and water companies.

1974, c. 47, § 46.1-32.1; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-212. Notice given for records supplied.

Whenever any records held by the Department are supplied to third persons, the third persons shall notify the subject of the records that the records have been supplied and shall send to the subject a copy of the records.

As used in this section "records supplied to third persons" means all abstracts of operating records held by the Department in which the person who is the subject of the records is identified or identifiable, where the records are made available, in any way, to a person who is not the subject of the records.

This section shall not apply to records supplied to any officials, including court and police officials of the Commonwealth and of any of the counties, cities, and towns of the Commonwealth, and court and law-enforcement officials of other states and of the federal government, provided the records or information supplied is for official use; nor shall this section apply to any records supplied to any insurer or its agents unless insurance is denied or the premium charged therefor is increased either wholly or in part because of information contained in such records.

1976, c. 505, § 46.1-33.1; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-212.1. Payments by payment devices.

The Commissioner may authorize the acceptance of payment devices in lieu of money for payment of any fees, fines, penalties, and taxes collected by the Department of Motor Vehicles or agents acting on behalf of the Department. The Department may add to such payment an amount of no more than four percent of the payment as a service charge for the acceptance of a payment device.

The Commissioner may authorize a Department transaction receipt to be used with existing Department documents as evidence that the holder has complied with Department payment requirements, provided that the transaction is completed before the document's expiration date. However, a transaction receipt for expired vehicle registrations that are renewed online within 90 days of expiration with the payment of all required fees may serve as evidence that the holder has complied with Department payment requirements. Any such transaction receipt shall include detailed information as to length of time by which the document's period of validity will be extended and how the transaction receipt is to be verified.

1989, c. 62, § 46.1-33.2; 1996, cc. 943, 994; 2000, c. 122; 2017, c. 547.

§ 46.2-212.2. Automatic payments.

Upon application of any person, the Commissioner may (i) include in that person's records with the Department such credit card or automated clearing house transfer information as is necessary to enable automatic payments of fees, fines, penalties, and taxes payable by that person to the Department, and (ii) authorize the automatic payment by credit card or electronic funds transfer of any such fees, fines, penalties, and taxes. The Commissioner may procure the services of a third-party vendor for the secure storage of information collected under this section. Prior to the completion of any automatic payment transaction, the Commissioner shall provide notice to the person who has requested automatic payments, which notice shall state the reason for the charge and the amount to be charged, and shall provide the person an opportunity to cancel the transaction.

2013, cc. 673, 789.

§ 46.2-213. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2020, c. 701, cl. 2, effective April 6, 2020.

§ 46.2-214. Charges for information supplied by Department.

The Commissioner may make a reasonable charge for furnishing information under this title, but no fee shall be charged to any official of the Commonwealth, including court and police officials; officials of counties, cities, or towns; local government group self-insurance pools; or court, police, or licensing officials of other states or of the federal government, provided that the information requested is for official use and such officials do not charge the Commonwealth a fee for the provision of the same or substantially similar information. The fees received by the Commissioner under this section shall be paid into the state treasury and shall be set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department.

1976, c. 505, § 46.1-31.2; 1989, c. 727; 1991, c. 167; 2006, c. 846; 2007, cc. 156, 447; 2016, c. 368.

§ 46.2-214.1. Additional charge for information supplied by Department.

Beginning July 1, 2002, in addition to the fee charged pursuant to § 46.2-214, the Commissioner shall charge $2 for furnishing information under this title, but no fee shall be charged to any official, including court and police officials, of the Commonwealth or any county, city or town of the Commonwealth, or to court, police, and licensing officials of other states or of the federal government, provided that the information requested is for official use.

2003, c. 1042, cl. 9.

§ 46.2-214.2. Waiver of certain fees by Department.

The Department may waive the fee for a duplicate driver's license that would have otherwise been imposed by the Department under this title if the person subject to the fee is on active duty with the armed forces of the United States outside the boundaries of the United States.

2008, c. 502.

§ 46.2-214.3. Discount for multiyear registration.

A. Pursuant to subsection C of § 46.2-646, for each motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer registered, the Commissioner may offer, at his discretion, a discount for multiyear registrations of such vehicles. The discount shall be equal to $1 for each year of the multiyear registration or fraction thereof. The discount shall not be applicable to any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer registered (i) under the International Registration Plan or (ii) as an uninsured motor vehicle. When this option is offered and chosen by the registrant, all annual and 12-month fees due at the time of registration shall be multiplied by the number of years or fraction thereof that the vehicle will be registered.

B. In addition to the discount authorized in subsection A, for the renewal of registration of each motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer pursuant to § 46.2-646, the Commissioner shall offer a discount for renewal when such registration renewal is conducted using the Internet. The discount shall be equal to $1. The discount shall not apply to any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer registered (i) under the International Registration Plan or (ii) as an uninsured motor vehicle.

2008, c. 866; 2020, cc. 1230, 1275.

§ 46.2-214.4. Discount for online transactions.

The Department may offer a $1 discount for the following transactions if conducted using the Internet: (i) a driver's license renewal pursuant to § 46.2-330, (ii) a driver's license duplicate or reissue pursuant to § 46.2-343, (iii) an identification card renewal pursuant to § 46.2-345, (iv) an identification card duplicate or reissue pursuant to § 46.2-345, or (v) a certificate of title replacement pursuant to § 46.2-607.

2016, c. 368.

§ 46.2-215. Certification of certain records and admissibility in evidence.

Whenever any record, including records maintained by electronic media, by photographic processes, or paper, in the office of the Department is admissible in evidence, a copy, a machine-produced transcript, or a photograph of the record or paper attested by the Commissioner or his designee may be admitted as evidence in lieu of the original. In any case in which the records are transmitted by electronic means a machine imprint of the Commissioner's name purporting to authenticate the record shall be the equivalent of attestation or certification by the Commissioner.

Any copy, transcript, photograph, or any certification purporting to be sealed or sealed and signed by the Commissioner or his designee or imprinted with the Commissioner's name may be admitted as evidence without any proof of the seal or signature or of the official character of the person whose name is signed thereto. If an issue as to the authenticity of any information transmitted by electronic means is raised, the court shall require that a record attested by the Commissioner or his designee be submitted for admission into evidence.

1962, c. 368, § 46.1-34.1; 1966, c. 196; 1986, c. 607; 1988, c. 427; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-216. Destruction of records.

In accordance with the provisions of Chapter 7 (§ 42.1-76 et seq.) of Title 42.1, the Commissioner may establish standards for the disposal of any paper or record which need not be preserved as a permanent record.

Code 1950, § 46-37; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-36; 1960, c. 121; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-216.1. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Electronic filings or submissions to Department; provision of electronic documents by Department.

A. Whenever this title or Title 58.1 provides that applications, certificates, fees, letters of credit, notices, penalties, records, reports, surety bonds, tariffs, taxes, time schedules, or any other documents or payments be filed or submitted to the Department in written form or otherwise, the Commissioner may, after providing 12-months' written notification to impacted applicants, licensees, or any other person or entity, require that all or certain applicants, licensees, or any other person or entity engaged in business with the Department, make such filings or submissions electronically in a format prescribed by the Commissioner. Any such requirement shall not apply to an individual application for a driver's license, commercial driver's license, special identification card, or the titling or registration of 12 or fewer vehicles during a period of one year. The Commissioner shall develop a method to ensure that the electronic filing is received and stored accurately and that it is readily available to satisfy the requirements of the statutes which call for a written document. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the Commissioner may accept, in lieu of paper documents, a filing or submission made by electronic means for any document not required to be filed or submitted electronically pursuant to the provisions of this title or Title 58.1.

B. Whenever this title or Title 58.1 provides that a written certificate or other document is to be delivered to an owner, registrant, licensee, lien holder, or any other person or entity by the Department or the Commissioner, the Commissioner may provide the written certificate or other document by electronic means. The electronic document may consist of all of the information included in the paper certificate or document or it may be an abstract or listing of the information held in electronic form by the Department. Whenever a certificate or other document is provided by electronic means, the Department will not be required to produce a written certificate or document until requested to do so by the owner, registrant, licensee, lien holder, or other party.

C. The Commissioner is authorized to establish, where feasible and cost efficient, contracts with public-private partnerships with commercial operations to provide for simplification and streamlining of services to citizens through electronic means. Such electronic services shall include (i) an electronic lien and titling program, (ii) an online dealer program, and (iii) a print-on-demand license plate program.

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A of § 46.2-208, to conduct customer-initiated transactions through electronic means the Commissioner may provide a customer's personal, driver, or vehicle information relating to the operation or theft of a motor vehicle or to public safety to the following entities: (i) lending institutions; (ii) motor vehicle dealers; or (iii) third-party vendors that enter into contracts with the Department. Pursuant to subsection A, the Commissioner may require such entities engaged in business with the Department to submit electronic filings using the third-party vendors that have contracts with the Department. Customer information obtained by such entities conducting customer-initiated transactions, including third-party vendors that enter into contracts with the Department, is subject to the restrictions upon use and dissemination imposed by (a) the federal Drivers Privacy Protection Act at 18 U.S.C. § 2721 et seq., (b) the Government Data Collection and Dissemination Practices Act (§ 2.2-3800 et seq.) and §§ 46.2-208 and 58.1-3, and (c) any rules, regulations, or guidelines adopted by the Department with regard to disclosure or dissemination of any information obtained from the Department.

2. The Department may impose a reasonable fee in accordance with fair market prices on such entities, including third-party vendors that enter into contracts with the Department, for customer-initiated transactions conducted through electronic means. Such fees shall be used to defray the costs of the transaction to the Department. Any transaction fees imposed and collected by the Department shall be paid into the state treasury and set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department.

1991, c. 115; 2009, c. 419; 2018, c. 361; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 421.

§ 46.2-216.1. (Effective January 1, 2022) Electronic filings or submissions to Department; provision of electronic documents by Department.

A. Whenever this title or Title 58.1 provides that applications, certificates, fees, letters of credit, notices, penalties, records, reports, surety bonds, tariffs, taxes, time schedules, or any other documents or payments be filed or submitted to the Department in written form or otherwise, the Commissioner may, after providing 12-months' written notification to impacted applicants, licensees, or any other person or entity, require that all or certain applicants, licensees, or any other person or entity engaged in business with the Department, make such filings or submissions electronically in a format prescribed by the Commissioner. Any such requirement shall not apply to an individual application for a credential issued under Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.), or the titling or registration of 12 or fewer vehicles during a period of one year. The Commissioner shall develop a method to ensure that the electronic filing is received and stored accurately and that it is readily available to satisfy the requirements of the statutes that call for a written document. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the Commissioner may accept, in lieu of paper documents, a filing or submission made by electronic means for any document not required to be filed or submitted electronically pursuant to the provisions of this title or Title 58.1.

B. Whenever this title or Title 58.1 provides that a written certificate or other document is to be delivered to an owner, registrant, licensee, lien holder, or any other person or entity by the Department or the Commissioner, the Commissioner may provide the written certificate or other document by electronic means. The electronic document may consist of all of the information included in the paper certificate or document or it may be an abstract or listing of the information held in electronic form by the Department. Whenever a certificate or other document is provided by electronic means, the Department will not be required to produce a written certificate or document until requested to do so by the owner, registrant, licensee, lien holder, or other party.

C. The Commissioner is authorized to establish, where feasible and cost efficient, contracts with public-private partnerships with commercial operations to provide for simplification and streamlining of services to citizens through electronic means. Such electronic services shall include (i) an electronic lien and titling program, (ii) an online dealer program, and (iii) a print-on-demand license plate program.

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A of § 46.2-208, to conduct customer-initiated transactions through electronic means the Commissioner may provide a customer's personal, driver, or vehicle information relating to the operation or theft of a motor vehicle or to public safety to the following entities: (i) lending institutions; (ii) motor vehicle dealers; or (iii) third-party vendors that enter into contracts with the Department. Pursuant to subsection A, the Commissioner may require such entities engaged in business with the Department to submit electronic filings using the third-party vendors that have contracts with the Department. Customer information obtained by such entities conducting customer-initiated transactions, including third-party vendors that enter into contracts with the Department, is subject to the restrictions upon use and dissemination imposed by (a) the federal Drivers Privacy Protection Act at 18 U.S.C. § 2721 et seq., (b) the Government Data Collection and Dissemination Practices Act (§ 2.2-3800 et seq.) and §§ 46.2-208 and 58.1-3, and (c) any rules, regulations, or guidelines adopted by the Department with regard to disclosure or dissemination of any information obtained from the Department.

2. The Department may impose a reasonable fee in accordance with fair market prices on such entities, including third-party vendors that enter into contracts with the Department, for customer-initiated transactions conducted through electronic means. Such fees shall be used to defray the costs of the transaction to the Department. Any transaction fees imposed and collected by the Department shall be paid into the state treasury and set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department.

1991, c. 115; 2009, c. 419; 2018, c. 361; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 421, 544.

§ 46.2-216.2. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2009, c. 419, cl. 3.

§ 46.2-216.3. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2003, c. 1042, cl. 12, effective May 1, 2003.

§ 46.2-216.4. Department to provide self-service options to customers.

The Department may provide, at its offices, self-service options that will provide customers with access to the Department's Internet transactions for persons who would prefer to transact their business with the Department accordingly. In determining the form and number of such options, and whether any option will be made available at a location, the Department shall consider the volume of business and the cost effectiveness of implementing any such option at the location.

2003, c. 320.

§ 46.2-216.5. Partnership of Department and The Library of Virginia to promote use of public library Internet access terminals to complete on-line transactions with the Department.

The Department shall enter into a partnership with The Library of Virginia to promote the use of public library Internet access terminals to complete on-line transactions with the Department.

2003, c. 336.

§ 46.2-217. Enforcement of laws by Commissioner; authority of officers.

The Commissioner, his several assistants, including those who are full-time sworn members of the enforcement division of the Department of Motor Vehicles, and police officers appointed by him are vested with the powers of sheriffs for the purpose of enforcing the laws of the Commonwealth which the Commissioner is required to enforce. Such full-time sworn members of the enforcement division of the Department of Motor Vehicles are hereby authorized to enforce the criminal laws of the Commonwealth.

The Commissioner may also appoint or designate any of his staff to be "size and weight compliance agents" who shall thereby have the authority to (i) enforce the requirements for the use of dyed diesel fuel in §§ 58.1-2265 and 58.1-2267; (ii) enforce the requirements of Article 17 (§ 46.2-1122 et seq.) of Chapter 10; (iii) issue citations for violations of license, registration, and tax requirements and vehicle size limits pursuant to § 46.2-613.1; and (iv) carry out the vehicle seizure provisions of §§ 46.2-613.4, 46.2-613.5, 46.2-703, 46.2-1134, and 46.2-1136 at any permanent weighing station. For the purposes of this section, a permanent weighing station shall include any location equipped with fixed, permanent scales for weighing motor vehicles.

Nothing in this title shall relieve any law-enforcement officer, commissioner of the revenue, or any other official invested with police powers and duties, state or local, of the duty of assisting in the enforcement of such laws within the scope of his respective authority and duty.

All law-enforcement officers appointed by the Commissioner may administer oaths and take acknowledgments and affidavits incidental to the administration and enforcement of this title and all other laws relating to the operation of motor vehicles, applications for driver's licenses, and the collection and refunding of taxes levied on gasoline. They shall receive no compensation for administering oaths or taking acknowledgments.

Code 1950, § 46-38; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-37; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 1993, c. 533; 2008, c. 460; 2011, cc. 62, 73; 2012, cc. 22, 111.

§ 46.2-218. Fees not allowed law-enforcement officers.

No court in the Commonwealth shall, in any case in which a fine is assessed for the violation of any law of the Commonwealth or any subdivision thereof, assess as a part of the cost of the case any fee for arrest, or as a witness, for the benefit of any law-enforcement officer of the Department; nor shall any Department law-enforcement officer receive any such fee. Any Department law-enforcement officer who accepts or receives any such fee shall be guilty of a Class 4 misdemeanor and, in addition, the Commissioner may remove him therefor. Department law-enforcement officers are not prohibited, however, from accepting or receiving rewards.

Code 1950, § 46-39; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-38; 1980, c. 29; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-219. Bonds of Commissioner, Deputy Commissioners, assistants, administrators, and law-enforcement officers; liability insurance policies.

The Commissioner, the Deputy Commissioners, the assistant commissioners, the administrators, and law-enforcement officers appointed by the Commissioner and engaged in the enforcement of criminal laws and the laws relating to the operation of motor vehicles on the highways in the Commonwealth shall, before entering on or continuing in their duties, enter into bond with some solvent guaranty, indemnity, fidelity, or casualty company authorized to do business in the Commonwealth as surety, in the penalty of $100,000 and with condition for the faithful and lawful performance of their duties. These bonds shall be filed in the office of the Department and the premiums thereon shall be paid out of the fund appropriated for the enforcement of the laws concerning motor vehicles. All persons injured or damaged in any manner by the unlawful, negligent, or improper conduct of any such officer while on duty may maintain an action on the bond.

In lieu of posting bond as provided in this section, any assistant or law-enforcement officer may furnish an adequate liability insurance policy as proof of his ability to respond in damages which may be adjudged against him in favor of any person or persons injured or damaged in any manner resulting from his unlawful, negligent, or improper conduct while on official duty, to the amount of $100,000. The premiums on any such insurance policy or policies shall be paid out of the funds appropriated for the enforcement of the laws concerning motor vehicles.

All such bonds and insurance policies shall be approved by the Commissioner.

Code 1950, § 46-40; 1950, p. 221; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-39; 1976, c. 78; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-220. Special counsel for defense of law-enforcement officers.

If any law-enforcement officer appointed by the Commissioner is arrested, indicted, or prosecuted on any charge arising out of any act committed in the discharge of his official duties, the Commissioner may employ special counsel approved by the Attorney General to defend him. The compensation for special counsel employed pursuant to this section shall, subject to approval of the Attorney General, be paid out of the funds appropriated for the administration of the Department.

Code 1950, § 46-41; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-40; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-221. Certain state agencies to report to Department concerning the blind and nearly blind; use of such information by Department; Department to report names of persons refused licenses for defective vision; reports to law-enforcement agencies concerning certain blind or visually impaired persons who operate motor vehicles.

Every state agency having knowledge of the blind or visually handicapped, maintaining any register of the blind, or administering either tax deductions or exemptions for or aid to the blind or visually handicapped shall report in January of each year to the Department the names of all persons so known, registered or benefiting from such deductions or exemptions, for aid to the blind or visually handicapped. This information shall be used by the Department only for the purpose of determining qualifications of these persons for licensure under Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.). If any such state agency has knowledge that any person so reported continues to operate a motor vehicle, such agency may provide this information to appropriate law-enforcement agencies as otherwise permitted by law.

The Department shall report to the Virginia Department for the Blind and Vision Impaired and the Department for Aging and Rehabilitative Services at least annually the name and address of every person who has been refused a driver's license solely or partly because of failure to pass the Department's visual examination.

If any employee of the Virginia Department for the Blind and Vision Impaired makes a report to the Department of Motor Vehicles or provides information to an appropriate law-enforcement agency as required or permitted by this section concerning any client of the agency, it shall not be deemed to have been made in violation of the client-agency relationship.

1968, c. 98, §§ 46.1-40.1, 46.1-40.1:1; 1977, c. 340; 1984, c. 780; 1988, c. 798; 1989, c. 727; 2003, c. 301; 2012, cc. 803, 835.

§ 46.2-221.1. Registration with Selective Service required for issuance of learner's permits, driver's licenses, commercial driver's licenses, and special identification cards to certain applicants.

A. Every male applicant for a learner's permit, driver's license, commercial driver's license, special identification card, or renewal of any such permit, license, or card who is less than twenty-six years old and is either a citizen of the United States or an immigrant shall, at the time of his application, be registered in compliance with the requirement of section 3 of the Military Selective Service Act, 50 U.S.C. § 3801 et seq. The application for a learner's permit, driver's license, commercial driver's license, special identification card, or renewal of any such permit, license, or card submitted by any such person shall indicate either (i) that he is already registered with the Selective Service or (ii) that he authorizes the Department to forward to the Selective Service System the personal information necessary for such registration. This personal information shall be forwarded by the Department to the Selective Service System in an electronic format. The Department shall include on its application forms notice to affected persons that their submission of the application grants their consent to be registered with the Selective Service System, if required to so register by federal law.

Data received by the Selective Service System under this subsection that pertains to any persons less than eighteen years old shall not be used to register that person with the Selective Service until that person is eighteen years old.

B. If the applicant for a learner's permit, driver's license, commercial driver's license, special identification card, or renewal of any such permit, license, or card is a male less than eighteen years old, his application shall be signed by his parent or by the guardian having custody of him. If he has no parent or guardian, then no learner's permit, driver's license, commercial driver's license, or special identification card shall be issued to him or renewed by the Department unless his application is signed by the judge of the juvenile and domestic relations district court of the city or county in which he resides. If the minor making the application is married or otherwise emancipated, in lieu of any parent's, guardian's or judge's signature, the minor may present proper evidence of the solemnization of the marriage or the order of emancipation and sign the application himself. By signing the application as required in this subsection, the parent, guardian, or judge, or emancipated minor shall be deemed to authorize the Department to register the applicant with the Selective Service System as provided in subsection A.

C. If any male applicant for a learner's permit, driver's license, commercial driver's license, special identification card, or renewal of any such permit, license, or card who is required by subsection A to be registered with the Selective Service System declines, refuses, or fails to do so, his application shall be denied.

2002, c. 118.

§ 46.2-221.2. Extension of expiration of driver's licenses issued to certain persons in service to the United States government or for good cause shown.

A. Notwithstanding § 46.2-330, any driver's license that is issued by the Department under Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.) to (i) a person serving outside the Commonwealth in the armed services of the United States, (ii) a person serving outside the Commonwealth as a member of the diplomatic service of the United States appointed under the Foreign Service Act of 1946, (iii) a civilian employee of the United States government or any agency or contractor thereof serving outside the United States on behalf of the United States government, or (iv) a spouse or dependent accompanying any such member of the armed services or diplomatic service serving outside the Commonwealth or civilian employee of the United States government or any agency or contractor thereof serving outside the United States on behalf of the United States government shall be held not to have expired during the period of the licensee's service outside the Commonwealth in the armed services of the United States or as a member of the diplomatic service of the United States appointed under the Foreign Service Act of 1946 or as a civilian employee of the United States government or any agency or contractor thereof serving outside the United States on behalf of the United States government and 180 days thereafter. However, no extension granted under this section shall exceed three years from the date of expiration shown on the individual's driver's license.

For the purposes of this subsection, "service in the armed services of the United States" includes active duty service with the regular Armed Forces of the United States or the National Guard or other reserve component.

B. Notwithstanding § 46.2-330, the Commissioner may, for good cause shown, extend the validity period of a driver's license issued by the Department pursuant to Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.), provided that the license holder requesting the extension (i) contacts the Department prior to expiration of his license, (ii) is temporarily absent from the Commonwealth at the time his driver's license is due for renewal, (iii) provides the Commissioner with verifiable evidence documenting the need for an extension, (iv) provides the Commissioner with the earliest date of return, and (v) is not eligible to renew his license online. No extension granted under this subsection shall exceed one year from the date of expiration shown on the individual's driver's license.

C. The Department shall furnish to any person whose driver's license is extended under this section documentary or other proof that he is entitled to the benefits of this section when operating any motor vehicle.

2004, c. 975; 2006, c. 85; 2007, cc. 249, 589; 2008, c. 591; 2012, c. 384; 2017, c. 547.

§ 46.2-221.3. Grace period for business credentialing for armed forces personnel returning from duty outside the United States.

Owners or operators of businesses and other persons licensed or credentialed in the Commonwealth by the Department who have served outside of the United States in the armed services of the United States shall have a 60-day grace period, beginning on the date they are no longer serving outside the United States, during which they may reopen the business or again perform credentialed activities prior to complying with the business license, certificate, permit, or other such business and professional credential requirements of this title.

To be eligible for the grace period, persons qualifying under this section shall:

1. Have held a valid license, permit, certificate, or other such business or professional credential issued by the Department at the time the person began service in the armed forces outside of the United States; and

2. Not operate the business or perform credentialed activities during the period of the person's military service.

Prior to reopening the business or again performing credentialed activities during the 60-day grace period, persons qualifying under this section shall notify the Department of their intentions and verify that they are in compliance with all other requirements established by the Department and set forth in this title relating to their business or profession. Such persons shall have in their possession, while operating the business or performing credentialed activities, (i) orders or other military documentation demonstrating that they are entitled to the benefits of this section, and (ii) the latest license, certificate, permit, or other such business or professional credential issued to them by the Department.

For the purposes of this section "service in the armed services" includes active duty service with the regular Armed Forces of the United States or the National Guard or other reserve component.

2004, c. 975.

§ 46.2-221.4. Grace period for replacement of license plates or decals and registrations for certain persons in service to the United States government.

Owners or lessees of vehicles registered in the Commonwealth who (i) have served outside of the United States in the armed services of the United States, (ii) have served outside the United States as a member of the diplomatic service of the United States appointed under the Foreign Service Act of 1946, (iii) have been a civilian employee of the United States government or any agency or contractor thereof serving outside the United States on behalf of the United States government, or (iv) are a spouse or dependent accompanying any such member of the armed services or diplomatic service serving outside the United States or civilian employee of the United States government or any agency or contractor thereof serving outside the United States on behalf of the United States government shall have a 90-day grace period, beginning on the date that such person is no longer serving outside the United States, in which to comply with the vehicle registration requirements of this title.

To be eligible for the grace period, the vehicle shall:

1. Be owned or leased by a person or persons qualifying under this section;

2. Have had valid registration issued by the Department at the time the member of the armed services of the United States, member of the diplomatic service, civilian employee of the United States government, or any agency or contractor thereof began service outside of the United States;

3. Comply with the financial responsibility requirements of this title;

4. Display the latest license plates and decals issued by the Department for the vehicle; and

5. Be operated only by persons qualifying under this section while possessing:

a. Orders or other military documentation demonstrating that they are entitled to the benefits of this section; and

b. The latest registration card issued by the Department for the vehicle.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit any person or persons who own or lease vehicles registered in the Commonwealth and are currently serving outside of the United States in the armed services of the United States from complying, when possible and as necessary, with the vehicle registration requirements of this title during the period of service outside the United States or while on leave in Virginia.

For the purposes of this section "the armed services of the United States" includes active duty service with the regular Armed Forces of the United States or the National Guard or other reserve component.

The provisions of this section shall not apply to special license plates issued to members of the National Guard under § 46.2-744.

2004, c. 975; 2008, c. 591; 2012, c. 385.

§ 46.2-221.5. Information on veterans services provided.

A. If any person indicates that he is a veteran on any form or application submitted to the Department for the purpose of a driver or vehicle transaction, the Department shall offer such person information on veterans services that are available in the Commonwealth. Such information may be electronic, provided that printed materials are made available upon request.

B. The Department of Veterans Services shall furnish the Department with all materials required to be offered pursuant to this section. Distribution of materials shall be in a manner prescribed by the Commissioner in consultation with the Department of Veterans Services.

C. Nothing in this section shall require the Department to verify a person's veteran status.

2020, c. 698.

Article 2. Powers and Duties of Department Related to Transportation Safety

§ 46.2-222. General powers of Commissioner with respect to transportation safety.

The Commissioner shall have the following general powers to carry out the purposes of this article:

1. To employ required personnel.

2. To enter into all contracts and agreements necessary or incidental to the performance of the Department's duties and the execution of its powers under this article, including, but not limited to, contracts with the United States, other states, and agencies and governmental subdivisions of the Commonwealth.

3. To accept grants from the United States government and its agencies and instrumentalities and any other source. To these ends, the Department shall have the power to comply with conditions and execute agreements necessary, convenient or desirable.

4. To do all acts necessary or convenient to carry out the purposes of this article.

1984, c. 778, § 46.1-40.3; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-223. Additional powers and duties of Commissioner.

The Commissioner shall have the following powers and duties related to transportation safety:

1. To evaluate safety measures currently in use by all transport operators in all modes which operate in or through the Commonwealth, with particular attention to the safety of equipment and appliances and methods and procedures of operation;

2. To engage in training and educational activities aimed at enhancing the safe transport of passengers and property in and through the Commonwealth;

3. To cooperate with all relevant entities of the federal government, including, but not limited to, the Department of Transportation, the Federal Railway Administration, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Coast Guard, and the Independent Transportation Safety Board in matters concerning transportation safety;

4. To initiate, conduct, and issue special studies on matters pertaining to transportation safety;

5. To evaluate transportation safety efforts, practices, and procedures of the agencies or other entities of the government of the Commonwealth and make recommendations to the Secretary of Transportation, the Governor, and the General Assembly on ways to increase transportation safety consciousness or improve safety practices;

6. To assist entities of state government and political subdivisions of the Commonwealth in enhancing their efforts to ensure safe transportation, including the dissemination of relevant materials and the rendering of technical or other advice;

7. To collect, tabulate, correlate, analyze, evaluate, and review the data gathered by various entities of the state government in regard to transportation operations, management, and accidents, especially the information gathered by the Department of Motor Vehicles, the Department of State Police, and the State Corporation Commission;

8. To develop, implement, and review, in conjunction with relevant state and federal entities, a comprehensive highway safety program for the Commonwealth, and to inform the public about it;

9. To assist towns, counties and other political subdivisions of the Commonwealth in the development, implementation, and review of local highway safety programs as part of the state program;

10. To review the activities, role, and contribution of various state entities to the Commonwealth's highway safety program and to report annually and in writing to the Governor and General Assembly on the status, progress, and prospects of highway safety in the Commonwealth;

11. To recommend to the Secretary of Transportation, the Governor, and the General Assembly any corrective measures, policies, procedures, plans, and programs which are needed to make the movement of passengers and property on the highways of the Commonwealth as safe as practicable;

12. To design, implement, administer, and review special programs or projects needed to promote highway safety in the Commonwealth;

13. To integrate highway safety activities into the framework of transportation safety in general;

14. To administer the Traffic Safety Fund established pursuant to § 46.2-749.2:10 and to accept grants, gifts, bequests, and other moneys contributed to, deposited in, or designated for deposit in the Fund; and

15. Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, for the duration of a declared state of emergency as defined in § 44-146.16 and for up to 90 days after the declaration of a state of emergency has been rescinded or expires, (i) to extend the validity or delay the cancellation of driver's licenses, special identification cards, and vehicle registrations; (ii) to extend the time frame during which a driver improvement clinic or payment plan may be completed; (iii) to extend the maximum number of days of residency permitted before a new resident must be licensed in Virginia pursuant to § 46.2-308 to operate a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth; and (iv) to extend the time frame during which a new resident may operate a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth that has been duly registered in another jurisdiction before registering the vehicle in the Commonwealth.

1984, c. 778, § 46.1-40.4; 1989, c. 727; 1990, cc. 1, 317; 1998, c. 743; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 129.

§ 46.2-224. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2012, cc. 803 and 835, cl. 105.

Article 3. Electronic Credentials Act

§ 46.2-225. Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Data field" means a piece of information that appears on a physical credential, electronic credential, or profile.

"Display requirement" means a provision within the Code of Virginia, the Virginia Administrative Code, or a local ordinance or regulation that requires the display or possession of a physical credential to do an act, identify a person or piece of personal property, or show entitlement to a right or privilege.

"Electronic credential" means an electronic method by which a person may display or transmit to another person information that verifies a person's identity, identifies personal property, or serves as evidence of the right of a person to do, or to use personal property to do, an act.

"Electronic credential system" means a computer system accessed by a person using a computer, cellular telephone, or other electronic device and used to display or transmit electronic credentials to other persons or to a verification system.

"Physical credential" means a document issued by an agency of the Commonwealth, another state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the United States, a foreign country, or a political subdivision of a foreign country that is issued in a physical format, such as paper or plastic, and that identifies the holder, identifies a piece of personal property, or grants the holder the permission to do, or to use property to do, an act.

"Profile" means an electronic credential created by the Department that displays a different set of data fields than are displayed on the physical credential.

"Third-party electronic credential system" means an electronic credential system that is not maintained by the Department or by an agent of the Department on its behalf. "Third-party electronic credential system" may include an electronic wallet.

"Verification system" means a computer system operated by the Department or its agent on its behalf that is made available to persons who are presented with electronic credentials for the purpose of verifying the authenticity and validity of electronic credentials issued by the Department or by other government agencies or jurisdictions.

2017, c. 697.

§ 46.2-226. Electronic credentials.

A. The Department may issue electronic credentials to persons who hold a valid physical credential that the Department is authorized to issue.

B. If the Department issues electronic credentials, the credentials shall be issued in addition to, and not instead of, the underlying physical credentials for which a person is eligible. No electronic credential shall be issued unless the applicant holds the corresponding physical credential. Such electronic credentials shall be issued to an electronic credential system.

C. The Department may issue electronic credentials to third-party electronic credential systems if the Department first enters into an agreement with the owner of the third-party electronic credential system that sets forth the terms on which the electronic credentials may be displayed.

D. The Department may enter into agreements with an agency of the Commonwealth, another state of the United States, or the United States to grant access to the use of electronic credentials issued by such agency. The provisions of subsection B shall apply to credentials to which the Department grants such access unless, as part of the agreement permitting the Department to grant access, the other agency agrees that the Department may grant access to electronic credentials to persons not holding a corresponding physical credential.

2017, c. 697.

§ 46.2-227. Fees.

A. The Department shall assess a fee of $10 per year for each individual who is issued electronic credentials by the Department or is granted access to an electronic credential issued in accordance with an agreement pursuant to the provisions of subsection C of § 46.2-226.

B. The Department shall assess a fee pursuant to § 46.2-214 for searches of the verification system.

C. Pursuant to § 46.2-214, the fees received by the Department pursuant to this section shall be paid into the state treasury and shall be set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department.

2017, c. 697.

§ 46.2-228. Design of electronic credentials.

A. The Department and other agencies that enter into an agreement with the Department pursuant to subsection C of § 46.2-226 may create and issue profiles to be used in those circumstances where the display of the data fields would satisfy the purpose for which the profile is being presented.

B. Electronic credentials and electronic credential systems shall be designed so that there is no need for the credential holder to relinquish possession of the device in which the electronic credential system is installed in order to present the credential or for the person to whom the credential is presented to search the verification system to confirm the validity of the credential.

C. Electronic credential and verification systems shall be designed to protect the credential holder's privacy, including by use of privacy-enhancing technologies or other appropriate methods. If the Department enters into an agreement with the owner of a third-party electronic credential system, the agreement shall require the owner of that system to take appropriate measures to protect the credential holder's privacy.

2017, c. 697.

§ 46.2-229. Verification system.

A. The Department or its agent may create and operate a verification system.

B. The Department may enter into agreements with other government agencies or jurisdictions issuing electronic credentials to allow for the verification of those credentials through the verification system and may also enter into agreements with other government agencies or jurisdictions or their agents operating a similar verification system for the purpose of verifying Virginia electronic credentials used in other states.

C. The Department or its agent may enter into an agreement with a person to access and search the verification system. Any such agreement shall require, at a minimum, that the person to whom the Department is granting access agree to search the system only in compliance with the requirements of this section and to take appropriate measures to protect the credential holder's privacy.

D. A person who has entered into an agreement with the Department to access and search the verification system, and who has been presented with an electronic credential or profile, may search the verification system to verify the validity and accuracy of the electronic credential or profile that has been presented if the electronic credential holder consents to the search.

E. Following a search of the verification system made by a person with whom it has entered into an agreement pursuant to subsection C, the Department may release through the verification system a verification of those data fields that the electronic credential holder has consented to be verified.

2017, c. 697.

§ 46.2-230. Acceptance of electronic credentials.

A. The possession or display of an electronic credential shall not relieve a person from the requirements of any provision in the Code of Virginia, the Virginia Administrative Code, or a local ordinance or regulation requiring the possession or display of a physical credential.

B. Any provision of the Code of Virginia, the Virginia Administrative Code, or a local ordinance or regulation with a display requirement, which may be satisfied by the display or possession of a physical credential for which the Department may issue an electronic credential, may be satisfied by displaying or possessing an electronic credential issued pursuant to this article. Acceptance of an electronic credential shall be at the discretion of the person to whom it is presented and subject to the conditions of this section.

C. If a person displays a profile, its display shall satisfy a display requirement if the profile provides sufficient data fields to satisfy the purpose for which it is being displayed.

D. If the Department, or another agency responsible for enforcing a display requirement, requires that an electronic credential or profile be verified through the verification system prior to acceptance in certain circumstances, the display requirement shall be deemed satisfied by presentation of an electronic credential or profile in those circumstances only if the electronic credential or profile is verified by the verification system.

E. The provisions of this section shall apply to the possession or display of similar electronic credentials or profiles issued by the government of another state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the United States, a foreign country, or a political subdivision of a foreign country to the extent that a physical credential from the same jurisdiction would satisfy the relevant display requirement.

2017, c. 697.

Subtitle II. Titling, Registration and Licensure

Chapter 3. Licensure of Drivers.

Article 1. Unlicensed Driving Prohibited

§ 46.2-300. Driving without license prohibited; penalties.

No person, except those expressly exempted in §§ 46.2-303 through 46.2-308, shall drive any motor vehicle on any highway in the Commonwealth until such person has applied for a driver's license, as provided in this article, satisfactorily passed the examination required by § 46.2-325, and obtained a driver's license, nor unless the license is valid.

A violation of this section is a Class 2 misdemeanor. A second or subsequent violation of this section is a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Upon conviction under this section, the court may suspend the person's privilege to drive for a period not to exceed 90 days.

Code 1950, § 46-347; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-349; 1968, c. 494; 1970, c. 347; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 2005, c. 245; 2007, c. 532; 2008, c. 684.

§ 46.2-301. Driving while license, permit, or privilege to drive suspended or revoked.

A. In addition to any other penalty provided by this section, any motor vehicle administratively impounded or immobilized under the provisions of § 46.2-301.1 may, in the discretion of the court, be impounded or immobilized for an additional period of up to 90 days upon conviction of an offender for driving while his driver's license, learner's permit, or privilege to drive a motor vehicle has been (i) suspended or revoked for a violation of § 18.2-36.1, 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266, 18.2-272, or 46.2-341.24 or a substantially similar ordinance or law in any other jurisdiction or (ii) administratively suspended under the provisions of § 46.2-391.2. However, if, at the time of the violation, the offender was driving a motor vehicle owned by another person, the court shall have no jurisdiction over such motor vehicle but may order the impoundment or immobilization of a motor vehicle owned solely by the offender at the time of arrest. All costs of impoundment or immobilization, including removal or storage expenses, shall be paid by the offender prior to the release of his motor vehicle.

B. Except as provided in § 46.2-304, no resident or nonresident (i) whose driver's license, learner's permit, or privilege to drive a motor vehicle has been suspended or revoked or (ii) who has been directed not to drive by any court or by the Commissioner, or (iii) who has been forbidden, as prescribed by operation of any statute of the Commonwealth or a substantially similar ordinance of any county, city or town, to operate a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth shall thereafter drive any motor vehicle or any self-propelled machinery or equipment on any highway in the Commonwealth until the period of such suspension or revocation has terminated or the privilege has been reinstated or a restricted license is issued pursuant to subsection E. For the purposes of this section, the phrase "motor vehicle or any self-propelled machinery or equipment" shall not include mopeds.

C. A violation of subsection B is a Class 1 misdemeanor.

D. Upon a violation of subsection B, the court shall suspend the person's license or privilege to drive a motor vehicle for the same period for which it had been previously suspended or revoked. In the event the person violated subsection B by driving during a period of suspension or revocation which was not for a definite period of time, the court shall suspend the person's license, permit or privilege to drive for an additional period not to exceed 90 days, to commence upon the expiration of the previous suspension or revocation or to commence immediately if the previous suspension or revocation has expired.

E. Any person who is otherwise eligible for a restricted license may petition each court that suspended his license pursuant to subsection D for authorization for a restricted license, provided that the period of time for which the license was suspended by the court pursuant to subsection D, if measured from the date of conviction, has expired, even though the suspension itself has not expired. A court may, for good cause shown, authorize the Department of Motor Vehicles to issue a restricted license for any of the purposes set forth in subsection E of § 18.2-271.1. No restricted license shall be issued unless each court that issued a suspension of the person's license pursuant to subsection D authorizes the Department to issue a restricted license. Any restricted license issued pursuant to this subsection shall be in effect until the expiration of any and all suspensions issued pursuant to subsection D, except that it shall automatically terminate upon the expiration, cancellation, suspension, or revocation of the person's license or privilege to drive for any other cause. No restricted license issued pursuant to this subsection shall permit a person to operate a commercial motor vehicle as defined in the Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.). The court shall forward to the Commissioner a copy of its authorization entered pursuant to this subsection, which shall specifically enumerate the restrictions imposed and contain such information regarding the person to whom such a license is issued as is reasonably necessary to identify the person. The court shall also provide a copy of its authorization to the person, who may not operate a motor vehicle until receipt from the Commissioner of a restricted license. A copy of the restricted license issued by the Commissioner shall be carried at all times while operating a motor vehicle.

F. Any person who operates a motor vehicle or any self-propelled machinery or equipment in violation of the terms of a restricted license issued pursuant to subsection E of § 18.2-271.1 is not guilty of a violation of this section but is guilty of a violation of § 18.2-272.

Code 1950, § 46-347.1; 1952, c. 666; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-350; 1960, c. 364; 1962, c. 302; 1964, c. 239; 1966, cc. 546, 589; 1968, c. 494; 1970, c. 507; 1984, c. 780; 1985, c. 232; 1988, c. 859; 1989, c. 727; 1991, c. 64; 1992, c. 273; 1993, c. 24; 1994, cc. 359, 363; 1997, c. 691; 2000, cc. 956, 982; 2004, cc. 461, 801, 948; 2009, cc. 390, 764; 2010, c. 519; 2017, c. 700; 2020, cc. 964, 965, 1018; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 463.

§ 46.2-301.1. Administrative impoundment of motor vehicle for certain driving while license suspended or revoked offenses; judicial impoundment upon conviction; penalty for permitting violation with one's vehicle.

A. The motor vehicle being driven by any person (i) whose driver's license, learner's permit or privilege to drive a motor vehicle has been suspended or revoked for a violation of § 18.2-51.4 or 18.2-272 or driving while under the influence in violation of § 18.2-266, 46.2-341.24 or a substantially similar ordinance or law in any other jurisdiction; (ii) where such person's license has been administratively suspended under the provisions of § 46.2-391.2; (iii) driving after such person's driver's license, learner's permit or privilege to drive a motor vehicle has been suspended or revoked for unreasonable refusal of tests in violation of § 18.2-268.3, 46.2-341.26:3 or a substantially similar ordinance or law in any other jurisdiction; or (iv) driving without an operator's license in violation of § 46.2-300 having been previously convicted of such offense or a substantially similar ordinance of any county, city, or town or law in any other jurisdiction shall be impounded or immobilized by the arresting law-enforcement officer at the time the person is arrested for driving after his driver's license, learner's permit or privilege to drive has been so revoked or suspended or for driving without an operator's license in violation of § 46.2-300 having been previously convicted of such offense or a substantially similar ordinance of any county, city, or town or law in any other jurisdiction. The impoundment or immobilization for a violation of clause (i), (ii), or (iii) shall be for a period of 30 days. The period of impoundment or immobilization for a violation of clause (iv) shall be until the offender obtains a valid operator's license pursuant to § 46.2-300 or three days, whichever is less. In the event that the offender obtains a valid operator's license at any time during the three-day impoundment period and presents such license to the court, the court shall authorize the release of the vehicle upon payment of all reasonable costs of impoundment or immobilization to the person holding the vehicle.

The provisions of this section as to the offense described in clause (iv) shall not apply to a person who drives a motor vehicle with no operator's license (a) whose license has been expired for less than one year prior to the offense or (b) who is under 18 years of age at the time of the offense. The arresting officer, acting on behalf of the Commonwealth, shall serve notice of the impoundment upon the arrested person. The notice shall include information on the person's right to petition for review of the impoundment pursuant to subsection B. A copy of the notice of impoundment shall be delivered to the magistrate and thereafter promptly forwarded to the clerk of the general district court of the jurisdiction where the arrest was made. Transmission of the notice may be by electronic means.

At least five days prior to the expiration of the period of impoundment imposed pursuant to this section or § 46.2-301, the clerk shall provide the offender with information on the location of the motor vehicle and how and when the vehicle will be released; however, for a violation of clause (iv), such information shall be provided at the time of arrest.

All reasonable costs of impoundment or immobilization, including removal and storage expenses, shall be paid by the offender prior to the release of his motor vehicle. Notwithstanding the above, where the arresting law-enforcement officer discovers that the vehicle was being rented or leased from a vehicle renting or leasing company, the officer shall not impound the vehicle or continue the impoundment but shall notify the rental or leasing company that the vehicle is available for pickup and shall notify the clerk if the clerk has previously been notified of the impoundment.

B. Any driver who is the owner of the motor vehicle that is impounded or immobilized under subsection A may, during the period of the impoundment, petition the general district court of the jurisdiction in which the arrest was made to review that impoundment. The court shall review the impoundment within the same time period as the court hears an appeal from an order denying bail or fixing terms of bail or terms of recognizance, giving this matter precedence over all other matters on its docket. If the person proves to the court by a preponderance of the evidence that the arresting law-enforcement officer did not have probable cause for the arrest, or that the magistrate did not have probable cause to issue the warrant, the court shall rescind the impoundment. Upon rescission, the motor vehicle shall be released and the Commonwealth shall pay or reimburse the person for all reasonable costs of impoundment or immobilization, including removal or storage costs paid or incurred by him. Otherwise, the court shall affirm the impoundment. If the person requesting the review fails to appear without just cause, his right to review shall be waived.

The court's findings are without prejudice to the person contesting the impoundment or to any other potential party as to any proceedings, civil or criminal, and shall not be evidence in any proceedings, civil or criminal.

C. The owner or co-owner of any motor vehicle impounded or immobilized under subsection A who was not the driver at the time of the violation may petition the general district court in the jurisdiction where the violation occurred for the release of his motor vehicle. The motor vehicle shall be released if the owner or co-owner proves by a preponderance of the evidence that he (i) did not know that the offender's driver's license was suspended or revoked when he authorized the offender to drive such motor vehicle; (ii) did not know that the offender had no operator's license and that the operator had been previously convicted of driving a motor vehicle without an operator's license in violation of § 46.2-300 or a substantially similar ordinance of any county, city, or town or law in any other jurisdiction when he authorized the offender to drive such motor vehicle; or (iii) did not consent to the operation of the motor vehicle by the offender. If the owner proves by a preponderance of the evidence that his immediate family has only one motor vehicle and will suffer a substantial hardship if that motor vehicle is impounded or immobilized for the period of impoundment that otherwise would be imposed pursuant to this section, the court, in its discretion, may release the vehicle after some period of less than such impoundment period.

D. Notwithstanding any provision of this section, a subsequent dismissal or acquittal of the charge of driving without an operator's license or of driving on a suspended or revoked license shall result in an immediate rescission of the impoundment or immobilization provided in subsection A. Upon rescission, the motor vehicle shall be released and the Commonwealth shall pay or reimburse the person for all reasonable costs of impoundment or immobilization, including removal or storage costs, incurred or paid by him.

E. Any person who knowingly authorizes the operation of a motor vehicle by (i) a person he knows has had his driver's license, learner's permit or privilege to drive a motor vehicle suspended or revoked for any of the reasons set forth in subsection A or (ii) a person who he knows has no operator's license and who he knows has been previously convicted of driving a motor vehicle without an operator's license in violation of § 46.2-300 or a substantially similar ordinance of any county, city, or town or law in any other jurisdiction shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

F. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section or § 46.2-301, nothing in this section shall impede or infringe upon a valid lienholder's rights to cure a default under an existing security agreement. Furthermore, such lienholder shall not be liable for any cost of impoundment or immobilization, including removal or storage expenses which may accrue pursuant to the provisions of this section or § 46.2-301. In the event a lienholder repossesses or removes a vehicle from storage pursuant to an existing security agreement, the Commonwealth shall pay all reasonable costs of impoundment or immobilization, including removal and storage expenses, to any person or entity providing such services to the Commonwealth, except to the extent such costs or expenses have already been paid by the offender to such person or entity. Such payment shall be made within seven calendar days after a request is made by such person or entity to the Commonwealth for payment. Nothing herein, however, shall relieve the offender from liability to the Commonwealth for reimbursement or payment of all such reasonable costs and expenses.

1994, cc. 359, 363; 1994, 1st Sp. Sess., c. 10; 1995, cc. 426, 435; 1997, cc. 378, 478, 691; 2005, c. 312; 2010, cc. 519, 829; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 463.

§ 46.2-302. Driving while restoration of license is contingent on furnishing proof of financial responsibility.

No resident or nonresident (i) whose driver's license or learner's permit has been suspended or revoked by any court or by the Commissioner or by operation of law, pursuant to the provisions of this title or of § 18.2-271, or who has been disqualified pursuant to the provisions of the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.), or (ii) who has been forbidden as prescribed by law by the Commissioner, the State Corporation Commission, the Commissioner of Highways, or the Superintendent of State Police, to drive a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth shall drive any motor vehicle in the Commonwealth during any period wherein the restoration of license or privilege is contingent upon the furnishing of proof of financial responsibility, unless he has given proof of financial responsibility in the manner provided in Article 15 (§ 46.2-435 et seq.) of Chapter 3 of this title. Any person who drives a motor vehicle on the roads of the Commonwealth and has furnished proof of financial responsibility but who has failed to pay a reinstatement fee, shall be tried under § 46.2-300.

A first offense violation of this section shall constitute a Class 2 misdemeanor. A second or subsequent violation of this section shall constitute a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 46-484; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-351; 1960, cc. 157, 364; 1962, c. 302; 1980, c. 29; 1984, c. 780; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 1991, c. 118.

Article 2. When License Not Required

§ 46.2-303. Licenses not required for operating road roller or farm tractor.

No person shall be required to obtain a driver's license to operate a road roller or road machinery used under the supervision and control of the Department of Transportation for construction or maintenance purposes. No person shall be required to obtain a driver's license for the purpose of operating any farm tractor, farm machinery, or vehicle defined in §§ 46.2-663 through 46.2-674, temporarily drawn, moved, or propelled on the highways. The term "road machinery" shall not include motor vehicles required to be licensed by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

Code 1950, § 46-348; 1952, c. 498; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-352; 1972, c. 346; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-304. Limited operation of farm tractor by persons convicted of driving under influence of intoxicants or drugs.

The conviction of a person for driving under the influence of intoxicants or some other self-administered drug in violation of any state law or local ordinance shall not prohibit the person from operating a farm tractor on the highways when it is necessary to move the tractor from one tract of land used for agricultural purposes to another tract of land used for the same purposes, provided that the distance between the said tracts of land does not exceed five miles.

1958, c. 489, § 46.1-352.1; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-305. Exemption of persons in armed services.

Every person in the armed services of the United States, when furnished with a driver's license, and when operating an official motor vehicle in such service, shall be exempt from licensure under this chapter.

Code 1950, § 46-350; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-354; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-306. Exemption of armed services personnel and spouses and dependent children of armed services personnel.

Notwithstanding § 46.2-100, a person on active duty with the armed services of the United States or a spouse or a dependent child not less than sixteen years of age of a person on active duty with the armed services of the United States who has been licensed as a driver under a law requiring the licensing of drivers in his home state or country and who has in his immediate possession a valid driver's license issued to him in his home state or country shall be permitted without examination or license under this chapter to drive a motor vehicle on the highways in the Commonwealth. The provisions of this section shall not be affected by the person's, spouse's, or dependent child's ownership of a motor vehicle registered in Virginia.

1970, c. 269, § 46.1-354.1; 1975, c. 240; 1984, c. 780; 1988, c. 107; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-307. Nonresidents licensed under laws of home state or country; extension of reciprocal privileges.

A. A nonresident over the age of sixteen years and three months who has been duly licensed as a driver under a law requiring the licensing of drivers in his home state or country and who has in his immediate possession a driver's license issued to him in his home state or country shall be permitted, without a Virginia license, to drive a motor vehicle on the highways of the Commonwealth.

B. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, the Commissioner, with the consent of the Governor, may extend to nonresidents from foreign countries the same driver's licensing privileges which are granted by the foreign country, or political subdivision wherein such nonresidents are residents, to residents of this Commonwealth residing in such foreign country or political subdivision.

C. Driver's license privileges may be extended to nonresidents from foreign countries or political subdivisions who are over the age of sixteen years and three months, have been duly licensed as drivers under a law requiring the licensing of drivers in their home country or political subdivision, and have in their immediate possession a driver's license issued to them in their home country or political subdivision.

Code 1950, § 46-351; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-355; 1984, c. 780; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 1997, c. 486; 2002, c. 755.

§ 46.2-308. Temporary exemption for new resident licensed under laws of another state; privately owned vehicle driver's licenses.

A resident over the age of sixteen years and three months who has been duly licensed as a driver under a law of another state or country requiring the licensing of drivers shall, for the first sixty days of his residency in the Commonwealth, be permitted, without a Virginia license, to drive a motor vehicle on the highways of the Commonwealth.

Persons to whom military privately-owned vehicle driver's licenses have been issued by the Department of Defense shall, for the first sixty days of their residency in the Commonwealth, be permitted, without a Virginia license, to drive motor vehicles on the highways of the Commonwealth.

1976, c. 17, § 46.1-355.1; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 1994, c. 356; 2002, cc. 755, 767, 834.

§ 46.2-309. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2005, c. 245, cl. 2.

§ 46.2-310. Localities may not require license except for taxicabs; prosecutions for operation of vehicle without license or while suspended.

Counties, cities, and towns shall not require any local permit to drive, except as provided in this section. Counties, cities, and towns may adopt regulations for the licensing of drivers of taxicabs and similar for-hire passenger vehicles and for the control of the operation of such for-hire vehicles. This section shall not preclude any county, city, or town from prosecuting, under a warrant issued by such county, city, or town, a person charged with violation of a local ordinance prohibiting operation of a motor vehicle without a driver's license or while his driver's license or privilege to drive is suspended or revoked.

Code 1950, § 46-349; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-353; 1964, c. 455; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

Article 3. Persons Not to Be Licensed

§ 46.2-311. Persons having defective vision; minimum standards of visual acuity and field of vision; tests of vision.

A. The Department shall not issue a driver's license or learner's permit (i) to any person unless he demonstrates a visual acuity of at least 20/40 in one or both eyes with or without corrective lenses or (ii) to any such person unless he demonstrates at least a field of 110 degrees of horizontal vision in one or both eyes or a comparable measurement that demonstrates a visual field within this range. However, a license permitting the driving of motor vehicles during a period beginning one-half hour after sunrise and ending one-half hour before sunset, may be issued to a person who demonstrates a visual acuity of at least 20/70 in one or both eyes without or with corrective lenses provided he demonstrates at least a field of 70 degrees of horizontal vision or a comparable measurement that demonstrates a visual field within this range, and further provided that if such person has vision in one eye only, he demonstrates at least a field of 40 degrees temporal and 30 degrees nasal horizontal vision or a comparable measurement that demonstrates a visual field within this range.

B. The Department shall not issue a driver's license or learner's permit to any person authorizing the driving of a commercial motor vehicle as defined in the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.) unless he demonstrates a visual acuity of at least 20/40 in each eye and at least a field of 140 degrees of horizontal vision or a comparable measurement that demonstrates a visual field within this range.

C. Every person applying to renew a driver's license and required to be reexamined as a prerequisite to the renewal of the license, shall:

1. Appear before a license examiner of the Department to demonstrate his visual acuity and horizontal field of vision, or

2. Accompany his application with a report of such examination made within 90 days prior thereto by an ophthalmologist or optometrist.

D. The test of horizontal visual fields made by license examiners of the Department shall be performed at thirty-three and one-third centimeters with a 10 millimeter round white test object or may, at the discretion of the Commissioner, be performed with electronic or other devices designed for the purpose of testing visual acuity and horizontal field of vision. The report of examination of visual acuity and horizontal field of vision made by an ophthalmologist or optometrist shall have precedence over an examination made by a license examiner of the Department in administrative determination as to the issuance of a license to drive. Any such report may, in the discretion of the Commissioner, be referred to a medical advisory board or to the State Health Commissioner for evaluation.

E. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection B of this section, any person who is licensed to drive any motor vehicle may, on special application to the Department, be licensed to drive any vehicle, provided the operation of the vehicle would not unduly endanger the public safety, as determined by the Commissioner.

The Commissioner may waive the vision requirements of subsection B for any commercial driver's license applicant who either (i) is subject to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations but is exempt from the vision standards of 49 C.F.R. Part 391 or (ii) is not required to meet the vision standards specified in 49 C.F.R. § 391.41 of the regulations.

In order to determine whether such a waiver would unduly endanger the public safety, the Commissioner shall require such commercial driver's license applicant to submit a special waiver application and to provide all medical information relating to his vision that may be requested by the Department. The Department may require such commercial driver's license applicant to take a road test administered by the Department before determining whether to grant a waiver. If a waiver is granted, the Department may subject the applicant's use of a commercial motor vehicle to reasonable restrictions, which shall be noted on the commercial driver's license. If a waiver is granted, the Department may also limit the validity period of the commercial driver's license, and the expiration date shall be noted on the commercial driver's license.

1968, c. 642, § 46.1-357.2; 1972, c. 502; 1980, c. 118; 1981, c. 194; 1984, c. 780; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 2010, c. 18; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2017, cc. 121, 279.

§ 46.2-312. Persons using bioptic telescopic lenses.

A. Persons using bioptic telescopic lenses shall be eligible for driver's licenses if they:

1. Demonstrate a visual acuity of at least 20/200 in one or both eyes and a field of seventy degrees horizontal vision without or with corrective carrier lenses or a comparable measurement that demonstrates a visual field within this range, or if these persons have vision in one eye only, they demonstrate a field of at least forty degrees temporal and thirty degrees nasal horizontal vision or a comparable measurement that demonstrates a visual field within this range;

2. Demonstrate a visual acuity of at least 20/70 in one or both eyes with the bioptic telescopic lenses and without the use of field expanders;

3. Meet all other criteria for licensure;

4. Accompany the license application with a report of examination by an ophthalmologist or optometrist on a form prescribed by the Department for evaluation by the Medical Advisory Board.

B. Persons using bioptic telescopic lenses shall be eligible for learner's permits issued under § 46.2-335 provided they first meet the requirements of subsection A of this section, except for that part of the examination requiring the applicant to drive a motor vehicle.

C. Persons using bioptic telescopic lenses shall be subject to the following restrictions:

1. They shall not be eligible for any of the driver's license endorsements provided for in § 46.2-328;

2. Their driver's licenses shall permit the operation of motor vehicles only during the period beginning one-half hour after sunrise and ending one-half hour before sunset.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision C 2 of this section, persons using bioptic telescopic lenses may be licensed to drive motor vehicles between one-half hour before sunset and one-half hour after sunrise if they:

1. Demonstrate a visual acuity of at least 20/40 in one or both eyes with the bioptic telescopic lenses and without the use of field expanders;

2. Have been licensed under subsection C of this section for at least one year; and

3. Pass a skills test taken at night.

1986, c. 115, § 46.1-357.3; 1989, cc. 147, 727; 2010, c. 18.

§ 46.2-313. Persons with suspended or revoked licenses.

The Department shall not issue a driver's license to any person whose license has been suspended, during the period of the suspension; nor to any person whose license has been revoked, or should have been revoked, under the provisions of this title, until the expiration of one year after the license was revoked, unless otherwise permitted by the provisions of this title.

Code 1950, § 46-354; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-358; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-314. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2017, c. 156, cl. 2, effective February 23, 2017.

§ 46.2-315. Disabled persons.

The Department shall not issue a driver's license to any person when, in the opinion of the Department, the person is suffering from a physical or mental disability or disease which will prevent his exercising reasonable and ordinary control over a motor vehicle while driving it on the highways, nor shall a license be issued to any person who is unable to understand highway warning or direction signs.

The words "disability or disease" shall not mean inability of a person to hear or to speak, or both, when he has good vision and can satisfactorily demonstrate his ability to drive a motor vehicle and has sufficient knowledge of traffic rules and regulations.

Code 1950, § 46-357; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-361; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-316. Persons convicted or found not innocent of certain offenses; requirement of proof of financial responsibility for certain offenses.

A. The Department shall not issue a driver's license or learner's permit to any resident or nonresident person while his license or other privilege to drive is suspended or revoked because of his conviction, or finding of not innocent in the case of a juvenile, or forfeiture of bail upon the following charges of offenses committed in violation of either a law of the Commonwealth or a valid local ordinance or of any federal law or law of any other state or any valid local ordinance of any other state:

1. Voluntary or involuntary manslaughter resulting from the operation of a motor vehicle.

2. Perjury, the making of a false affidavit to the Department under any law requiring the registration of motor vehicles or regulating their operation on the highways, or the making of a false statement in any application for a driver's license.

3. Any crime punishable as a felony under the motor vehicle laws or any felony in the commission of which a motor vehicle is used.

4. Violation of the provisions of § 18.2-51.4, pertaining to maiming while under the influence, § 18.2-266, pertaining to driving while under the influence of intoxicants or drugs, or of § 18.2-272, pertaining to driving while the driver's license has been forfeited for a conviction, or finding of not innocent in the case of a juvenile, under §§ 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266 or § 18.2-272, or for violation of the provisions of any federal law or law of any other state or any valid local ordinance similar to §§ 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266 or § 18.2-272.

5. Failure of a driver of a motor vehicle, involved in an accident resulting in death or injury to another person, to stop and disclose his identity at the scene of the accident.

6. On a charge of operating or permitting the operation, for the second time, of a passenger automobile for the transportation of passengers for rent or for hire, without having first obtained a license for the privilege as provided in § 46.2-694.

B. Except as provided in subsection C, the Department shall not issue a driver's license or learner's permit to any person convicted of a crime mentioned in subsection A of this section for a further period of three years after he otherwise becomes entitled to a license or permit until he proves to the Commissioner his ability to respond in damages as provided in Article 15 (§ 46.2-435 et seq.) of Chapter 3 of this title or any other law of the Commonwealth requiring proof of financial responsibility.

C. (Effective until January 1, 2022) In addition to the prohibition on licensure set forth in subsection A, the Department shall not issue or reinstate a driver's license or learner's permit to any person convicted of a violation set forth in subdivision A 4 for a period of three years after he otherwise becomes entitled to a license or permit until he furnishes proof of financial responsibility in the future under a motor vehicle liability insurance policy that satisfies the requirements of § 46.2-472 except that the limits of coverage exclusive of interest and costs, with respect to each motor vehicle insured under the policy, shall be not less than double the minimum limits set forth in subdivision 3 of § 46.2-472 for bodily injury or death of one person in any one accident, for bodily injury to or death of two or more persons in any one accident, and for injury to or destruction of property of others in any one accident.

C. (Effective January 1, 2022) In addition to the prohibition on licensure set forth in subsection A, the Department shall not issue or reinstate a driver's license or learner's permit to any person convicted of a violation set forth in subdivision A 4 for a period of three years after he otherwise becomes entitled to a license or permit until he furnishes proof of financial responsibility in the future under a motor vehicle liability insurance policy that satisfies the requirements of § 46.2-472 except that the limits of coverage exclusive of interest and costs, with respect to each motor vehicle insured under the policy, shall be not less than double the minimum limits set forth in subdivision A 3 of § 46.2-472 for bodily injury or death of one person in any one accident, for bodily injury to or death of two or more persons in any one accident, and for injury to or destruction of property of others in any one accident.

Code 1950, § 46-358; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-362; 1960, c. 364; 1966, c. 549; 1974, c. 453; 1980, c. 29; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 1997, c. 691; 2007, c. 496.

§ 46.2-317. Persons making false statement in application.

The Department shall not issue, for a period of one year, a driver's license or learner's permit when the records of the Department clearly show to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that the person has made a willful material false statement on any application for a driver's license.

Code 1950, § 46-358.1; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-363; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-318. Cancellation or revocation of license where application is false in material particular.

The Commissioner may cancel or revoke any license or permit issued pursuant to this title when it appears that the information set forth in the application for the license or permit is false in any material particular.

1958, c. 541, § 46.1-364; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-319. Refusal or revocation of license for certain fraudulent acts in obtaining a driver's license.

The Department shall not issue any permit or license under this title to any person who has been convicted, or found not innocent in the case of a juvenile, of violating § 46.2-348, when the violation was based on the taking of any examination under §§ 46.2-311, 46.2-322, 46.2-325 or the provisions of the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.) for another person, or the appearance for another for renewal of a license under this chapter, for a period of ten years from the date of conviction, or finding of not innocent in the case of a juvenile. If the person has a license or permit issued pursuant to this title, the Commissioner shall revoke the license or permit for a period of ten years from the date of the conviction, or finding of not innocent in the case of a juvenile.

1968, c. 642, § 46.1-365; 1974, c. 453; 1989, cc. 705, 727.

§ 46.2-320. Other grounds for refusal or suspension.

The Department may refuse to grant an application for a driver's license in any of the circumstances set forth in § 46.2-608 as circumstances justifying the refusal of an application for the registration of a motor vehicle. The Department may refuse to issue or reissue a driver's license for the willful failure or refusal to pay any taxes or fees required to be collected or authorized to be collected by the Department.

Code 1950, § 46-359; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-366; 1982, c. 147; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 595; 1996, cc. 785, 1013; 1997, cc. 473, 794, 857, 898; 1999, c. 615; 2001, cc. 645, 779; 2010, c. 682; 2011, c. 773; 2012, c. 829.

§ 46.2-320.1. Other grounds for suspension; nonpayment of child support.

A. The Commissioner may enter into an agreement with the Department of Social Services whereby the Department may suspend or refuse to renew the driver's license of any person upon receipt of notice from the Department of Social Services that the person (i) is delinquent in the payment of child support by 90 days or more or in an amount of $5,000 or more or (ii) has failed to comply with a subpoena, summons, or warrant relating to paternity or child support proceedings. A suspension or refusal to renew authorized pursuant to this section shall not be effective until 30 days after service on the delinquent obligor of notice of intent to suspend or refusal to renew. The notice of intent shall be served on the obligor by the Department of Social Services (a) by certified mail, return receipt requested, or by electronic means, sent to the obligor's last known addresses as shown in the records of the Department or the Department of Social Services or (b) pursuant to § 8.01-296, or service may be waived by the obligor in accordance with procedures established by the Department of Social Services. The obligor shall be entitled to a judicial hearing if a request for a hearing is made, in writing, to the Department of Social Services within 30 days from service of the notice of intent. Upon receipt of the request for a hearing, the Department of Social Services shall petition the court that entered or is enforcing the order, requesting a hearing on the proposed suspension or refusal to renew. The court shall authorize the suspension or refusal to renew only if it finds that the obligor's noncompliance with the child support order was willful. Upon a showing by the Department of Social Services that the obligor is delinquent in the payment of child support by 90 days or more or in an amount of $5,000 or more, the burden of proving that the delinquency was not willful shall rest upon the obligor. The Department shall not suspend or refuse to renew the driver's license until a final determination is made by the court.

B. At any time after service of a notice of intent, the person may petition the juvenile and domestic relations district court in the jurisdiction where he resides for the issuance of a restricted license to be used if the suspension or refusal to renew becomes effective. Upon such petition and a finding of good cause, the court may provide that such person be issued a restricted permit to operate a motor vehicle for any of the purposes set forth in subsection E of § 18.2-271.1. A restricted license issued pursuant to this subsection shall not permit any person to operate a commercial motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-341.4. The court shall order the surrender of the person's license to operate a motor vehicle, to be disposed of in accordance with the provisions of § 46.2-398, and shall forward to the Commissioner a copy of its order entered pursuant to this subsection. The order shall specifically enumerate the restrictions imposed and contain such information regarding the person to whom such a permit is issued as is reasonably necessary to identify him.

C. The Department shall not renew a driver's license or terminate a license suspension imposed pursuant to this section until it has received from the Department of Social Services a certification that the person has (i) paid the delinquency in full; (ii) reached an agreement with the Department of Social Services to satisfy the delinquency within a period not to exceed 10 years, and at least one payment representing at least five percent of the total delinquency or $600, whichever is less, has been made pursuant to the agreement; (iii) complied with a subpoena, summons, or warrant relating to a paternity or child support proceeding; or (iv) completed or is successfully participating in an intensive case monitoring program for child support as ordered by a juvenile and domestic relations district court or as administered by the Department of Social Services. Certification by the Department of Social Services shall be made by electronic or telephonic communication and shall be made on the same work day that payment required by clause (i) or (ii) is made.

D. If a person who has entered into an agreement with the Department of Social Services pursuant to clause (ii) of subsection C fails to comply with the requirements of the agreement, the Department of Social Services shall notify the Department of the person's noncompliance and the Department shall suspend or refuse to renew the driver's license of the person until it has received from the Department of Social Services a certification that the person has paid the delinquency in full or has entered into a subsequent agreement with the Department of Social Services to satisfy the delinquency within a period not to exceed seven years and has made at least one payment of $1,200 or seven percent of the total delinquency, whichever is less, pursuant to the agreement. If the person fails to comply with the terms of a subsequent agreement reached with the Department of Social Services pursuant to this section, without further notice to the person as provided in the subsequent agreement, the Department of Social Services shall notify the Department of the person's noncompliance, and the Department shall suspend or refuse to renew the driver's license of the person. A person who has failed to comply with the terms of a second or subsequent agreement pursuant to this subsection may be granted a new agreement with the Department of Social Services if the person has made at least one payment of $1,800 or 10 percent of the total delinquency, whichever is less, and agrees to a repayment schedule of not more than seven years. Upon receipt of certification from the Department of Social Services of the person's satisfaction of these conditions, the Department shall issue a driver's license to the person or reinstate the person's driver's license. Certification by the Department of Social Services shall be made by electronic or telephonic communication and shall be made on the same work day that payment required by this subsection is made.

2012, c. 829; 2015, c. 506; 2016, c. 29; 2019, cc. 284, 285.

§ 46.2-320.2. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2020, cc. 740 and 741, cl. 2.

§ 46.2-321. Appeal from denial, suspension, or revocation of license; operation of vehicle pending appeal.

Any person denied a license or whose license has been revoked, suspended, or cancelled under this article may appeal in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). From the final judgment of the court, either the petitioner or the Commonwealth shall have an appeal as a matter of right to the Court of Appeals.

While an appeal is pending from the action of the Department denying a license or from the court affirming the action of the Department, the person aggrieved shall not drive a motor vehicle on the highways of the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 46-360; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-367; 1960, c. 511; 1973, c. 544; 1984, c. 703; 1986, c. 615; 1989, c. 727; 1990, c. 418.

§ 46.2-322. Examination of licensee believed incompetent; suspension or restriction of license; license application to include questions as to physical or mental conditions of applicant; false answers; examination of applicant; physician's, nurse practitioner's, or physician assistant's statement.

A. If the Department has good cause to believe that a driver is incapacitated and therefore unable to drive a motor vehicle safely, after written notice of at least 15 days to the person, it may require him to submit to an examination to determine his fitness to drive a motor vehicle. If the driver so requests in writing, the Department shall give the Department's reasons for the examination, including the identity of all persons who have supplied information to the Department regarding the driver's fitness to drive a motor vehicle. However, the Department shall not supply the reasons or information if its source is a relative of the driver or a physician, physician assistant, nurse practitioner, pharmacist, or other licensed medical professional as defined in § 38.2-602 treating, or prescribing medications for, the driver.

B. As a part of its examination, the Department may require a physical examination by a licensed physician, licensed nurse practitioner, or licensed physician assistant and a report on the results thereof. When it has completed its examination, the Department shall take whatever action may be appropriate and may suspend the license or privilege to drive a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth of the person or permit him to retain his license or privilege to drive a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth, or may issue a license subject to the restrictions authorized by § 46.2-329. Refusal or neglect of the person to submit to the examination or comply with restrictions imposed by the Department shall be grounds for suspension of his license or privilege to drive a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth.

C. The Commissioner shall include, as a part of the application for an original driver's license, or renewal thereof, questions as to the existence of physical or mental conditions that impair the ability of the applicant to drive a motor vehicle safely. Any person knowingly giving a false answer to any such question shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor. If the answer to any such question indicates the existence of such condition, the Commissioner shall require an examination of the applicant by a licensed physician, licensed physician assistant, or licensed nurse practitioner as a prerequisite to the issuance of the driver's license. The report of the examination shall contain a statement that, in the opinion of the physician, physician assistant, or nurse practitioner, the applicant's physical or mental condition at the time of the examination does or does not preclude his safe driving of motor vehicles.

Code 1950, § 46-378; 1952, c. 666; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-383; 1960, c. 201; 1966, c. 631; 1968, c. 167; 1972, c. 419; 1974, c. 453; 1978, c. 353; 1984, c. 780; 1988, c. 798; 1989, c. 727; 1997, c. 801; 2004, cc. 351, 855; 2006, c. 396; 2011, c. 441.

Article 4. Obtaining Licenses, Generally

§ 46.2-323. Application for driver's license; proof of completion of driver education program; penalty.

A. Every application for a driver's license, temporary driver's permit, learner's permit, or motorcycle learner's permit shall be made on a form prescribed by the Department and the applicant shall write his usual signature in ink in the space provided on the form. The form shall include notice to the applicant of the duty to register with the Department of State Police as provided in Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1, if the applicant has been convicted of an offense for which registration with the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry is required.

B. Every application shall state the full legal name, year, month, and date of birth, social security number, sex, and residence address of the applicant; whether or not the applicant has previously been licensed as a driver and, if so, when and by what state, and whether or not his license has ever been suspended or revoked and, if so, the date of and reason for such suspension or revocation. Applicants shall be permitted to choose between "male," "female," or "non-binary" when designating the applicant's sex on the driver's license application form. The Department, as a condition for the issuance of any driver's license, temporary driver's permit, learner's permit, or motorcycle learner's permit shall require the surrender of any driver's license or, in the case of a motorcycle learner's permit, a motorcycle license issued by another state and held by the applicant. The applicant shall also answer any questions on the application form or otherwise propounded by the Department incidental to the examination. The applicant may also be required to present proof of identity, residency, and social security number or non-work authorized status, if required to appear in person before the Department to apply.

The Commissioner shall require that each application include a certification statement to be signed by the applicant under penalty of perjury, certifying that the information presented on the application is true and correct.

If the applicant fails or refuses to sign the certification statement, the Department shall not issue the applicant a driver's license, temporary driver's permit, learner's permit or motorcycle learner's permit.

Any applicant who knowingly makes a false certification or supplies false or fictitious evidence shall be punished as provided in § 46.2-348.

C. Every application for a driver's license shall include a photograph of the applicant supplied under arrangements made by the Department. The photograph shall be processed by the Department so that the photograph can be made part of the issued license.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-334, every applicant for a driver's license who is under 18 years of age shall furnish the Department with satisfactory proof of his successful completion of a driver education program approved by the State Department of Education.

E. Every application for a driver's license submitted by a person less than 18 years old and attending a public school in the Commonwealth shall be accompanied by a document, signed by the applicant's parent or legal guardian, authorizing the principal, or his designee, of the school attended by the applicant to notify the juvenile and domestic relations district court within whose jurisdiction the minor resides when the applicant has had 10 or more unexcused absences from school on consecutive school days.

F. The Department shall electronically transmit application information to the Department of State Police, in a format approved by the State Police, for comparison with information contained in the Virginia Criminal Information Network and National Crime Information Center Convicted Sexual Offender Registry Files, at the time of issuance of a driver's license, temporary driver's permit, learner's permit, or motorcycle learner's permit. Whenever it appears from the records of the State Police that a person has failed to comply with the duty to register, reregister, or verify his registration information pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1, the State Police shall promptly investigate and, if there is probable cause to believe a violation has occurred, obtain a warrant or assist in obtaining an indictment charging a violation of § 18.2-472.1 in the jurisdiction in which the person made application of licensure.

Code 1950, § 46-362; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-368; 1962, c. 368; 1968, c. 642; 1974, c. 605; 1982, c. 180; 1983, c. 608; 1984, cc. 778, 780; 1988, c. 105; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 1993, cc. 471, 501; 1994, c. 362; 1998, c. 322; 2002, cc. 535, 867; 2003, c. 584; 2005, cc. 259, 828; 2006, cc. 857, 914; 2009, cc. 439, 872; 2016, c. 488; 2020, cc. 544, 829.

§ 46.2-323.1. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Certification of Virginia residency; nonresidents not to be issued driver's licenses, commercial driver's licenses, learner's permits, or special identification card; penalty.

No driver's license, commercial driver's license, temporary driver's permit, learner's permit, motorcycle learner's permit, or special identification card shall be issued to any person who is not a Virginia resident. Every person applying for a driver's license, commercial driver's license, temporary driver's permit, learner's permit, motorcycle learner's permit, or special identification card shall execute and furnish to the Commissioner his certificate that he is a resident of Virginia. The Commissioner or his duly authorized agent may require any such applicant to supply, along with his application, such evidence of his Virginia residency as the Commissioner may deem appropriate and adequate, provided that neither an immigration visa nor a signed written statement, whether or not such statement is notarized, wherein the maker of the statement vouches for the Virginia residency of the applicant, shall be acceptable proof of Virginia residency. If the applicant is less than nineteen years old and cannot otherwise provide proof of Virginia residency, the Commissioner may accept proof of the applicant's parent's or guardian's Virginia residency. Any minor providing proper evidence of the solemnization of his marriage or a certified copy of a court order of emancipation shall not be required to provide the parent's certification of residency. It shall be unlawful for any applicant knowingly to make a false certification of Virginia residency or supply false or fictitious evidence of Virginia residency. Any violation of this section shall be punished as provided in § 46.2-348.

1993, c. 444; 2002, cc. 767, 834.

§ 46.2-323.01. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Issuance of documents; relationship with federal law.

A. The Department shall establish a process for persons who, for reasons beyond their control, are unable to provide all necessary documents required for driver's licenses, permits, and special identification cards and must rely on alternate documents to establish identity or date of birth. Alternative documents to demonstrate legal presence will only be allowed to demonstrate United States citizenship.

B. The Department shall not comply with any federal law or regulation that would require the Department to use any type of computer chip or radio-frequency identification tag or other similar device on or in a driver's license or special identification card.

2009, c. 872.

§ 46.2-323.01. (Effective January 1, 2022) Issuance of credentials; relationship with federal law.

A. The Department shall establish a process for persons who, for reasons beyond their control, are unable to provide all necessary documents required for credentials issued under this chapter and must rely on alternate documents to establish identity or date of birth. Alternative documents to demonstrate legal presence will only be allowed to demonstrate United States citizenship.

B. The Department shall not comply with any federal law or regulation that would require the Department to use any type of computer chip or radio-frequency identification tag or other similar device on or in any credential issued under this chapter.

2009, c. 872; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 544.

§ 46.2-323.1. (Effective January 1, 2022) Certification of Virginia residency; nonresidents not eligible for credentials; penalty.

No credential issued under this chapter shall be issued to any person who is not a Virginia resident. Every person applying for a credential issued under this chapter shall execute and furnish to the Commissioner his certificate that he is a resident of Virginia. The Commissioner or his duly authorized agent may require any such applicant to supply, along with his application, such evidence of his Virginia residency as the Commissioner may deem appropriate and adequate, provided that neither an immigration visa nor a signed written statement, whether or not such statement is notarized, wherein the maker of the statement vouches for the Virginia residency of the applicant, shall be acceptable proof of Virginia residency. If the applicant is less than 19 years old and cannot otherwise provide proof of Virginia residency, the Commissioner may accept proof of the applicant's parent's or guardian's Virginia residency. Any minor providing proper evidence of the solemnization of his marriage or a certified copy of a court order of emancipation shall not be required to provide the parent's certification of residency. It is unlawful for any applicant knowingly to make a false certification of Virginia residency or supply false or fictitious evidence of Virginia residency. Any violation of this section shall be punished as provided in § 46.2-348.

1993, c. 444; 2002, cc. 767, 834; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 544.

§ 46.2-324. Applicants and license holders to notify Department of change of address; fee.

A. Whenever any person, after applying for or obtaining a driver's license or special identification card shall move from the address shown in the application or on the license or special identification card, he shall, within 30 days, notify the Department of his change of address. If the Department receives notification from the person or any court or law-enforcement agency that a person's residential address has changed to a non-Virginia address, unless the person (i) is on active duty with the armed forces of the United States, (ii) provides proof that he is a U.S. citizen and resides outside the United States because of his employment or the employment of a spouse or parent, or (iii) provides proof satisfactory to the Commissioner that he is a bona fide resident of Virginia, the Department shall (i) mail, by first-class mail, no later than three days after the notice of address change is received by the Department, notice to the person that his license and/or special identification card will be cancelled by the Department and (ii) cancel the driver's license and/or special identification card 30 days after notice of cancellation has been mailed.

B. The Department may contract with the United States Postal Service or an authorized agent to use the National Change of Address System for the purpose of obtaining current address information for a person whose name appears in customer records maintained by the Department. If the Department receives information from the National Change of Address System indicating that a person whose name appears in a Department record has submitted a permanent change of address to the Postal Service, the Department may then update its records with the mailing address obtained from the National Change of Address System.

C. There may be imposed upon anyone failing to notify the Department of his change of address as required by this section a fee of $5, which fee shall be used to defray the expenses incurred by the Department. Notwithstanding the foregoing provision of this subsection, no fee shall be imposed on any person whose address is obtained from the National Change of Address System.

D. The Department shall electronically transmit change of address information to the Department of State Police, in a format approved by the State Police, for comparison with information contained in the Virginia Criminal Information Network and National Crime Information Center Convicted Sexual Offender Registry Files, at the time of the change of address. Whenever it appears from the records of the State Police that a person has failed to comply with the duty to register, reregister, or verify his registration information pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1, the State Police shall promptly investigate and, if there is probable cause to believe a violation has occurred, obtain a warrant or assist in obtaining an indictment charging a violation of § 18.2-472.1 in the jurisdiction in which the person last registered, reregistered, or verified his registration information or in the jurisdiction where the person made application for change of address.

E. For any summons issued for a violation of this section, the court may, in its discretion, dismiss the summons, where proof of compliance with this section is provided to the court on or before the court date.

1974, c. 347, § 46.1-368.1; 1989, c. 727; 1996, cc. 943, 994; 2002, cc. 767, 834; 2006, cc. 857, 914; 2010, cc. 25, 55; 2017, c. 670; 2020, c. 829.

§ 46.2-324.1. (Continent expiration date — see note) Requirements for initial licensure of certain applicants.

A. No driver's license shall be issued to any applicant unless he either (i) provides written evidence of having satisfactorily completed a course of driver instruction at a driver training school licensed under Chapter 17 (§ 46.2-1700 et seq.) or a comparable course approved by the Department or the Department of Education or (ii) has held a learner's permit issued by the Department for at least 60 days prior to his first behind-the-wheel examination by the Department when applying for a noncommercial driver's license.

The provisions of this section shall only apply to persons who are at least 18 years old and who either (a) have never held a driver's license issued by Virginia or any other state or territory of the United States or foreign country or (b) have never been licensed or held the license endorsement or classification required to operate the type of vehicle which they now propose to operate. Completion of a course of driver instruction approved by the Department or the Department of Education at a driver training school may include the final behind-the-wheel examination for a driver's license; however, a driver training school shall not administer the behind-the-wheel examination to any applicant who is under medical control pursuant to § 46.2-322. Applicants completing a course of driver instruction approved by the Department or the Department of Education at a driver training school retain the option of having the behind-the-wheel examination administered by the Department.

B. No commercial driver's license shall be issued to any applicant unless he is 18 years old or older and has complied with the requirements of subsection A of § 46.2-341.9. Applicants for a commercial driver's license who have never before held a commercial driver's license shall apply for a commercial learner's permit and either (i) provide written evidence of having satisfactorily completed a course of driver instruction at a driver training school licensed under Chapter 17 (§ 46.2-1700 et seq.) or a comparable course approved by the Department or Department of Education and hold the commercial learner's permit for a minimum of 14 days prior to taking the behind-the-wheel examination for the commercial driver's license or (ii) hold the commercial learner's permit for a minimum of 30 days before taking the behind-the-wheel examination for the commercial driver's license.

Holders of a commercial driver's license who have never held the license endorsement or classification required to operate the type of commercial motor vehicle which they now propose to operate must apply for a commercial learner's permit if the upgrade requires a skills test and hold the permit for a minimum of 14 days prior to taking the behind-the-wheel examination for the commercial driver's license.

C. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Department from requiring any person to complete the skills examination as prescribed in § 46.2-325 and the written or automated examinations as prescribed in § 46.2-335.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection B, applicants for a commercial driver's license who have never before held a commercial driver's license who are members of the active duty military, military reserves, National Guard, active duty United States Coast Guard, or Coast Guard Auxiliary and provide written evidence of having satisfactorily completed a military commercial driver training program shall hold the commercial learner's permit for a minimum of 14 days prior to taking the behind-the-wheel examination for the commercial driver's license.

E. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection B, applicants for a commercial driver's license who have never before held a commercial driver's license who are employed by a public school division as a bus driver and provide written evidence of having satisfactorily completed a commercial driver training program with a public school division shall hold the commercial learner's permit for a minimum of 14 days prior to taking the behind-the-wheel examination for the commercial driver's license.

2000, c. 685; 2005, cc. 245, 513; 2012, cc. 215, 222; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, c. 685; 2015, c. 258; 2016, c. 488; 2019, c. 750.

§ 46.2-324.1. (Contingent effective date — see note) Requirements for initial licensure of certain applicants.

A. No driver's license shall be issued to any applicant unless he either (i) provides written evidence of having satisfactorily completed a course of driver instruction at a driver training school licensed under Chapter 17 (§ 46.2-1700 et seq.) or a comparable course approved by the Department or the Department of Education or (ii) has held a learner's permit issued by the Department for at least 60 days prior to his first behind-the-wheel examination by the Department when applying for a noncommercial driver's license.

The provisions of this section shall only apply to persons who are at least 18 years old and who either (a) have never held a driver's license issued by Virginia or any other state or territory of the United States or foreign country or (b) have never been licensed or held the license endorsement or classification required to operate the type of vehicle which they now propose to operate. Completion of a course of driver instruction approved by the Department or the Department of Education at a driver training school may include the final behind-the-wheel examination for a driver's license; however, a driver training school shall not administer the behind-the-wheel examination to any applicant who is under medical control pursuant to § 46.2-322. Applicants completing a course of driver instruction approved by the Department or the Department of Education at a driver training school retain the option of having the behind-the-wheel examination administered by the Department.

B. No commercial driver's license shall be issued to any applicant unless he (i) is 18 years old or older, (ii) has complied with the requirements of subsection A of § 46.2-341.9, (iii) has completed both the theory and the behind-the-wheel portions of the training course within one year from the date instruction was first commenced, and (iv) has completed both the range and the public road portions of the behind-the-wheel curriculum with the same training provider. Applicants for a commercial driver's license who have never before held a commercial driver's license shall apply for a commercial learner's permit and hold the commercial learner's permit for a minimum of 14 days prior to taking the behind-the-wheel examination for the commercial driver's license.

Holders of a commercial driver's license who have never held the license endorsement or classification required to operate the type of commercial motor vehicle which they now propose to operate must (a) complete an entry-level driver training course applicable to the license, classification, or endorsement for the type of commercial motor vehicle they propose to operate and (b) apply for a commercial learner's permit if the upgrade requires a skills test and hold the permit for a minimum of 14 days prior to taking the behind-the-wheel examination for the commercial driver's license.

C. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Department from requiring any person to complete the skills examination as prescribed in § 46.2-325 and the written or automated examinations as prescribed in § 46.2-335.

D. Applicants for a commercial driver's license who have never before held a commercial driver's license who are members of the active duty military, military reserves, National Guard, active duty United States Coast Guard, or Coast Guard Auxiliary and provide written evidence of having satisfactorily completed a military commercial driver training program shall hold the commercial learner's permit for a minimum of 14 days prior to taking the behind-the-wheel examination for the commercial driver's license, provided that the program complies with the requirements provided in Article 2 (§ 46.2-1708 et seq.) of Chapter 17, unless such entity is otherwise exempted from such requirements under federal law or regulation.

2000, c. 685; 2005, cc. 245, 513; 2012, cc. 215, 222; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, c. 685; 2015, c. 258; 2016, c. 488; 2019, c. 750.

§ 46.2-325. Examination of applicants; waiver of Department's examination under certain circumstances; behind-the-wheel and knowledge examinations.

A. The Department shall examine every applicant for a driver's license before issuing any license to determine (i) his physical and mental qualifications and his ability to drive a motor vehicle without jeopardizing the safety of persons or property and (ii) if any facts exist which would bar the issuance of a license under §§ 46.2-311 through 46.2-316, 46.2-334, or 46.2-335. The examination, however, shall not include investigation of any facts other than those directly pertaining to the ability of the applicant to drive a motor vehicle with safety, or other than those facts declared to be prerequisite to the issuance of a license under this chapter. No applicant otherwise competent shall be required to demonstrate ability to park any motor vehicle except in an adequate parking space between horizontal markers, and not between flags or sticks simulating parked vehicles. Except as provided for in § 46.2-337, applicants for licensure to drive motor vehicles of the classifications referred to in § 46.2-328 shall submit to examinations which relate to the operation of those vehicles. The motor vehicle to be used by the applicant for the behind-the-wheel examination shall meet the safety and equipment requirements specified in Chapter 10 (§ 46.2-1000 et seq.) and possess a valid inspection sticker as required pursuant to § 46.2-1157. An autocycle shall not be used by the applicant for a behind-the-wheel examination.

Prior to taking the examination, the applicant shall either (a) present evidence that the applicant has completed a state-approved driver education class pursuant to the provisions of § 46.2-324.1 or 46.2-334 or (b) submit to the examiner a behind-the-wheel maneuvers checklist, on a form provided by the Department, that describes the vehicle maneuvers the applicant may be expected to perform while taking the behind-the-wheel examination, that has been signed by a licensed driver, certifying that the applicant has practiced the driving maneuvers contained and described therein, and that has been signed by the applicant certifying that, at all times while holding a learner's permit, the applicant has complied with the provisions of § 46.2-335 while operating a motor vehicle.

Except for applicants subject to § 46.2-312, if the Commissioner is satisfied that an applicant has demonstrated the same proficiency as required by the Department's examination through successful completion of either (1) the driver education course approved by the Department of Education or (2) a driver training course offered by a driver training school licensed under Chapter 17 (§ 46.2-1700 et seq.), he may waive those parts of the Department's examination provided for in this section that require the applicant to drive and park a motor vehicle.

B. Any person who fails the behind-the-wheel examination for a driver's license administered by the Department shall wait two days before being permitted to take another such examination. No person who fails the behind-the-wheel examination for a driver's license administered by the Department three times shall be permitted to take such examination a fourth time until he successfully completes, subsequent to the third examination failure, the in-vehicle component of driver instruction at a driver training school licensed under Chapter 17 (§ 46.2-1700 et seq.) or a comparable course approved by the Department or the Department of Education. In addition, no person who fails the driver knowledge examination for a driver's license administered by the Department three times shall be permitted to take such examination a fourth time until he successfully completes, subsequent to the third examination failure, the classroom component of driver instruction at a driver training school licensed under Chapter 17 (§ 46.2-1700 et seq.) or a comparable course approved by the Department or the Department of Education or, for (i) persons at least 18 years old or (ii) persons less than 18 years old who have previously completed the classroom component of driver instruction, a course of instruction based on the Virginia Driver's Manual, which may be conducted in a classroom or online, offered by a driver training school licensed under Chapter 17 (§ 46.2-1700 et seq.) or a comparable course approved by the Department or the Department of Education. Providers of the Virginia Driver's Manual course online shall ensure that the certificate of completion is issued to the same person who took the course in a manner prescribed by the Department. All persons required to complete the in-vehicle component of driver instruction or the classroom component of driver instruction pursuant to this section shall be required after successful completion of the necessary courses to have the applicable examination administered by the Department.

The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to persons placed under medical control by the Department pursuant to § 46.2-322.

Code 1950, § 46-365; 1954, c. 454; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-369; 1966, cc. 375, 595; 1968, c. 176; 1976, c. 8; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 847; 1997, c. 841; 2007, c. 190; 2008, c. 735; 2012, cc. 215, 222; 2013, c. 272; 2014, cc. 53, 256, 685; 2016, c. 381; 2017, c. 73; 2019, c. 745; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 139.

§ 46.2-326. Designation of examiners; conduct of examination; reports.

The Commissioner shall designate persons within the Commonwealth to act for the Department in examining driver's license applicants. Any person so designated shall conduct examinations of driver's license applicants under this title and report his findings and recommendations to the Department.

Code 1950, § 46-366; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-371; 1984, c. 780; 1989, cc. 705, 727.

§ 46.2-326.1. Designation of commercial driver's license skills testing examiners.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-1702 and unless the Commissioner identifies grounds that would be cause for cancellation of a certification pursuant to subsection D of § 46.2-341.14:5 during the application process, the Department shall certify a licensed Class A driver training school as a third party tester, as defined in § 46.2-341.4, to conduct skills tests if, in addition to the requirements listed in subsections B and C of § 46.2-341.14:1, the school (i) has a program length of 160 hours or more and (ii) maintains a bond in the amount of $100,000 to pay for retesting drivers in the event that the third party tester or one or more of its third party examiners, as defined in § 46.2-341.4, are involved in fraudulent activities related to conducting knowledge or skills testing for applicants.

The bond required by this subsection shall be in lieu of the bond required in subdivision C 5 of § 46.2-341.14:1 but in addition to the bond required for a licensed Class A driver training school.

B. Licensed Class A driver training schools meeting the requirements of subsection A may apply to the Department for certification as a third party tester. Such application shall include the information required in the application in § 46.2-341.14:3 and shall include (i) evidence of the requirements listed in subsection A; (ii) an application for an employee who will act as a third party examiner; (iii) evidence that the licensed Class A driver training school has maintained a place of business in the Commonwealth for at least three years and has maintained its licensure in good standing or that the third party examiner has been licensed as an instructor, as defined in § 46.2-1700, at a licensed Class A driver training school for a minimum of two years and has maintained such licensure in good standing; and (iv) a $100 application fee. Such application must be renewed annually.

For the purposes of this subsection, "good standing" means that the instructor has not had sanctions levied against him by the Department for actions related to his role as an instructor or that the driver training school has not had sanctions levied by the Department for actions related to participation in the Class A driver training school program.

C. If the Department fails to certify a licensed Class A driver training school applicant, the Department shall communicate to the applicant its decision and the reason for denial in writing within 60 days of submission of the application.

D. Licensed Class A driver training schools operating as third party testers shall:

1. Remit $50 per skills test to the Department in accordance with § 46.2-341.13;

2. Submit to the Department the results of each skills test administered in a form prescribed by the Department;

3. Test only individuals receiving instruction and training from that school; and

4. Not require their students to be tested at their driver training school.

E. Individuals intending to act as third party examiners for a licensed Class A driver training school that is operating as a third party tester shall meet the requirements in § 46.2-341.14:2 and submit to the Department an application that includes (i) the information in the application required by § 46.2-341.14:3, (ii) evidence of their employment by a licensed Class A driver training school that is operating as a third party tester, and (iii) a $50 application fee. Such application must be renewed annually.

F. The Department shall have the authority to revoke or cancel the third party tester certification of a licensed Class A driver training school permitted to administer skills tests pursuant to the provisions of this section or any third party examiner employed by such Class A driver training school, effective immediately, for any reason enumerated in § 46.2-341.14:5. A licensed Class A driver training school permitted to administer skills tests pursuant to the provisions of this section or any third party examiner employed by such Class A driver training school shall not administer skills tests if its authority to provide training has been revoked, canceled, or suspended by the Department pursuant to § 46.2-1705 or any other provision of law.

2019, cc. 78, 155.

§ 46.2-327. Copies of applications; record of licenses and learner's permits issued, suspended, or revoked.

The Department shall retain a copy of every application for a driver's license or learner's permit. The Department shall index and maintain a record of all licenses and learner's permits issued, suspended, or revoked.

Code 1950, § 46-367; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-372; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-328. Department to issue licenses; endorsements, classifications, and restrictions authorizing operation of certain vehicles.

A. The Department shall issue to every person licensed as a driver a driver's license. Every driver's license shall contain all appropriate endorsements, classifications, and restrictions, where applicable, if the licensee has been licensed:

1. To operate a motorcycle as defined in § 46.2-100;

2. To operate a school bus as defined in § 46.2-100;

3. To operate a commercial motor vehicle pursuant to the provisions of the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.); or

4. To operate a passenger car as defined in § 46.2-100.

B. Every applicant intending to operate one or more of the motor vehicles described in subsection A, when applying for a driver's license, shall state in his application the classification of each vehicle that he intends to operate and for which he seeks to be licensed and submit to and pass the examination provided for in § 46.2-325 and, if applicable, §§ 46.2-337 and 46.2-341.14, using the type of each vehicle for which he seeks to be licensed.

C. Every applicant intending to drive a motorcycle, when applying for a classification to authorize the driving of a motorcycle, shall submit to and pass the examination provided for in § 46.2-337. A classification on any license to drive a motorcycle shall indicate that the license is classified for the purpose of authorizing the licensee to drive only motorcycles and shall indicate as applicable a further restriction to a two-wheeled motorcycle only or a three-wheeled motorcycle only. However, if the applicant has a valid license at the time of application for a classification to drive a motorcycle, or if the applicant, at the time of such application, applies for a regular driver's license and submits to and passes the examination provided for in § 46.2-325, he shall be granted a classification on his license to drive motorcycles based on the applicable restrictions, in addition to any other vehicles his driver's license or commercial driver's license may authorize him to operate.

A valid Virginia driver's license issued to a person 19 years of age or older shall constitute a driver's license with a temporary motorcycle classification for the purposes of driving a motorcycle if the driver's license is accompanied by either (i) documentation verifying his successful completion of a motorcycle rider safety training course offered by a provider licensed under Article 23 (§ 46.2-1188 et seq.) of Chapter 10 or (ii) documentation that the license holder is a member, the spouse of a member, or a dependent of a member of the United States Armed Services and that the license holder has successfully completed a basic motorcycle rider course approved by the United States Armed Services. The temporary motorcycle classification shall only be valid for 30 days from the date of successful completion of the motorcycle rider safety training course as shown on the documentation evidencing completion of such course. The temporary motorcycle classification shall indicate whether the license holder is authorized to operate any motorcycle or is restricted to either a two-wheeled motorcycle only or a three-wheeled motorcycle only.

Any person who holds a valid Virginia driver's license and is a member, the spouse of a member, or a dependent of a member of the United States Armed Services shall be issued a motorcycle classification by mail upon documentation of (a) successful completion of a basic motorcycle rider course approved by the United States Armed Services and (b) documentation of his assignment outside the Commonwealth.

D. The Department may make any changes in the classifications and endorsements during the validity of the license as may be appropriate.

E. The provisions of this section shall be applicable to persons applying for learner's permits as otherwise provided for in this title.

F. Every person issued a driver's license or commercial driver's license who drives any motor vehicle of the classifications in this section and whose driver's license does not carry an endorsement or indication that the licensee is licensed as provided in this section is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 46-368; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-373; 1964, c. 239; 1968, c. 642; 1970, c. 696; 1984, cc. 73, 476, 780; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 2000, c. 269; 2007, c. 190; 2009, c. 77; 2013, cc. 673, 783, 789; 2016, c. 368.

§ 46.2-328.1. Licenses, permits, and special identification cards to be issued only to United States citizens, legal permanent resident aliens, or holders of valid unexpired nonimmigrant visas; exceptions; renewal, duplication, or reissuance.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, except as provided in subsection G of § 46.2-345, the Department shall not issue an original license, permit, or special identification card to any applicant who has not presented to the Department, with the application, valid documentary evidence that the applicant is either (i) a citizen of the United States, (ii) a legal permanent resident of the United States, (iii) a conditional resident alien of the United States, (iv) an approved applicant for asylum in the United States, (v) an entrant into the United States in refugee status, or (vi) a citizen of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Palau, or the Republic of the Marshall Islands, collectively known as the Freely Associated States.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A and the provisions of §§ 46.2-330 and 46.2-345, an applicant who presents in person valid documentary evidence that a federal court or federal agency having jurisdiction over immigration has authorized the applicant to be in the United States or an applicant for a REAL ID credential who provides evidence of temporary lawful status in the United States as required pursuant to the REAL ID Act of 2005, as amended, and its implementing regulations may be issued a limited-duration license, permit, or special identification card. Such limited-duration license, permit, or special identification card shall be valid only during the period of time of the applicant's authorized stay in the United States or if there is no definite end to the period of authorized stay a period of one year. No license, permit, or special identification card shall be issued if an applicant's authorized stay in the United States is less than 30 days from the date of application. Any limited-duration license, permit, or special identification card issued pursuant to this subsection shall clearly indicate that it is valid for a limited period and shall state the date that it expires. Such a limited-duration license, permit, or special identification card may be renewed only upon presentation of valid documentary evidence that the status by which the applicant qualified for the limited-duration license, permit, or special identification has been extended by a federal court or federal agency having jurisdiction over immigration.

C. Any license, permit, or special identification card for which an application has been made for renewal, duplication, or reissuance shall be presumed to have been issued in accordance with the provisions of subsection A, provided that, at the time the application is made, (i) the license, permit, or special identification card has not expired or been cancelled, suspended, or revoked or (ii) the license, permit, or special identification card has been canceled or suspended as a result of the applicant having been placed under medical review by the Department pursuant to § 46.2-322. The requirements of subsection A shall apply, however, to a renewal, duplication, or reissuance if the Department is notified by a local, state, or federal government agency that the individual seeking such renewal, duplication, or reissuance is neither a citizen of the United States nor legally in the United States.

D. The Department shall cancel any license, permit, or special identification card that it has issued to an individual if it is notified by a federal government agency that the individual is neither a citizen of the United States nor legally present in the United States.

E. For any applicant who presents a document pursuant to this section proving legal presence other than citizenship, the Department shall record and provide to the State Board of Elections monthly the applicant's document number, if any, issued by an agency or court of the United States government.

2003, cc. 817, 819; 2005, c. 260; 2007, c. 493; 2009, c. 872; 2010, c. 129; 2011, c. 396; 2013, c. 686; 2020, cc. 981, 1227, 1246.

§ 46.2-328.2. Department to issue documents; veteran indicator.

A. For the purposes of this section, "veteran" means (i) a Virginia resident who has served in the active military, naval, or air service and whose final discharge or release therefrom was under honorable conditions or (ii) a Virginia resident who has served honorably for greater than 180 days in the Virginia National Guard or the United States Armed Forces Reserves.

B. In cooperation with the Department of Veterans Services and the Department of Military Affairs, the Department shall issue driver's licenses, permits, and identification cards displaying an indicator that the holder is a veteran to applicants who request such indicator and provide proof of such veteran status.

C. The Department shall charge the same fee for any document issued pursuant to this section as is charged for the same document issued without the veteran indicator. No additional fee shall be charged for the veteran indicator.

D. Any veteran's indicator placed on documentation issued pursuant to this section shall not be used for determination of any federal benefit.

2018, c. 440.

§ 46.2-328.3. Driver privilege cards and permits.

A. Upon application of any person who does not meet the requirements for a driver's license or permit under subsection A or B of § 46.2-328.1, the Department may issue to the applicant a driver privilege card or permit if the Department determines that the applicant (i) has reported income and deductions from Virginia sources, as defined in § 58.1-302, or been claimed as a dependent, on an individual income tax return filed with the Commonwealth in the preceding 12 months and (ii) is not in violation of the insurance requirements set forth in Article 8 (§ 46.2-705 et seq.) of Chapter 6.

B. Driver privilege cards and permits shall confer the same privileges and shall be subject to the same provisions of this title as driver's licenses and permits issued under this chapter, unless otherwise provided, and shall be subject to the following conditions and exceptions:

1. The front of a driver privilege card or permit shall be identical in appearance to a driver's license or permit that is not a REAL ID credential and the back of the card or permit shall be identical in appearance to the restriction on the back of a limited-duration license, permit, or special identification card;

2. An applicant for a driver privilege card or permit shall not be eligible for a waiver of any part of the driver examination provided under § 46.2-325;

3. An applicant for a driver privilege card or permit shall not be required to present proof of legal presence in the United States;

4. A driver privilege card or permit shall expire on the applicant's second birthday following the date of issuance;

5. The fee for an original driver privilege card or permit shall be $50. The Department may issue, upon application by the holder of a valid, unexpired card or permit issued under this section, and upon payment of a fee of $50, another driver privilege card or permit that shall be valid for a period of two years from the date of issuance. The amount paid by an applicant for a driver privilege card or other document issued pursuant to this chapter shall be considered privileged information for the purposes of § 46.2-208. No applicant shall be required to provide proof of compliance with clauses (i) and (ii) of subsection A for a reissued, renewed, or duplicate card or permit; and

6. Any information collected pursuant to this section that is not otherwise collected by the Department or required for the issuance of any other driving credential issued pursuant to the provisions of this chapter and any information regarding restrictions in the Department's records related to the issuance of a credential issued pursuant to this section shall be considered privileged. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-208, such information shall not be released except upon request by the subject of the information, the parent of a minor who is the subject of the information, the guardian of the subject of the information, or the authorized representative of the subject of the information, or pursuant to a court order.

C. The Department shall not release the following information relating to the issuance of a driver privilege card or permit, except upon request by the subject of the information, the parent of a minor who is the subject of the information, the guardian of the subject of the information, or the authorized representative of the subject of the information, or pursuant to a court order, (i) proof documents submitted for the purpose of obtaining a driver privilege card or permit, (ii) the information in the Department's records indicating the type of proof documentation that was provided, or (iii) applications.

The Department shall release only to any federal, state, or local governmental entity, local government group self-insurance pool, law-enforcement officer, attorney for the Commonwealth, or court, or the authorized agent of any of the foregoing, information related to the issuance of a driver privilege card or permit, the release of which is not otherwise prohibited by this section, that is required for a requester to carry out the requester's official functions if the requester provides the individual's name and other sufficient identifying information contained on the individual's record. Any such release shall be in accordance with the requirements of § 46.2-208.

2020, cc. 1227, 1246; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 421.

§ 46.2-329. Special restrictions on particular licensees.

The Department, on issuing a driver's license may, whenever good cause appears, impose restrictions suitable to the licensee's driving ability with respect to the type of, or special mechanical control devices required on, a motor vehicle which the licensee may drive, or any other restrictions applicable to the licensee as the Department may determine. When it appears from the records of the Department that the licensee has failed or refused to comply with the restrictions imposed on the licensee's driving of a motor vehicle, the Department may, after 10 days' written notice to the address indicated in the records of the Department, suspend the person's driver's license and the suspension shall remain in effect until this section has been complied with.

Any person issued a driver's license on which there are printed or stamped restrictions as provided by this section, and who drives a motor vehicle in violation of these restrictions shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

Any person who operates a motor vehicle or any self-propelled machinery or equipment in violation of the terms of a restricted license issued pursuant to subsection E of § 18.2-271.1 is not guilty of a violation of this section but is guilty of a violation of § 18.2-272.

Code 1950, § 46-373; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-378; 1960, c. 177; 1962, c. 368; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 2004, c. 948.

§ 46.2-330. Expiration and renewal of licenses; examinations required.

A. Every driver's license shall expire on the applicant's birthday at the end of the period of years for which a driver's license has been issued. At no time shall any driver's license be issued for more than eight years or less than five years, unless otherwise provided by law. Thereafter the driver's license shall be renewed on or before the birthday of the licensee and shall be valid for a period not to exceed eight years except as otherwise provided by law. Any driver's license issued to a person age 75 or older shall be issued for a period not to exceed five years. Notwithstanding these limitations, the Commissioner may extend the validity period of an expiring license if (i) the Department is unable to process an application for renewal due to circumstances beyond its control, (ii) the extension has been authorized under a directive from the Governor, and (iii) the license was not issued as a limited-duration driver's license under the provisions of subsection B of § 46.2-328.1. However, in no event shall the validity period be extended more than 90 days per occurrence of such conditions. In determining the number of years for which a driver's license shall be renewed, the Commissioner shall take into consideration the examinations, conditions, requirements, and other criteria provided under this title that relate to the issuance of a license to operate a vehicle. Any driver's license issued to a person required to register pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1 shall expire on the applicant's birthday in years which the applicant attains an age equally divisible by five.

B. Within one year prior to the date shown on the driver's license as the date of expiration, the Department shall send notice, to the holder thereof, at the address shown on the records of the Department in its driver's license file, that his license will expire on a date specified therein, whether he must be reexamined, and when he may be reexamined. Nonreceipt of the notice shall not extend the period of validity of the driver's license beyond its expiration date. The license holder may request the Department to send such renewal notice to an email or other electronic address, upon provision of such address to the Department.

Any driver's license may be renewed by application after the applicant has taken and successfully completed those parts of the examination provided for in §§ 46.2-311, 46.2-325, and the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.), including vision and written tests, other than the parts of the examination requiring the applicant to drive a motor vehicle. All drivers applying in person for renewal of a license shall take and successfully complete the examination each renewal year. Every applicant for a renewal shall appear in person before the Department, unless specifically notified by the Department that renewal may be accomplished in another manner as provided in the notice. Applicants who are required to appear in person before the Department to apply for a renewal may also be required to present proof of identity, legal presence, residency, and social security number or non-work authorized status.

C. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Commissioner, in his discretion, may require any applicant for renewal to be fully examined as provided in §§ 46.2-311 and 46.2-325 and the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.). Furthermore, if the applicant is less than 75 years old, the Commissioner may waive the vision examination for any applicant for renewal of a driver's license that is not a commercial driver's license and the requirement for the taking of the written test as provided in subsection B of this section, § 46.2-325, and the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.). However, in no case shall there be any waiver of the vision examination for applicants for renewal of a commercial driver's license or of the knowledge test required by the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act for the hazardous materials endorsement on a commercial driver's license. No driver's license or learner's permit issued to any person who is 75 years old or older shall be renewed unless the applicant for renewal appears in person and either (i) passes a vision examination or (ii) presents a report of a vision examination, made within 90 days prior thereto by an ophthalmologist or optometrist, indicating that the applicant's vision meets or exceeds the standards contained in § 46.2-311.

D. Every applicant for renewal of a driver's license, whether renewal shall or shall not be dependent on any examination of the applicant, shall appear in person before the Department to apply for renewal, unless specifically notified by the Department that renewal may be accomplished in another manner as provided in the notice.

E. This section shall not modify the provisions of § 46.2-221.2.

F. 1. The Department shall electronically transmit application information, including a photograph, to the Department of State Police, in a format approved by the State Police, for comparison with information contained in the Virginia Criminal Information Network and National Crime Information Center Convicted Sexual Offender Registry files, at the time of the renewal of a driver's license. Whenever it appears from the records of the State Police that a person has failed to comply with the duty to register, reregister, or verify his registration information pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1, the State Police shall promptly investigate and, if there is probable cause to believe a violation has occurred, obtain a warrant or assist in obtaining an indictment charging a violation of § 18.2-472.1 in the jurisdiction in which the person last registered, reregistered, or verified his registration information or in the jurisdiction where the person made application for licensure. The Department of State Police shall electronically transmit to the Department, in a format approved by the Department, for each person required to register pursuant to Chapter 9 of Title 9.1, registry information consisting of the person's name, all aliases that he has used or under which he may have been known, his date of birth, and his social security number as set out in § 9.1-903.

2. For each person required to register pursuant to Chapter 9 of Title 9.1, the Department may not waive the requirement that each such person shall appear for each renewal or the requirement to obtain a photograph in accordance with subsection C of § 46.2-323.

1968, c. 642, § 46.1-380.1; 1975, c. 24; 1976, c. 48; 1984, c. 780; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 1993, cc. 471, 501; 1997, c. 486; 2001, cc. 659, 665; 2003, c. 333; 2004, cc. 112, 218, 975; 2005, c. 302; 2006, cc. 857, 914; 2008, cc. 487, 866; 2009, c. 872; 2011, cc. 57, 70; 2012, cc. 215, 222; 2014, c. 282; 2016, c. 368; 2018, c. 300; 2020, cc. 829, 1227, 1246.

§ 46.2-331. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, c. 975.

§ 46.2-332. Fees.

The fee for each driver's license other than a commercial driver's license shall be $2.40 per year. This fee shall not apply to driver privilege cards or permits issued under § 46.2-328.3. If the license is a commercial driver's license or seasonal restricted commercial driver's license, the fee shall be $6 per year. For any one or more driver's license endorsements or classifications, except a motorcycle classification, there shall be an additional fee of $1 per year; for a motorcycle classification, there shall be an additional fee of $2 per year. For any and all driver's license classifications, there shall be an additional fee of $1 per year. For any revalidation of a seasonal restricted commercial driver's license, the fee shall be $5. A fee of $10 shall be charged to extend the validity period of a driver's license pursuant to subsection B of § 46.2-221.2.

A reexamination fee of $2 shall be charged for each administration of the knowledge portion of the driver's license examination taken by an applicant who is 18 years of age or older if taken more than once within a 15-day period. The reexamination fee shall be charged each time the examination is administered until the applicant successfully completes the examination, if taken prior to the fifteenth day.

An applicant who is less than 18 years of age who does not successfully complete the knowledge portion of the driver's license examination shall not be permitted to take the knowledge portion more than once in 15 days.

A fee of $50 shall be charged each time an applicant for a commercial driver's license fails to keep a scheduled skills test appointment, unless such applicant cancels his appointment with the assigned driver's license examiner at least 24 hours in advance of the scheduled appointment. The Commissioner may, on a case-by-case basis, waive such fee for good cause shown. All such fees shall be paid by the Commissioner into the state treasury and set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the necessary expenses incurred by the Department.

If the applicant for a driver's license is an employee of the Commonwealth, or of any county, city, or town who drives a motorcycle or a commercial motor vehicle solely in the line of his duty, he shall be exempt from the additional fee otherwise assessable for a motorcycle classification or a commercial motor vehicle endorsement. The Commissioner may prescribe the forms as may be requisite for completion by persons claiming exemption from additional fees imposed by this section.

No additional fee above $2.40 per year shall be assessed for the driver's license or commercial driver's license required for the operation of a school bus.

Excluding the $2 reexamination fee, $1.50 of all fees collected for each original or renewal driver's license, other than a driver privilege card issued under § 46.2-328.3, shall be paid into the driver education fund of the state treasury and expended as provided by law. Unexpended funds from the driver education fund shall be retained in the fund and be available for expenditure in ensuing years as provided therein.

All fees for motorcycle classifications shall be distributed as provided in § 46.2-1191.

This section shall supersede conflicting provisions of this chapter.

1968, c. 642, § 46.1-380.2; 1970, cc. 35, 548, 696; 1972, c. 490; 1973, c. 396; 1974, c. 212; 1976, c. 48; 1980, c. 559; 1984, c. 780; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 1993, c. 70; 1996, cc. 943, 994; 1997, cc. 104, 493; 1999, c. 593; 2007, cc. 190, 223; 2011, cc. 57, 70; 2017, c. 547; 2020, cc. 1227, 1230, 1246, 1275.

§ 46.2-333. Disposition of fees; expenses.

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, all fees accruing under the provisions of this chapter shall be paid to, and received by the Commissioner, and by him forthwith paid into the state treasury and set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the necessary expenses incurred by the Department.

Code 1950, § 46-346; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-381; 1987, c. 696; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-333.1. Surcharges on certain fees of Department; disposition of proceeds.

Notwithstanding any contrary provision of this chapter, there are hereby imposed, in addition to other fees imposed by this chapter, the following surcharges in the following amounts:

1. For the issuance of any driver's license other than a commercial driver's license, or a driver privilege card issued under § 46.2-328.3, $1.60 per year of validity of the license;

2. For the issuance of any commercial driver's license, $1 per year of validity of the license;

3. For the reissuance or replacement of any driver's license, $5; and

4. For the reinstatement of any driver's license, $15.

All surcharges collected by the Department under this section shall be paid into the state treasury and shall be set aside as a special fund to be used to support the operation and activities of the Department's customer service centers.

2003, c. 1042, cl. 9; 2017, c. 122; 2020, cc. 1227, 1246.

Article 5. Licensure of Minors, Student Drivers, School Bus Drivers, and Motorcyclists

§ 46.2-334. Conditions and requirements for licensure of persons under 18.

A. Minors at least 16 years and three months old may be issued driver's licenses under the following conditions:

1. The minor shall submit a proper application and satisfactory evidence that he (i) is a resident of the Commonwealth; (ii) has successfully completed a driver education course approved by either the State Department of Education or, in the case of a course offered by a driver training school licensed under Chapter 17 (§ 46.2-1700 et seq.) of this title, by the Department of Motor Vehicles; and (iii) is mentally, physically, and otherwise qualified to drive a motor vehicle safely.

2. The minor's application for a driver's license must be signed by a parent of the applicant, otherwise by the guardian having custody of him. However, in the event a minor has no parent or guardian, then a driver's license shall not be issued to him unless his application is signed by the judge of the juvenile and domestic relations district court of the city or county in which he resides. If the minor making the application is married or otherwise emancipated, in lieu of any parent's, guardian's or judge's signature, the minor may present proper evidence of the solemnization of the marriage or the order of emancipation.

3. The minor shall be required to state in his application whether or not he has been convicted of an offense triable by, or tried in, a juvenile and domestic relations district court or found by such court to be a child in need of supervision, as defined in § 16.1-228. If it appears that the minor has been adjudged not innocent of the offense alleged or has been found to be a child in need of supervision, the Department shall not issue a license without the written approval of the judge of the juvenile and domestic relations district court making an adjudication as to the minor or the like approval of a similar court of the county or city in which the parent or guardian, respectively, of the minor resides.

4. The application for a permanent driver's license by a minor of the age of persons required to attend school pursuant to § 22.1-254 shall be accompanied by evidence of compliance with the compulsory school attendance law set forth in Article 1 (§ 22.1-254 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 22.1. This evidence shall be provided in writing by the minor's parent. If the minor is unable to provide such evidence, he shall not be granted a driver's license until he reaches the age of 18 or presents proper evidence of the solemnization of his marriage or an order of emancipation, or the parent, as defined in § 22.1-1, or other person standing in loco parentis has provided written authorization for the minor to obtain a driver's license.

A minor may, however, present a high school diploma or its equivalent or a certificate indicating completion of a prescribed course of study as defined by the local school board pursuant to § 22.1-253.13:4 as evidence of compulsory school attendance compliance.

5. The minor applicant shall certify in writing, on a form prescribed by the Commissioner, that he is a resident of the Commonwealth. The applicant's parent or guardian shall also certify that the applicant is a resident by signing the certification. Any minor providing proper evidence of the solemnization of his marriage or a certified copy of a court order of emancipation shall not be required to provide the parent's certification of residence.

B. Any custodial parent or guardian of an unmarried or unemancipated minor may, after the issuance of a permanent driver's license to such minor, file with the Department a written request that the license of the minor be canceled. When such request is filed, the Department shall cancel the license of the minor and the license shall not thereafter be reissued by the Department until a period of six months has elapsed from the date of cancellation or the minor reaches his eighteenth birthday, whichever shall occur sooner. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this subsection, in the case of a minor whose parents have been awarded joint legal custody, a request that the license of the minor be cancelled must be signed by both legal custodians. In the event one parent is not reasonably available or the parents do not agree, one parent may petition the juvenile and domestic relations district court to make a determination that the license of the minor be cancelled.

C. The provisions of subsection A of this section requiring that an application for a driver's license be signed by the parent or guardian shall be waived by the Commissioner if the application is accompanied by proper evidence of the solemnization of the minor's marriage or a certified copy of a court order, issued under the provisions of Article 15 (§ 16.1-331 et seq.) of Chapter 11 of Title 16.1, declaring the applicant to be an emancipated minor.

D. A learner's permit accompanied by documentation verifying the minor's successful completion of an approved driver education course, signed by the minor's parent, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis, shall constitute a temporary driver's license for purposes of driving unaccompanied by a licensed driver as required in § 46.2-335, if all other requirements of this chapter have been met. The temporary license shall only be valid until the permanent license is presented as provided in § 46.2-336.

E. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A requiring the successful completion of a driver education course approved by the State Department of Education, the Commissioner, on application therefor by a person at least 16 years and three months old but less than 18 years old, shall issue to the applicant a temporary driver's license valid for six months if he (i) certifies by signing, together with his parent or guardian, if applicable, on a form prescribed by the Commissioner that he is a resident of the Commonwealth; (ii) is the holder of a valid driver's license from another U.S. state, U.S. territory, Canadian province, or Canadian territory; and (iii) has not been found guilty of or otherwise responsible for an offense involving the operation of a motor vehicle. No temporary license issued under this subsection shall be renewed, nor shall any second or subsequent temporary license under this subsection be issued to the same applicant. Any such minor providing proper evidence of the solemnization of his marriage or a certified copy of a court order of emancipation shall not be required to obtain the signature of his parent or guardian for the temporary driver's license.

In order to obtain a permanent driver's license, applicants who transfer to Virginia from another U.S. state or any U.S. territory, Canadian province, or Canadian territory must have documentation of at least 30 hours of classroom instruction and six hours of in-car instruction from a government-approved program in the other U.S. state, U.S. territory, or Canadian province or Canadian territory. If a transfer applicant successfully completes a government-approved classroom and in-car driver education program from another state or any U.S. territory, Canadian province, or Canadian territory, the applicant must present the certificate of completion, specifying the number of instructional hours, to the Department.

F. For persons qualifying for a driver's license through driver education courses approved by the Department of Education or courses offered by driver training schools licensed by the Department, the application for the learner's permit shall be used as the application for the driver's license pursuant to § 46.2-335.

G. Driver's licenses shall be issued by the Department to students successfully completing driver education courses approved by the Department of Education (i) when the Department receives from the school proper certification that the student (a) has successfully completed such course, including a road skills examination and (b) is regularly attending school and is in good academic standing or, if not in such standing or submitting evidence thereof, whose parent or guardian, having custody of such minor, provides written authorization for the minor to obtain a driver's license, which written authorization shall be obtained on forms provided by the Department and indicating the Commonwealth's interest in the good academic standing and regular school attendance of such minors; and (ii) upon payment of a fee of $2.40 per year, based on the period of the license's validity. For applicants attending public schools, good academic standing may be certified by the public school principal or any of his designees. For applicants attending nonpublic schools, such certification shall be made by the private school principal or any of his designees; for students receiving home schooling, such certification shall be made by the home schooling parent or tutor. Any minor providing proper evidence of the solemnization of his marriage or a certified copy of a court order of emancipation shall not be required to provide the certification of good academic standing or any written authorization from his parent or guardian to obtain a driver's license.

H. For those home schooled students completing driver education courses approved by the Board of Education and instructed by his own parent or guardian, no driver's license shall be issued until the student has successfully completed the driver's license examination administered by the Department. Furthermore, the Commissioner shall not issue a driver's license for those home schooled students completing driver education courses approved by the Board of Education and instructed by his own parent or guardian if it is determined by the Commissioner that, at the time of such instruction, such parent or guardian had accumulated six or more driver demerit points in the most recently preceding 12 months, had been convicted within the most recent 11 preceding years of driving while intoxicated in violation of § 18.2-266 or a substantially similar law in another state, or had ever been convicted of voluntary or involuntary manslaughter in violation of § 18.2-35 or 18.2-36 or a substantially similar law in another state.

I. The Commissioner, on application therefor by a person from another U.S. state or any U.S. territory, Canadian province, or Canadian territory who is at least 16 years and three months old but less than 18 years old, shall issue a Virginia driver's license to the applicant if the applicant (i) certifies by signing, together with his parent or guardian, if applicable, on a form prescribed by the Commissioner that he is now a resident of the Commonwealth; (ii) has completed a government-approved classroom and in-car driver education program from another U.S. state or any U.S. territory, Canadian province, or Canadian territory, which shall not be required to meet the 30 hours of classroom instruction and six hours of in-car instruction requirement in subsection E; (iii) is the holder of a valid driver's license from another U.S. state or any U.S. territory, Canadian province, or Canadian territory; (iv) has held the valid driver's license for the 12 months immediately prior to applying for a Virginia license; (v) has not been found guilty of or otherwise responsible for an offense involving the operation of a motor vehicle; and (vi) successfully completes behind-the-wheel and driver knowledge examinations administered by the Department.

The applicant must present the certificate of completion specifying the number of classroom and in-car driver education program instructional hours for the government-approved classroom and in-car driver education program from another U.S. state or any U.S. territory, Canadian province, or Canadian territory to the Department.

Code 1950, §§ 46-353, 46-361, 46-363, 46-364; 1950, p. 249; 1952, c. 396; 1954, c. 123; 1956, c. 665; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-357; 1960, cc. 110, 424; 1962, cc. 254, 482; 1964, c. 617; 1966, c. 36; 1968, c. 642; 1970, c. 41; 1972, c. 823; 1973, c. 1; 1974, cc. 223, 542; 1976, c. 8; 1977, cc. 548, 552; 1980, c. 165; 1982, c. 287; 1984, c. 780; 1987, cc. 154, 632; 1989, cc. 392, 705, 727; 1991, c. 214; 1993, cc. 471, 501; 1995, c. 535; 1996, cc. 943, 994, 1011, 1022; 1997, c. 841; 1999, cc. 459, 462, 887; 2001, cc. 659, 665, 851; 2003, c. 951; 2014, cc. 286, 685; 2016, c. 488.

§ 46.2-334.001. Court to suspend driver's license issued to certain minors.

A. Upon receipt by the juvenile and domestic relations district court within whose jurisdiction the minor resides of a petition from the principal, or his designee, of any public school in the Commonwealth that any person who is less than 18 years old and attending that public school has had 10 or more unexcused absences from school on consecutive school days, the court shall give notice and opportunity for the minor to show cause why his driver's license should not be suspended. Upon failure to show cause for the license not to be suspended, the court may suspend the minor's driver's license for any period of time, until the minor is 18 years old.

B. The foregoing provisions of this section shall not apply in cases where the student has withdrawn from school for a reason or reasons beyond the control of the student, for the purpose of transferring to another school as confirmed in writing by the student's parent or guardian, or when the student's parent or guardian expresses in open court his desire to allow the student to retain his license. The juvenile and domestic relations district court judge shall be the sole authority as to whether the licensee's withdrawal from school is due to circumstances beyond the control of the student.

C. Any person whose driver's license is suspended as provided in this section may apply to a juvenile and domestic relations district court for issuance of a restricted driver's license for any of the purposes set forth in subsection E of § 18.2-271.1. No restricted license shall be issued pursuant to this section unless the licensee (i) is employed at least four hours per day and at least 20 hours per week, (ii) has a medical condition that requires him to be able to drive a motor vehicle, or (iii) is the only licensee in his household. The court shall order the surrender of such person's license and shall forward to the Commissioner a copy of its order entered pursuant to this subsection. This order shall specifically enumerate the restrictions imposed and contain such information regarding the person to whom such a restricted license is issued as is reasonably necessary to identify such person. The court shall also provide a copy of its order to such person, who may operate a motor vehicle on the order until receipt from the Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles of a restricted driver's license, but only if the order provides for a restricted driver's license for that period. Any person who operates a motor vehicle in violation of any restriction imposed pursuant to this section shall be guilty of a violation of § 46.2-301.

2009, c. 439.

§ 46.2-334.02. Licenses issued to persons less than twenty years old subject to certain restrictions.

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-498, whenever the driving record of a person who is at least eighteen years old but less than twenty years old shows that he has been convicted of (i) an offense for which demerit points have been assessed or are assessable under Article 19 (§ 46.2-489 et seq.) of this chapter or (ii) a violation of any provision of Article 12 (§ 46.2-1091 et seq.) or Article 13 (§ 46.2-1095 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of this title, the Commissioner shall direct such person to attend a driver improvement clinic.

2001, cc. 659, 665.

§ 46.2-334.1. Knowledge test; waiting period prior to reexamination.

Any person under the age of eighteen who applies for a driver's license under § 46.2-334 and fails the motor vehicle knowledge test administered pursuant to that section shall not be eligible for retesting for at least fifteen days.

1996, c. 1035.

§ 46.2-334.01. Licenses issued to persons less than 18 years old subject to certain restrictions.

A. Any learner's permit or driver's license issued to any person less than 18 years old shall be subject to the following:

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-498, whenever the driving record of a person less than 19 years old shows that he has been convicted of committing, when he was less than 18 years old, (i) an offense for which demerit points have been assessed or are assessable under Article 19 (§ 46.2-489 et seq.) or (ii) a violation of any provision of Article 12 (§ 46.2-1091 et seq.) or Article 13 (§ 46.2-1095 et seq.) of Chapter 10, the Commissioner shall direct such person to attend a driver improvement clinic. No safe driving points shall be awarded for such clinic attendance, nor shall any safe driving points be awarded for voluntary or court-assigned clinic attendance. Such person's parent, guardian, legal custodian, or other person standing in loco parentis may attend such clinic and receive a reduction in demerit points and/or an award of safe driving points pursuant to § 46.2-498. The provisions of this subdivision shall not be construed to prohibit awarding of safe driving points to a person less than 18 years old who attends and successfully completes a driver improvement clinic without having been directed to do so by the Commissioner or required to do so by a court.

2. If any person less than 19 years old is convicted a second time of committing, when he was less than 18 years old, (i) an offense for which demerit points have been assessed or are assessable under Article 19 (§ 46.2-489 et seq.) or (ii) a violation of any provision of Article 12 (§ 46.2-1091 et seq.) or Article 13 (§ 46.2-1095 et seq.) of Chapter 10, the Commissioner shall suspend such person's driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle for 90 days. Such suspension shall be consecutive to, and not concurrent with, any other period of license suspension, revocation, or denial. Any person who has had his driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle suspended in accordance with this subdivision may petition the juvenile and domestic relations district court of his residence for a restricted license to authorize such person to drive a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth to and from his home, his place of employment, or an institution of higher education where he is enrolled, provided there is no other means of transportation by which such person may travel between his home and his place of employment or the institution of higher education where he is enrolled. On such petition the court may, in its discretion, authorize the issuance of a restricted license for a period not to exceed the term of the suspension of the person's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth. Such restricted license shall be valid solely for operation of a motor vehicle between such person's home and his place of employment or the institution of higher education where he is enrolled.

3. If any person is convicted a third time of committing, when he was less than 18 years old, (i) an offense for which demerit points have been assessed or are assessable under Article 19 (§ 46.2-489 et seq.) or (ii) a violation of any provision of Article 12 (§ 46.2-1091 et seq.) or Article 13 (§ 46.2-1095 et seq.) of Chapter 10, the Commissioner shall revoke such person's driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle for one year or until such person reaches the age of 18 years, whichever is longer. Such revocation shall be consecutive to, and not concurrent with, any other period of license suspension, revocation, or denial.

4. In no event shall any person subject to the provisions of this section be subject to the suspension or revocation provisions of subdivision 2 or 3 for multiple convictions arising out of the same transaction or occurrence.

B. The initial license issued to any person younger than 18 years of age shall be deemed a provisional driver's license. Until the holder is 18 years old, a provisional driver's license shall not authorize its holder to operate a motor vehicle with more than one passenger who is less than 21 years old. After the first year the provisional license is issued, the holder may operate a motor vehicle with up to three passengers who are less than 21 years old (i) when the holder is driving to or from a school-sponsored activity, (ii) when a licensed driver who is at least 21 years old is occupying the seat beside the driver, or (iii) in cases of emergency. These passenger limitations, however, shall not apply to members of the driver's family or household. For the purposes of this subsection, "a member of the driver's family or household" means any of the following: (a) the driver's spouse, children, stepchildren, brothers, sisters, half-brothers, half-sisters, first cousins, and any individual who has a child in common with the driver, whether or not they reside in the same home with the driver; (b) the driver's brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law who reside in the same home with the driver; and (c) any individual who cohabits with the driver, and any children of such individual residing in the same home with the driver.

C. The holder of a provisional driver's license shall not operate a motor vehicle on the highways of the Commonwealth between the hours of midnight and 4:00 a.m. except when driving (i) to or from a place of business where he is employed; (ii) to or from an activity that is supervised by an adult and is sponsored by a school or by a civic, religious, or public organization; (iii) accompanied by a parent, a person acting in loco parentis, or by a spouse who is 18 years old or older, provided that such person accompanying the driver is actually occupying a seat beside the driver and is lawfully permitted to operate a motor vehicle at the time; or (iv) in cases of emergency, including response by volunteer firefighters and volunteer emergency medical services personnel to emergency calls.

D. The provisional driver's license restrictions in subsections B and C shall expire on the holder's eighteenth birthday. A violation of the provisional driver's license restrictions in subsection B or C shall constitute a traffic infraction. For a second or subsequent violation of the provisional driver's license restrictions in subsection B or C, in addition to any other penalties that may be imposed pursuant to § 16.1-278.10, the court may suspend the juvenile's privilege to drive for a period not to exceed six months.

E. A violation of subsection B or C shall not constitute negligence, be considered in mitigation of damages of whatever nature, be admissible in evidence, or be the subject of comment by counsel in any action for the recovery of damages arising out of the operation, ownership, or maintenance of a motor vehicle, nor shall anything in this subsection change any existing law, rule, or procedure pertaining to any such civil action.

F. No law-enforcement officer shall stop a motor vehicle for a violation of this section. No evidence discovered or obtained as the result of a stop in violation of this subsection, including evidence discovered or obtained with the operator's consent, shall be admissible in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding.

1998, cc. 124, 792; 2001, cc. 655, 659, 665; 2002, cc. 61, 807; 2003, cc. 308, 323, 771; 2007, c. 777; 2009, c. 54; 2013, cc. 397, 579; 2015, cc. 502, 503; 2016, c. 488; 2020, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 45, 51; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 132, 381.

§ 46.2-335. Learner's permits; fees; certification required.

A. The Department, on receiving from any Virginia resident over the age of 15 years and six months an application for a learner's permit or motorcycle learner's permit, may, subject to the applicant's satisfactory documentation of meeting the requirements of this chapter and successful completion of the written or automated knowledge and vision examinations and, in the case of a motorcycle learner's permit applicant, the automated motorcycle test, issue a permit entitling the applicant, while having the permit in his immediate possession, to drive a motor vehicle or, if the application is made for a motorcycle learner's permit, a motorcycle, on the highways, when accompanied by any licensed driver 21 years of age or older or by his parent or legal guardian, or by a brother, sister, half-brother, half-sister, step-brother, or step-sister 18 years of age or older. The accompanying person shall be (i) alert, able to assist the driver, and actually occupying a seat beside the driver or, for motorcycle instruction, providing immediate supervision from a separate accompanying motor vehicle and (ii) lawfully permitted to operate the motor vehicle or accompanying motorcycle at that time.

The Department shall not, however, issue a learner's permit or motorcycle learner's permit to any minor applicant required to provide evidence of compliance with the compulsory school attendance law set forth in Article 1 (§ 22.1-254 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 22.1, unless such applicant is in good academic standing or, if not in such standing or submitting evidence thereof, whose parent or guardian, having custody of such minor, provides written authorization for the minor to obtain a learner's permit or motorcycle learner's permit, which written authorization shall be obtained on forms provided by the Department and indicating the Commonwealth's interest in the good academic standing and regular school attendance of such minors. Any minor providing proper evidence of the solemnization of his marriage or a certified copy of a court order of emancipation shall not be required to provide the certification of good academic standing or any written authorization from his parent or guardian to obtain a learner's permit or motorcycle learner's permit.

Such permit, except a motorcycle learner's permit, shall be valid until the holder thereof either is issued a driver's license as provided for in this chapter or no longer meets the qualifications for issuance of a learner's permit as provided in this section. Motorcycle learner's permits shall be valid for 12 months. When a motorcycle learner's permit expires, the permittee may, upon submission of an application, payment of the application fee, and successful completion of the examinations, be issued another motorcycle learner's permit valid for 12 months.

Any person 25 years of age or older who is eligible to receive an operator's license in Virginia, but who is required, pursuant to § 46.2-324.1, to be issued a learner's permit for 60 days prior to his first behind-the-wheel exam, may be issued such learner's permit even though restrictions on his driving privilege have been ordered by a court. Any such learner's permit shall be subject to the restrictions ordered by the court.

B. No driver's license shall be issued to any such person who is less than 18 years old unless, while holding a learner's permit, he has driven a motor vehicle for at least 45 hours, at least 15 of which were after sunset, as certified by his parent, foster parent, or legal guardian unless the person is married or otherwise emancipated. Such certification shall be on a form provided by the Commissioner and shall contain the following statement:

"It is illegal for anyone to give false information in connection with obtaining a driver's license. This certification is considered part of the driver's license application, and anyone who certifies to a false statement may be prosecuted. I certify that the statements made and the information submitted by me regarding this certification are true and correct."

Such form shall also include the driver's license or Department of Motor Vehicles-issued identification card number of the person making the certification.

C. No learner's permit shall authorize its holder to operate a motor vehicle with more than one passenger who is less than 21 years old, except when participating in a driver education program approved by the Department of Education or a course offered by a driver training school licensed by the Department. This passenger limitation, however, shall not apply to the members of the driver's family or household as defined in subsection B of § 46.2-334.01.

D. No learner's permit shall authorize its holder to operate a motor vehicle between midnight and four o'clock a.m.

E. A violation of subsection C or D shall not constitute negligence, be considered in mitigation of damages of whatever nature, be admissible in evidence or be the subject of comment by counsel in any action for the recovery of damages arising out of the operation, ownership, or maintenance of a motor vehicle, nor shall anything in this subsection change any existing law, rule, or procedure pertaining to any such civil action.

F. The provisions of §§ 46.2-323 and 46.2-334 relating to evidence and certification of Virginia residence and, in the case of persons of school age, compliance with the compulsory school attendance law shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to applications for learner's permits and motorcycle learner's permits issued under this section.

G. For persons qualifying for a driver's license through driver education courses approved by the Department of Education or courses offered by driver training schools licensed by the Department, the application for the learner's permit shall be used as the application for the driver's license.

H. The Department shall charge a fee of $3 for each learner's permit and motorcycle learner's permit issued under this section. Fees for issuance of learner's permits shall be paid into the driver education fund of the state treasury; fees for issuance of motorcycle learner's permits, other than permits issued under § 46.2-328.3, shall be paid into the state treasury and credited to the Motorcycle Rider Safety Training Program Fund created pursuant to § 46.2-1191. It is unlawful for any person, after having received a learner's permit, to drive a motor vehicle without being accompanied by a licensed driver as provided in the foregoing provisions of this section; however, a learner's permit other than a motorcycle learner's permit, accompanied by documentation verifying that the driver is at least 16 years and three months old and has successfully completed an approved driver's education course, signed by the minor's parent, guardian, legal custodian or other person standing in loco parentis, shall constitute a temporary driver's license for the purpose of driving unaccompanied by a licensed driver 18 years of age or older, if all other requirements of this chapter have been met. Such temporary driver's license shall only be valid until the driver has received his permanent license pursuant to § 46.2-336.

I. Nothing in this section shall be construed to permit the issuance of a learner's permit entitling a person to drive a commercial motor vehicle, except as provided by the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.).

J. The following limitations shall apply to operation of motorcycles by all persons holding motorcycle learner's permits:

1. The operator shall wear an approved safety helmet as provided in § 46.2-910.

2. Operation shall be under the immediate supervision of a person licensed to operate a motorcycle who is 21 years of age or older.

3. No person other than the operator shall occupy the motorcycle.

K. Any violation of this section is punishable as a Class 2 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, §§ 46-353, 46-361, 46-363, 46-364; 1950, p. 249; 1952, c. 396; 1954, c. 123; 1956, c. 665; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-357; 1960, cc. 110, 424; 1962, cc. 254, 482; 1964, c. 617; 1966, c. 36; 1968, c. 642; 1970, c. 41; 1972, c. 823; 1973, c. 1; 1974, cc. 223, 542; 1976, c. 8; 1977, cc. 548, 552; 1980, c. 165; 1982, c. 287; 1984, c. 780; 1987, cc. 154, 632; 1989, cc. 392, 705, 727; 1993, cc. 471, 501; 1995, cc. 254, 337, 535, 847; 1996, cc. 892, 894, 918, 943, 994, 1011, 1022, 1035; 1997, c. 841; 1998, c. 322; 1999, cc. 459, 462; 2000, c. 686; 2001, cc. 659, 665; 2004, cc. 733, 805; 2008, cc. 493, 735; 2010, cc. 541, 593; 2012, cc. 215, 222; 2016, c. 488; 2020, cc. 1227, 1246; 2020, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 45, 51; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 381.

§ 46.2-335.1. Knowledge test; waiting period prior to reexamination.

Any person under the age of eighteen who applies for a learner's permit under § 46.2-335 and fails the motor vehicle knowledge test administered pursuant to that section shall not be eligible for retesting for at least fifteen days.

1996, c. 1035.

§ 46.2-335.2. Learner's permits; required before driver's license; minimum holding period.

A. No person under the age of 18 years shall be eligible to receive a driver's license pursuant to § 46.2-334 unless the Department has previously issued such person a learner's permit pursuant to § 46.2-335 and such person has satisfied the minimum holding period requirements set forth in subsection B, or unless such person is the holder of a valid driver's license from another state and qualifies for a temporary license under subsection E of § 46.2-334.

B. Any person under the age of 18 years issued a learner's permit pursuant to § 46.2-335 shall hold such permit for a minimum period of nine months or until he reaches the age of 18 years, whichever occurs first.

1996, c. 1035; 2001, cc. 659, 665; 2002, c. 535; 2016, c. 488.

§ 46.2-336. Manner of issuing original driver's licenses to minors.

The Department shall forward all original driver's licenses issued to persons under the age of 18 years to the judge of the juvenile and domestic relations court in the city or county in which the licensee resides. The judge or a substitute judge shall issue to each person to be licensed the license so forwarded, and shall, at the time of issuance, conduct a formal, appropriate ceremony, in which he shall illustrate to the licensee the responsibility attendant on the privilege of driving a motor vehicle. The attorney for the Commonwealth who serves the jurisdiction in which the ceremony is to be conducted may request in writing in advance of such ceremony an opportunity to participate in the ceremony. Any judge who presides over such ceremony shall, upon request, afford the attorney for the Commonwealth the opportunity to participate in such ceremony and to address the prospective licensees and the persons enumerated below who may be accompanying the prospective licensees as to matters of enforcement, prosecutions, applicable punishments, and the responsibility of drivers generally. If the licensee is under the age of 18 years at the time his ceremony is held, he shall be accompanied at the ceremony by a parent, his guardian, spouse, or other person in loco parentis. However, the judge, for good cause shown, may mail or otherwise deliver the driver's license to any person who is a student at any educational institution outside of the Commonwealth of Virginia at the time such license is received by the judge as prescribed in this section.

The provisions of this section shall not apply to the issuance of Virginia driver's licenses to persons who hold valid driver's licenses issued by other states.

1962, c. 261, § 46.1-375.1; 1964, c. 185; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 1993, c. 53; 1998, c. 472; 2012, cc. 30, 100; 2014, c. 352.

§ 46.2-337. Examination and road test required for license to operate motorcycle; regulations.

No person shall drive any motorcycle on a highway in the Commonwealth unless he has passed a special examination, including written material and a road test, pertaining to his ability to drive a motorcycle with reasonable competence and with safety to other persons using the highways. The Department may adopt regulations as may be necessary to provide for the special examination under § 46.2-325 of persons desiring to qualify to drive motorcycles in the Commonwealth and for the granting of licenses or permits suitably endorsed for qualified applicants. The road test for two-wheeled motorcycles and the road test for three-wheeled motorcycles shall be separate and distinct examinations emphasizing the skills and maneuvers necessary to operate each type of motorcycle.

No person applying for a classification to authorize the driving of a motorcycle who fails the road test portion of the special examination two times shall be eligible for such classification until he successfully completes a motorcycle rider safety training course offered by a provider licensed under Article 23 (§ 46.2-1188 et seq.) of Chapter 10.

If the Commissioner is satisfied that a person intending to operate a motorcycle has demonstrated the same proficiency as required by the special examination through successful completion of a motorcycle rider safety training course offered by a provider licensed under Article 23 (§ 46.2-1188 et seq.) of Chapter 10, he may waive the written material or road test portion or both portions of the special examination. The Commissioner may also waive the written material or road test portion or both portions of the special examination if the person intending to operate a motorcycle holds a valid Virginia driver's license and is a member, the spouse of a member, or a dependent of a member of the United States Armed Services, and the license holder has successfully completed a basic motorcycle rider course approved by the United States Armed Services.

1968, c. 642, § 46.1-370.1; 1989, c. 727; 2007, c. 190; 2013, cc. 673, 783, 789.

§ 46.2-338. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1989, c. 705.

§ 46.2-339. Qualifications of school bus operators; training; examination.

A. No person shall operate any school bus on a highway in the Commonwealth unless he has had a reasonable amount of experience in operating motor vehicles and has passed a special examination pertaining to his ability to operate a school bus with safety to its passengers and to other persons using the highways. Such person shall obtain a commercial driver's license with the applicable classifications and endorsements, issued pursuant to the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.), if the school bus he operates is a commercial motor vehicle as defined in the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act. For the purpose of preparing for the examination required by this section, any person holding a valid commercial driver's license or instruction permit issued under the provisions of the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act may operate, under the direct supervision of a person holding a valid commercial driver's license with a school bus endorsement, a school bus that is a commercial motor vehicle as defined in the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act and that contains no pupil passengers.

B. The Department may adopt regulations necessary to provide for the examination of persons desiring to qualify to operate school buses in the Commonwealth and for the granting of permits to qualified applicants.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, no person shall operate any school bus on a highway in the Commonwealth during any period in which he is a person for whom registration with the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry is required pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1.

Code 1950, § 22-278; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-370; 1978, c. 263; 1984, c. 780; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 2011, c. 477; 2018, cc. 203, 389.

§ 46.2-340. Information concerning school bus drivers and driver education instructors.

A. At the beginning of each school year, and whenever changes need to be made, each local school division shall furnish to the Department of Motor Vehicles the name, driver's license number, and commercial driver's license number of all persons driving school buses for that school division. Whenever any commercial driver's license with a school bus driver's endorsement is suspended or revoked, or the holder of a driver's license with a school bus driver's endorsement or commercial driver's license with a school bus driver's endorsement is convicted in any court of reckless driving or driving while intoxicated, the Department shall notify the affected local school division of the name and driver's license number or commercial driver's license number of the driver involved.

B. At the beginning of each school year, and whenever changes need to be made, each local school division and private school providing a driver education program approved by the Department of Education shall furnish to the Department of Motor Vehicles the name and driver's license number of all persons providing instruction in driver education for that school division or private school. Whenever a driver's license of a person providing such instruction is suspended or revoked, or such person is convicted in any court of reckless driving or driving while intoxicated, the Department shall notify the affected local school division or private school of the name and driver's license number of the driver involved.

If the driving record of such driver education instructor accumulates more than six demerit points based on convictions occurring in any calendar year, the Department shall notify the relevant local school division or private school of the name and driver's license number of the driver. Safe driving points shall not be used to reduce the six demerit points. No driver education program in a public school division or a private school shall retain its approval by the Department of Education unless such a person who has accumulated such six demerit points is removed from providing behind-the-wheel driver education instruction in the private school or public school division for a period of twenty-four months.

C. The provisions of the Government Data Collection and Dissemination Practices Act (Chapter 38 of Title 2.2, § 2.2-3800 et seq.) shall not apply to the exchange of information under this section.

1986, c. 287, § 46.1-370.01; 1989, c. 727; 1993, c. 52; 1999, c. 463.

Article 6. Licensure of Commercial Vehicle Drivers

§ 46.2-341. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1989, c. 705.

Article 6.1. Commercial Driver's Licenses

§ 46.2-341.1. Title.

This Act may be cited as the "Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act."

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.1.

§ 46.2-341.2. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2020, c. 788, cl. 1.

§ 46.2-341.3. Conflicts; supplement to driver licensing statutes.

This article is intended to supplement, not supplant, the laws of the Commonwealth relating to drivers, driver licensing, vehicles and vehicle operations, which laws shall continue to apply to persons required to be licensed pursuant to this article, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. To the extent that any provisions of this article conflict with such other laws of the Commonwealth, the provisions of this article shall prevail. Where this article is silent, such other laws shall apply.

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-1300, the governing bodies of counties, cities or towns shall not be authorized to adopt ordinances that are substantially similar to the provisions of this article.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.3.

§ 46.2-341.4. (Contingent expiration date — see note) Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Air brake" means any braking system operating fully or partially on the air brake principle.

"Applicant" means an individual who applies to obtain, transfer, upgrade, or renew a commercial driver's license or to obtain or renew a commercial learner's permit.

"Automatic transmission" means, for the purposes of the skills test and the restriction, any transmission other than a manual transmission.

"CDLIS driver record" means the electronic record of the individual commercial driver's status and history stored by the State of Record as part of the Commercial Driver's License Information System (CDLIS).

"Commercial driver's license" means any driver's license issued to a person in accordance with the provisions of this article, or if the license is issued by another state, any license issued to a person in accordance with the federal Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act, which authorizes such person to drive a commercial motor vehicle of the class and type and with the restrictions indicated on the license.

"Commercial driver's license information system" or "CDLIS" means the commercial driver's license information system established by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration pursuant to § 12007 of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986.

"Commercial learner's permit" means a permit issued to an individual in accordance with the provisions of this article or, if issued by another state, a permit issued in accordance with the standards contained in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, which, when carried with a valid driver's license issued by the same state or jurisdiction, authorizes the individual to operate a class of commercial motor vehicle when accompanied by a holder of a valid commercial driver's license for purposes of behind-the-wheel training. When issued to a commercial driver's license holder, a commercial learner's permit serves as authorization for accompanied behind-the-wheel training in a commercial motor vehicle for which the holder's current commercial driver's license is not valid.

"Commercial motor vehicle" means, except for those vehicles specifically excluded in this definition, every motor vehicle, vehicle or combination of vehicles used to transport passengers or property which either: (i) has a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds; (ii) has a gross combination weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds inclusive of a towed vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 10,000 pounds; (iii) is designed to transport 16 or more passengers including the driver; or (iv) is of any size and is used in the transportation of hazardous materials as defined in this section. Every such motor vehicle or combination of vehicles shall be considered a commercial motor vehicle whether or not it is used in a commercial or profit-making activity.

The following are excluded from the definition of commercial motor vehicle:

1. Any vehicle when used by an individual solely for his own personal purposes, such as personal recreational activities;

2. Any vehicle that (i) is controlled and operated by a farmer, whether or not it is owned by the farmer, and that is used exclusively for farm use, as provided in §§ 46.2-649.3 and 46.2-698; (ii) is used to transport either agricultural products, farm machinery, or farm supplies to or from a farm; (iii) is not used in the operation of a common or contract motor carrier; and (iv) is used within 150 miles of the farmer's farm;

3. Any vehicle operated for military purposes by (i) active duty military personnel; (ii) members of the military reserves; (iii) members of the national guard on active duty, including personnel on full-time national guard duty, personnel on part-time national guard training, and national guard military technicians (civilians who are required to wear military uniforms), but not U.S. Reserve technicians; and (iv) active duty U.S. Coast Guard personnel; or

4. Emergency equipment operated by a member of a firefighting, rescue, or emergency entity in the performance of his official duties.

"Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act" means the federal Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986, Title XII of P.L. 99-570, as amended.

"Conviction" means an unvacated adjudication of guilt, or a determination that a person has violated or failed to comply with the law in a court of original jurisdiction, an unvacated forfeiture of bond, bail, or collateral deposited to secure the person's appearance in court, a plea of guilty or nolo contendere accepted by the court, the payment of a fine or court costs in lieu of trial, a violation of a condition of release without bail, regardless of whether the penalty is rebated, suspended, or probated, or, for the purposes of alcohol or drug-related offenses involving the operation of a motor vehicle, a civil or an administrative determination of a violation. For the purposes of this definition, an administrative determination includes an unvacated certification or finding by an administrative or authorized law-enforcement official that a person has violated a provision of law.

"Disqualification" means a prohibition against driving, operating, or being in physical control of a commercial motor vehicle for a specified period of time, imposed by a court or a magistrate, or by an authorized administrative or law-enforcement official or body.

"Domicile" means a person's true, fixed, and permanent home and principal residence, to which he intends to return whenever he is absent.

"Employee" means a payroll employee or person employed under lease or contract, or a person who has applied for employment and whose employment is contingent upon obtaining a commercial driver's license.

"Employer" means a person who owns or leases commercial motor vehicles and assigns employees to drive such vehicles.

"Endorsement" means an authorization to an individual's commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit required to permit the individual to operate certain types of commercial motor vehicles.

"FMCSA" means the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation.

"Full air brake" means any braking system operating fully on the air brake principle.

"Gross combination weight rating" means the value specified by the manufacturers of an articulated vehicle or combination of vehicles as the maximum loaded weight of such vehicles. In the absence of such a value specified by the manufacturer, for law-enforcement purposes, the gross combination weight rating shall be the greater of (i) the gross vehicle weight rating of the power units of the combination vehicle plus the total weight of the towed units, including any loads thereon, or (ii) the gross weight at which the articulated vehicle or combination of vehicles is registered in its state of registration; however, the registered gross weight shall not be applicable for determining the classification of an articulated vehicle or combination of vehicles for purposes of skills testing pursuant to § 46.2-341.14 or 46.2-341.16.

"Gross vehicle weight rating" means the value specified by the manufacturer of the vehicle as the maximum loaded weight of a single vehicle. In the absence of such a value specified by the manufacturer, for law-enforcement purposes, the gross vehicle weight rating shall be the greater of (i) the actual gross weight of the vehicle, including any load thereon; or (ii) the gross weight at which the vehicle is registered in its state of registration; however, the registered gross weight of the vehicle shall not be applicable for determining the classification of a vehicle for purposes of skills testing pursuant to § 46.2-341.14 or 46.2-341.16.

"Hazardous materials" means materials designated to be hazardous in accordance with § 103 of the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, 49 U.S.C. § 5101 et seq., as amended, and which require placarding when transported by motor vehicle as provided in the federal Hazardous Materials Regulations, 49 C.F.R. Part 172, Subpart F; it also includes any quantity of any material listed as a select agent or toxin in federal Public Health Service Regulations at 42 C.F.R. Part 73.

"Manual transmission," also known as a stick shift, stick, straight drive, or standard transmission, means a transmission utilizing a driver-operated clutch that is activated by a pedal or lever and a gear-shift mechanism operated by either hand or foot.

"Noncommercial driver's license" means any other type of motor vehicle license, such as an automobile driver's license, a chauffeur's license, or a motorcycle license.

"Nondomiciled commercial learner's permit" or "nondomiciled commercial driver's license" means a commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license, respectively, issued to a person in accordance with the provisions of this article or, if issued by another state, under either of the following two conditions: (i) to an individual domiciled in a foreign jurisdiction that does not test drivers and issue commercial driver's licenses in accordance with, or under standards similar to, the standards contained in subparts F, G, and H of Part 383 of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations or (ii) to an individual domiciled in another state while that state is prohibited from issuing commercial driver's licenses in accordance with decertification requirements of 49 C.F.R. § 384.405.

"Out-of-service order" or "out-of-service declaration" means an order by a judicial officer pursuant to § 46.2-341.26:2 or 46.2-341.26:3 or an order or declaration by an authorized law-enforcement officer under § 46.2-1001 or regulations promulgated pursuant to § 52-8.4 relating to Motor Carrier Safety, and including similar actions by authorized judicial officers or enforcement officers acting pursuant to similar laws of other states, the United States, the Canadian Provinces, Canada, Mexico, and localities within them, and also including actions by federal or other jurisdictions' officers pursuant to Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, that a driver, a commercial motor vehicle, or a motor carrier is out of service. Such order or declaration as to a driver means that the driver is prohibited from operating a commercial motor vehicle for the duration of the out-of-service period. Such order or declaration as to a vehicle means that such vehicle cannot be operated until the hazardous condition that resulted in the order or declaration has been removed and the vehicle has been cleared for further operation. Such order or declaration as to a motor carrier means that no vehicle may be operated for or on behalf of such carrier until the out-of-service order or declaration has been lifted. For purposes of this article, the provisions of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, 49 C.F.R. Parts 390 through 397, including such regulations or any substantially similar regulations as may have been adopted by any state of the United States, the Provinces of Canada, Canada, Mexico, or any locality shall be considered laws similar to the laws of the Commonwealth referenced herein.

"Person" means a natural person, firm, partnership, association, corporation, or a governmental entity including a school board.

"Restriction" means a prohibition on a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit that prohibits the holder from operating certain commercial motor vehicles.

"Seasonal restricted commercial driver's license" means a commercial driver's license issued under the authority of the waiver promulgated by the federal Department of Transportation (49 C.F.R. § 383.3) by the Commonwealth or any other jurisdiction to an individual who has not passed the knowledge or skills tests required of other commercial driver's license holders. This license authorizes operation of a commercial motor vehicle only on a seasonal basis, stated on the license, by a seasonal employee of a farm service business, within 150 miles of the place of business or the farm currently being served.

"State" means one of the 50 states of the United States or the District of Columbia.

"Tank vehicle" means any commercial motor vehicle that is designed to transport any liquid or gaseous materials within a tank or tanks having an individual rated capacity of more than 119 gallons and an aggregate rated capacity of 1,000 gallons or more that is either permanently or temporarily attached to the vehicle or the chassis. Such vehicles include, but are not limited to, cargo tanks and portable tanks, as defined in 49 C.F.R. Part 171. However, this definition does not include portable tanks having a rated capacity under 1,000 gallons as provided in 49 C.F.R. Part 383. A commercial motor vehicle transporting an empty storage container tank, not designed for transportation, with a rated capacity of 1,000 gallons or more that is temporarily attached to a flatbed trailer is not considered a tank vehicle.

"Third party examiner" means an individual who is an employee of a third party tester and who is certified by the Department to administer tests required for a commercial driver's license.

"Third party tester" means a person (including another state, a motor carrier, a private institution, the military, a government entity, including each comprehensive community college in the Virginia Community College System established by the State Board for Community Colleges pursuant to Chapter 29 (§ 23.1-2900 et seq.) of Title 23.1, or a department, agency, or instrumentality of a local government) certified by the Department to employ third party examiners to administer a test program for testing commercial driver's license applicants in accordance with this article.

"VAMCSR" means the Virginia Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (19VAC30-20) adopted by the Department of State Police pursuant to § 52-8.4.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.4; 1990, c. 218; 1993, c. 70; 1998, c. 883; 2005, c. 513; 2008, c. 190; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803; 2015, c. 258; 2016, c. 429; 2019, c. 750.

§ 46.2-341.4. (Contingent effective date — see notes) Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Air brake" means any braking system operating fully or partially on the air brake principle.

"Applicant" means an individual who applies to obtain, transfer, upgrade, or renew a commercial driver's license or to obtain or renew a commercial learner's permit.

"Automatic transmission" means, for the purposes of the skills test and the restriction, any transmission other than a manual transmission.

"CDLIS driver record" means the electronic record of the individual commercial driver's status and history stored by the State of Record as part of the Commercial Driver's License Information System (CDLIS).

"Commercial driver's license" means any driver's license issued to a person in accordance with the provisions of this article, or if the license is issued by another state, any license issued to a person in accordance with the federal Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act, which authorizes such person to drive a commercial motor vehicle of the class and type and with the restrictions indicated on the license.

"Commercial driver's license information system" or "CDLIS" means the commercial driver's license information system established by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration pursuant to § 12007 of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986.

"Commercial learner's permit" means a permit issued to an individual in accordance with the provisions of this article or, if issued by another state, a permit issued in accordance with the standards contained in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, which, when carried with a valid driver's license issued by the same state or jurisdiction, authorizes the individual to operate a class of commercial motor vehicle when accompanied by a holder of a valid commercial driver's license for purposes of behind-the-wheel training. When issued to a commercial driver's license holder, a commercial learner's permit serves as authorization for accompanied behind-the-wheel training in a commercial motor vehicle for which the holder's current commercial driver's license is not valid.

"Commercial motor vehicle" means, except for those vehicles specifically excluded in this definition, every motor vehicle, vehicle or combination of vehicles used to transport passengers or property which either: (i) has a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds; (ii) has a gross combination weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds inclusive of a towed vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 10,000 pounds; (iii) is designed to transport 16 or more passengers including the driver; or (iv) is of any size and is used in the transportation of hazardous materials as defined in this section. Every such motor vehicle or combination of vehicles shall be considered a commercial motor vehicle whether or not it is used in a commercial or profit-making activity.

The following are excluded from the definition of commercial motor vehicle:

1. Any vehicle when used by an individual solely for his own personal purposes, such as personal recreational activities;

2. Any vehicle that (i) is controlled and operated by a farmer, whether or not it is owned by the farmer, and that is used exclusively for farm use, as provided in §§ 46.2-649.3 and 46.2-698; (ii) is used to transport either agricultural products, farm machinery, or farm supplies to or from a farm; (iii) is not used in the operation of a common or contract motor carrier; and (iv) is used within 150 miles of the farmer's farm;

3. Any vehicle operated for military purposes by (i) active duty military personnel; (ii) members of the military reserves; (iii) members of the national guard on active duty, including personnel on full-time national guard duty, personnel on part-time national guard training, and national guard military technicians (civilians who are required to wear military uniforms), but not U.S. Reserve technicians; and (iv) active duty U.S. Coast Guard personnel; or

4. Emergency equipment operated by a member of a firefighting, rescue, or emergency entity in the performance of his official duties.

"Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act" means the federal Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986, Title XII of P.L. 99-570, as amended.

"Conviction" means an unvacated adjudication of guilt, or a determination that a person has violated or failed to comply with the law in a court of original jurisdiction, an unvacated forfeiture of bond, bail, or collateral deposited to secure the person's appearance in court, a plea of guilty or nolo contendere accepted by the court, the payment of a fine or court costs in lieu of trial, a violation of a condition of release without bail, regardless of whether the penalty is rebated, suspended, or probated, or, for the purposes of alcohol or drug-related offenses involving the operation of a motor vehicle, a civil or an administrative determination of a violation. For the purposes of this definition, an administrative determination includes an unvacated certification or finding by an administrative or authorized law-enforcement official that a person has violated a provision of law.

"Disqualification" means a prohibition against driving, operating, or being in physical control of a commercial motor vehicle for a specified period of time, imposed by a court or a magistrate, or by an authorized administrative or law-enforcement official or body.

"Domicile" means a person's true, fixed, and permanent home and principal residence, to which he intends to return whenever he is absent.

"Employee" means a payroll employee or person employed under lease or contract, or a person who has applied for employment and whose employment is contingent upon obtaining a commercial driver's license.

"Employer" means a person who owns or leases commercial motor vehicles and assigns employees to drive such vehicles.

"Endorsement" means an authorization to an individual's commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit required to permit the individual to operate certain types of commercial motor vehicles.

"Entry-level driver" means an individual who (i) must complete the commercial driver's license skills test requirements under FMCSA regulations prior to receiving a commercial driver's license for the first time, (ii) is upgrading to a Class A or Class B commercial driver's license for the first time, or (iii) is obtaining a hazardous materials, passenger, or school bus endorsement for the first time. This definition does not include individuals exempt from such requirements under 49 C.F.R. § 380.603.

"Entry-level driver training" means training an entry-level driver receives from an entity listed on the FMCSA's Training Provider Registry, as provided for in 49 C.F.R. § 380.700 et seq., prior to taking the (i) commercial driver's license skills test required to (a) receive a commercial driver's license for the first time, (b) receive the Class A or Class B commercial driver's license for the first time, (c) upgrade to a Class A or B commercial driver's license for the first time, or (d) obtain a passenger or school bus endorsement for the first time or (ii) commercial driver's license knowledge test required to obtain a hazardous materials endorsement for the first time.

"FMCSA" means the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation.

"Full air brake" means any braking system operating fully on the air brake principle.

"Gross combination weight rating" means the value specified by the manufacturers of an articulated vehicle or combination of vehicles as the maximum loaded weight of such vehicles. In the absence of such a value specified by the manufacturer, for law-enforcement purposes, the gross combination weight rating shall be the greater of (i) the gross vehicle weight rating of the power units of the combination vehicle plus the total weight of the towed units, including any loads thereon, or (ii) the gross weight at which the articulated vehicle or combination of vehicles is registered in its state of registration; however, the registered gross weight shall not be applicable for determining the classification of an articulated vehicle or combination of vehicles for purposes of skills testing pursuant to § 46.2-341.14 or 46.2-341.16.

"Gross vehicle weight rating" means the value specified by the manufacturer of the vehicle as the maximum loaded weight of a single vehicle. In the absence of such a value specified by the manufacturer, for law-enforcement purposes, the gross vehicle weight rating shall be the greater of (i) the actual gross weight of the vehicle, including any load thereon, or (ii) the gross weight at which the vehicle is registered in its state of registration; however, the registered gross weight of the vehicle shall not be applicable for determining the classification of a vehicle for purposes of skills testing pursuant to § 46.2-341.14 or 46.2-341.16.

"Hazardous materials" means materials designated to be hazardous in accordance with § 103 of the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, 49 U.S.C. § 5101 et seq., as amended, and which require placarding when transported by motor vehicle as provided in the federal Hazardous Materials Regulations, 49 C.F.R. Part 172, Subpart F; it also includes any quantity of any material listed as a select agent or toxin in federal Public Health Service Regulations at 42 C.F.R. Part 73.

"Manual transmission," also known as a stick shift, stick, straight drive, or standard transmission, means a transmission utilizing a driver-operated clutch that is activated by a pedal or lever and a gear-shift mechanism operated by either hand or foot.

"Noncommercial driver's license" means any other type of motor vehicle license, such as an automobile driver's license, a chauffeur's license, or a motorcycle license.

"Nondomiciled commercial learner's permit" or "nondomiciled commercial driver's license" means a commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license, respectively, issued to a person in accordance with the provisions of this article or, if issued by another state, under either of the following two conditions: (i) to an individual domiciled in a foreign jurisdiction that does not test drivers and issue commercial driver's licenses in accordance with, or under standards similar to, the standards contained in subparts F, G, and H of Part 383 of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations or (ii) to an individual domiciled in another state while that state is prohibited from issuing commercial driver's licenses in accordance with decertification requirements of 49 C.F.R. § 384.405.

"Out-of-service order" or "out-of-service declaration" means an order by a judicial officer pursuant to § 46.2-341.26:2 or 46.2-341.26:3 or an order or declaration by an authorized law-enforcement officer under § 46.2-1001 or regulations promulgated pursuant to § 52-8.4 relating to Motor Carrier Safety, and including similar actions by authorized judicial officers or enforcement officers acting pursuant to similar laws of other states, the United States, the Canadian Provinces, Canada, Mexico, and localities within them, and also including actions by federal or other jurisdictions' officers pursuant to Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, that a driver, a commercial motor vehicle, or a motor carrier is out of service. Such order or declaration as to a driver means that the driver is prohibited from operating a commercial motor vehicle for the duration of the out-of-service period. Such order or declaration as to a vehicle means that such vehicle cannot be operated until the hazardous condition that resulted in the order or declaration has been removed and the vehicle has been cleared for further operation. Such order or declaration as to a motor carrier means that no vehicle may be operated for or on behalf of such carrier until the out-of-service order or declaration has been lifted. For purposes of this article, the provisions of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, 49 C.F.R. Parts 390 through 397, including such regulations or any substantially similar regulations as may have been adopted by any state of the United States, the Provinces of Canada, Canada, Mexico, or any locality shall be considered laws similar to the laws of the Commonwealth referenced herein.

"Person" means a natural person, firm, partnership, association, corporation, or a governmental entity including a school board.

"Restriction" means a prohibition on a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit that prohibits the holder from operating certain commercial motor vehicles.

"Seasonal restricted commercial driver's license" means a commercial driver's license issued under the authority of the waiver promulgated by the federal Department of Transportation (49 C.F.R. § 383.3) by the Commonwealth or any other jurisdiction to an individual who has not passed the knowledge or skills tests required of other commercial driver's license holders. This license authorizes operation of a commercial motor vehicle only on a seasonal basis, stated on the license, by a seasonal employee of a farm service business, within 150 miles of the place of business or the farm currently being served.

"State" means one of the 50 states of the United States or the District of Columbia.

"Tank vehicle" means any commercial motor vehicle that is designed to transport any liquid or gaseous materials within a tank or tanks having an individual rated capacity of more than 119 gallons and an aggregate rated capacity of 1,000 gallons or more that is either permanently or temporarily attached to the vehicle or the chassis. Such vehicles include, but are not limited to, cargo tanks and portable tanks, as defined in 49 C.F.R. Part 171. However, this definition does not include portable tanks having a rated capacity under 1,000 gallons as provided in 49 C.F.R. Part 383. A commercial motor vehicle transporting an empty storage container tank, not designed for transportation, with a rated capacity of 1,000 gallons or more that is temporarily attached to a flatbed trailer is not considered a tank vehicle.

"Third party examiner" means an individual who is an employee of a third party tester and who is certified by the Department to administer tests required for a commercial driver's license.

"Third party instructor" means an individual who is an employee of a third party tester or a training provider and who (i) is authorized by the Department to provide entry-level driver training required for a commercial driver's license and (ii) meets the requirements for either a theory or behind-the-wheel instructor as defined in § 46.2-1700.

"Third party tester" means a person (including another state, a motor carrier, a private institution, the military, a government entity, including each comprehensive community college in the Virginia Community College System established by the State Board for Community Colleges pursuant to Chapter 29 (§ 23.1-2900 et seq.) of Title 23.1, or a department, agency, or instrumentality of a local government) certified by the Department to employ third party examiners to administer a test program for testing commercial driver's license applicants in accordance with this article.

"Training provider" means a person that provides entry-level driver training and that is (i) a Virginia licensed Class A driver training school or a Virginia certified third party tester and is listed on the federal Training Provider Registry or (ii) an entity that is otherwise licensed, certified, registered, or authorized to provide training in accordance with the laws of the Commonwealth or the applicable laws of another state and is listed on the federal Training Provider Registry.

"VAMCSR" means the Virginia Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (19VAC30-20) adopted by the Department of State Police pursuant to § 52-8.4.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.4; 1990, c. 218; 1993, c. 70; 1998, c. 883; 2005, c. 513; 2008, c. 190; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803; 2015, c. 258; 2016, c. 429; 2019, c. 750.

§ 46.2-341.5. Regulations consistent with Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act.

The Department is authorized to promulgate regulations and establish procedures to enable it to issue commercial driver's licenses, maintain and exchange driver records, and impose licensing sanctions consistent with the provisions of this article and with the minimum standards of the federal Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act and the federal regulations promulgated thereunder.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.5.

§ 46.2-341.6. Limitation on number of driver's licenses.

No person who drives a commercial motor vehicle shall have more than one driver's license.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.6.

§ 46.2-341.7. Commercial driver's license required; penalty.

A. No person shall drive a commercial motor vehicle in the Commonwealth unless he has been issued a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit and unless such license or permit authorizes the operation of the type and class of vehicle so driven, and unless such license or permit is valid.

B. Every driver of a commercial motor vehicle, while driving such vehicle in the Commonwealth, shall have in his immediate possession the commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit authorizing the operation of such vehicle and shall make it available to any law-enforcement officer upon request. Failure to comply with this subsection shall be punishable as provided in § 46.2-104.

C. No person shall drive a commercial vehicle in Virginia in violation of any of the restrictions or limitations stated on his commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit. A violation of the subsection shall constitute a Class 2 misdemeanor.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.7; 1993, c. 70; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2015, c. 258.

§ 46.2-341.8. Nonresidents and new residents.

A. Any person who is not domiciled in the Commonwealth, who has been duly issued a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit by his state of domicile, who has such license or permit in his immediate possession, whose privilege or license to drive any motor vehicle is not suspended, revoked, or cancelled, and who has not been disqualified from driving a commercial motor vehicle, shall be permitted without further examination or licensure by the Commonwealth, to drive a commercial motor vehicle in the Commonwealth.

Within 30 days after becoming domiciled in this Commonwealth, any person who has been issued a commercial driver's license by another state and who intends to drive a commercial motor vehicle shall apply to the Department for a Virginia commercial driver's license. If the Commissioner determines that such applicant is otherwise eligible for a commercial driver's license, the Department will issue him a Virginia commercial driver's license with the same classification and endorsements as his commercial driver's license from another state, without requiring him to take the knowledge or skills test required for such commercial driver's license in accordance with § 46.2-330. However, any such applicant seeking to transfer his commercial driver's license and to retain a hazardous materials endorsement shall have, within the two-year period preceding his application for a Virginia commercial driver's license, either (i) passed the required test for such endorsement specified in 49 C.F.R. § 383.121 or (ii) successfully completed a hazardous materials test or training that is given by a third party and that is deemed to substantially cover the same knowledge base as described in 49 C.F.R. § 383.121.

B. Any person who is (i) domiciled in a foreign jurisdiction that does not test drivers and issue commercial driver's licenses in accordance with, or under standards similar to, the standards contained in subparts F, G, and H of Part 383 of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations or (ii) domiciled in another state while that state is prohibited from issuing commercial driver's licenses in accordance with decertification requirements of 49 C.F.R. § 384.405 may apply to the Department for a nondomiciled commercial learner's permit or nondomiciled commercial driver's license.

An applicant for a nondomiciled commercial learner's permit or nondomiciled commercial driver's license shall be required to meet all requirements for a commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license, respectively.

An applicant domiciled in a foreign jurisdiction shall provide an unexpired employment authorization document (EAD) issued by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) or an unexpired foreign passport accompanied by an approved Form I-94 documenting the applicant's most recent admittance into the United States.

An applicant for a nondomiciled commercial driver's license or nondomiciled commercial learner's permit shall not be required to surrender his foreign license.

After receipt of a nondomiciled commercial driver's license or nondomiciled commercial learner's permit and for as long as it is valid, holders of such licenses or permits shall be required to notify the Department of any adverse action taken by any jurisdiction or governmental agency, foreign or domestic, against his driving privileges. Such notification shall be made before the end of the business day following the day the driver receives notice of the suspension, revocation, cancellation, lost privilege, or disqualification.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.8; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803; 2015, c. 258.

§ 46.2-341.9. Eligibility for commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit.

A. A Virginia commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit shall be issued only to a person who drives or intends to drive a commercial motor vehicle, who is domiciled in the Commonwealth, and who is eligible for a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit under such terms and conditions as the Department may require.

No person shall be eligible for a Virginia commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit until he has applied for such license or permit and has passed the applicable vision, knowledge and skills tests required by this article, and has satisfied all other applicable licensing requirements imposed by the laws of the Commonwealth. Such requirements shall include meeting the standards contained in subparts F, G, and H, of Part 383 of the FMCSA regulations.

No person shall be eligible for a Virginia commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit during any period in which he is disqualified from driving a commercial motor vehicle, or his driver's license or privilege to drive is suspended, revoked or cancelled in any state, or during any period wherein the restoration of his license or privilege is contingent upon the furnishing of proof of financial responsibility.

No person shall be eligible for a Virginia commercial driver's license until he surrenders all other driver's licenses issued to him by any state.

No person shall be eligible for a Virginia commercial learner's permit until he surrenders all other driver's licenses and permits issued to him by any other state. The applicant for a commercial learner's permit is not required to surrender his Virginia noncommercial driver's license.

No person under the age of 21 years shall be eligible for a commercial driver's license, except that a person who is at least 18 years of age may be issued a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit, provided that such person is exempt from or is not subject to the age requirements of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations contained in 49 C.F.R. Part 391, and is not prohibited from operating a commercial motor vehicle by the Virginia Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, and has so certified. No person under the age of 21 years shall be issued a hazardous materials endorsement.

No person shall be eligible for a Virginia commercial driver's license to drive a Type S vehicle, as defined in subsection B of § 46.2-341.16, during any period in which he is a person for whom registration with the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry is required pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1.

In determining the eligibility of any applicant for a Virginia commercial driver's license, the Department shall consider, to the extent not inconsistent with federal law, the applicant's military training and experience.

A person for whom registration with the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry is required pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1 may be issued a Virginia commercial driver's license to drive a Type P vehicle, as defined in subsection B of § 46.2-341.16, provided the commercial driver's license includes a restriction prohibiting the license holder from operating a commercial vehicle to transport children to or from activities sponsored by a school or by a child day care facility licensed, regulated, or approved by the Department of Education.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, pursuant to 49 U.S.C. 31311(a)(12) a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit may be issued to an individual who (i) operates or will operate a commercial motor vehicle; (ii) is a member of the active duty military, military reserves, National Guard, active duty United States Coast Guard, or Coast Guard Auxiliary; and (iii) is not domiciled in the Commonwealth, but whose temporary or permanent duty station is located in the Commonwealth.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.9; 2011, c. 477; 2012, cc. 12, 153; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2015, c. 258; 2020, cc. 860, 861.

§ 46.2-341.9:01. Specialized training required.

The Commissioner shall require that the course of instruction and other relevant materials related to driver training for commercial driver's licenses for Class A, Class B, and Class C commercial motor vehicles include training on the recognition, prevention, and reporting of human trafficking. The Commissioner shall identify industry-specific materials for use in the training required by this section.

2019, c. 352.

§ 46.2-341.9:1. Commissioner to grant variances for commercial drivers transporting hazardous wastes.

The Commissioner may, to the extent allowed by federal law, grant variances from the regulations with respect to the physical qualifications for drivers of commercial motor vehicles transporting hazardous materials if:

1. The driver is regularly employed in a job requiring the operation of a commercial motor vehicle transporting hazardous materials;

2. The driver is at least twenty-one years of age;

3. A physician licensed in Virginia certifies that, in his professional opinion, the driver is capable of safely operating a commercial motor vehicle transporting hazardous materials; and

4. In the opinion of the Commissioner, the driver is able to perform the normal tasks associated with operating a commercial motor vehicle and comply with the applicable regulations authorized by § 10.1-1450.

The Commissioner may promulgate regulations addressing such variances.

1997, c. 260.

§ 46.2-341.10. Special provisions relating to commercial learner's permit.

A. The Department upon receiving an application on forms prescribed by the Commissioner and upon the applicant's satisfactory completion of the vision and knowledge tests required for the class and type of commercial motor vehicle to be driven by the applicant may, in its discretion, issue to such applicant a commercial learner's permit. Such permit shall be valid for no more than one year from the date of issuance. No renewals are permitted. A commercial learner's permit shall entitle the applicant to drive a commercial motor vehicle of the class and type designated on the permit, but only when accompanied by a person licensed to drive the class and type of commercial motor vehicle driven by the applicant. The person accompanying the permit holder shall occupy the seat closest to the driver's seat for the purpose of giving instruction to the permit holder in driving the commercial motor vehicle.

B. No person shall be issued a commercial learner's permit unless he possesses a valid Virginia driver's license or has satisfied all the requirements necessary to obtain such a license.

C. A commercial learner's permit holder with a passenger (P) endorsement (i) must have taken and passed the P endorsement knowledge test and (ii) is prohibited from operating a commercial motor vehicle carrying passengers, other than federal or state auditors and inspectors, test examiners, other trainees, and the commercial driver's license holder accompanying the commercial learner's permit holder. The P endorsement must be class specific.

D. A commercial learner's permit holder with a school bus (S) endorsement (i) must have taken and passed the S endorsement knowledge test and (ii) is prohibited from operating a school bus with passengers other than federal or state auditors and inspectors, test examiners, other trainees, and the commercial driver's license holder accompanying the commercial learner's permit holder. No person shall be issued a commercial learner's permit to drive school buses or to drive any commercial vehicle to transport children to or from activities sponsored by a school or by a child day care facility licensed, regulated, or approved by the Department of Education during any period in which he is a person for whom registration with the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry is required pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1.

E. A commercial learner's permit holder with a tank vehicle (N) endorsement (i) must have taken and passed the N endorsement knowledge test and (ii) may only operate an empty tank vehicle and is prohibited from operating any tank vehicle that previously contained hazardous materials that has not been purged of any residue.

F. The issuance of a commercial learner's permit is a precondition to the initial issuance of a commercial driver's license and to the upgrade of a commercial driver's license if the upgrade requires a skills test. The commercial learner's permit holder is not eligible to take the commercial driver's license skills test until he has held the permit for the required period of time specified in § 46.2-324.1.

G. Any commercial learner's permit holder who operates a commercial motor vehicle without being accompanied by a licensed driver as provided in this section is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

H. The Department shall charge a fee of $3 for each commercial learner's permit issued under the provisions of this section.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.10; 2011, c. 477; 2012, c. 153; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803; 2015, c. 258; 2019, c. 750; 2020, cc. 860, 861.

§ 46.2-341.10:1. Seasonal restricted commercial drivers' licenses.

A. The Commissioner may, in his discretion, issue seasonal restricted commercial drivers' licenses in accordance with this section.

B. A Virginia seasonal restricted commercial driver's license shall be issued only to a person who (i) is a seasonal employee of a farm retail outlet or supplier, a custom harvester, a livestock feeder, or an agri-chemical business, (ii) is a Virginia-licensed driver with at least one year of driving experience as a licensed driver, and (iii) has satisfied every requirement for issuance of a commercial driver's license except successful completion of the knowledge and skills tests.

C. The Department shall not issue or renew a seasonal restricted commercial driver's license and shall not revalidate the seasonal period for which such license authorizes operation of a commercial motor vehicle, unless:

1. The applicant has not, and certifies that he has not, at any time during the two years immediately preceding the date of application:

a. Had more than one driver's license;

b. Had any driver's license or driving privilege suspended, revoked, or canceled;

c. Had any convictions involving any kind of motor vehicle for any of the offenses listed in §§ 46.2-341.18, 46.2-341.19, or § 46.2-341.20;

d. Been convicted of a violation of state or local laws relating to motor vehicle traffic control, other than a parking violation, which violation arose in connection with any reportable traffic accident;

e. Been convicted of any serious traffic violation, as defined in § 46.2-341.20, whether or not committed in a commercial motor vehicle; and

2. The applicant certifies and provides evidence satisfactory to the Commissioner that he is employed on a seasonal basis by a farm retail outlet or supplier, custom harvester, livestock feeder, or agri-chemical business in a job requiring the operation of a commercial motor vehicle.

D. Such seasonal restricted license shall entitle the licensee to drive a commercial motor vehicle of the class and type designated on the license, but shall not authorize operation of a Class A vehicle.

E. Such seasonal restricted license shall authorize operation of a commercial motor vehicle only during the seasonal period or periods prescribed by the Commissioner and stated on the license, provided the total number of calendar days in any twelve-month period for which the seasonal restricted license authorizes operation of a commercial motor vehicle shall not exceed 180. The license is valid for operation of a commercial motor vehicle during the seasonal period or periods for which it has been validated and must be revalidated annually by the Department for each successive seasonal period or periods for which commercial vehicle operation is sought; such license shall authorize operation of noncommercial motor vehicles at any time, unless it has been suspended, revoked, or canceled, or has expired.

F. Such seasonal restricted license shall not authorize operation of a commercial motor vehicle during any period during which the licensee is not employed by an entity described in subdivision B hereof, nor if such operation is not directly related to such employment.

G. Such seasonal restricted license shall not authorize the licensee to operate any vehicle transporting hazardous materials as defined in this article, except that a seasonal restricted licensee may drive a vehicle transporting:

1. Diesel fuel in quantities of 1,000 gallons or less;

2. Liquid fertilizers to be used as plant nutrients, in a vehicle or implement of husbandry with a total capacity of 3,000 gallons or less; or

3. Solid plant nutrients that are not transported with any organic substance.

H. Such seasonal restricted license shall authorize the operation of a commercial motor vehicle only within 150 miles of the place of business of the licensee's employer or the farm being served.

1993, c. 70.

§ 46.2-341.11. Commercial drivers required to notify the Department of change of address.

A. If any person who is licensed by the Department to drive a commercial motor vehicle changes the mailing or residential address he most recently submitted to the Department, such person shall notify the Department in writing within thirty days after his change of address. If the Department receives notification from the person or any court or law-enforcement agency that a person's residential address has changed to a non-Virginia address, the Department shall (i) mail, by first-class mail, no later than three days after the notice of address change is received by the Department, notice to the person that his commercial driver's license will be cancelled by the Department and (ii) cancel the commercial driver's license thirty days after notice of cancellation has been mailed.

B. Any person who fails to notify the Department of his change of address in accord with the provisions of this subsection shall be guilty of a traffic infraction.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.11; 2002, cc. 767, 834.

§ 46.2-341.12. (For expiration date, see Acts 2019, c. 750, cl. 3, as amended by Acts 2020, c. 546) Application for commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit.

A. Every application to the Department for a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit shall be made upon a form approved and furnished by the Department, and the applicant shall write his usual signature in ink in the space provided. The applicant shall provide the following information:

1. Full legal name;

2. Current mailing and residential addresses;

3. Physical description including sex, height, weight, and eye and hair color;

4. Year, month, and date of birth;

5. Social security number;

6. Domicile or, if not domiciled in the Commonwealth, proof of status as a member of the active duty military, military reserves, National Guard, active duty United States Coast Guard, or Coast Guard Auxiliary pursuant to 49 U.S.C. § 31311(a)(12); and

7. Any other information required on the application form.

Applicants shall be permitted to choose between "male," "female," or "non-binary" when designating the applicant's sex on the commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit application form.

The applicant's social security number shall be provided to the Commercial Driver's License Information System as required by 49 C.F.R. § 383.153.

B. Every applicant for a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit shall also submit to the Department the following:

1. A consent to release driving record information;

2. Certifications that:

a. He either meets the federal qualification requirements of 49 C.F.R. Parts 383 and 391, or he is exempt from or is not subject to such federal requirements;

b. He either meets the state qualification requirements established pursuant to § 52-8.4, or he is exempt from or is not subject to such requirements;

c. The motor vehicle in which the applicant takes the skills test is representative of the class and, if applicable, the type of motor vehicle for which the applicant seeks to be licensed;

d. He is not subject to any disqualification, suspension, revocation or cancellation of his driving privileges;

e. He does not have more than one driver's license;

3. Other certifications required by the Department;

4. Any evidence required by the Department to establish proof of identity, citizenship or lawful permanent residency, domicile, and social security number notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-328.1 and pursuant to 49 C.F.R. Part 383;

5. A statement indicating whether (i) the applicant has previously been licensed to drive any type of motor vehicle during the previous 10 years and, if so, all states that licensed the applicant and the dates he was licensed, and (ii) whether or not he has ever been disqualified, or his license suspended, revoked or canceled and, if so, the date of and reason therefor; and

6. An unexpired employment authorization document (EAD) issued by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) or an unexpired foreign passport accompanied by an approved Form I-94 documenting the applicant's most recent admittance into the United States for persons applying for a nondomiciled commercial driver's license or nondomiciled commercial learner's permit.

C. Every application for a commercial driver's license shall include a photograph of the applicant supplied under arrangements made therefor by the Department in accordance with § 46.2-323.

D. The Department shall disqualify any commercial driver for a period of one year when the records of the Department clearly show to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that such person has made a material false statement on any application or certification made for a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit. The Department shall take such action within 30 days after discovering such falsification.

E. (For expiration date, see Acts 2019, c. 750, cl. 2, as amended by Acts 2020, c. 546) The Department shall review the driving record of any person who applies for a Virginia commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit, for the renewal or reinstatement of such license or permit or for an additional commercial classification or endorsement, including the driving record from all jurisdictions where, during the previous 10 years, the applicant was licensed to drive any type of motor vehicle. Such review shall include checking the photograph on record whenever the applicant or holder appears in person to renew, upgrade, transfer, reinstate, or obtain a duplicate commercial driver's license or to renew, upgrade, reinstate, or obtain a duplicate commercial learner's permit. If appropriate, the Department shall incorporate information from such other jurisdictions' records into the applicant's Virginia driving record, and shall make a notation on the applicant's driving record confirming that such review has been completed and the date it was completed. The Department's review shall include research through the Commercial Driver License Information System established pursuant to the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act and the National Driver Register Problem Driver Pointer System in addition to the driver record maintained by the applicant's previous jurisdictions of licensure. This research shall be completed prior to the issuance, renewal, transfer, or reinstatement of a commercial driver's license or additional commercial classification or endorsement.

The Department shall verify the name, date of birth, and social security number provided by the applicant with the information on file with the Social Security Administration for initial issuance of a commercial learner's permit or transfer of a commercial driver's license from another state. The Department shall make a notation in the driver's record confirming that the necessary verification has been completed and noting the date it was done. The Department shall also make a notation confirming that proof of citizenship or lawful permanent residency has been presented and the date it was done.

E. (For effective date, see Acts 2019, c. 750, cl. 2, as amended by Acts 2020, c. 546) The Department shall review the driving record of any person who applies for a Virginia commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit, for the renewal or reinstatement of such license or permit or for an additional commercial classification or endorsement, including the driving record from all jurisdictions where, during the previous 10 years, the applicant was licensed to drive any type of motor vehicle. Such review shall include checking the photograph on record whenever the applicant or holder appears in person to renew, upgrade, transfer, reinstate, or obtain a duplicate commercial driver's license or to renew, upgrade, reinstate, or obtain a duplicate commercial learner's permit. If appropriate, the Department shall incorporate information from such other jurisdictions' records into the applicant's Virginia driving record, and shall make a notation on the applicant's driving record confirming that such review has been completed and the date it was completed. The Department's review shall include (i) research through the Commercial Driver License Information System established pursuant to the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act and the National Driver Register Problem Driver Pointer System in addition to the driver record maintained by the applicant's previous jurisdictions of licensure and (ii) requesting information from the Drug and Alcohol Clearinghouse in accordance with 49 C.F.R. § 382.725. This research shall be completed prior to the issuance, renewal, transfer, or reinstatement of a commercial driver's license or additional commercial classification or endorsement.

The Department shall verify the name, date of birth, and social security number provided by the applicant with the information on file with the Social Security Administration for initial issuance of a commercial learner's permit or transfer of a commercial driver's license from another state. The Department shall make a notation in the driver's record confirming that the necessary verification has been completed and noting the date it was done. The Department shall also make a notation confirming that proof of citizenship or lawful permanent residency has been presented and the date it was done.

F. Every new applicant for a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit, including any person applying for a commercial driver's license or permit after revocation of his driving privileges, who certifies that he will operate a commercial motor vehicle in non-excepted interstate or intrastate commerce shall provide the Department with an original or certified copy of a medical examiner's certificate prepared by a medical examiner as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 390.5. Upon receipt of an appropriate medical examiner's certificate, the Department shall post a certification status of "certified" on the record of the driver on the Commercial Driver's License Information System. Any new applicant for a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit who fails to comply with the requirements of this subsection shall be denied the issuance of a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit by the Department.

G. Every existing holder of a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit who certifies that he will operate a commercial motor vehicle in non-excepted interstate or intrastate commerce shall provide the Department with an original or certified copy of a medical examiner's certificate prepared by a medical examiner as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 390.5. Upon receipt of an appropriate medical examiner's certificate, the Department shall post a certification status of "certified" and any other necessary information on the record of the driver on the Commercial Driver's License Information System. If an existing holder of a commercial driver's license fails to provide the Department with a medical certificate as required by this subsection, the Department shall post a certification status of "noncertified" on the record of the driver on the Commercial Driver's License Information System and initiate a downgrade of his commercial driver's license as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 383.5.

H. Any person who provides a medical certificate to the Department pursuant to the requirements of subsections F and G shall keep the medical certificate information current and shall notify the Department of any change in the status of the medical certificate. If the Department determines that the medical certificate is no longer valid, the Department shall initiate a downgrade of the driver's commercial driver's license as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 383.5.

I. If the Department receives notice that the holder of a commercial driver's license has been issued a medical variance as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 390.5, the Department shall indicate the existence of such medical variance on the commercial driver's license document of the driver and on the record of the driver on the Commercial Driver's License Information System using the restriction code "V."

J. Any holder of a commercial driver's license who has been issued a medical variance shall keep the medical variance information current and shall notify the Department of any change in the status of the medical variance. If the Department determines that the medical variance is no longer valid, the Department shall initiate a downgrade of the driver's commercial driver's license as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 383.5.

K. Any applicant applying for a hazardous materials endorsement must comply with Transportation Security Administration requirements in 49 C.F.R. Part 1572. A lawful permanent resident of the United States requesting a hazardous materials endorsement must additionally provide his U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) alien registration number.

L. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-208, the Department may release to the FMCSA medical information relating to the issuance of a commercial driver's license or a commercial learner's permit collected by the Department pursuant to the provisions of subsections F, G, H, I, and J.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.12; 2005, c. 513; 2009, c. 872; 2011, cc. 881, 889; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803; 2015, c. 258; 2019, c. 750; 2020, cc. 544, 546.

§ 46.2-341.12. (For effective date, see Acts 2019, c. 750, cl. 3, as amended by Acts 2020, c. 546) Application for commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit.

A. No entry-level driver shall be eligible to (i) apply for a Virginia Class A or Class B commercial driver's license for the first time, (ii) upgrade to a Class A or Class B commercial driver's license for the first time, or (iii) apply for a hazardous materials, passenger, or school bus endorsement for the first time, unless he has completed an entry-level driver training course related to the license, classification, or endorsement he is applying for and the training is provided by a training provider. An individual is not required to complete an entry-level driver training course related to the license, classification, or endorsement he is applying for if he is exempted from such requirements under 49 C.F.R. § 380.603.

B. Every application to the Department for a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit shall be made upon a form approved and furnished by the Department, and the applicant shall write his usual signature in ink in the space provided. The applicant shall provide the following information:

1. Full legal name;

2. Current mailing and residential addresses;

3. Physical description including sex, height, weight, and eye and hair color;

4. Year, month, and date of birth;

5. Social security number;

6. Domicile or, if not domiciled in the Commonwealth, proof of status as a member of the active duty military, military reserves, National Guard, active duty United States Coast Guard, or Coast Guard Auxiliary pursuant to 49 U.S.C. § 31311(a)(12); and

7. Any other information required on the application form.

Applicants shall be permitted to choose between "male," "female," or "non-binary" when designating the applicant's sex on the commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit application form.

The applicant's social security number shall be provided to the Commercial Driver's License Information System as required by 49 C.F.R. § 383.153.

C. Every applicant for a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit shall also submit to the Department the following:

1. A consent to release driving record information;

2. Certifications that:

a. He either meets the federal qualification requirements of 49 C.F.R. Parts 383 and 391, or he is exempt from or is not subject to such federal requirements;

b. He either meets the state qualification requirements established pursuant to § 52-8.4, or he is exempt from or is not subject to such requirements;

c. The motor vehicle in which the applicant takes the skills test is representative of the class and, if applicable, the type of motor vehicle for which the applicant seeks to be licensed;

d. He is not subject to any disqualification, suspension, revocation or cancellation of his driving privileges;

e. He does not have more than one driver's license;

3. Other certifications required by the Department;

4. Any evidence required by the Department to establish proof of identity, citizenship or lawful permanent residency, domicile, and social security number notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-328.1 and pursuant to 49 C.F.R. Part 383;

5. A statement indicating whether (i) the applicant has previously been licensed to drive any type of motor vehicle during the previous 10 years and, if so, all states that licensed the applicant and the dates he was licensed, and (ii) whether or not he has ever been disqualified, or his license suspended, revoked or canceled and, if so, the date of and reason therefor; and

6. An unexpired employment authorization document (EAD) issued by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) or an unexpired foreign passport accompanied by an approved Form I-94 documenting the applicant's most recent admittance into the United States for persons applying for a nondomiciled commercial driver's license or nondomiciled commercial learner's permit.

D. Every application for a commercial driver's license shall include a photograph of the applicant supplied under arrangements made therefor by the Department in accordance with § 46.2-323.

E. The Department shall disqualify any commercial driver for a period of one year when the records of the Department clearly show to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that such person has made a material false statement on any application or certification made for a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit. The Department shall take such action within 30 days after discovering such falsification.

F. (For expiration date, see Acts 2019, c. 750, cl. 2, as amended by Acts 2020, c. 546) The Department shall review the driving record of any person who applies for a Virginia commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit, for the renewal or reinstatement of such license or permit or for an additional commercial classification or endorsement, including the driving record from all jurisdictions where, during the previous 10 years, the applicant was licensed to drive any type of motor vehicle. Such review shall include checking the photograph on record whenever the applicant or holder appears in person to renew, upgrade, transfer, reinstate, or obtain a duplicate commercial driver's license or to renew, upgrade, reinstate, or obtain a duplicate commercial learner's permit. If appropriate, the Department shall incorporate information from such other jurisdictions' records into the applicant's Virginia driving record, and shall make a notation on the applicant's driving record confirming that such review has been completed and the date it was completed. The Department's review shall include research through the Commercial Driver License Information System established pursuant to the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act and the National Driver Register Problem Driver Pointer System in addition to the driver record maintained by the applicant's previous jurisdictions of licensure. This research shall be completed prior to the issuance, renewal, transfer, or reinstatement of a commercial driver's license or additional commercial classification or endorsement.

The Department shall verify the name, date of birth, and social security number provided by the applicant with the information on file with the Social Security Administration for initial issuance of a commercial learner's permit or transfer of a commercial driver's license from another state. The Department shall make a notation in the driver's record confirming that the necessary verification has been completed and noting the date it was done. The Department shall also make a notation confirming that proof of citizenship or lawful permanent residency has been presented and the date it was done.

F. (For effective date, see Acts 2019, c. 750, cl. 2, as amended by Acts 2020, c. 546) The Department shall review the driving record of any person who applies for a Virginia commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit, for the renewal or reinstatement of such license or permit or for an additional commercial classification or endorsement, including the driving record from all jurisdictions where, during the previous 10 years, the applicant was licensed to drive any type of motor vehicle. Such review shall include checking the photograph on record whenever the applicant or holder appears in person to renew, upgrade, transfer, reinstate, or obtain a duplicate commercial driver's license or to renew, upgrade, reinstate, or obtain a duplicate commercial learner's permit. If appropriate, the Department shall incorporate information from such other jurisdictions' records into the applicant's Virginia driving record, and shall make a notation on the applicant's driving record confirming that such review has been completed and the date it was completed. The Department's review shall include (i) research through the Commercial Driver License Information System established pursuant to the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act and the National Driver Register Problem Driver Pointer System in addition to the driver record maintained by the applicant's previous jurisdictions of licensure and (ii) requesting information from the Drug and Alcohol Clearinghouse in accordance with 49 C.F.R. § 382.725. This research shall be completed prior to the issuance, renewal, transfer, or reinstatement of a commercial driver's license or additional commercial classification or endorsement.

The Department shall verify the name, date of birth, and social security number provided by the applicant with the information on file with the Social Security Administration for initial issuance of a commercial learner's permit or transfer of a commercial driver's license from another state. The Department shall make a notation in the driver's record confirming that the necessary verification has been completed and noting the date it was done. The Department shall also make a notation confirming that proof of citizenship or lawful permanent residency has been presented and the date it was done.

G. Every new applicant for a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit, including any person applying for a commercial driver's license or permit after revocation of his driving privileges, who certifies that he will operate a commercial motor vehicle in non-excepted interstate or intrastate commerce shall provide the Department with an original or certified copy of a medical examiner's certificate prepared by a medical examiner as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 390.5. Upon receipt of an appropriate medical examiner's certificate, the Department shall post a certification status of "certified" on the record of the driver on the Commercial Driver's License Information System. Any new applicant for a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit who fails to comply with the requirements of this subsection shall be denied the issuance of a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit by the Department.

H. Every existing holder of a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit who certifies that he will operate a commercial motor vehicle in non-excepted interstate or intrastate commerce shall provide the Department with an original or certified copy of a medical examiner's certificate prepared by a medical examiner as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 390.5. Upon receipt of an appropriate medical examiner's certificate, the Department shall post a certification status of "certified" and any other necessary information on the record of the driver on the Commercial Driver's License Information System. If an existing holder of a commercial driver's license fails to provide the Department with a medical certificate as required by this subsection, the Department shall post a certification status of "noncertified" on the record of the driver on the Commercial Driver's License Information System and initiate a downgrade of his commercial driver's license as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 383.5.

I. Any person who provides a medical certificate to the Department pursuant to the requirements of subsections G and H shall keep the medical certificate information current and shall notify the Department of any change in the status of the medical certificate. If the Department determines that the medical certificate is no longer valid, the Department shall initiate a downgrade of the driver's commercial driver's license as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 383.5.

J. If the Department receives notice that the holder of a commercial driver's license has been issued a medical variance as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 390.5, the Department shall indicate the existence of such medical variance on the commercial driver's license document of the driver and on the record of the driver on the Commercial Driver's License Information System using the restriction code "V."

K. Any holder of a commercial driver's license who has been issued a medical variance shall keep the medical variance information current and shall notify the Department of any change in the status of the medical variance. If the Department determines that the medical variance is no longer valid, the Department shall initiate a downgrade of the driver's commercial driver's license as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 383.5.

L. Any applicant applying for a hazardous materials endorsement must comply with Transportation Security Administration requirements in 49 C.F.R. Part 1572. A lawful permanent resident of the United States requesting a hazardous materials endorsement must additionally provide his U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) alien registration number.

M. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-208, the Department may release to the FMCSA medical information relating to the issuance of a commercial driver's license or a commercial learner's permit collected by the Department pursuant to the provisions of subsections F, G, H, I, and J.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.12; 2005, c. 513; 2009, c. 872; 2011, cc. 881, 889; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803; 2015, c. 258; 2019, c. 750; 2020, cc. 544, 546.

§ 46.2-341.13. Disposition of fees.

Except as otherwise provided, all fees accruing under the provisions of this chapter shall be paid to and received by the Commissioner, and by him forthwith paid into the state treasury and shall be set aside as a special fund in the state treasury to be used to meet the necessary additional expenses incurred by the Department of Motor Vehicles and the Commissioner in the performance of the duties required by this article.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.13.

§ 46.2-341.14. Testing requirements for commercial driver's license; behind-the-wheel and knowledge examinations.

A. (For expiration date, see Acts 2019, c. 750, cl. 3, as amended by Acts 2020, c. 546) The Department shall conduct an examination of every applicant for a commercial driver's license, which examination shall comply with the minimum federal standards established pursuant to the federal Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act. The examination shall be designed to test the vision, knowledge, and skills required for the safe operation of the class and type of commercial motor vehicle for which the applicant seeks a license.

A. (For effective date, see Acts 2019, c. 750, cl. 3, as amended by Acts 2020, c. 546) The Department shall conduct an examination of every applicant for a commercial driver's license, which examination shall comply with the minimum federal standards established pursuant to the federal Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act. The examination shall be designed to test the vision, knowledge, and skills required for the safe operation of the class and type of commercial motor vehicle for which the applicant seeks a license.

No skills test shall be conducted by the Department for a first-time applicant for a Class A or Class B commercial driver's license, a passenger endorsement, or a school bus endorsement, or knowledge test for a first-time applicant for a hazardous materials endorsement, until (i) the Department has verified that the applicant has completed the appropriate entry-level driver training course administered by a training provider required for that skills or knowledge test, if the applicant is so required, or (ii) the applicant has certified that he is exempted from such requirement under § 46.2-341.12.

B. An applicant's skills test shall be conducted in a vehicle that is representative of or meets the description of the class of vehicle for which the applicant seeks to be licensed. In addition, applicants who seek to be licensed to drive vehicles with air brakes, passenger-carrying vehicles, or school buses must take the skills test in a vehicle that is representative of such vehicle type. Such vehicle shall be furnished by the applicant and shall be properly licensed, inspected and insured.

C. The Commissioner may designate such persons as he deems fit, including private or governmental entities, including comprehensive community colleges in the Virginia Community College System, to administer the knowledge and skills tests required of applicants for a commercial driver's license. Any person so designated shall comply with all statutes and regulations with respect to the administration of such tests.

The Commissioner shall require all state and third party test examiners to successfully complete a formal commercial driver's license test examiner training course and examination before certifying them to administer commercial driver's license knowledge and skills tests. All state and third party test examiners shall complete a refresher training course and examination every four years to maintain their commercial driver's license test examiner certification. The refresher training course shall comply with 49 C.F.R. § 384.228. At least once every two years, the Department shall conduct covert and overt monitoring of examinations performed by state and third party commercial driver's license test examiners.

The Commissioner shall require a nationwide criminal background check of all test examiners at the time of hiring or prior to certifying them to administer commercial driver's license testing. The Commissioner shall complete a nationwide criminal background check for any state or third party test examiners who are current examiners and who have not had a nationwide criminal background check.

The Commissioner shall revoke the certification to administer commercial driver's license tests for any test examiner who (i) does not successfully complete the required refresher training every four years or (ii) does not pass the required nationwide criminal background check. Criteria for not passing the criminal background check include but are not limited to having a felony conviction within the past 10 years or any conviction involving fraudulent activities.

D. Every applicant for a commercial driver's license who is required by the Commissioner to take a vision test shall either (i) appear before a license examiner of the Department of Motor Vehicles to demonstrate his visual acuity and horizontal field of vision or (ii) submit with his application a copy of the vision examination report that was used as the basis for such examination made within 90 days of the application date by an ophthalmologist or optometrist. The Commissioner may, by regulation, determine whether any other visual tests will satisfy the requirements of this title for commercial drivers.

E. (For expiration date, see Acts 2020, c. 546, cl. 2) No person who fails the behind-the-wheel examination for a commercial driver's license administered by the Department three times shall be permitted to take such examination a fourth time until he successfully completes, subsequent to the third examination failure, the in-vehicle component of driver instruction at a driver training school licensed under Chapter 17 (§ 46.2-1700 et seq.) or a comprehensive community college in the Virginia Community College System, or a comparable course approved by the Department or the Department of Education. In addition, no person who fails the general knowledge examination for a commercial driver's license administered by the Department three times shall be permitted to take such examination a fourth time until he successfully completes, subsequent to the third examination failure, the knowledge component of driver instruction at a driver training school licensed under Chapter 17 (§ 46.2-1700 et seq.) or a comprehensive community college in the Virginia Community College System, or a comparable course approved by the Department or the Department of Education. All persons required to attend a driver training school, a comprehensive community college, or a comparable course pursuant to this section shall be required, after successful completion of necessary courses, to have the applicable examination administered by the Department.

Comprehensive community colleges offering courses pursuant to this section shall meet course curriculum requirements established and made available by the Department and be comparable to the curriculum offered by Class A licensed schools. A course curriculum meeting the established requirements shall be submitted to the Department and shall be approved by the Department prior to the beginning of course instruction.

The Department shall provide and update the list of course curriculum requirements from time to time, as deemed appropriate and necessary by the Department. The Department shall notify the affected schools and comprehensive community colleges if new relevant topics are added to the course curriculum. Schools and comprehensive community colleges shall have 45 calendar days after such notice is issued to update their course curriculum and to certify to the Department in a format prescribed by the Department that the school or comprehensive community college has added the new topics to the course curriculum.

The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to persons placed under medical control pursuant to § 46.2-322.

F. Knowledge tests may be administered in written form, verbally, or in automated format and can be administered in a foreign language, provided no interpreter is used in administering the test.

G. Interpreters are prohibited during the administration of the skills tests. Applicants must be able to understand and respond to verbal commands and instructions in English by a skills test examiner. Neither the applicant nor the examiner may communicate in a language other than English during the skills test.

H. Skills tests may be administered to an applicant who has taken training in the Commonwealth at a driver training school licensed under Chapter 17 (§ 46.2-1700 et seq.) or a comprehensive community college in the Virginia Community College System, or a comparable course approved by the Department or the Department of Education, and is to be licensed in another state. Such test results shall be electronically transmitted directly from the Commonwealth to the licensing state in an efficient and secure manner. The Department may charge a fee of not more than $85 to any such applicant.

I. The Department shall accept the results of skills tests administered to applicants by any other state in fulfillment of the applicant's testing requirements for commercial licensure in the Commonwealth.

J. The Department may administer skills performance evaluations in accordance with its agreement with the FMCSA. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-208, any medical information that is collected as part of the evaluation may be released to and inspected by the FMCSA.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.14; 2008, c. 735; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803; 2015, c. 258; 2016, c. 429; 2017, c. 232; 2019, c. 750; 2020, c. 546.

§ 46.2-341.14:01. Military third party testers and military third party examiners; substitute for knowledge and driving skills tests for drivers with military commercial motor vehicle experience.

A. Pursuant to § 46.2-341.14, the Commissioner may permit military bases that have entered into an agreement with the Department to serve as third party testers in administering state knowledge and skills tests for issuing commercial driver's licenses. Military third party testers and military third party examiners shall comply with the requirements set forth in §§ 46.2-341.14:1 through 46.2-341.14:9 with respect to knowledge and skills tests.

B. Pursuant to 49 C.F.R. § 383.77, the Commissioner may waive the driving skills test required by 49 C.F.R. § 383.23 and as specified in 49 C.F.R. § 383.113 for a commercial motor vehicle driver with military commercial motor vehicle experience who is currently licensed at the time of his application for a commercial driver's license and substitute an applicant's driving record in combination with certain driving experience for the skills test.

C. To obtain a skills test waiver, the following conditions and limitations must be met:

1. An applicant must certify that, during the two-year period immediately prior to applying for a commercial driver's license, he:

a. Has not simultaneously held more than one license except for a military license;

b. Has not had any license suspended, revoked, canceled, or disqualified;

c. Has not had any convictions for any type of motor vehicle for the disqualifying offenses contained in this article;

d. Has not had more than one conviction for any type of motor vehicle for serious traffic violations contained in this article; and

e. Has not had any conviction for a violation of military, state, or local law relating to motor vehicle traffic control, other than a parking violation, arising in connection with any traffic crash and has no record of a crash in which he was at fault; and

2. An applicant must provide evidence and certify that he:

a. Is regularly employed or was regularly employed within the last year or any other period authorized by the FMCSA in a military position requiring operation of a commercial motor vehicle;

b. Was exempted from the commercial driver's license requirements in 49 C.F.R. § 383.3(c); and

c. Was operating a vehicle representative of the commercial motor vehicle the driver applicant operates, or expects to operate, for at least the two years immediately preceding discharge from the military.

D. The Commissioner may waive the knowledge test for certain current or former military service members applying for a commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license as permitted by 49 C.F.R. § 383.77, provided that such current or former military service member meets the conditions and limitations provided by 49 C.F.R. § 383.77.

E. The Commissioner may waive the knowledge test and driving skills test for certain current or former military service members applying for certain endorsements as permitted by 49 C.F.R. § 383.77, provided that such current or former military service member meets the conditions and limitations provided by 49 C.F.R. § 383.77.

2014, cc. 77, 803; 2019, cc. 161, 750; 2020, c. 546.

§ 46.2-341.14:1. Requirements for third party testers.

A. Pursuant to § 46.2-341.14, third party testers will be authorized to issue skills test certificates, which will be accepted by the Department as evidence of satisfaction of the skills test component of the commercial driver's license examination. Authority to issue skills test certificates will be granted only to third party testers certified by the Department.

B. To qualify for certification, a third party tester shall:

1. Make application to and enter into an agreement with the Department as provided in § 46.2-341.14:3;

2. Maintain a place of business in the Commonwealth;

3. Have at least one certified third party examiner in his employ;

4. Ensure that all third party examiners in his employ are certified and comply with the requirements of §§ 46.2-341.14:2 and 46.2-341.14:7;

5. Permit the Department and the FMCSA of the U.S. Department of Transportation to conduct random examinations, inspections, and audits of its records, facilities, and operations that relate to the third party testing program without prior notice;

6. Maintain at the principal place of business a copy of the state certificate authorizing the third party tester to administer a commercial driver's license testing program and current third party agreement;

7. Maintain at a location in the Commonwealth, for a minimum of two years after a skills test is conducted, a record of each driver for whom the third party tester conducts a skills test, whether the driver passes or fails the test. Each such record shall include:

a. The complete name of the driver;

b. The driver's social security number or other driver's license number and the name of the state or jurisdiction that issued the license held by the driver at the time of the test;

c. The date the driver took the skills test;

d. The test score sheet or sheets showing the results of the skills test and a copy of the skills test certificate, if issued;

e. The name and certification number of the third party examiner conducting the skills test; and

f. Evidence of (i) the driver's employment with the third party tester at the time the test was taken, or if the third party tester is a school board that tests drivers who are trained but not employed by the school board, evidence that (a) the driver was employed by a school board at the time of the test and (b) the third party tester trained the driver in accordance with the Virginia School Bus Driver Training Curriculum Guide, or (ii) the student's enrollment in a commercial driver training course offered by a community college or Class A driver training school at the time the test was taken.

8. Maintain at a location in the Commonwealth a record of each third party examiner in the employ of the third party tester. Each record shall include:

a. Name and social security number;

b. Evidence of the third party examiner's certification by the Department;

c. A copy of the third party examiner's current training and driving record, which must be updated annually;

d. Evidence that the third party examiner is an employee of the third party tester; and

e. If the third party tester is a school board, a copy of the third party examiner's certification of instruction issued by the Department of Education;

9. Retain the records required in subdivision 8 for at least two years after the third party examiner leaves the employ of the third party tester;

10. Ensure that skills tests are conducted, and that skills test certificates are issued in accordance with the requirements of §§ 46.2-341.14:8 and 46.2-341.14:9 and the instructions provided by the Department;

11. Maintain compliance with all applicable provisions of this article and the third party tester agreement executed pursuant to § 46.2-341.14:3; and

12. Maintain a copy of the third party tester's road test route or routes approved by the Department.

C. In addition to the requirements listed in subsection B, all third party testers who are not governmental entities, including a comprehensive community college in the Virginia Community College System, shall:

1. Be engaged in a business involving the use of commercial motor vehicles, which business has been in operation in the Commonwealth for a minimum of one year;

2. For employers that are testing their own employees, employ at least 50 drivers of commercial motor vehicles licensed in the Commonwealth during the 12-month period preceding the application, including part-time and seasonal drivers. This requirement may be waived by the Department pursuant to § 46.2-341.14:10;

3. If subject to the FMCSA regulations as a motor carrier and rated by the U.S. Department of Transportation, maintain a rating of "satisfactory";

4. Comply with the Virginia Motor Carrier Safety Regulations; and

5. Initiate and maintain a bond in the amount of $5,000 to pay for retesting drivers in the event that the third party tester or one or more of its examiners are involved in fraudulent activities related to conducting knowledge or skills testing for applicants.

D. (For effective date — see Acts 2019, c. 750, cl. 3, as amended by Acts 2020, c. 546) Certified third party testers are authorized to provide entry-level driver training to individuals in their employ or applicants for employment. If a certified third party tester elects to provide entry-level driver training, the third party tester shall (i) employ and utilize third party instructors, as defined in § 46.2-341.4, to provide all training and instruction to entry-level driver trainees; (ii) develop an entry-level driver training curriculum that complies with requirements prescribed by the Department and submit such curriculum to the Department for approval; (iii) upon notification by the Department that curriculum requirements have been updated, certify, in a format prescribed by the Department, that the third party tester has added the new topics to the course curriculum; and (iv) comply with the requirements provided in §§ 46.2-1708 through 46.2-1710. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-1708, no third party tester or third party instructor shall be required to be licensed by the Department. A certified third party tester may not provide entry-level driver training to driver trainees until such tester has been issued a unique training provider number and appears on the federal Training Provider Registry.

2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803; 2015, c. 258; 2016, c. 429; 2019, cc. 78, 155, 750.

§ 46.2-341.14:2. Requirements for third party examiners.

A. Third party examiners may be certified to conduct skills tests on behalf of only one third party tester at any given time. If a third party examiner leaves the employ of a third party tester, he must be recertified in order to conduct skills tests on behalf of a new third party tester.

B. To qualify for certification as a third party examiner, an individual must:

1. Make application to the Department as provided in § 46.2-341.14:3 and pass the required nationwide criminal background check;

2. Be an employee of the third party tester;

3. Possess a valid Virginia commercial driver's license with the classification and endorsements required for operation of the class and type of commercial motor vehicle used in skills tests conducted by the examiner;

4. Satisfactorily complete any third party examiner training course required by the Department;

5. Within three years prior to application, have had no driver's license suspensions, revocations, or disqualifications;

6. At the time of application, have no more than six demerit points on his driving record and not be on probation under the Virginia Driver Improvement Program;

7. Within three years prior to application, have had no conviction for any offense listed in § 46.2-341.18 or 46.2-341.19, whether or not such offense was committed in a commercial motor vehicle;

8. If the examiner is employed by a school board, be certified by the Virginia Department of Education as a school bus training instructor;

9. Conduct skills tests on behalf of the third party tester in accordance with this article and in accordance with current instructions provided by the Department; and

10. Successfully complete a training course and examination every four years to maintain the commercial driver's license test examiner certification.

2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803.

§ 46.2-341.14:3. Application for certification by the Department.

A. Application for third party tester certification.

1. An applicant for certification shall provide the following information in a format prescribed by the Department:

a. Name, address, and telephone number of principal office or headquarters;

b. Name, title, address, and telephone number of an individual in the Commonwealth who has been designated to be the applicant's contact person with the Department;

c. Description of the vehicle fleet owned or leased by the applicant, including the number of commercial motor vehicles by class and type;

d. Classes and types of commercial motor vehicles for which the applicant seeks to be certified as a third party tester;

e. Total number of drivers licensed in the Commonwealth employed during the preceding 12 months to operate commercial motor vehicles and the number of such drivers who are full time, part time, and seasonal. However, this provision shall not apply to a comprehensive community college in the Virginia Community College System certified as a third party tester for the purposes of administering tests to students enrolled in a commercial driver training course offered by such community college;

f. Name, driver's license number, and home address of each employee who is to be certified as a third party examiner. If any employee has previously been certified as an examiner by the Department, the examiner's certification number;

g. The address of each location in the Commonwealth where the third party tester intends to conduct skills tests and a map, drawing, or written description of each driving course that satisfies the Department's requirements for a skills test course;

h. If the applicant is not a governmental entity, including a comprehensive community college in the Virginia Community College System, it shall also provide: (i) a description of the applicant's business and length of time in business in the Commonwealth; (ii) if subject to the FMCSA regulations, the applicant's Interstate Commerce Commission number or U.S. Department of Transportation number and rating; and (iii) the applicant's State Corporation Commission number; and

i. Any other relevant information required by the Department.

2. An applicant for certification shall also execute an agreement in a format prescribed by the Department in which the applicant agrees, at a minimum, to comply with the regulations and instructions of the Department for third party testers, including audit procedures, and agrees to hold the Department harmless from liability resulting from the third party tester's administration of its commercial driver's license skills test program.

B. Application for third party examiner certification.

1. An applicant for certification shall provide the following information in a format prescribed by the Department:

a. Name, home, and business addresses and telephone numbers;

b. Driver's license number;

c. Name, address, and telephone number of the principal office or headquarters of the applicant's employer, who has applied for and received certification as a third party tester;

d. Job title and description of duties and responsibilities;

e. Length of time employed by present employer. If less than two years, list previous employer, address, and telephone number;

f. Present employer's recommendation of the applicant for certification;

g. A list of the classes and types of vehicles for which the applicant seeks certification to conduct skills tests; and

h. Any other relevant information required by the Department.

C. Evaluation of applicant by the Department.

1. The Department will evaluate the materials submitted by the third party tester applicant, and, if the application materials are satisfactory, the Department will schedule an onsite inspection and audit of the applicant's third party testing program to complete the evaluation.

2. The Department will evaluate the materials submitted by the third party examiner applicant as well as the applicant's driving record. If the application materials and driving record are satisfactory, the Department will schedule the applicant for third party examiner training. Training may be waived if the applicant is seeking recertification only because he has changed employers.

3. No more than two applications will be accepted from any one third party tester or examiner applicant in any 12-month period, excluding applications for recertification because of a change in employers.

2013, cc. 165, 582; 2016, c. 429.

§ 46.2-341.14:4. Certification by the Department.

A. Upon successful application and evaluation, a third party tester will be issued a letter or certificate that will evidence his authority to administer a third party testing program and issue skills test certificates for the classes and types of vehicles listed.

B. Upon successful application, evaluation, and training, a third party examiner will be issued a letter or certificate that will evidence his authority to conduct skills tests for the classes and types of commercial motor vehicles listed.

C. Certification will remain valid until canceled by the Department or voluntarily relinquished by the third party tester or examiner.

2013, cc. 165, 582.

§ 46.2-341.14:5. Terminating certification of third party tester or examiner.

A. Any third party tester or examiner may relinquish certification upon 30 days' notice to the Department. Relinquishment of certification by a third party tester or examiner shall not release such tester or examiner from any responsibility or liability that arises from his activities as a third party tester or examiner.

B. The Department reserves the right to cancel the third party testing program established by this article, in its entirety.

C. The Department shall revoke the skills testing certification of any examiner:

1. Who does not conduct skills test examinations of at least 10 different applicants per calendar year. However, examiners who do not meet the 10-test minimum must either take a refresher commercial driver's license training that complies with 49 C.F.R. § 384.228 or have a Department examiner ride along to observe the third party examiner successfully administer at least one skills test; or

2. Who does not successfully complete the required refresher training every four years pursuant to 49 C.F.R. § 384.228.

D. The Department may cancel the certification of an individual third party tester or examiner upon the following grounds:

1. Failure to comply with or satisfy any of the provisions of this article, federal standards for the commercial driver's license testing program, the Department's instructions, or the third party tester agreement;

2. Falsification of any record or information relating to the third party testing program;

3. Commission of any act that compromises the integrity of the third party testing program; or

4. Failure to pass the required nationwide criminal background check. Criteria for not passing the criminal background check include but are not limited to having a felony conviction within the past 10 years or any conviction involving fraudulent activities.

E. If the Department determines that grounds for cancellation exist for failure to comply with or satisfy any of the requirements of this chapter or the third party tester agreement, the Department may postpone cancellation and allow the third party tester or examiner 30 days to correct the deficiency.

2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803.

§ 46.2-341.14:6. Onsite inspections and audits.

A. Each applicant for certification as a third party tester shall permit the Department or FMCSA to conduct random examinations, inspections, and audits of its operations, facilities, and records as they relate to its third party testing program, for the purpose of determining whether the applicant is qualified for certification. Each person who has been certified as a third party tester shall permit the Department to periodically inspect and audit his third party testing program to determine whether it remains in compliance with certification requirements.

B. The Department or FMCSA will perform its random examinations, inspections, and audits of third party testers during regular business hours with or without prior notice to the third party tester.

C. Inspections and audits of third party testers will occur at a minimum once every two years and include, at a minimum, an examination of:

1. Records relating to the third party testing program;

2. Evidence of compliance with the FMCSA regulations and Virginia Motor Carrier Safety Regulations;

3. Skills testing procedures, practices, and operations;

4. Vehicles used for testing;

5. Qualifications of third party examiners;

6. Effectiveness of the skills test program by either (i) testing a sample of drivers who have been issued skills test certificates by the third party tester to compare pass/fail results, (ii) having Department employees covertly take the skills tests from a third party examiner, or (iii) having Department employees co-score along with the third party examiner during commercial driver's license applicant's skills tests to compare pass/fail results;

7. A comparison of the commercial driver's license skills test results of applicants who are issued commercial driver's licenses with the commercial driver's license scoring sheets that are maintained in the third party testers' files; and

8. Any other aspect of the third party tester's operation that the Department determines is necessary to verify that the third party tester meets or continues to meet the requirements for certification.

D. The Department will prepare a written report of the results of each inspection and audit of third party testers. A copy of the report will be provided to the third party tester.

2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803.

§ 46.2-341.14:7. Notification requirements.

A. Every third party tester shall:

1. Notify the Department in a format prescribed by the Department within 10 days of any change in:

a. The third party tester's name or address; or

b. The third party examiners who are employed by the third party tester.

2. Notify the Department in a format prescribed by the Department within 10 days of any of the following occurrences:

a. The third party tester ceases business operations in Virginia;

b. The third party tester fails to comply with any of the requirements set forth in this article; or

c. Any third party examiner fails to comply with any of the requirements set forth in this article.

3. Notify the Department of any proposed change in the skills test route at least 30 days before the third party tester plans to change the route.

B. Every third party examiner shall notify the Department, within 10 days after leaving the employ of the third party tester, of his change in employment.

2013, cc. 165, 582.

§ 46.2-341.14:8. Test administration.

A. Skills tests shall be conducted strictly in accordance with the provisions of this article and with current test instructions provided from time to time by the Department. Such instructions will include test forms and directions for completing such forms.

B. Skills tests shall be conducted:

1. On test routes that are located at least in part in Virginia and have been approved by the Department;

2. In a vehicle that is representative of the class and type of vehicle for which the commercial driver's license applicant seeks to be licensed and for which the third party tester and third party examiner are certified to test; and

3. In vehicles that are inspected, licensed, and insured, as required by law.

C. All third party testers shall submit a skills test schedule of commercial driver's license skills testing appointments to the Department no later than two business days prior to each test.

D. All third party testers shall notify the Department through secure electronic means when a driver applicant passes skills tests.

2013, cc. 165, 582.

§ 46.2-341.14:9. The skills test certificate.

A. The Department will accept a skills test certificate issued in accordance with this section as satisfaction of the skills test component of the commercial driver's license examination.

B. Skills test certificates may be issued only to drivers who are employees of the third party tester who issues the certificate, except as otherwise provided herein. In the case of school boards certified as third party testers, certificates may be issued to employees and to other drivers who have been trained by the school board in accordance with the Virginia School Bus Driver Training Curriculum Guide. For comprehensive community colleges in the Virginia Community College System that are certified as third party testers, certificates may be issued to students who are enrolled in a commercial driver training course offered by such community college at the time of the test.

C. Skills test certificates may be issued only to drivers who have passed the skills test conducted in accordance with this chapter and the instructions issued by the Department.

D. A skills test certificate will be accepted by the Department only if it is:

1. Issued by a third party tester certified by the Department in accordance with this article;

2. In a format prescribed by the Department, completed in its entirety, without alteration;

3. Submitted to the Department within 60 days of the date of the skills test; and

4. Signed by the third party examiner who conducted the skills test.

2013, cc. 165, 582; 2016, c. 429.

§ 46.2-341.14:10. Waiver of requirement that third party tester applicant employ 50 drivers.

A. Any applicant for certification as third party tester may submit with his application a request for a waiver of the requirement that the third party tester employ at least 50 drivers within the 12-month period preceding the application.

Such request shall include the following:

1. A statement of need. This statement should explain why the applicant should be certified as a third party tester. The statement should also include reasons why the testing facilities or programs offered by the Department will not meet the applicant's business requirements.

2. An estimate of the number of employees per year who will require commercial driver's license skills testing after April 1, 1992. If the waiver request is filed prior to April 1, 1992, the request should also include an estimate of the number of employees who will require skills testing prior to that date.

B. The Department will review the applicant's waiver request and will evaluate the Department's testing and third party monitoring resources. The Department will decide whether to grant the waiver request after balancing the stated needs of the applicant and the available resources of the Department. The Department will notify the applicant in writing of its decision.

2013, cc. 165, 582; 2019, cc. 78, 155.

§ 46.2-341.15. Commercial driver's license and commercial learner's permit document.

A. The commercial driver's license issued by the Department shall be identified as a Virginia commercial driver's license and shall include at least the following:

1. Full name, a Virginia address, and signature of the licensee;

2. A photograph of the licensee;

3. A physical description of the licensee, including sex and height;

4. The licensee's date of birth and license number that shall be assigned by the Department to the licensee and shall not be the same as the licensee's Social Security number;

5. A designation of the class and type of commercial motor vehicle or vehicles which the licensee is authorized to drive, together with any restrictions; and

6. The date of license issuance and expiration.

B. The commercial learner's permit shall be identified as such but shall in all other respects conform to subsection A of this section. A commercial learner's permit shall also contain a statement that the permit is invalid unless accompanied by the underlying driver's license.

C. A nondomiciled commercial driver's license or a nondomiciled commercial learner's permit shall contain the word "nondomiciled" on the face of the document.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.15; 2002, cc. 767, 834; 2008, c. 190; 2009, c. 872; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2015, c. 258.

§ 46.2-341.16. Vehicle classifications, restrictions, and endorsements.

A. A commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit shall authorize the licensee or permit holder to operate only the classes and types of commercial motor vehicles designated thereon. The classes of commercial motor vehicles for which such license may be issued are:

1. Class A-Combination heavy vehicle. -- Any combination of vehicles with a gross combination weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds, provided the gross vehicle weight rating of the vehicles being towed is in excess of 10,000 pounds;

2. Class B-Heavy straight vehicle or other combination. -- Any single motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds, or any such vehicle towing a vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating that is not in excess of 10,000 pounds; and

3. Class C-Small vehicle. -- Any vehicle that does not fit the definition of a Class A or Class B vehicle and is either (i) designed to transport 16 or more passengers including the driver or (ii) is used in the transportation of hazardous materials.

B. Commercial driver's licenses shall be issued with endorsements authorizing the driver to operate the types of vehicles identified as follows:

1. Type T-Vehicles with double or triple trailers;

2. Type P-Vehicles carrying passengers;

3. Type N-Vehicles with cargo tanks;

4. Type H-Vehicles required to be placarded for hazardous materials;

5. Type S-School buses carrying 16 or more passengers, including the driver;

6. Type X-combination of tank vehicle and hazardous materials endorsements for commercial driver's licenses issued on or after July 1, 2014; and

7. At the discretion of the Department, any additional codes for groupings of endorsements with an explanation of such code appearing on the front or back of the license.

C. Commercial driver's licenses shall be issued with restrictions limiting the driver to the types of vehicles identified as follows:

1. L for no air brake equipped commercial motor vehicles for licenses issued on or after July 1, 2014. An applicant is restricted from operating a commercial motor vehicle with any type of air brake if he does not take or fails the air brake component of the knowledge test or performs the skills test in a vehicle not equipped with air brakes;

2. Z for no full air brake equipped commercial motor vehicles. If an applicant performs the skills test in a vehicle equipped with air over hydraulic brakes, the applicant is restricted from operating a commercial motor vehicle equipped with any braking system operating fully on the air brake principle;

3. E for no manual transmission equipped commercial motor vehicles for commercial driver's licenses issued on or after July 1, 2014;

4. O for no tractor-trailer commercial motor vehicles;

5. M for no class A passenger vehicles;

6. N for no class A and B passenger vehicles;

7. K for vehicles not equipped with air brakes for commercial driver's licenses issued before July 1, 2014. An applicant is restricted from operating a commercial motor vehicle with any type of air brakes if he does not take or fails the air brake component of the knowledge test or performs the skills test in a vehicle not equipped with air brakes;

8. K for intrastate only for commercial driver's licenses issued on or after July 1, 2014;

9. V for medical variance; and

10. At the discretion of the Department, any additional codes for groupings of restrictions with an explanation of such code appearing on the front or back of the license.

D. Commercial learner's permits shall be issued with endorsements authorizing the driver to operate the types of vehicles identified as follows:

1. Type P-Vehicles carrying passengers as provided in § 46.2-341.10;

2. Type N-Vehicles with cargo tanks as provided in § 46.2-341.10; and

3. Type S-School buses carrying 16 or more passengers, including the driver as provided in § 46.2-341.10.

E. Commercial learner's permits shall be issued with restrictions limiting the driver to the types of vehicles identified as follows:

1. P for no passengers in commercial motor vehicles bus;

2. X for no cargo in commercial motor vehicles tank vehicle;

3. L for no air brake equipped commercial motor vehicles for commercial learner's permits issued on or after July 1, 2014. An applicant is restricted from operating a commercial motor vehicle with any type of air brake if he does not take or fails the air brake component of the knowledge test;

4. M for no class A passenger vehicles;

5. N for no class A and B passenger vehicles;

6. K for vehicles not equipped with air brakes for commercial learner's permits issued before July 1, 2014. An applicant is restricted from operating a commercial motor vehicle with any type of air brake if he does not take or fails the air brake component of the knowledge test;

7. K for intrastate only for commercial learner's permits issued on or after July 1, 2014;

8. V for medical variance; and

9. Any additional jurisdictional restrictions that apply to the commercial learner's permit.

F. Persons authorized to drive Class A vehicles are also authorized to drive Classes B and C vehicles, provided such persons possess the requisite endorsements for the type of vehicle driven.

G. Persons authorized to drive Class B vehicles are also authorized to drive Class C vehicles, provided such persons possess the requisite endorsements for the type of vehicle driven.

H. Any licensee who seeks to add a classification or endorsement to his commercial driver's license must submit the application forms, certifications and other updated information required by the Department and shall take and successfully complete the tests required for such classification or endorsement.

I. If any endorsement to a commercial driver's license is canceled by the Department and the licensee does not appear in person at the Department to have such endorsement removed from the license, then the Department may cancel the commercial driver's license of the licensee.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.15:1; 1990, c. 218; 2006, c. 226; 2012, cc. 22, 111; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803; 2015, c. 258.

§ 46.2-341.16:1. Conformance with requirements of U.S.A. Patriot Act of 2001.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, no endorsement authorizing the driver to operate a vehicle transporting hazardous materials shall be issued, renewed, or reissued by the Department unless the endorsement is issued, renewed, or reissued in conformance with the requirements of § 1012 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act of 2001, including all amendments thereto, and the federal regulation promulgated thereunder, for the issuance by the states of licenses to operate motor vehicles transporting hazardous materials, and the Department has received notification from the U.S. Secretary of Transportation or the U.S. Transportation Security Administration, if required by the U.S.A. Patriot Act 2001 (49 U.S.C. § 5103a et seq.) and federal regulations, that the applicant does not pose a security threat warranting denial of such endorsement. Further, the Department shall cancel any existing endorsement authorizing a driver to operate a vehicle transporting hazardous materials if it has received notification that the holder of such endorsement does not meet the standards for security threat assessment established by the U.S. Transportation Security Administration.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-330, a Virginia commercial driver's license with a hazardous materials endorsement shall be issued so that it expires no later than five years from its date of issuance, and it may be issued for a period of less than three years if a shorter period is necessary in order to put the license into a five-year renewal cycle as provided in § 46.2-330.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-332, the Commissioner or his agent may collect an additional nonrefundable fee in conjunction with an application for a hazardous materials endorsement to offset the additional costs of collecting and processing fingerprints and other information required in conjunction with the security threat assessment program established through the U.S. Transportation Security Administration for hazardous materials endorsement applicants, which fee shall include a pass-through of the fees assessed by the Transportation Security Administration or other federal agencies as well as an additional amount, not to exceed $100, to cover additional costs incurred by the Commonwealth in issuing commercial driver's licenses pursuant to the provisions of this section, and there shall be no exemption from such additional fee for any applicant who is an employee of the Commonwealth or any county, city, or town. In addition, any local law-enforcement agency that provided fingerprinting services in conjunction with the security threat assessment program may assess a fee from the applicant in an amount set by local ordinance, not to exceed $25. Such amount shall be collected by the local law-enforcement agency and remitted to the treasurer of the appropriate locality to be used solely for the purpose of defraying the costs of operating the law-enforcement agency and shall not be used to supplant existing local funds for the operation of the law-enforcement agency.

2003, cc. 913, 920; 2004, c. 109.

§ 46.2-341.17. Penalty for violation of this article.

Unless otherwise provided in this article or by the laws of the Commonwealth, any person who violates any provision of this article shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.16.

§ 46.2-341.18. Disqualification for certain offenses.

A. Except as otherwise provided in this section and in § 46.2-341.18:01, the Commissioner shall disqualify for a period of one year any person whose record, as maintained by the Department of Motor Vehicles, shows that he has been convicted of any of the following offenses, if such offense was committed while operating a commercial motor vehicle:

1. A violation of any provision of § 46.2-341.21 or a violation of any federal law or the law of another jurisdiction substantially similar to § 46.2-341.21;

2. A violation of any provision of § 46.2-341.24 or a violation of any federal law or the law of another state substantially similar to § 46.2-341.24;

3. A violation of any provision of § 18.2-51.4 or 18.2-266 or a violation of a local ordinance paralleling or substantially similar to § 18.2-51.4 or 18.2-266, or a violation of any federal, state or local law or ordinance substantially similar to § 18.2-51.4 or 18.2-266;

4. Refusal to submit to a chemical test to determine the alcohol or drug content of the person's blood or breath in accordance with §§ 18.2-268.1 through 18.2-268.12 or this article, or the comparable laws of any other state or jurisdiction;

5. Failure of the driver whose vehicle is involved in an accident to stop and disclose his identity at the scene of the accident; or

6. Commission of any crime punishable as a felony in the commission of which a motor vehicle is used, other than a felony described in § 46.2-341.19.

B. The Commissioner shall disqualify any such person for a period of three years if any offense listed in subsection A was committed while driving a commercial motor vehicle used in the transportation of hazardous materials required to be placarded under federal Hazardous Materials Regulations (49 C.F.R. Part 172, Subpart F).

C. Beginning September 30, 2005, the Commissioner shall disqualify for a period of one year any person whose record, as maintained by the Department, shows that he has been convicted of any of the following offenses committed while operating a noncommercial motor vehicle, provided that the person was, at the time of the offense, the holder of a commercial driver's license, and provided further that the offense was committed on or after September 30, 2005:

1. A violation of any provision of § 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266, or a violation of a local ordinance paralleling or substantially similar to § 18.2-51.4 or 18.2-266, or a violation of any federal, state, or local law or ordinance, or law of any other jurisdiction, substantially similar to § 18.2-51.4 or 18.2-266;

2. Refusal to submit to a chemical test to determine the alcohol or drug content of the person's blood or breath in accordance with §§ 18.2-268.1 through 18.2-268.12, or the comparable laws of any other state or jurisdiction;

3. Failure of the driver whose vehicle is involved in an accident to stop and disclose his identity at the scene of the accident; or

4. Commission of any crime punishable as a felony in the commission of which a motor vehicle is used.

D. The Commissioner shall disqualify for life any person whose record, as maintained by the Department, shows that he has been convicted of two or more violations of any of the offenses listed in subsection A or C, if each offense arose from a separate incident, except that if all of the offenses are for violation of an out-of-service order, the disqualification shall be for five years. If two or more such disqualification offenses arise from the same incident, the disqualification periods imposed pursuant to subsection A, B, or C shall run consecutively and not concurrently.

E. The Commissioner shall disqualify for a period of five years a person who is convicted of voluntary or involuntary manslaughter, where the death occurred as a direct result of the operation of a commercial motor vehicle.

F. The Commissioner shall disqualify for life a person who is convicted of a felony involving an act or practice of severe forms of trafficking in persons as defined in 22 U.S.C. § 7102(11) while driving a commercial motor vehicle, including any local, state, or federal law substantially similar to or fitting the definition of severe forms of trafficking in persons.

G. The Department may issue, if permitted by federal law, regulations establishing guidelines, including conditions, under which a disqualification for life under subsection D may be reduced to a period of not less than 10 years.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.17; 1992, c. 830; 1997, c. 691; 2005, c. 513; 2008, c. 190; 2010, c. 424; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 136.

§ 46.2-341.18:01. Disqualification for violation of out-of-service order; commercial motor vehicle designed to transport 16 or more passengers; commercial motor vehicle used to transport hazardous materials.

The Commissioner shall disqualify, for a period of two years, any person convicted of violating an out-of-service order while operating (i) a commercial motor vehicle designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver, or (ii) notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-341.18, a commercial motor vehicle while used in the transport of hazardous materials required to be placarded under federal Hazardous Materials Regulations (49 C.F.R. Part 172, Subpart F). If the person is convicted of two or more violations of this section, and each offense arose from a separate incident committed within a period of 10 years, the disqualification shall be for five years.

2008, c. 190; 2009, c. 102.

§ 46.2-341.18:1. Disqualification for certain alcohol-related offenses committed in other jurisdictions whose laws provide for disqualification for such offenses without a conviction.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-341.18 that require the Commissioner act to disqualify only on the basis of conviction records for certain offenses committed while operating a commercial motor vehicle, the Commissioner shall also act to disqualify, as provided in § 46.2-341.18, where he has received a record from another jurisdiction indicating that a Virginia licensee has been disqualified in that jurisdiction, solely as a result of his violation in that jurisdiction, of either of the two offenses listed in subdivisions 1 and 2, committed while operating a commercial motor vehicle, even though the disqualification was imposed as the result of an administrative or civil action and there was no court proceeding that could result in a conviction for such offense. The two offenses for which such action shall be taken are:

1. Operation of a commercial motor vehicle with a blood alcohol content of 0.04 percent or more, or

2. Refusal to submit to a chemical test to determine the alcohol or drug content of blood or breath of the operator of a commercial motor vehicle under the implied consent laws of that jurisdiction.

B. The Commissioner shall treat such a record of disqualification as though it were a conviction record from that jurisdiction under a law substantially similar to subsection B of § 46.2-341.24 or § 46.2-341.26:4, respectively, for purposes of implementing the disqualification provisions of § 46.2-341.18. Such treatment as a conviction for purposes of § 46.2-341.18 shall be applicable only if the disqualification action is final and unappealable or has been appealed and the appeal dismissed or the action affirmed and no further appeals are possible under the laws of the jurisdiction wherein the offense was committed, and only if the disqualification period imposed by that jurisdiction is at least as long as the periods set out in § 46.2-341.18 for such an offense. If the Commissioner receives notice from a jurisdiction that a Virginia licensee has been subject to an administrative action or civil judgment resulting from a violation of subdivision A 1 or A 2, committed while operating a commercial motor vehicle, the Commissioner shall treat such notice as a conviction for the purposes of this article.

C. In no case shall the Commissioner act more than once to disqualify a Virginia licensee for any single violation committed in another jurisdiction, even though such violation may be reported by that jurisdiction as both an administrative or civil disqualification action and as a conviction from a court in that jurisdiction. Moreover, the Commissioner shall rescind a disqualification imposed pursuant to this section if the disqualification has been vacated or rescinded by the other jurisdiction as a result of the licensee's acquittal in the court proceedings, or the dismissal of those proceedings, in that jurisdiction.

2002, c. 724; 2005, c. 513.

§ 46.2-341.18:2. Disqualification for use of urine-masking agent or device.

The Commissioner shall disqualify for a period of one year any person who has been convicted of a violation of § 18.2-251.4.

2007, c. 422.

§ 46.2-341.18:3. Cancellation of commercial driver's license endorsement for certain offenders.

The Commissioner shall cancel the Type S school bus endorsement for any person holding a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit who is convicted of an offense for which registration is required in the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1.

Any person holding a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit with a Type P passenger endorsement who is convicted of an offense for which registration is required in the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1 shall surrender such license or permit to the Department, and shall be issued a license or permit that includes a restriction prohibiting the license or permit holder from operating a vehicle to transport children to or from activities sponsored by a school or by a child day care facility licensed, regulated, or approved by the Department of Education.

If the holder of a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit fails to surrender the license or permit as required under this section, the Department shall cancel the license or permit.

2011, c. 477; 2012, c. 153; 2015, c. 258; 2020, cc. 860, 861.

§ 46.2-341.19. Controlled substance felony; disqualification.

A. No person shall use a commercial motor vehicle in the commission of any felony involving manufacturing, distributing, or dispensing a controlled substance or possession with intent to manufacture, distribute, or dispense such controlled substance. No person who holds a commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license shall use a noncommercial motor vehicle in the commission of any felony involving manufacturing, distributing, or dispensing a controlled substance or possession with intent to manufacture, distribute, or dispense such controlled substance. For the purpose of this section, a controlled substance is defined as provided in § 102(6) of the federal Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. § 802(6)) and includes all substances listed on Schedules I through V of 21 C.F.R. Part 1308 as they may be revised from time to time.

B. Violation of this section shall constitute a separate and distinct offense and any person violating this section is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. Punishment for a violation of this section shall be separate and apart from any punishment received from the commission of the primary felony.

C. The Commissioner shall, upon receiving a record of a conviction of a violation of this section, disqualify for life any person who is convicted of such violation.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.18; 2019, c. 750.

§ 46.2-341.20. Disqualification for multiple serious traffic violations.

A. For the purposes of this section, the following offenses, if committed in a commercial motor vehicle, are serious traffic violations:

1. Driving at a speed 15 or more miles per hour in excess of the posted speed limits;

2. Reckless driving;

3. A violation of a state law or local ordinance relating to motor vehicle traffic control arising in connection with a fatal traffic accident;

4. Improper or erratic traffic lane change;

5. Following the vehicle ahead too closely;

6. Driving a commercial motor vehicle without obtaining a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit;

7. Driving a commercial motor vehicle without a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit in the driver's immediate possession;

8. Driving a commercial motor vehicle without the proper class of commercial driver's license and/or endorsements for the specific vehicle group being operated or for the passengers or type of cargo being transported;

9. A violation of a state law, including §§ 46.2-341.20:5 and 46.2-919.1 or a local ordinance relating to motor vehicle traffic control prohibiting texting while driving; and

10. A violation of a state law, including §§ 46.2-341.20:5 and 46.2-919.1, or a local ordinance relating to motor vehicle traffic control restricting or prohibiting the use of a handheld mobile telephone while driving a commercial motor vehicle.

For the purposes of this section, parking, vehicle weight, and vehicle defect violations shall not be considered traffic violations.

B. Beginning September 30, 2005, the following offenses shall be treated as serious traffic violations if committed while operating a noncommercial motor vehicle, but only if (i) the person convicted of the offense was, at the time of the offense, the holder of a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit; (ii) the offense was committed on or after September 30, 2005; and (iii) the conviction, by itself or in conjunction with other convictions that satisfy the requirements of this section, resulted in the revocation, cancellation, or suspension of such person's driver's license or privilege to drive.

1. Driving at a speed 15 or more miles per hour in excess of the posted speed limits;

2. Reckless driving;

3. A violation of a state law or local ordinance relating to motor vehicle traffic control arising in connection with a fatal traffic accident;

4. Improper or erratic traffic lane change; or

5. Following the vehicle ahead too closely.

C. The Department shall disqualify for the following periods of time, any person whose record as maintained by the Department shows that he has committed, within any three-year period, the requisite number of serious traffic violations:

1. A 60-day disqualification period for any person convicted of two serious traffic violations; or

2. A 120-day disqualification period for any person convicted of three serious traffic violations.

D. Any disqualification period imposed pursuant to this section shall run consecutively, and not concurrently, with any other disqualification period imposed hereunder.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.19; 1990, c. 218; 2005, c. 513; 2011, cc. 881, 889; 2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803; 2015, c. 258.

§ 46.2-341.20:1. Disqualification for railroad/highway grade crossing violations.

A. Except as otherwise provided in subsection B, the Commissioner shall disqualify for a period of sixty days any person whose record, as maintained by the Department, shows that he has been convicted of any offense committed while operating a commercial motor vehicle in violation of any law relating to the operation of a motor vehicle at a railroad/highway grade crossing, including but not limited to the provisions of Article 9 (§ 46.2-884 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of this title and the provisions of the Virginia and Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, and any similar law of any other state or any locality.

B. The period of disqualification shall be for 120 days if the conviction was for an offense described in subsection A, committed within three years of a prior such offense, or for one year if for a third or subsequent such offense committed within three years, provided each offense arose from separate incidents.

2002, c. 724.

§ 46.2-341.20:2. Employer penalty; railroad/highway grade crossing violations; out-of-service order violation.

Any employer who knowingly allows, permits, authorizes, or requires an employee to operate a commercial motor vehicle in violation of any law or regulation pertaining to railroad/highway grade crossings, or in violation of an out-of-service order, shall be subject to a civil penalty for each violation pursuant to 49 C.F.R. Part 383, which shall be imposed by the Commissioner upon receipt of notification from federal or state motor carrier officials that an employer may have violated this provision, and upon notice to the employer of the charge and a hearing conducted as provided under the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.), to determine whether such employer has violated this provision. Civil penalties collected under this section shall be deposited into the Transportation Trust Fund established pursuant to § 33.2-1524.

2002, c. 724; 2005, c. 513; 2008, c. 190; 2014, cc. 77, 803.

§ 46.2-341.20:3. Disqualification for determination of imminent hazard.

If the Department receives notification from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration that a driver determined to constitute an imminent hazard has been disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle pursuant to 49 C.F.R. Part 383.52, the Department shall make a notation of such disqualification on the driver record maintained by the Department and any disqualification imposed by the Department on the driver shall run concurrently with the period of disqualification imposed pursuant to 49 CFR 383.52.

2005, c. 513; 2008, c. 190.

§ 46.2-341.20:4. Disqualification of driver convicted of fraud related to the testing and issuance of a commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license.

A person who has been convicted of fraud pursuant to § 46.2-348 related to the issuance of a commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license shall be disqualified for a period of one year. The application of a person so convicted who seeks to renew, transfer, or upgrade the fraudulently obtained commercial driver's license or seeks to renew or upgrade the fraudulently obtained commercial learner's permit must also, at a minimum, be disqualified. Any disqualification must be recorded in the person's driving record. The person may not reapply for a new commercial driver's license for at least one year.

If the Department receives credible information that a commercial learner's permit holder or commercial driver's license holder is suspected, but has not been convicted, of fraud related to the issuance of his commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license, the Department shall require the driver to retake the skills test or knowledge test, or both. Within 30 days of receiving notification from the Department that retesting is necessary, the affected commercial learner's permit holder or commercial driver's license holder must make an appointment or otherwise schedule to take the next available test. If the commercial learner's permit holder or commercial driver's license holder fails to make an appointment within 30 days, the Department shall disqualify his commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license. If the driver fails either the knowledge or skills test or does not take the test, the Department shall disqualify his commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license. Once a commercial learner's permit holder's or commercial driver's license holder's commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license has been disqualified, he must reapply for a commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license under Department procedures applicable to all commercial learner's permit and commercial driver's license applicants.

2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803; 2015, c. 258.

§ 46.2-341.20:5. Prohibition on texting and use of handheld mobile telephone; penalties.

A. No person driving a commercial motor vehicle shall text or use a handheld mobile telephone while driving such vehicle. A driver who violates this section is subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $2,750. Civil penalties collected under this section shall be deposited into the Highway Maintenance and Operating Fund established pursuant to § 33.2-1530. Pursuant to 49 C.F.R. § 386.81, the determination of the actual civil penalties assessed is based on consideration of information available at the time the claim is made concerning the nature and gravity of the violation and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, history of prior offenses, ability to pay, effect on ability to continue to do business, and such other matters as justice and public safety may require.

B. Notwithstanding the definition of commercial motor vehicle in § 46.2-341.4, this section shall apply to any driver who drives a vehicle designed or used to transport between nine and 15 passengers, including the driver, not for direct compensation.

C. The provisions of this section shall not apply to drivers who are texting or using a handheld mobile telephone when necessary to communicate with law-enforcement officials or other emergency services.

D. The following words and phrases when used in this section only shall have the meanings respectively ascribed to them in this section except in those instances where the context clearly indicates a different meaning:

"Driving" means operating a commercial motor vehicle on a highway, including while temporarily stationary because of traffic, a traffic control device, or other momentary delays. Driving does not include operating a commercial motor vehicle when the driver has moved the vehicle to the side of or off a highway and has halted in a location where the vehicle can safely remain stationary.

"Mobile telephone" means a mobile communication device that falls under or uses any commercial mobile radio service, as defined in regulations of the Federal Communications Commission, 47 C.F.R. § 20.3. "Mobile telephone" does not include two-way or citizens band radio services.

"Texting" means manually entering alphanumeric text into, or reading text from, an electronic device. This action includes, but is not limited to, short message service, emailing, instant messaging, a command or request to access a website, pressing more than a single button to initiate or terminate a voice communication using a mobile telephone, or engaging in any other form of electronic text retrieval or entry for present or future communication. "Texting" does not include inputting, selecting, or reading information on a global positioning system or navigation system; pressing a single button to initiate or terminate a voice communication using a telephone; or using a device capable of performing multiple functions (e.g., fleet management systems, dispatching devices, smartphones, citizens band radios, music players, etc.) for a purpose that is not otherwise prohibited in this section.

"Use a handheld mobile telephone" means using at least one hand to hold a mobile telephone to conduct a voice communication; dialing or answering a mobile telephone by pressing more than a single button; or reaching for a mobile telephone in a manner that requires a driver to maneuver so that he is no longer in a seated driving position, restrained by a seat belt that is installed in accordance with 49 C.F.R. § 393.93 and adjusted in accordance with the vehicle manufacturer's instructions.

2013, cc. 165, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803; 2020, cc. 1230, 1275.

§ 46.2-341.20:6. Prohibition on requiring use of handheld mobile telephone or texting; motor carrier penalty.

No motor carrier shall allow or require its drivers to use a handheld mobile telephone or to text while driving a commercial motor vehicle. Motor carriers violating this section are subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $11,000. Civil penalties collected under this section shall be deposited into the Highway Maintenance and Operating Fund established pursuant to § 33.2-1530. Pursuant to 49 C.F.R. § 386.81, the determination of the actual civil penalties assessed is based on consideration of information available at the time the claim is made concerning the nature and gravity of the violation and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, history of prior offenses, ability to pay, effect on ability to continue to do business, and such other matters as justice and public safety may require. "Driving," "mobile telephone," "texting," and "use a handheld mobile telephone" have the same meanings as assigned to them in § 46.2-341.20:5.

2014, cc. 77, 803; 2020, cc. 1230, 1275.

§ 46.2-341.20:7. Possession of marijuana in commercial motor vehicle unlawful; civil penalty.

A. It is unlawful for any person to knowingly or intentionally possess marijuana in a commercial motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-341.4. The attorney for the Commonwealth or the county, city, or town attorney may prosecute such a case.

Upon the prosecution of a person for a violation of this section, ownership or occupancy of the vehicle in which marijuana was found shall not create a presumption that such person either knowingly or intentionally possessed such marijuana.

Any person who violates this section is subject to a civil penalty of no more than $25. A violation of this section is a civil offence. Any civil penalties collected pursuant to this section shall be deposited into the Drug Offender Assessment and Treatment Fund established pursuant to § 18.2-251.02. Violations of this section by an adult shall be prepayable according to the procedures in § 16.1-69.40:2.

B. Any violation of this section shall be charged by summons. A summons for a violation of this section may be executed by a law-enforcement officer when such violation is observed by such officer. The summons used by a law-enforcement officer pursuant to this section shall be in form the same as the uniform summons for motor vehicle law violations as prescribed pursuant to § 46.2-388. No court costs shall be assessed for violations of this section. A person's criminal history record information as defined in § 9.1-101 shall not include records of any charges or judgments for a violation of this section, and records of such charges or judgments shall not be reported to the Central Criminal Records Exchange; however, such violation shall be reported to the Department of Motor Vehicles and shall be included on such individual's driving record.

C. The procedure for appeal and trial of any violation of this section shall be the same as provided by law for misdemeanors; if requested by either party on appeal to the circuit court, trial by jury shall be as provided in Article 4 (§ 19.2-260 et seq.) of Chapter 15 of Title 19.2, and the Commonwealth shall be required to prove its case beyond a reasonable doubt.

D. The provisions of this section shall not apply to members of state, federal, county, city, or town law-enforcement agencies, jail officers, or correctional officers, as defined in § 53.1-1, certified as handlers of dogs trained in the detection of controlled substances when possession of marijuana is necessary for the performance of their duties.

E. The provisions of this section involving marijuana in the form of cannabis products as that term is defined in § 54.1-3408.3 shall not apply to any person who possesses such cannabis product pursuant to a valid written certification issued by a practitioner in the course of his professional practice pursuant to § 54.1-3408.3 for treatment or to alleviate the symptoms of (i) the person's diagnosed condition or disease, (ii) if such person is the parent or guardian of a minor or of an incapacitated adult as defined in § 18.2-369, such minor's or incapacitated adult's diagnosed condition or disease, or (iii) if such person has been designated as a registered agent pursuant to § 54.1-3408.3, the diagnosed condition or disease of his principal or, if the principal is the parent or legal guardian of a minor or of an incapacitated adult as defined in § 18.2-369, such minor's or incapacitated adult's diagnosed condition or disease.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 227, 228, 550, 551.

§ 46.2-341.21. Driving while disqualified; penalties.

No person whose privilege to drive a commercial motor vehicle has been suspended or revoked or who has been disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle or who has been ordered out of service, and who has been given notice of, or reasonably should know of the suspension, revocation, disqualification, or out-of-service order shall operate a commercial motor vehicle anywhere in the Commonwealth until the period of such suspension, revocation, disqualification, or out-of-service order has terminated, nor shall any person operate on any highway any vehicle that has been declared out of service until such time as the out-of-service declaration has been lifted.

Any person who violates this section shall, for the first offense, be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor, and for the second or any subsequent offense, be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor; however, if the offense is the violation of an out-of-service order, the minimum mandatory fine shall be $2,500 for any person so convicted of a first offense and $5,000 for a person convicted of a second or subsequent offense. Upon receipt of a record of a violation of this section, the Commissioner shall impose an additional disqualification in accordance with the provisions of §§ 46.2-341.18 and 46.2-341.18:01.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.20; 1990, c. 218; 1995, cc. 145, 151; 2005, c. 513; 2008, c. 190.

§ 46.2-341.22. Requirements upon disqualification.

Any person who has been disqualified pursuant to any provision of this article shall be subject to the provisions of §§ 46.2-370 and 46.2-414, and shall be required to comply with the provisions of §§ 46.2-370 and 46.2-411 as conditions to the reinstatement of his privilege to drive a commercial motor vehicle.

Any person who has been disqualified pursuant to the provisions of § 46.2-341.18 shall be required as further conditions to reinstatement of his privilege to operate a commercial motor vehicle, to (i) apply for such license; (ii) pass the knowledge and skills tests required for the class and type of commercial motor vehicle for which he seeks to be licensed; and (iii) satisfy all other applicable licensing requirements, including the payment of licensing fees, imposed by the laws of the Commonwealth.

The provisions of this section shall not apply to out-of-service orders issued pursuant to §§ 46.2-341.26:2 and 46.2-341.26:3.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.21; 1992, c. 830; 2019, c. 750.

§ 46.2-341.23. Offenses under substantially similar laws.

Except as otherwise provided, whenever in this Act reference is made to an offense which is a violation of a provision of this Code, such reference shall be deemed to include offenses under any local ordinance, any federal law, any law of another state or any local ordinance of another state, substantially similar to such provision of this Code.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.22.

§ 46.2-341.24. Driving a commercial motor vehicle while intoxicated, etc.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to drive or operate any commercial motor vehicle (i) while such person has a blood alcohol concentration of 0.08 percent or more by weight by volume or 0.08 grams per 210 liters of breath as indicated by a chemical test administered as provided in this article; (ii) while such person is under the influence of alcohol; (iii) while such person is under the influence of any narcotic drug or any other self-administered intoxicant or drug of whatsoever nature, or any combination of such drugs, to a degree which impairs his ability to drive or operate any commercial motor vehicle safely; (iv) while such person is under the combined influence of alcohol and any drug or drugs to a degree which impairs his ability to drive or operate any commercial motor vehicle safely; or (v) while such person has a blood concentration of any of the following substances at a level that is equal to or greater than: (a) 0.02 milligrams of cocaine per liter of blood, (b) 0.1 milligrams of methamphetamine per liter of blood, (c) 0.01 milligrams of phencyclidine per liter of blood, or (d) 0.1 milligrams of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine per liter of blood.

B. It shall be unlawful and a lesser included offense of an offense under provision (i), (ii), or (iv) of subsection A of this section for a person to drive or operate a commercial motor vehicle while such person has a blood alcohol concentration of 0.04 percent or more by weight by volume or 0.04 grams or more per 210 liters of breath as indicated by a chemical test administered in accordance with the provisions of this article.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.23; 1992, c. 830; 1994, cc. 359, 363; 2005, c. 616.

§ 46.2-341.25. Preliminary analysis of breath of commercial drivers to determine alcohol content of blood.

A. Any person who is reasonably suspected of a violation of § 46.2-341.24 or of having any alcohol in his blood while driving or operating a commercial motor vehicle may be required by any law-enforcement officer to provide a sample of such person's breath for a preliminary screening to determine the probable alcohol content of his blood. Such person shall be entitled, upon request, to observe the process of analysis and to see the blood-alcohol reading on the equipment used to perform the breath test. Such breath may be analyzed by any police officer of the Commonwealth, or of any county, city, or town, or by any member of a sheriff's department in the normal discharge of his duties.

B. The Department of Forensic Science shall determine the proper method and equipment to be used in analyzing breath samples taken pursuant to this section and shall advise the respective police and sheriff's departments of the same.

C. If the breath sample analysis indicates that there is alcohol present in the person's blood, or if the person refuses to provide a sample of his breath for a preliminary screening, such person shall then be subject to the provisions of §§ 46.2-341.26:1 through 46.2-341.26:11.

D. The results of a breath analysis conducted pursuant to this section shall not be admitted into evidence in any prosecution under § 46.2-341.24 or 46.2-341.31, but may be used as a basis for charging a person for a violation of the provisions of § 46.2-341.24 or 46.2-341.31.

E. The law-enforcement officer requiring the preliminary screening test shall advise the person of his obligations under this section and of the provisions of subsection C of this section.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.24; 1990, cc. 218, 825; 1992, c. 830; 1996, cc. 154, 952; 2005, cc. 868, 881.

§ 46.2-341.26. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1992, c. 830.

§ 46.2-341.26:1. Use of chemical tests to determine alcohol or drug content of blood of commercial driver; definitions.

As used in §§ 46.2-341.26:2 through 46.2-341.26:11, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

The phrase "alcohol or drug" means alcohol, drug or drugs, or any combination of alcohol and a drug or drugs.

The phrase "blood or breath" means either or both.

"Chief police officer" means the sheriff in any county not having a chief of police, the chief of police of any county having a chief of police, the chief of police of the city, or the sergeant or chief of police of the town in which the charge will be heard, or their authorized representatives.

"Department" means the Department of Forensic Science.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Forensic Science.

1992, c. 830; 2005, cc. 868, 881.

§ 46.2-341.26:2. Implied consent to post-arrest chemical test to determine alcohol or drug content of blood of commercial driver.

A. Any person, whether licensed by Virginia or not, who operates a commercial motor vehicle upon a highway as defined in § 46.2-100 in the Commonwealth shall be deemed thereby, as a condition of such operation, to have consented to have samples of his blood, breath, or both blood and breath taken for a chemical test to determine the alcohol, drug or both alcohol and drug content of his blood, if he is arrested for violation of § 46.2-341.24 or 46.2-341.31 within three hours of the alleged offense.

B. Such person shall be required to have a breath sample taken and shall be entitled, upon request, to observe the process of analysis and to see the blood-alcohol reading on the equipment used to perform the breath test. If the equipment automatically produces a written printout of the breath test result, the printout or a copy shall be given to the suspect. If a breath test is not available, then a blood test shall be required.

C. The person may be required to submit to blood tests to determine the drug content of his blood if he has been arrested pursuant to provision (iii), (iv), or (v) of subsection A of § 46.2-341.24, or if he has taken the breath test required pursuant to subsection B and the law-enforcement officer has reasonable cause to believe the person was driving under the influence of any drug or combination of drugs, or the combined influence of alcohol and drugs.

D. If the certificate of analysis referred to in § 46.2-341.26:9 indicates the presence of alcohol in the suspect's blood, the suspect shall be taken before a magistrate to determine whether the magistrate should issue an out-of-service order prohibiting the suspect from driving any commercial motor vehicle for a 24-hour period. If the magistrate finds that there is probable cause to believe that the suspect was driving a commercial motor vehicle with any measurable amount of alcohol in his blood, the magistrate shall issue an out-of-service order prohibiting the suspect from driving any commercial motor vehicle for a period of 24 hours. The magistrate shall forward a copy of the out-of-service order to the Department within seven days after issuing the order. The order shall be in addition to any other action or sanction permitted or required by law to be taken against or imposed upon the suspect.

1992, c. 830; 1993, c. 673; 2005, c. 616; 2017, c. 623.

§ 46.2-341.26:3. Refusal of tests; issuance of out-of-service orders; disqualification.

A. It is unlawful for a person who is arrested for a violation of § 46.2-341.24 or 46.2-341.31 to unreasonably refuse to have samples of his breath taken for chemical tests to determine the alcohol content of his blood as required by § 46.2-341.26:2, and any person who so unreasonably refuses is guilty of a violation of this subsection, which is punishable as follows:

1. A first violation is a civil offense. For a first offense, the court shall suspend the defendant's privilege to drive for a period of one year. This suspension period is in addition to the suspension period provided under § 46.2-391.2.

2. If a person is found to have violated this subsection and within 10 years prior to the date of the refusal he was found guilty of any of the following: a violation of this section, a violation of any offense listed in subsection E of § 18.2-270, or a violation of § 46.2-341.24 or 46.2-341.31 arising out of separate occurrences or incidents, he is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. A conviction under this subdivision shall of itself operate to deprive the person of the privilege to drive for a period of three years from the date of the judgment of conviction. This revocation period is in addition to the suspension period provided under § 46.2-391.2.

B. It is unlawful for a person who is arrested for a violation of § 46.2-341.24 or 46.2-341.31 to unreasonably refuse to have samples of his blood taken for chemical tests to determine the alcohol or drug content of his blood as required by § 46.2-341.26:2, and any person who so unreasonably refuses is guilty of a violation of this subsection, which is a civil offense and is punishable as follows:

1. For a first offense, the court shall suspend the defendant's privilege to drive for a period of one year. This suspension period is in addition to the suspension period provided under § 46.2-391.2.

2. If a person is found to have violated this subsection and within 10 years prior to the date of the refusal he was found guilty of any of the following: a violation of this section, a violation of any offense listed in subsection E of § 18.2-270, or a violation of § 46.2-341.24 or 46.2-341.31 arising out of separate occurrences or incidents, such violation shall of itself operate to deprive the person of the privilege to drive for a period of three years from the date of the judgment. This revocation period is in addition to the suspension period provided under § 46.2-391.2.

C. When a person is arrested for a violation of § 46.2-341.24 or 46.2-341.31 and such person refuses to permit blood or breath or both blood and breath samples to be taken for testing as required by § 46.2-341.26:2, the arresting law-enforcement officer shall advise the person, from a form provided by the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court, (i) that a person who operates a commercial motor vehicle on a public highway in the Commonwealth is deemed thereby, as a condition of such operation, to have consented to have samples of his blood or breath taken for chemical tests to determine the alcohol or drug content of his blood, (ii) that a finding of unreasonable refusal to consent may be admitted as evidence at a criminal trial, (iii) that the unreasonable refusal to do so constitutes grounds for the immediate issuance of an out-of-service order prohibiting him from driving a commercial vehicle for a period of 24 hours and for the disqualification of such person from operating a commercial motor vehicle, (iv) of the civil penalties for unreasonable refusal to have blood or breath or both blood and breath samples taken, and (v) of the criminal penalty for unreasonable refusal to have breath samples taken within 10 years of a prior conviction for driving while intoxicated or unreasonable refusal, which is a Class 1 misdemeanor. The form from which the law-enforcement officer shall advise the person arrested shall contain a brief statement of the law requiring the taking of blood or breath samples, that a finding of unreasonable refusal to consent to testing may be admitted as evidence at a criminal trial, and the penalties for refusal. The Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court shall make the form available on the Internet, and the form shall be considered an official publication of the Commonwealth for the purposes of § 8.01-388.

D. The law-enforcement officer shall, under oath before the magistrate, execute the form and certify (i) that the defendant has refused to permit blood or breath or both blood and breath samples to be taken for testing; (ii) that the officer has read the portion of the form described in subsection C to the arrested person; (iii) that the arrested person, after having had the portion of the form described in subsection C read to him, had refused to permit such sample or samples to be taken; and (iv) how many, if any, violations of this section, any offense listed in subsection E of § 18.2-270, or § 46.2-341.24 or 46.2-341.31 the arrested person has been convicted of within the last 10 years. Such sworn certification shall constitute probable cause for the magistrate to issue a warrant or summons charging the person with unreasonable refusal. The magistrate shall attach the executed and sworn advisement form to the warrant or summons. The warrant or summons for a first offense under subsection A or any offense under subsection B shall be executed in the same manner as a criminal warrant or summons. If the person arrested has been taken to a medical facility for treatment or evaluation of his medical condition, the law-enforcement officer may read the advisement form to the person at the medical facility and issue, on the premises of the medical facility, a summons for a violation of this section in lieu of securing a warrant or summons from the magistrate. The magistrate or law-enforcement officer, as the case may be, shall forward the executed advisement form and warrant or summons to the appropriate court.

E. If the magistrate finds that there was probable cause to believe the refusal was unreasonable, he shall immediately issue an out-of-service order prohibiting the person from operating a commercial motor vehicle for a period of 24 hours.

1992, c. 830; 2001, c. 654; 2017, c. 623.

§ 46.2-341.26:4. Appeal and trial; sanctions for refusal; procedures.

A. Venue for the trial of the warrant or summons shall lie in the court of the county or city in which the offense of driving under the influence of intoxicants or other offense listed in subsection A or B of § 46.2-341.26:3 is to be tried.

B. The procedure for appeal and trial of any civil offense of § 46.2-341.26:3 shall be the same as provided by law for misdemeanors. If requested by either party on appeal to the circuit court, trial by jury shall be as provided in Article 4 (§ 19.2-260 et seq.) of Chapter 15 of Title 19.2, and the Commonwealth shall be required to prove its case beyond a reasonable doubt.

C. If the defendant pleads guilty to a violation of § 46.2-341.24, the court may dismiss the warrant or summons.

The court shall dispose of the defendant's license in accordance with the provisions of § 46.2-398; however, the defendant's license shall not be returned during any period of suspension imposed under § 46.2-391.2.

1992, c. 830; 2017, c. 623.

§ 46.2-341.26:5. Qualifications and liability of persons authorized to take blood samples; procedure for taking samples.

For purposes of this article, only a physician, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, phlebotomist, graduate laboratory technician or a technician or nurse designated by order of a circuit court acting on the recommendation of a licensed physician, using soap and water, polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine, pvp iodine, povidone iodine or benzalkonium chloride to cleanse the part of the body from which the blood is taken and using instruments sterilized by the accepted steam sterilizer or some other sterilizer which will not affect the accuracy of the test, or using chemically clean sterile disposable syringes, shall withdraw blood for the purpose of determining its alcohol or drug content. It is a Class 3 misdemeanor to reuse single-use-only needles or syringes. No civil liability shall attach to any person authorized by this section to withdraw blood as a result of the act of withdrawing blood from any person submitting thereto, provided the blood was withdrawn according to recognized medical procedures. However, the person shall not be relieved from liability for negligence in the withdrawing of any blood sample.

No person arrested for a violation of § 46.2-341.24 or § 46.2-341.31 shall be required to execute in favor of any person or corporation a waiver or release of liability in connection with the withdrawal of blood or as a condition precedent to the withdrawal of blood as provided for in this section.

1992, c. 830; 2004, cc. 150, 440.

§ 46.2-341.26:6. Transmission of blood samples.

The blood sample withdrawn pursuant to § 46.2-341.26:5 shall be placed in vials provided or approved by the Department of Forensic Science. The vials shall be sealed by the person taking the sample or at his direction. The person who seals the vials shall complete the prenumbered certificate of blood withdrawal forms and attach one form to each vial. The completed withdrawal certificate for each vial shall show the name of the suspect, the name of the person taking the blood sample, the date and time the blood sample was taken and information identifying the arresting or accompanying officer. The vials shall be placed in a container provided by the Department, and the container shall be sealed to prevent tampering with the vials. A law-enforcement officer shall take possession of the container as soon as the vials are placed in such container and sealed, and shall promptly transport or mail the container to the Department.

1992, c. 830; 2003, cc. 933, 936; 2005, cc. 868, 881.

§ 46.2-341.26:7. Transmission of samples.

A. Upon receipt of a blood sample forwarded to the Department for analysis pursuant to § 46.2-341.26:6, the Department shall have it examined for its alcohol or drug content, and the Director shall execute a certificate of analysis indicating the name of the suspect; the date, time, and by whom the blood sample was received and examined; a statement that the seal on the vial had not been broken or otherwise tampered with; a statement that the container and vial were provided or approved by the Department and that the vial was one to which the completed withdrawal certificate was attached; and a statement of the sample's alcohol or drug content. The Director or his representative shall remove the withdrawal certificate from the vial and either (i) attach it to the certificate of analysis and state in the certificate of analysis that it was so removed and attached or (ii) electronically scan it into the Department's Laboratory Information Management System and place the original withdrawal certificate in its case-specific file. The certificate of analysis and the withdrawal certificate shall be returned or electronically transmitted to the clerk of the court in which the charge will be heard.

B. After completion of the analysis, the Department shall preserve the remainder of the blood until at least 90 days have lapsed. The accused may, at any time prior to the expiration of such 90-day period, by motion filed before the court in which the charge will be heard, with notice to the Department, request an order directing the Department to transmit the remainder of the blood sample to an independent laboratory retained by the accused for analysis. On motion of the accused, the report of analysis prepared for the remaining blood sample shall be admissible in evidence, provided that the report is duly attested by a person performing such analysis and the independent laboratory that performed the analysis is accredited or certified to conduct forensic blood alcohol/drug testing by one or more of the following: College of American Pathologists (CAP); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA); American Board of Forensic Toxicology (ABFT); or an accrediting body that requires conformance to forensic-specific requirements and that is a signatory to the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) Mutual Recognition Arrangement with a scope of accreditation that covers the testing being performed. If no notice of a motion to transmit the remainder of the blood sample is received prior to the expiration of the 90-day period, the Department shall destroy the remainder of the blood sample unless the Commonwealth has filed a written request with the Department to return the remainder of the blood sample to the investigating law-enforcement agency. In such case, the Department shall return the remainder of the blood sample, if not sent to an independent laboratory, to the investigating law-enforcement agency.

C. When a blood sample taken in accordance with the provisions of §§ 46.2-341.26:2 through 46.2-341.26:6 is forwarded for analysis to the Department, a report of the test results shall be filed in that office. Upon proper identification of the certificate of withdrawal, the certificate of analysis, with the withdrawal certificate attached, shall, when attested by the Director, be admissible in any court as evidence of the facts therein stated and of the results of such analysis (i) in any criminal proceeding, provided that the requirements of subsection A of § 19.2-187.1 have been satisfied and the accused has not objected to the admission of the certificate pursuant to subsection B of § 19.2-187.1, or (ii) in any civil proceeding.

Upon request of the person whose blood or breath was analyzed, the test results shall be made available to him.

The Director may delegate or assign these duties to an employee of the Department.

1992, c. 830; 2003, cc. 933, 936; 2005, cc. 868, 881; 2009, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 1, 4; 2014, c. 328; 2017, c. 623; 2019, c. 474.

§ 46.2-341.26:8. Fees.

Payment for withdrawing blood shall not exceed $25, which shall be paid out of the appropriation for criminal charges.

If the person whose blood sample was withdrawn is subsequently convicted for violation of § 46.2-341.24 or § 46.2-341.31, any fees paid by the Commonwealth to the person withdrawing the sample shall be taxed as part of the costs of the criminal case and shall be paid into the general fund of the state treasury.

1992, c. 830; 2003, cc. 933, 936.

§ 46.2-341.26:9. Assurance of breath test validity; use of breath tests as evidence.

To be capable of being considered valid in a prosecution under § 46.2-341.24 or 46.2-341.31, chemical analysis of a person's breath shall be performed by an individual possessing a valid license to conduct such tests, with the type of equipment and in accordance with methods approved by the Department.

Any individual conducting a breath test under the provisions of § 46.2-341.26:2 shall issue a certificate which includes the name of the suspect, the date and time the sample was taken from the suspect, the alcohol content of the sample, and the identity of the person who examined the sample. The certificate will also indicate that the test was conducted in accordance with the Department's specifications.

The certificate of analysis, when attested by the authorized individual conducting the breath test on equipment maintained by the Department, shall be admissible in any court as evidence of the facts therein stated and of the results of such analysis (i) in any criminal proceeding, provided that the requirements of subsection A of § 19.2-187.1 have been satisfied and the accused has not objected to the admission of the certificate pursuant to subsection B of § 19.2-187.1, or (ii) in any civil proceeding. Any such certificate of analysis purporting to be signed by a person authorized by the Department shall be admissible in evidence without proof of seal or signature of the person whose name is signed to it.

A copy of such certificate shall be promptly delivered to the suspect. Any person qualified to conduct a breath test as provided by this section may administer the breath test or analyze the results thereof.

1992, c. 830; 2005, cc. 868, 881; 2009, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 1, 4; 2017, c. 623.

§ 46.2-341.26:10. Evidence.

A. In any trial for a violation of § 46.2-341.24, admission of the blood or breath test results shall not limit the introduction of any other relevant evidence bearing upon any question at issue before the court, and the court shall, regardless of the results of the blood or breath tests, consider other relevant admissible evidence of the condition of the accused. If the test results indicate the presence of any drugs other than alcohol, the test results shall be admissible except in a prosecution under clause (v) of subsection A of § 46.2-341.24, only if other competent evidence has been presented to relate the presence of the drug or drugs to the impairment of the accused's ability to drive or operate any commercial motor vehicle safely.

B. The failure of an accused to permit a blood or breath sample to be taken to determine the alcohol or drug content of his blood is not evidence and shall not be subject to any comment by the Commonwealth at the trial of the case, except in rebuttal or pursuant to subsection C; nor shall the fact that a blood or breath test had been offered the accused be evidence or the subject of comment by the Commonwealth, except in rebuttal or pursuant to subsection C.

C. Evidence of a finding against the defendant under § 18.2-268.3 for his unreasonable refusal to permit a blood or breath sample to be taken to determine the alcohol or drug content of his blood shall be admissible into evidence, upon the motion of the Commonwealth or the defendant, for the sole purpose of explaining the absence at trial of a chemical test of such sample. When admitted pursuant to this subsection such evidence shall not be considered evidence of the accused's guilt.

D. The court or jury trying the case involving a violation of clause (ii), (iii) or (iv) of subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 shall determine the innocence or guilt of the defendant from all the evidence concerning his condition at the time of the alleged offense.

1992, c. 830; 2001, c. 654; 2005, c. 616.

§ 46.2-341.26:11. Substantial compliance.

The steps set forth in §§ 46.2-341.26:2 through 46.2-341.26:9 relating to taking, handling, identifying, and disposing of blood or breath samples are procedural and not substantive. Substantial compliance shall be sufficient. Failure to comply with any steps or portions thereof shall not of itself be grounds for finding the defendant not guilty, but shall go to the weight of the evidence and shall be considered with all the evidence in the case; however, the defendant shall have the right to introduce evidence on his own behalf to show noncompliance with the aforesaid procedures or any part thereof, and that as a result his rights were prejudiced.

1992, c. 830; 2003, cc. 933, 936.

§ 46.2-341.27. Presumptions from alcohol and drug content of blood.

In any prosecution for a violation of clause (ii), (iii), or (iv) of subsection A of § 46.2-341.24, the amount of alcohol or drugs in the blood of the accused at the time of the alleged offense as indicated by a chemical analysis of a sample of the suspect's blood or breath to determine the alcohol or drug content of his blood (i) in accordance with the provisions of §§ 46.2-341.26:1 through 46.2-341.26:11 or (ii) performed by the Department of Forensic Science in accordance with the provisions of §§ 46.2-341.26:5, 46.2-341.26:6, and 46.2-341.26:7 on the suspect's whole blood drawn pursuant to a search warrant shall give rise to the following rebuttable presumptions:

A. If there was at that time 0.08 percent or more by weight by volume of alcohol in the accused's blood or 0.08 grams or more per 210 liters of the accused's breath, it shall be presumed that the accused was under the influence of alcoholic intoxicants.

B. If there was at that time less than 0.08 percent by weight by volume of alcohol in the accused's blood or 0.08 grams or more per 210 liters of the accused's breath, such fact shall not give rise to any presumption that the accused was or was not under the influence of alcoholic intoxicants, but such fact may be considered with other competent evidence in determining the guilt or innocence of the accused.

C. If there was at that time an amount of the following substances at a level that is equal to or greater than: (a) 0.02 milligrams of cocaine per liter of blood, (b) 0.1 milligrams of methamphetamine per liter of blood, (c) 0.01 milligrams of phencyclidine per liter of blood, or (d) 0.1 milligrams of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine per liter of blood, it shall be presumed that the accused was under the influence of drugs to a degree which impairs his ability to drive or operate any commercial motor vehicle safely.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.26; 1992, c. 830; 1994, cc. 359, 363; 2005, c. 616; 2017, c. 623.

§ 46.2-341.28. Penalty for driving commercial motor vehicle while intoxicated; subsequent offense; prior conviction.

A. Except as otherwise provided herein, any person violating any provision of subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor with a mandatory minimum fine of $250. If the person's blood alcohol level as indicated by the chemical test as provided in this article or by any other scientifically reliable chemical test performed on whole blood under circumstances reliably establishing the identity of the person who is the source of the blood and accuracy of the results (i) was at least 0.15, but not more than 0.20, he shall be confined in jail for an additional mandatory minimum period of five days or (ii) was more than 0.20, he shall be confined in jail for an additional mandatory minimum period of 10 days.

B. 1. Any person convicted of a second offense committed within less than five years after a prior offense under subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 shall upon conviction of the second offense be punished by a mandatory minimum fine of $500 and by confinement in jail for not less than one month nor more than one year. Twenty days of such confinement shall be a mandatory minimum sentence.

2. Any person convicted of a second offense committed within a period of five to 10 years of a prior offense under subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 shall upon conviction of the second offense be punished by a mandatory minimum fine of $500 and by confinement in jail for not less than one month. Ten days of such confinement shall be a mandatory minimum sentence.

3. Upon conviction of a second offense within 10 years of a prior offense, if the person's blood alcohol level as indicated by the chemical test administered as provided in this article or by any other scientifically reliable chemical test performed on whole blood under circumstances reliably establishing the identity of the person who is the source of the blood and the accuracy of the results (i) was at least 0.15, but not more than 0.20, he shall be confined in jail for an additional mandatory minimum period of 10 days or (ii) was more than 0.20, he shall be confined for an additional mandatory minimum period of 20 days. In addition, such person shall be fined a mandatory minimum fine of $500.

C. 1. Any person convicted of three offenses under subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 within a 10-year period is upon conviction of the third offense guilty of a Class 6 felony. The sentence of any person convicted of three offenses under subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 shall include a mandatory minimum sentence of 90 days, unless the three offenses were committed within a five-year period, in which case the sentence shall include a mandatory minimum sentence of confinement for six months. In addition, such person shall be fined a mandatory minimum fine of $1,000.

2. Any person who has been convicted of a violation of § 18.2-36.1, 18.2-36.2, 18.2-51.4, or 18.2-51.5 or a felony violation under subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 is upon conviction of a subsequent violation under subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 guilty of a Class 6 felony. The punishment of any person convicted of such a subsequent violation under subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 shall include a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of one year and a mandatory minimum fine of $1,000.

3. The punishment of any person convicted of a fourth or subsequent offense under subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 committed within a 10-year period shall, upon conviction, include a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of one year. In addition, such person shall be fined a mandatory minimum fine of $1,000.

D. In addition to the penalty otherwise authorized by this section, any person convicted of a violation of subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 committed while transporting a person 17 years of age or younger shall be (i) fined an additional minimum of $500 and not more than $1,000 and (ii) sentenced to a mandatory minimum period of confinement of five days.

E. For the purpose of determining the number of offenses committed by, and the punishment appropriate for, a person under this section, a conviction of any person or finding of not innocent in the case of a juvenile under the following shall be considered a conviction under subsection A of § 46.2-341.24: (i) § 18.2-36.1, 18.2-51.4, or 18.2-266, former § 18.1-54 (formerly § 18-75), or subsection A of § 46.2-341.24; (ii) the ordinance of any county, city, or town in the Commonwealth substantially similar to the provisions of any offense listed in clause (i); or (iii) the laws of any other state or of the United States substantially similar to the provisions of any offense listed in clause (i).

F. Mandatory minimum punishments imposed pursuant to this section shall be cumulative, and mandatory minimum terms of confinement shall be served consecutively. However, in no case shall punishment imposed hereunder exceed the applicable statutory maximum Class 1 misdemeanor term of confinement or fine upon conviction of a first or second offense, or Class 6 felony term of confinement or fine upon conviction of a third or subsequent offense.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.27; 1993, c. 673; 1997, c. 691; 2000, cc. 958, 980; 2004, c. 461; 2017, c. 286.

§ 46.2-341.29. Penalty for driving commercial motor vehicle with blood alcohol content equal to or greater than 0.04.

Any person violating the provisions of subsection B of § 46.2-341.24 shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.28.

§ 46.2-341.30. Disqualification for driving commercial motor vehicle while intoxicated, etc.

A. The judgment of conviction under any provision of § 46.2-341.24 shall of itself operate to disqualify the person so convicted from the privilege to drive or operate any commercial motor vehicle as provided in § 46.2-341.18. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, such disqualification shall not be subject to any suspension, reduction, limitation or other modification by the court or the Commissioner.

B. A judgment of conviction under any provision of subsection A of § 46.2-341.24, in addition to causing the disqualification under subsection A of this section, shall also operate to deprive the person so convicted of his privilege to drive or operate any motor vehicle as provided in § 18.2-271.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.29.

§ 46.2-341.31. Driving commercial motor vehicle with any alcohol in blood.

No person shall drive a commercial motor vehicle while having any amount of alcohol in his blood, as measured by a test administered pursuant to the provisions of §§ 46.2-341.26:1 through 46.2-341.26:11. Any person found to have so driven a commercial motor vehicle shall be guilty of a traffic infraction.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.29:1; 1990, c. 218; 1992, c. 830.

§ 46.2-341.32. Authority to enter into agreements.

The Department may procure and enter into agreements or arrangements for the purpose of participating in the Commercial Driver License System or any other similar information system established to implement the requirements of the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act, and may procure and enter into other agreements or arrangements to carry out the provisions of this article.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.30.

§ 46.2-341.33. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2015, c. 709, cl. 2.

§ 46.2-341.34. Appeals.

Any person denied a commercial driver's license or who has been disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle under the provisions of this article is entitled to judicial review in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). No appeal shall lie in any case in which such denial or disqualification was mandatory except to determine the identity of the person concerned when the question of identity is in dispute.

From the final decision of the circuit court, either party shall have an appeal as of right to the Court of Appeals.

While an appeal is pending from the action of the Department disqualifying the person or denying him a license, or from the court affirming the action of the Department, the person aggrieved shall not drive a commercial motor vehicle.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-372.32.

Article 7. Form of Licenses; Identity Documents Issued By Department

§ 46.2-342. What license to contain; organ donor information; Uniform Donor Document.

A. Every license issued under this chapter shall bear:

1. For licenses issued or renewed on or after July 1, 2003, a license number which shall be assigned by the Department to the licensee and shall not be the same as the licensee's social security number;

2. A photograph of the licensee;

3. The licensee's full name, year, month, and date of birth;

4. The licensee's address, subject to the provisions of subsection B;

5. A brief description of the licensee for the purpose of identification;

6. A space for the signature of the licensee; and

7. Any other information deemed necessary by the Commissioner for the administration of this title.

No abbreviated names or nicknames shall be shown on any license.

B. At the option of the licensee, the address shown on the license may be either the post office box, business, or residence address of the licensee, provided such address is located in Virginia. However, regardless of which address is shown on the license, the licensee shall supply the Department with his residence address, which shall be an address in Virginia. This residence address shall be maintained in the Department's records. Whenever the licensee's address shown either on his license or in the Department's records changes, he shall notify the Department of such change as required by § 46.2-324.

C. The Department may contract with the United States Postal Service or an authorized agent to use the National Change of Address System for the purpose of obtaining current address information for a person whose name appears in customer records maintained by the Department. If the Department receives information from the National Change of Address System indicating that a person whose name appears in a Department record has submitted a permanent change of address to the Postal Service, the Department may then update its records with the mailing address obtained from the National Change of Address System.

D. The license shall be made of a material and in a form to be determined by the Commissioner.

E. Licenses issued to persons less than 21 years old shall be immediately and readily distinguishable from those issued to persons 21 years old or older. Distinguishing characteristics shall include unique design elements of the document and descriptors within the photograph area to identify persons who are at least 15 years old but less than 21 years old. These descriptors shall include the month, day, and year when the person will become 21 years old.

F. The Department shall establish a method by which an applicant for a driver's license or an identification card may indicate his consent to make an anatomical gift for transplantation, therapy, research, and education pursuant to § 32.1-291.5, and shall cooperate with the Virginia Transplant Council to ensure that such method is designed to encourage organ, tissue, and eye donation with a minimum of effort on the part of the donor and the Department.

G. If an applicant indicates his consent to be a donor pursuant to subsection F, the Department may make a notation of this designation on his license or card and shall make a notation of this designation in his driver record. The notation shall remain on the individual's license or card until he revokes his consent to make an anatomical gift by requesting removal of the notation from his license or card or otherwise in accordance with § 32.1-291.6. Inclusion of a notation indicating consent to making an organ donation on an applicant's license or card pursuant to this subsection shall be sufficient legal authority for removal, following death, of the subject's organs or tissues without additional authority from the donor or his family or estate, in accordance with the provisions of § 32.1-291.8.

H. A minor may make a donor designation pursuant to subsection F without the consent of a parent or legal guardian as authorized by the Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (§ 32.1-291.1 et seq.).

I. The Department shall provide a method by which an applicant conducting a Department of Motor Vehicles transaction using electronic means may make a voluntary contribution to the Virginia Donor Registry and Public Awareness Fund (Fund) established pursuant to § 32.1-297.1. The Department shall inform the applicant of the existence of the Fund and also that contributing to the Fund is voluntary.

J. The Department shall collect all moneys contributed pursuant to subsection I and transmit the moneys on a regular basis to the Virginia Transplant Council, which shall credit the contributions to the Fund.

K. When requested by the applicant, and upon presentation of a signed statement by a licensed physician confirming the applicant's condition, the Department shall indicate on the applicant's driver's license that the applicant (i) is an insulin-dependent diabetic, (ii) is deaf or hard of hearing or speech impaired, (iii) has a traumatic brain injury, or (iv) has an intellectual disability, as defined in § 37.2-100, or autism spectrum disorder, as defined in § 38.2-3418.17. Any request for a traumatic brain injury indicator on an applicant's driver's license shall be accompanied by a form prescribed by the Commissioner and completed by a licensed physician.

L. In the absence of gross negligence or willful misconduct, the Department and its employees shall be immune from any civil or criminal liability in connection with the making of or failure to make a notation of donor designation on any license or card or in any person's driver record.

M. The Department shall, in coordination with the Virginia Transplant Council, prepare an organ donor information brochure describing the organ donor program and providing instructions for completion of the uniform donor document information describing the bone marrow donation program and instructions for registration in the National Bone Marrow Registry. The Department shall include a copy of such brochure with every driver's license renewal notice or application mailed to licensed drivers in Virginia.

Code 1950, § 46-370; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-375; 1962, c. 368; 1968, c. 642; 1972, c. 538; 1976, c. 57; 1979, c. 124; 1982, c. 180; 1983, c. 608; 1984, c. 780; 1989, cc. 139, 705, 727; 1990, c. 159; 1993, cc. 118, 986; 1995, cc. 350, 372; 1997, c. 486; 1998, c. 322; 1999, c. 330; 2000, c. 810; 2001, cc. 148, 157; 2002, cc. 135, 767, 834; 2003, cc. 306, 335; 2005, cc. 259, 828; 2007, cc. 92, 907; 2008, c. 82; 2009, cc. 834, 872; 2010, cc. 25, 55; 2014, c. 702; 2016, cc. 135, 743; 2019, c. 288; 2020, c. 545.

§ 46.2-343. Duplicate driver's license, reissued driver's licenses, learner's permit; fees.

If a driver's license or learner's permit issued under the provisions of this chapter is lost, stolen, or destroyed, the person to whom it was issued may obtain a duplicate or substitute thereof on furnishing proof satisfactory to the Department that his license or permit has been lost, stolen, or destroyed, or that there are good reasons why a duplicate should be issued. Every applicant for a duplicate or reissued driver's license shall appear in person before the Department to apply, unless permitted by the Department to apply for duplicate or reissue in another manner. Applicants who are required to apply in person may be required to present proof of identity, legal presence, residency, and social security number or non-work authorized status.

There shall be a fee of $5 for each duplicate license and $2 for each duplicate learner's permit.

There shall be a fee of $5 for reissuance of any driver's license upon the termination of driving restrictions imposed upon the licensee by the Department or a court.

Code 1950, § 46-374; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-379; 1968, c. 642; 1976, c. 48; 1982, c. 202; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 468; 1997, c. 486; 1999, c. 593; 2009, c. 872; 2020, c. 1227, 1246.

§ 46.2-344. Temporary driver's permit.

The Department, upon determining, after an examination, that an applicant is mentally, physically, and otherwise qualified to receive a license, may issue to him a temporary driver's permit entitling him, while having the permit in his immediate possession, to drive a motor vehicle on the highways. The temporary driver's permit shall be valid until receipt of the driver's license but in no case shall be valid for more than 90 days from the date of issuance.

Code 1950, § 46-372; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-377; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 2009, c. 872.

§ 46.2-345. Issuance of special identification cards; fee; confidentiality; penalties.

A. On the application of any person who is a resident of the Commonwealth, the parent of any such person who is under the age of 18, or the legal guardian of any such person, the Department shall issue a special identification card to the person, provided that:

1. Application is made on a form prescribed by the Department and includes the applicant's full legal name; year, month, and date of birth; social security number; sex; and residence address. Applicants shall be permitted to choose between "male," "female," or "non-binary" when designating the applicant's sex on the application form;

2. The applicant presents, when required by the Department, proof of identity, legal presence, residency, and social security number or non-work authorized status;

3. The Department is satisfied that the applicant needs an identification card or the applicant shows he has a bona fide need for such a card; and

4. The applicant does not hold a driver's license, commercial driver's license, temporary driver's permit, learner's permit, motorcycle learner's permit, or special identification card without a photograph.

Persons 70 years of age or older may exchange a valid Virginia driver's license for a special identification card at no fee. Special identification cards subsequently issued to such persons shall be subject to the regular fees for special identification cards.

B. The fee for the issuance of an original, duplicate, reissue, or renewal special identification card is $2 per year, with a $10 minimum fee. Persons 21 years old or older may be issued a scenic special identification card for an additional fee of $5.

C. Every special identification card shall expire on the applicant's birthday at the end of the period of years for which a special identification card has been issued. At no time shall any special identification card be issued for less than three nor more than eight years, except under the provisions of subsection B of § 46.2-328.1 and except that those cards issued to children under the age of 15 shall expire on the child's sixteenth birthday. Notwithstanding these limitations, the Commissioner may extend the validity period of an expiring card if (i) the Department is unable to process an application for renewal due to circumstances beyond its control, (ii) the extension has been authorized under a directive from the Governor, and (iii) the card was not issued as a temporary special identification card under the provisions of subsection B of § 46.2-328.1. However, in no event shall the validity period be extended more than 90 days per occurrence of such conditions. Any special identification card issued to a person required to register pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1 shall expire on the applicant's birthday in years which the applicant attains an age equally divisible by five. For each person required to register pursuant to Chapter 9 of Title 9.1, the Department may not waive the requirement that each such person shall appear for each renewal or the requirement to obtain a photograph in accordance with subsection C of § 46.2-323.

D. A special identification card issued under this section may be similar in size, shape, and design to a driver's license, and include a photograph of its holder, but the card shall be readily distinguishable from a driver's license and shall clearly state that it does not authorize the person to whom it is issued to drive a motor vehicle. Every applicant for a special identification card shall appear in person before the Department to apply for a renewal, duplicate or reissue unless specifically permitted by the Department to apply in another manner.

E. Special identification cards, for persons at least 15 years old but less than 21 years old, shall be immediately and readily distinguishable from those issued to persons 21 years old or older. Distinguishing characteristics shall include unique design elements of the document and descriptors within the photograph area to identify persons who are at least 15 years old but less than 21 years old. These descriptors shall include the month, day, and year when the person will become 21 years old.

F. Special identification cards for persons under age 15 shall bear a full face photograph. The special identification card issued to persons under age 15 shall be readily distinguishable from a driver's license and from other special identification cards issued by the Department. Such cards shall clearly indicate that it does not authorize the person to whom it is issued to drive a motor vehicle.

G. Unless otherwise prohibited by law, a valid Virginia driver's license shall be surrendered upon application for a special identification card without the applicant's having to present proof of legal presence as required by § 46.2-328.1 if the Virginia driver's license is unexpired and it has not been revoked, suspended, or cancelled. The special identification card shall be considered a reissue and the expiration date shall be the last day of the month of the surrendered driver's license's month of expiration.

H. Any personal information, as identified in § 2.2-3801, which is retained by the Department from an application for the issuance of a special identification card is confidential and shall not be divulged to any person, association, corporation, or organization, public or private, except to the legal guardian or the attorney of the applicant or to a person, association, corporation, or organization nominated in writing by the applicant, his legal guardian, or his attorney. This subsection shall not prevent the Department from furnishing the application or any information thereon to any law-enforcement agency.

I. Any person who uses a false or fictitious name or gives a false or fictitious address in any application for an identification card or knowingly makes a false statement or conceals a material fact or otherwise commits a fraud in any such application shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor. However, where the name or address is given, or false statement is made, or fact is concealed, or fraud committed, with the intent to purchase a firearm or where the identification card is obtained for the purpose of committing any offense punishable as a felony, a violation of this section shall constitute a Class 4 felony.

J. The Department shall utilize the various communications media throughout the Commonwealth to inform Virginia residents of the provisions of this section and to promote and encourage the public to take advantage of its provisions.

K. The Department shall electronically transmit application information to the Department of State Police, in a format approved by the State Police, for comparison with information contained in the Virginia Criminal Information Network and National Crime Information Center Convicted Sexual Offender Registry Files, at the time of issuance of a special identification card. Whenever it appears from the records of the State Police that a person has failed to comply with the duty to register, reregister, or verify his registration information pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 9.1-900 et seq.) of Title 9.1, the State Police shall promptly investigate and, if there is probable cause to believe a violation has occurred, obtain a warrant or assist in obtaining an indictment charging a violation of § 18.2-472.1 in the jurisdiction in which the person made application for the special identification card.

L. When requested by the applicant, the applicant's parent if the applicant is a minor, or the applicant's guardian, and upon presentation of a signed statement by a licensed physician confirming the applicant's condition, the Department shall indicate on the applicant's special identification card that the applicant has any condition listed in subsection K of § 46.2-342 or that the applicant is blind or vision impaired.

1973, c. 214, § 46.1-383.3; 1975, c. 549; 1981, cc. 593, 594; 1982, c. 180; 1983, c. 608; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 1993, cc. 471, 501; 1997, c. 486; 1998, c. 322; 1999, c. 593; 2002, cc. 767, 834; 2005, cc. 259, 260, 281, 665, 828; 2006, cc. 857, 914; 2009, c. 872; 2012, cc. 215, 222; 2014, c. 702; 2015, c. 167; 2016, cc. 135, 743; 2017, c. 122; 2019, cc. 75, 832; 2020, cc. 544, 829; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 319.

§ 46.2-345.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2018, c. 440, cl. 2.

§ 46.2-345.2. Issuance of special identification cards without photographs; fee; confidentiality; penalties.

A. On the application of any person with a sincerely held religious belief prohibiting the taking of a photograph who is a resident of the Commonwealth and who is at least 15 years of age, the Department shall issue a special identification card without a photograph to the person, provided that:

1. Application is made on a form prescribed by the Department and includes the applicant's full legal name; year, month, and date of birth; social security number; sex; and residence address. Applicants shall be permitted to choose between "male," "female," or "non-binary" when designating the applicant's sex on the application form;

2. The applicant presents, when required by the Department, proof of identity, legal presence, residency, and social security number or non-work authorized status;

3. The applicant presents an approved and signed U.S. Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Form 4029 or if such applicant is a minor, the applicant's parent or legal guardian presents an approved and signed IRS Form 4029; and

4. The applicant does not hold a driver's license, commercial driver's license, temporary driver's permit, learner's permit, motorcycle learner's permit, or special identification card.

B. The fee for the issuance of an original, duplicate, or reissue special identification card without a photograph is $10 per year, with a $20 minimum fee.

C. Every special identification card without a photograph shall expire on the applicant's birthday at the end of the period of years for which a special identification card without a photograph has been issued. At no time shall any special identification card without a photograph be issued for more than eight years. Notwithstanding these limitations, the Commissioner may extend the validity period of an expiring card if (i) the Department is unable to process an application for re-issue due to circumstances beyond its control or (ii) the extension has been authorized under a directive from the Governor. However, in no event shall the validity period be extended more than 90 days per occurrence of such conditions.

D. A special identification card without a photograph issued under this section may be similar in size, shape, and design to a driver's license and shall not include a photograph of its holder. The card shall be readily distinguishable from a driver's license and shall clearly state that federal limits apply, that the card is not valid identification to vote, and that the card does not authorize the person to whom it is issued to drive a motor vehicle. Every applicant for a special identification card without a photograph shall appear in person before the Department to apply for a duplicate or reissue unless specifically permitted by the Department to apply in another manner.

E. Unless otherwise prohibited by law, a valid Virginia driver's license or special identification card shall be surrendered for a special identification card without a photograph without the applicant's having to present proof of legal presence as required by § 46.2-328.1 if the Virginia driver's license or special identification card is unexpired and has not been revoked, suspended, or canceled. The special identification card without a photograph shall be considered a reissue, and the expiration date shall be the last day of the month of the surrendered driver's license's or special identification card's month of expiration.

F. Any personal information, as identified in § 2.2-3801, that is retained by the Department from an application for the issuance of a special identification card without a photograph is confidential and shall not be divulged to any person, association, corporation, or organization, public or private, except to the legal guardian or the attorney of the applicant or to a person, association, corporation, or organization nominated in writing by the applicant, his legal guardian, or his attorney. This subsection shall not prevent the Department from furnishing the application or any information thereon to any law-enforcement agency.

G. Any person who uses a false or fictitious name or gives a false or fictitious address in any application for a special identification card without a photograph or knowingly makes a false statement or conceals a material fact or otherwise commits a fraud in any such application is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor. However, where the special identification card without a photograph is obtained for the purpose of committing any offense punishable as a felony, a violation of this section shall constitute a Class 4 felony.

H. When requested by the applicant, the applicant's parent if the applicant is a minor, or the applicant's guardian, and upon presentation of a signed statement by a licensed physician confirming the applicant's condition, the Department shall indicate on the applicant's special identification card without a photograph that the applicant has any condition listed in subsection K of § 46.2-342.

I. Unless the Code specifies that a photograph is required, a special identification card without a photograph shall be treated as a special identification card.

2019, c. 832; 2020, c. 544.

§ 46.2-345.3. (Effective January 1, 2022) Issuance of identification privilege cards; fee; confidentiality; penalties.

A. Upon application of any person who does not hold a status that is eligible for a special identification card under subsections A and B of § 46.2-328.1, the parent of any such person who is under the age of 18, or the legal guardian of any such person, the Department may issue an identification privilege card to any resident of the Commonwealth, provided that:

1. Application is made on a form prescribed by the Department;

2. The applicant presents, when required by the Department, proof of identity, residency, and social security number or individual taxpayer identification number;

3. The Department determines that the applicant has reported income and deductions from Virginia sources, as defined in § 58.1-302, or has been claimed as a dependent, on an individual income tax return filed with the Commonwealth in the preceding 12 months; and

4. The applicant does not hold a credential issued under this chapter.

Persons 70 years of age or older may exchange a valid Virginia driver privilege card for an identification privilege card at no fee. Identification privilege cards subsequently issued to such persons shall be subject to the regular fees for identification privilege cards.

B. The fee for the issuance of an original, duplicate, reissue, or renewal identification privilege card is $25. The amount paid by an applicant for an identification privilege card shall be considered privileged information for the purposes of § 46.2-208.

C. An original identification privilege card shall expire on the applicant's fourth birthday following the date of issuance. Duplicate, reissue, or renewal identification privilege cards shall be valid for a period of four years from the date of issuance. No applicant shall be required to provide proof of compliance with subdivision A 3 for a duplicate, reissue, or renewal identification privilege card. Those cards issued to children under the age of 15 shall expire on the child's sixteenth birthday.

Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, the Commissioner may extend the validity period of an expiring card if (i) the Department is unable to process an application for renewal due to circumstances beyond its control and (ii) the extension has been authorized under a directive from the Governor. However, in no event shall the validity period be extended more than 90 days per occurrence of such conditions.

D. An identification privilege card issued under this section may be similar in size, shape, and design to a driving credential and include a photograph of its holder, but the card shall be readily distinguishable from a driving credential and shall clearly state that it does not authorize the person to whom it is issued to drive a motor vehicle. Every applicant for an identification privilege card shall appear in person before the Department to apply for a renewal, duplicate, or reissue unless specifically permitted by the Department to apply in another manner. The front of an identification privilege card shall be identical in appearance to a special identification card issued under § 46.2-345, and the back of the card shall be identical in appearance to the restriction on the back of a limited-duration special identification card.

E. Identification privilege cards, for persons at least 15 years old but younger than 21 years old, shall be immediately and readily distinguishable from those issued to persons 21 years old or older. Distinguishing characteristics shall include unique design elements of the credential and descriptors within the photograph area to identify persons who are at least 15 years old but younger than 21 years old. These descriptors shall include the month, day, and year when the person will become 21 years old.

F. Identification privilege cards for persons under age 15 shall bear a full-face photograph. The identification card issued to persons under age 15 shall be readily distinguishable from a driving credential and from other identification cards issued by the Department. Such cards shall clearly indicate that it does not authorize the person to whom it is issued to drive a motor vehicle.

G. Any information collected pursuant to this section that is not otherwise collected by the Department or required for the issuance of any other special identification card issued pursuant to the provisions of this chapter and any information regarding restrictions in the Department's records related to the issuance of a credential issued pursuant to this section shall be considered privileged. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-208, such information shall not be released except upon request by the subject of the information, the parent of a minor who is the subject of the information, the guardian of the subject of the information, or the authorized representative of the subject of the information or pursuant to a court order.

The Department shall release to any federal, state, or local governmental entity, local government group self-insurance pool, law-enforcement officer, attorney for the Commonwealth, or court, or the authorized agent of any of the foregoing, information related to the issuance of an identification privilege card, the release of which is not otherwise prohibited by this section, that is required for a requester to carry out the requester's official functions if the requester provides the individual's name and other sufficient identifying information contained on the individual's record. Any such release shall be in accordance with the requirements of § 46.2-208.

H. Any person who uses a false or fictitious name or gives a false or fictitious address in any application for an identification privilege card or knowingly makes a false statement or conceals a material fact or otherwise commits a fraud in any such application is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor. However, where the name or address is given, or false statement is made, or fact is concealed, or fraud committed, for the purpose of committing any offense punishable as a felony, a violation of this section shall constitute a Class 4 felony.

I. When requested by the applicant, the applicant's parent if the applicant is a minor, or the applicant's guardian, and upon presentation of a signed statement by a licensed physician confirming the applicant's condition, the Department shall indicate on the applicant's identification privilege card that the applicant has any condition listed in subsection K of § 46.2-342 or that the applicant is blind or vision impaired.

J. Unless the context of the Code provides otherwise, an identification privilege card shall be treated as a special identification card.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 544.

Article 8. Prohibited Uses of Driver's Licenses

§ 46.2-346. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Unlawful acts enumerated.

A. No person shall:

1. Display, cause or permit to be displayed, or have in his possession any driver's license which he knows to be fictitious or to have been cancelled, revoked, suspended, or altered, or photographed for the purpose of evading the intent of this chapter;

2. Lend to, or knowingly permit the use of by one not entitled thereto, any driver's license issued to the person so lending or permitting the use thereof;

3. Display or represent as his own any driver's license not issued to him;

4. Reproduce by photograph or otherwise, any driver's license, temporary driver's permit, learner's permit, or special identification card issued by the Department with the intent to commit an illegal act;

5. Fail or refuse to surrender to the Department, on demand, any driver's license issued in the Commonwealth or any other state when the license has been suspended, cancelled, or revoked by proper authority in the Commonwealth, or any other state as provided by law, or to fail or refuse to surrender the suspended, cancelled, or revoked license to any court in which a driver has been tried and convicted for the violation of any law or ordinance of the Commonwealth or any county, city, or town thereof, regulating or affecting the operation of a motor vehicle.

B. Any law-enforcement officer empowered to enforce the provisions of this title may retain any driver's license held in violation of this section and shall submit the license to the appropriate court for evidentiary purposes.

Code 1950, § 46-380; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-384; 1962, c. 368; 1984, c. 780; 1988, c. 323; 1989, c. 727; 2004, c. 722.

§ 46.2-346. (Effective January 1, 2022) Unlawful acts enumerated.

A. No person shall:

1. Display, cause or permit to be displayed, or have in his possession any driver's license which he knows to be fictitious or to have been cancelled, revoked, suspended, or altered, or photographed for the purpose of evading the intent of this chapter;

2. Lend to, or knowingly permit the use of by one not entitled thereto, any driver's license issued to the person so lending or permitting the use thereof;

3. Display or represent as his own any driver's license not issued to him;

4. Reproduce by photograph or otherwise, any credential issued under this chapter with the intent to commit an illegal act;

5. Fail or refuse to surrender to the Department, on demand, any driver's license issued in the Commonwealth or any other state when the license has been suspended, cancelled, or revoked by proper authority in the Commonwealth, or any other state as provided by law, or to fail or refuse to surrender the suspended, cancelled, or revoked license to any court in which a driver has been tried and convicted for the violation of any law or ordinance of the Commonwealth or any county, city, or town thereof, regulating or affecting the operation of a motor vehicle.

B. Any law-enforcement officer empowered to enforce the provisions of this title may retain any driver's license held in violation of this section and shall submit the license to the appropriate court for evidentiary purposes.

Code 1950, § 46-380; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-384; 1962, c. 368; 1984, c. 780; 1988, c. 323; 1989, c. 727; 2004, c. 722; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 544.

§ 46.2-347. Fraudulent use of driver's license or Department of Motor Vehicles identification card to obtain alcoholic beverages; penalties.

Any underage person as specified in § 4.1-304 who knowingly uses or attempts to use a forged, deceptive or otherwise nongenuine driver's license issued by any state, territory or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or any foreign country or government; United States Armed Forces identification card; United States passport or foreign government visa; Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles special identification card; official identification issued by any other federal, state or foreign government agency; or official student identification card of an institution of higher education to obtain alcoholic beverages shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor, and upon conviction of a violation of this section, the court shall revoke such convicted person's driver's license or privilege to drive a motor vehicle for a period of not less than 30 days nor more than one year.

1980, c. 519, § 46.1-384.1; 1981, c. 24; 1983, c. 473; 1984, c. 780; 1985, c. 559; 1989, c. 727; 1992, c. 531; 1993, c. 866.

§ 46.2-348. Fraud or false statements in applications for license; penalties.

Any person who uses a false or fictitious name or gives a false or fictitious address in any application for a driver's license or escort vehicle driver certificate, or any renewal or duplicate thereof, or knowingly makes a false statement or conceals a material fact or otherwise commits a fraud during the driver's license examination, including for a commercial driver's license or commercial learner's permit, or in his application is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor. However, where the license is used, or the fact concealed, or fraud is done, with the intent to purchase a firearm or use as proof of residency under § 9.1-903, a violation of this section shall be punishable as a Class 4 felony.

Code 1950, § 46-381; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-385; 1981, c. 593; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 1993, cc. 471, 501; 2006, cc. 857, 914; 2013, cc. 165, 312, 477, 582; 2014, cc. 77, 803; 2015, c. 258.

§ 46.2-349. Unlawful to permit violations of chapter.

No person shall authorize or knowingly permit a motor vehicle owned by him or under his control to be driven by any person who has no legal right to do so or in violation of any of the provisions of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 46-384; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-386; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-350. Penalty for violation.

Notwithstanding § 46.2-113, except as otherwise provided any violation of any provision of this chapter not declared to be a felony shall constitute a Class 2 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 46-385; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-387; 1989, c. 727.

Article 9. Habitual Offenders

§ 46.2-351. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1999, cc. 945, 987.

§ 46.2-355.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 463, cl. 2, effective July 1, 2021.

Article 10. Driver Responsibilities, Generally

§ 46.2-364. Definitions.

For the purposes of this chapter, unless a different meaning is clearly required by the context:

"Conviction" means conviction on a plea of guilty or the determination of guilt by a jury or by a court though no sentence has been imposed or, if imposed, has been suspended and includes a forfeiture of bail or collateral deposited to secure appearance in court of the defendant unless the forfeiture has been vacated, in any case of a charge, the conviction of which requires or authorizes the Commissioner to suspend or revoke the license of the defendant;

"Insured" means the person in whose name a motor vehicle liability policy has been issued, as defined in this section, and any other person insured under its terms;

"Judgment" means any judgment for $350 or more arising out of (i) a civil action filed pursuant to § 15.2-1716 or (ii) a motor vehicle accident because of injury to or destruction of property, including loss of its use, or any judgment for damages, including damages for care and loss of services, because of bodily injury to or death of any person arising out of the ownership, use or operation of any motor vehicle, including any judgment for contribution between joint tort-feasors arising out of any motor vehicle accident which occurred within the Commonwealth, except a judgment rendered against the Commonwealth, which has become final by expiration without appeal in the time within which an appeal might be perfected or by final affirmance on appeal rendered by a court of competent jurisdiction of the Commonwealth or any other state or court of the United States or Canada or its provinces;

"Motor vehicle" means every vehicle which is self-propelled or designed for self-propulsion and every vehicle drawn by or designed to be drawn by a motor vehicle and includes every device in, on or by which any person or property is or can be transported or drawn on a highway, except devices moved by human or animal power and devices used exclusively on rails or tracks, and vehicles used in the Commonwealth but not required to be licensed by the Commonwealth;

"Motor vehicle liability policy" means an owner's or a driver's policy of liability insurance certified, as provided in this chapter, by an insurance carrier licensed to do business in the Commonwealth or by an insurance carrier not licensed to do business in the Commonwealth on compliance with the provisions of this chapter, as proof of financial responsibility.

Code 1950, § 46-387; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-389; 1989, c. 727; 1996, cc. 474, 489; 2002, c. 289; 2010, c. 343.

§ 46.2-365. Plaintiff not prevented from relying upon other legal process.

This article shall not prevent the plaintiff in any action at law from relying upon any other process provided by law.

Code 1950, § 46-389; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-391; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-366. Partial application to certain motor vehicles.

This chapter, except its provisions as to the requirements of making reports of motor vehicle accidents and as to the filing of proof of financial responsibility by a common carrier for its drivers, shall not apply to any motor vehicle:

1. Operated under a certificate of convenience and necessity issued by the State Corporation Commission, if public liability and property damage insurance for the protection of the public is required to be carried on it, or

2. Owned by the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 46-390; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-392; 1989, cc. 705, 727.

§ 46.2-367. Persons included within scope of chapter.

Persons who have, by any law of the Commonwealth, been required to file proof of financial responsibility are included within the scope of this chapter. Persons who have been convicted of violations of any law of the Commonwealth or law of any other state or county, city, or town ordinance of either or a federal law pertaining to the driver or driving of motor vehicles or of violations of any provisions of this title are also included.

Code 1950, § 46-391; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-393; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-368. Certificate of self-insurance exempts from chapter.

A. This chapter, except §§ 46.2-371 through 46.2-373, shall not apply to any person who has registered in his name in the Commonwealth more than twenty motor vehicles, nor to any person operating more than twenty vehicles whether as owner or as lessee, if the person seeking exemption under this section obtains from the Commissioner a certificate of self-insurance as provided in subsection B of this section.

B. The Commissioner may, in his discretion and on the application of such a person, issue a certificate of self-insurance when he is reasonably satisfied (i) that the person has and will continue to have financial ability to respond to a judgment as provided in this chapter, obtained against the person, arising out of the ownership, maintenance, use, or operation of his motor vehicles and (ii) that the certificate provides for protection against the uninsured or underinsured motorist to the extent required by § 38.2-2206. However, protection against the uninsured or underinsured motorist required under this section shall not exceed the financial requirements of § 46.2-472 and shall be secondary coverage to any other valid and collectible insurance providing the same protection which is available to any person otherwise entitled to assert a claim to such protection by virtue of this section.

C. No holder of a certificate of self-insurance shall be liable to pay any judgment arising out of the use or operation of any motor vehicle covered by such certificate by a person who used or operated the vehicle without the permission of the owner of such vehicle; nor shall any holder of a certificate of self-insurance be liable to pay any judgment arising out of the use or operation of any motor vehicle covered by such certificate by a permissive user of such vehicle, where the permissive user has prejudicially failed to cooperate in the defense of the claim which resulted in the judgment. This subsection shall only apply to a holder of a certificate of self-insurance who has provided notice of its intention to rely on the provisions of this subsection as set forth in § 38.2-2226.

D. On due notice and hearing, the Commissioner may, in his discretion and on reasonable grounds, cancel a certificate of self-insurance.

Code 1950, § 46-393; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-395; 1972, c. 463; 1989, c. 727; 1991, c. 374; 1995, c. 85; 1997, c. 553.

§ 46.2-369. Commissioner to administer and enforce chapter; regulations; summoning witnesses and taking testimony.

The Commissioner shall administer and enforce the provisions of this chapter and he may adopt regulations for its administration. He may issue subpoenas for witnesses to attend, administer oaths, and take testimony in, the hearings provided in this chapter for the purpose of finding whether driver's licenses, license plates, or registrations should be suspended or revoked. If any person fails or refuses to obey the subpoena, or to give testimony, the Commissioner shall notify the circuit or district court of the county or city in which the hearing is or was to have been held. On receipt of the notice, the court shall, by appropriate process, compel his attendance or testimony or both, to the same extent that it could be required in a proceeding in the court.

Code 1950, § 46-394; 1952, c. 670; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-396; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-370. Revoked driver's licenses, special identification cards, certificates of title, license plates, registration cards to be returned; Commissioner may take possession of them.

A. Any person whose driver's license, special identification card, certificate of title, registration card, or license plates have been suspended, cancelled, or revoked as provided in this title or in Title 18.2 and have not been reinstated, shall immediately return every such license, unless it has been surrendered to the court as required by law, special identification card, certificate of title, registration card, and set of license plates or decals held by him to the Commissioner.

B. The Commissioner may take possession of any driver's license, special identification card, certificate of title, registration card, or set of license plates or decals on their suspension, cancellation, or revocation under the provisions of this title or in Title 18.2 or may direct any law-enforcement officer to take possession of and return them to the office of the Commissioner. Whenever any person fails or refuses to surrender a driver's license, special identification card, certificate of title, registration card, license plates, or decals requiring a representative of the Department designated by the Commissioner to serve the order of suspension, cancellation, or revocation, or whenever the Department directs a sheriff to effect service of a decision, order, or notice pursuant to § 46.2-416, the person sought to be served shall, in addition to any other required statutory fees, pay a fee of ten dollars to partially defray the cost of administration incurred by the Department and the Commissioner. No such revoked, cancelled, or suspended license, special identification card, certificate of title, or registration items shall be reinstated before the ten-dollar fee is paid. All fees collected under the provisions of this section shall be paid by the Commissioner into the state treasury and shall be set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department.

Code 1950, § 46-395; 1958, cc. 322, 541, § 46.1-397; 1976, c. 156; 1981, c. 619; 1984, c. 780; 1987, c. 696; 1989, c. 727; 1992, c. 99.

Article 11. Accident Reports

§ 46.2-371. Driver to give immediate notice of certain accidents.

The driver of any vehicle involved in any accident resulting in injury to or death of any person, or some person acting for him, shall immediately give notice of the accident to a law-enforcement officer. A willful failure to make the report required in this section shall constitute a Class 4 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 46-397; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-399; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-372. Driver to report certain accidents in writing; certification of financial responsibility to Department; supplemental reports; reports by witnesses.

A. Any person involved in an accident (i) resulting in injury to or death of any person or property damage, or (ii) when there is reason to believe a motor vehicle involved in the accident was uninsured at the time of the accident, may make a written report of it to the Commissioner, on a form prescribed by the Department.

B. If any accident report filed pursuant to the provisions of this article is alleged to be false or inaccurate, the Commissioner shall withhold any action under this section or imposition of any penalty and shall investigate and determine the true circumstances of the accident, including a determination of the identity of the parties involved.

C. For the purposes of this article the definitions provided in subsection B of § 38.2-2206 shall apply.

D. The Commissioner shall require the owner of a motor vehicle involved in any accident of which report is made pursuant to this section to provide information relating to certification of insurance or bond if there was in effect at the time of the accident with respect to the motor vehicle involved:

1. A standard provisions automobile liability policy in form approved by the State Corporation Commission and issued by an insurance carrier authorized to do business in the Commonwealth or, if the motor vehicle was not registered in the Commonwealth or was a motor vehicle which was registered elsewhere than in the Commonwealth at the effective date of the policy, or at its most recent renewal, an automobile liability policy acceptable to that Commission as substantially the equivalent of a standard provisions automobile liability policy; in either event, every automobile liability policy is subject to the limits provided in § 46.2-472.

2. Any other form of liability insurance policy issued by an insurance carrier authorized to do business in the Commonwealth or by a bond; provided that every such policy or bond mentioned herein is subject to limits set out in § 46.2-472.

E. The Commissioner shall forward the certification of insurance or bond to the insurance company or surety company, whichever is applicable, for verification as to whether or not the policy or bond certified was applicable to any liability that may arise out of the accident as to the named insured. A copy of the certification of insurance or bond shall be retained by the Commissioner and shall be disclosed pursuant to § 46.2-380.

Code 1950, § 46-398; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-400; 1966, c. 130; 1972, c. 442; 1974, c. 453; 1975, c. 553; 1978, c. 205; 1979, c. 228; 1982, c. 221; 1986, c. 639; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-373. Report by law-enforcement officer investigating accident.

A. Every law-enforcement officer who in the course of duty investigates a motor vehicle accident resulting in injury to or death of any person or total property damage to an apparent extent of $1,500 or more, either at the time of and at the scene of the accident or thereafter and elsewhere, by interviewing participants or witnesses shall, within twenty-four hours after completing the investigation, forward a written report of the accident to the Department. The report shall include the name or names of the insurance carrier or of the insurance agent of the automobile liability policy on each vehicle involved in the accident.

B. Any report filed pursuant to subsection A of this section shall include information as to (i) the speed of each vehicle involved in the accident and (ii) the type of vehicles involved in all accidents between passenger vehicles and vehicles or combinations of vehicles used to transport property, and (iii) whether any trucks involved in such accidents were covered or uncovered.

C. The Department shall supply copies of accident reports received under this section to the Commissioner of Highways who shall exercise the authority granted to him under §§ 46.2-870 through 46.2-878 to reduce speed limits where accident frequency or severity or other factors may indicate the course of action to be warranted.

Code 1950, § 46-399; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-401; 1975, c. 553; 1986, c. 639; 1988, cc. 662, 897; 1989, c. 727; 1992, cc. 149, 413; 2009, c. 1.

§ 46.2-373.1. Report of law-enforcement officer involved in accident.

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-208, any law-enforcement officer, as defined in § 9.1-101, who is named as a driver in a motor vehicle accident on a report submitted to the Department pursuant to § 46.2-373 shall not have the accident displayed on his driving record if he was driving a motor vehicle provided by a law-enforcement agency in the course of his employment and was operating the motor vehicle in the performance of his official duties at the time of such accident. The driving record of such law-enforcement officer involved in an accident in the course of his employment shall not contain any information of an accident submitted pursuant to § 46.2-373.

2017, cc. 800, 821.

§ 46.2-374. Department to prepare and supply forms for reports.

The Department shall prepare and, on request, supply to police departments, medical examiners or other officials exercising like functions, sheriffs, and other suitable agencies forms for accident reports and other reports required to be made to the Department, appropriate with respect to the persons required to make the reports and the purpose to be served. The forms for accident reports shall include suitable spaces for the name or names of the insurance carrier of the automobile liability policy of each vehicle involved in the accidents as required to be reported by § 46.2-373.

Code 1950, § 46-401; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-403; 1975, c. 553; 1986, c. 639; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-375. Reports by medical examiners of deaths resulting from accidents.

Every person holding the office of medical examiner shall report to the Commissioner: (i) the death of a person in his jurisdiction as a result of a motor vehicle accident, immediately after learning of the death; (ii) on or before the tenth day of each month, all deaths resulting from motor vehicle accidents during the preceding calendar month. These reports shall be made in the form prescribed by the Commissioner.

Code 1950, §§ 46-402, 46-404; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-404; 1985, c. 10; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-376. Report required of person in charge of garage or repair shop.

The person in charge of any garage or repair shop to which is brought any motor vehicle (i) that shows evidence of having been involved in a serious motor vehicle accident or (ii) with evidence of bloodstains shall report to the nearest police station or to the State Police, within twenty-four hours after the motor vehicle is received, giving the engine number, registration number and the name and address of the owner or operator of the vehicle if known. Reports required by this section shall be made upon forms furnished by the Superintendent of State Police.

Code 1950, §§ 46-405, 46-406; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-406; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-377. Reports made by garages to be without prejudice and confidential; exceptions.

All accident reports made by garages pursuant to this article shall be without prejudice to the individual so reporting and shall be for the confidential use of the State Police, local law-enforcement agencies, or by agencies having use for the records for accident prevention purposes.

Code 1950, § 46-407; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-407; 1986, c. 639; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-378. Extent to which reports may be used as evidence.

No report submitted pursuant to this article shall be used as evidence in any trial, civil or criminal, arising out of an accident, except that the Department shall furnish, on demand of any person who has or claims to have made such a report, or upon demand of any court, a certificate showing that a specified accident report has or has not been made to the Department, solely to prove compliance or noncompliance with the requirement that the report be made to the Department.

Code 1950, § 46-408; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-408; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-379. Use of crash reports made by investigating officers.

All crash reports made by investigating officers shall be for the confidential use of the Department and of other state agencies for accident prevention purposes and shall not be used as evidence in any trial, civil or criminal, arising out of any accident. If otherwise authorized by law, the Department may disclose from the reports, on request of any person, the date, time, and location of the accident and the names and addresses of the drivers, the owners of the vehicles involved, the injured persons, the witnesses, and one investigating officer.

Code 1950, § 46-409; 1952, c. 544; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-409; 1986, c. 639; 1989, c. 727; 2014, cc. 77, 803.

§ 46.2-380. Reports made under certain sections open to inspection by certain persons; copies; maintenance of reports and photographs for three-year period.

A. Any report of a crash made pursuant to § 46.2-372, 46.2-373, 46.2-375, or 46.2-377 shall be maintained by the Department in either hard copy or electronic form for a period of at least 36 months from the date of the crash. The report shall be open to the inspection of (i) any person involved or injured in the crash or as a result thereof, or his attorney, or any person owning a vehicle or property involved in the crash, or his attorney, (ii) any authorized representative of any insurance carrier reasonably anticipating exposure to civil liability as a consequence of the crash or to which the person has applied for issuance or renewal of a policy of automobile insurance, or (iii) the FMCSA or any authorized agent thereof. The Commissioner shall, upon written request of the person authorized to inspect the report, furnish a copy of the report, in either hard copy or electronic form, at the expense of the requester. Any such report shall also be open to inspection by the personal representative of any person injured or killed in the crash, including his guardian, conservator, executor, committee, next of kin as defined in § 54.1-2800, or administrator, or, if the person injured or killed is under 18 years of age, his parent or guardian. The Commissioner shall only be required to furnish under this section copies of reports required by the provisions of this article to be made directly to the Commissioner. The Commissioner may set a reasonable fee for furnishing a copy of any report, provide to whom payment shall be made, and establish a procedure for payment.

B. The Commissioner or Superintendent of State Police having a copy of any photograph taken by a law-enforcement officer relating to a nonfatal crash shall maintain the negatives for or an electronic record of such photographs in their records for at least 36 months from the date of the crash.

Code 1950, § 46-410; 1956, c. 648; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-410; 1975, c. 21; 1976, c. 40; 1978, c. 829; 1986, c. 639; 1989, cc. 302, 727; 1997, c. 801; 1998, c. 522; 2013, cc. 80, 104; 2015, c. 171; 2019, c. 750; 2020, c. 701.

§ 46.2-381. Accident reports required by county or municipal ordinance; copies.

Any county, city, or town may, by ordinance, require that the driver of a vehicle involved in an accident file with a designated department a report of the accident. These reports shall be for the confidential use of the department and subject to the provisions of this article. The county, city, or town may, by ordinance, require the designated department to make the reports, including the report of the law-enforcement officer, and including any photographs taken by law-enforcement officers, available for inspection by any person involved or injured in the accident or his attorney or any authorized representative of any insurance carrier reasonably anticipating exposure to civil liability as a consequence of the accident. The county, city, or town may, by ordinance, prescribe fees to be charged for copies of the reports and photographs and require the designated department to furnish copies of the reports and photographs, after payment of the prescribed fees, to any such person, attorney, or authorized representative.

Code 1950, § 46-413; 1954, c. 393; 1956, c. 703; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-411; 1962, c. 458; 1986, c. 639; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-382. Courts to keep full records of certain cases.

A. Every district court or circuit court or the clerk thereof shall keep a full record of every case in which:

1. A person is charged with (i) a violation of any law of the Commonwealth pertaining to the operator or operation of a motor vehicle or commercial motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-341.4; (ii) a violation of any ordinance of any county, city, or town pertaining to the operator or operation of any motor vehicles, except parking regulations; (iii) any theft of a motor vehicle or unauthorized use thereof or theft of any part attached to it; (iv) a violation of § 18.2-36.2, subsection B of § 29.1-738, or § 29.1-738.02, 29.1-738.2, or 29.1-738.4; or (v) a violation or offense involving the use of a motor vehicle or commercial motor vehicle by a person holding a commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license in the commission of any felony involving manufacturing, distributing, or dispensing a controlled substance or possession with intent to manufacture, distribute, or dispense such controlled substance;

2. A person is charged with manslaughter or any other felony in the commission of which a motor vehicle was used; or

3. There is rendered a judgment for damages, the rendering and nonpayment of which under the terms of this title require the Commissioner to suspend the driver's license and registration in the name of the judgment debtor.

B. The Department and every district court or circuit court or the clerk thereof (i) shall not reduce, dismiss, defer, or otherwise conceal the conviction of any person charged with any offense committed while operating a commercial motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-341.4 or any holder of a commercial driver's license or a commercial driver's permit charged with any offense committed while operating a noncommercial motor vehicle and (ii) shall comply with all federal laws and regulations regarding such convictions, including 49 C.F.R. § 384.226.

Code 1950, §§ 46-195, 46-414; 1952, c. 188; 1954, c. 168; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-412; 1966, c. 533; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 1998, c. 147; 2005, c. 376; 2019, c. 750; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 136.

§ 46.2-382.1. Courts to make findings relating to commercial motor vehicles.

For the purpose of enforcing the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.), in any case in which a person is charged with a violation of any law of the Commonwealth or of any ordinance of any county, city or town pertaining to the operator or operation of a motor vehicle, except parking violations, and the warrant or summons indicates that the motor vehicle so operated was a commercial motor vehicle as defined in the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act, or that it was a commercial motor vehicle carrying hazardous materials as defined by the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act, the court hearing such case shall make a finding, which shall be noted on the record, as to whether such vehicle was in fact a commercial motor vehicle and, if applicable, whether such vehicle was carrying hazardous materials.

If the offense charged is one in which operation of a commercial motor vehicle is an element of the offense, the conviction of the offense shall constitute the court's finding that the vehicle was a commercial motor vehicle, but a separate finding shall be made as to whether such vehicle was carrying hazardous materials, if applicable. If the offense charged is one in which operation of a commercial motor vehicle is not an element of the offense, then the court, after convicting the person charged, shall make a separate finding as to whether the vehicle was a commercial motor vehicle and, if applicable, whether it was carrying hazardous materials. The separate findings required by this section shall be noted on the conviction record, and the following procedures shall apply to such separate findings:

1. If the person charged prepays fines and costs pursuant to § 19.2-254.1, he shall be deemed to have admitted that such motor vehicle was a commercial motor vehicle and, if applicable, that it carried hazardous materials at the time of the violation, as indicated on the warrant or summons, and such admission or admissions shall be noted on the conviction record as the court's finding.

2. In all other cases, the Commonwealth shall have the burden of proving by a preponderance of the evidence that the vehicle was a commercial motor vehicle and, if applicable, that it carried hazardous materials.

1989, c. 705, § 46.1-412.1.

§ 46.2-383. Courts to forward abstracts of records or furnish abstract data of conviction by electronic means in certain cases; records in office of Department; inspection; clerk's fee for reports.

A. In the event (i) a person is convicted of a charge described in subdivision A 1 or 2 of § 46.2-382 or § 46.2-382.1, (ii) a person forfeits bail or collateral or other deposit to secure the defendant's appearance on the charges, unless the conviction has been set aside or the forfeiture vacated, (iii) a court assigns a defendant to a driver education program or alcohol treatment or rehabilitation program, or both such programs, as authorized by § 18.2-271.1, (iv) compliance with the court's probation order is accepted by the court in lieu of a conviction under § 18.2-266 or the requirements specified in § 18.2-271 as provided in § 18.2-271.1, or (v) there is rendered a judgment for damages against a person as described in § 46.2-382, every district court or clerk of a circuit court shall forward an abstract of the record to the Commissioner within 18 days after such conviction, forfeiture, assignment, or acceptance, and in the case of civil judgments, on the request of the judgment creditor or his attorney, within 30 days after judgment has become final. No abstract of the record in a district court shall be forwarded to the Commissioner unless the period allowed for an appeal has elapsed and no appeal has been perfected. On or after July 1, 2013, in the event that a conviction or adjudication has been nullified by separate order of the court, the clerk shall forward to the Commissioner an abstract of that record.

B. Abstract data of conviction may be furnished to the Commissioner by electronic means provided that the content of the abstract and the certification complies with the requirements of § 46.2-386. In cases where the abstract data is furnished by electronic means, the paper abstract shall not be required to be forwarded to the Commissioner. The Commissioner shall develop a method to ensure that all data is received accurately. The Commissioner, with the approval of the Governor, may destroy the record of any conviction, forfeiture, assignment, acceptance, or judgment, when three years has elapsed from the date thereof, except records of conviction or forfeiture on charges of reckless driving and speeding, which records may be destroyed when five years has elapsed from the date thereof, and further excepting those records that alone, or in connection with other records, will require suspension or revocation or disqualification of a license or registration under any applicable provisions of this title.

C. The records required to be kept may, in the discretion of the Commissioner, be kept by electronic media or by photographic processes and when so done the abstract of the record may be destroyed.

D. The Code section and description of an offense referenced in an abstract for any juvenile adjudication obtained from a district court or clerk of circuit court pursuant to subdivision A 9 of § 16.1-278.8, § 16.1-278.9, clause (iii) of subdivision A 1 of § 46.2-382, or any other provision of law that does not involve an offense referenced in subsection A or an offense involving the operation of a motor vehicle shall be available only to the person himself, his parent or guardian, law-enforcement officers, attorneys for the Commonwealth, and courts.

Code 1950, §§ 46-195, 46-414; 1952, c. 188; 1954, c. 168; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-413; 1960, c. 179; 1966, c. 376; 1968, c. 335; 1972, c. 406; 1976, cc. 28, 336, 505; 1978, c. 134; 1979, c. 594; 1988, cc. 770, 852; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 2002, c. 258; 2013, c. 263; 2015, c. 478; 2020, cc. 964, 965.

§ 46.2-384. Law-enforcement officers arresting drivers for certain offenses to request abstracts or transcripts of drivers' conviction records.

Every law-enforcement officer who has arrested any person for (i) driving while under the influence of intoxicants or drugs in violation of § 18.2-51.4 or § 18.2-266 or a parallel local ordinance, or § 46.2-341.24, (ii) reckless driving in violation of §§ 46.2-852 through 46.2-865 or a parallel local ordinance, (iii) failure to stop at the scene of an accident in violation of §§ 46.2-894 through 46.2-899 or a parallel local ordinance or (iv) driving without a license or while his license has been suspended or revoked in violation of § 18.2-51.4 or § 18.2-272, or §§ 46.2-300 through 46.2-302 or a parallel local ordinance or while he is disqualified in violation of § 46.2-341.21 of the Commercial Vehicle Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.), shall request from the Department an abstract or transcript of the person's driver's conviction record on file at the Department. The Department shall furnish the abstract or transcript to the attorney for the Commonwealth of the jurisdiction in which the case will be heard, to be held available for the court in which the person is to be tried for the violation or charge. However, the failure of the attorney for the Commonwealth to receive the abstract or transcript in any case shall not constitute grounds for the granting of a continuance of such case. In any such prosecution wherein a necessary element of the offense charged is that the defendant was previously convicted of the same or similar offense, a copy, certified as provided in § 46.2-215, of (1) the abstract of the relevant prior conviction, certified as provided in § 46.2-386, or (2) that portion of the transcript relating to the relevant prior conviction, shall be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein with respect to the prior offense.

1968, c. 335, § 46.1-413.1; 1976, c. 148; 1984, c. 780; 1988, c. 413; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 1992, c. 838; 1997, c. 691.

§ 46.2-385. Prosecuting attorneys to appear in certain cases.

If requested by the judge trying the case, attorneys for the Commonwealth and all city and town attorneys whose general duties include the prosecution of offenses which are reportable by the courts to the Department under § 46.2-383, shall appear on behalf of the Commonwealth or the locality in any contested criminal case wherein a resulting conviction is required to be reported to the Department under § 46.2-383.

The failure of the attorney to appear shall, in no case, affect the validity of any conviction.

1968, c. 640, § 46.1-413.2; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-386. Forms for and information to be contained in abstracts; certification.

Abstracts required by § 46.2-383 shall be made on forms prepared by or approved by the Department and the Department of State Police. They shall include all information as to the parties to the case. In the event the abstract relates to a person convicted or found not innocent of a charge described in subdivision A 1 or 2 of § 46.2-382, it shall include the nature and date of the offense, the date of conviction or finding of not innocent, the plea, the judgment, the penalty or forfeiture as the case may be, and the driver's license number if any, the month, day and year of birth, the sex and the residence address or whereabouts of the defendant and shall indicate whether the defendant appeared and was represented by or waived counsel. Every such abstract shall be certified by the general district court or juvenile and domestic relations district court judge or clerk of the general district court or juvenile and domestic relations district court or clerk of a circuit court as a true abstract of the records of the court as it relates to the charge, judgment and penalty.

Abstracts transmitted to the Department by electronic means may be certified by machine imprint of the name of the general district court or juvenile and domestic relations district court judge or the clerk's name of the general district court or juvenile and domestic relations district court or the name of the clerk of the circuit court that furnished the record as a true abstract of the records of the court as it relates to the charge, judgment, and penalty.

Code 1950, § 46-196; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-414; 1968, c. 151; 1984, c. 780; 1986, c. 607; 1989, c. 727; 1992, c. 838.

§ 46.2-387. Penalty for failure to forward record of conviction or of judgment for damages.

Any person required to forward to the Commissioner a record of a conviction or of a judgment for damages as provided in this chapter who fails, refuses, or neglects so to do without reasonable cause shall be guilty of a Class 4 misdemeanor and may be suspended or removed from office or otherwise disciplined for dereliction of duty.

The Commissioner shall call every such failure to the attention of the person guilty of the dereliction and to the judge of the court of which he is an officer in cases of dereliction on the part of officers of courts and also to the appropriate attorney for the Commonwealth.

Discipline for dereliction of the duties provided by this chapter is cumulative to the other penalties prescribed and may be imposed by the court having jurisdiction over the official whose negligence is complained of.

Code 1950, § 46-415; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-416; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-388. Uniform summons to be used for reportable motor vehicle law violations; citations.

A. The Attorney General, after consultation with the Committee on District Courts, the Superintendent of State Police and the Commissioner, shall approve a form for the summons to be issued in either an electronic or paper format and all revisions to the form to be used by all law-enforcement officers throughout the Commonwealth in cases of motor vehicle law violations reportable to the Department under the provisions of §§ 46.2-382 and 46.2-383 and for other offenses charged on a summons pursuant to § 19.2-74. The commencement and termination date for the use of the form and each revised version of the form shall be made by the Attorney General after consultation with the Committee on District Courts, the Superintendent of State Police and the Commissioner. The law-enforcement agency issuing the summons shall determine whether to use an electronic or paper format.

The form of the summons shall include multiple copies with the original to be used for court records and other copies in sufficient number to permit the use of one copy by the courts for purposes of filing abstracts of records with the Department as required by § 46.2-383 and shall be a form prepared by the Department within the meaning of § 46.2-386. The form of the summons shall also include appropriate space for use in cases of violation of either state laws or local ordinances.

B. A separate citation which has been approved in the manner prescribed in subsection A shall be used for violations of §§ 46.2-1122 through 46.2-1127 and 46.2-1130. The citation shall be directed to the owner, operator or other person responsible for the overweight violation, and shall advise him of:

1. The nature of the violation charged against him;

2. The amount of monetary fees, penalties, and damages that may be assessed for violations;

3. The requirement that he either pay the fees, penalties, and damages in full or deliver a notice of his intent to contest the charge to the Department;

4. The procedures and time limits for making the payments or contesting such charge, which shall include the trial date, which shall in no event be earlier than 60 days after the violation; and

5. The consequences of a failure to timely pay or contest the charge.

C. A separate citation that has been approved in the manner prescribed in subsection A shall be used for violations of § 46.2-613.1. The citation shall be directed to the owner, operator, or other person responsible for the violation and shall advise him of:

1. The nature of the violation charged against him;

2. The amount of monetary fees and penalties that may be assessed for violations;

3. The requirement that he either pay the fee and penalties in full or deliver a notice of his intent to contest the charge to the Department;

4. The procedures and time limits for making the payments or contesting such charge which shall include the trial date, which shall in no event be earlier than 60 days after the violation; and

5. The consequences of a failure to timely pay or contest the charge.

1968, c. 712, § 46.1-416.1; 1977, cc. 81, 585; 1984, c. 24; 1986, c. 588; 1989, c. 727; 2005, c. 589; 2011, cc. 62, 73.

Article 12. Suspension and Revocation of Licenses, Generally; Additional Penalties

§ 46.2-389. Required revocation for one year upon conviction or finding of guilty of certain offenses; exceptions.

A. The Commissioner shall forthwith revoke, and not thereafter reissue for a period of time specified in subsection B, except as provided in § 18.2-271 or § 18.2-271.1, the driver's license of any resident or nonresident on receiving a record of his conviction or a record of his having been found guilty in the case of a juvenile of any of the following crimes, committed in violation of a state law or a valid county, city, or town ordinance or law of the United States, or a law of any other state, substantially paralleling and substantially conforming to a like state law and to all changes and amendments of it:

1. Voluntary or involuntary manslaughter resulting from the driving of a motor vehicle;

2. Violation of § 18.2-266 or § 18.2-272, or subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 or violation of a substantially similar local ordinance;

3. Perjury or the making of a false affidavit to the Department under this chapter or any other law of the Commonwealth requiring the registration of motor vehicles or regulating their operation on the highways;

4. The making of a false statement to the Department on any application for a driver's license;

5. Any crime punishable as a felony under the motor vehicle laws of the Commonwealth or any other felony in the commission of which a motor vehicle is used;

6. Failure to stop and disclose his identity at the scene of the accident, on the part of a driver of a motor vehicle involved in an accident resulting in the death of or injury to another person; or

7. Violation of § 18.2-36.1 or § 18.2-51.4.

B. Upon conviction of an offense set forth in subsection A, the person's driver's license shall be revoked for one year; however, for a violation of subdivision A 1 or A 7, the driver's license shall be revoked as provided in subsection B of § 46.2-391. However, in no such event shall the Commissioner reinstate the driver's license of any person convicted of a violation of § 18.2-266, or of a substantially similar valid local ordinance or law of another jurisdiction, until receipt of notification that such person has successfully completed an alcohol safety action program if such person was required by a court to do so unless the requirement for completion of the program has been waived by the court for good cause shown.

Code 1950, § 46-416; 1958, cc. 496, 541, § 46.1-417; 1960, c. 364; 1966, c. 238; 1974, c. 453; 1976, cc. 612, 691; 1982, c. 301; 1984, c. 780; 1988, c. 860; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 1990, c. 949; 1992, cc. 109, 891; 1997, cc. 486, 691; 1999, cc. 945, 987; 2000, cc. 956, 959, 982, 985.

§ 46.2-390. Required suspension for conviction of theft or unauthorized use of a motor vehicle.

When any person is convicted, or found guilty in the case of a juvenile, of any theft of a motor vehicle or its unauthorized use, or the theft of any of its parts, whether the motor vehicle is used in the commission of a theft or not, then in addition to any penalties provided by law, the driver's license of the person shall be suspended by the court for a period of not less than sixty days nor more than six months. In case of conviction the court shall order the surrender of the license to the court where it shall be disposed of in accordance with § 46.2-398. If the conviction is a second or subsequent offense, the license shall be suspended at least sixty days and not more than one year, and the court shall transmit the license to the Department as provided by law. If the person has not obtained a license as required by this chapter, or is a nonresident, the court shall direct in the judgment of conviction that the person shall not drive any motor vehicle in the Commonwealth for a period to coincide with the judgment of the court. This section shall not apply in the event that the theft is one in which the revocation of the license of any person is required under the provisions of subdivision 5 of § 46.2-389. Sections 46.2-391.1 and 46.2-411 shall not apply to any person whose license is suspended under this section.

1966, c. 533, § 46.1-417.1; 1984, c. 780; 1988, c. 860; 1989, c. 727; 1992, c. 109.

§ 46.2-390.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2020, cc. 740 and 741 cl. 2.

§ 46.2-391. Revocation of license for multiple convictions of driving while intoxicated; exception; petition for restoration of privilege.

A. The Commissioner shall forthwith revoke and not thereafter reissue for three years the driver's license of any person on receiving a record of the conviction of any person who (i) is adjudged to be a second offender in violation of the provisions of subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 (driving a commercial motor vehicle under the influence of drugs or intoxicants), or § 18.2-266 (driving under the influence of drugs or intoxicants), if the subsequent violation occurred within 10 years of the prior violation, or (ii) is convicted of any two or more offenses of § 18.2-272 (driving while the driver's license has been forfeited for a conviction under § 18.2-266) if the second or subsequent violation occurred within 10 years of the prior offense. However, if the Commissioner has received a copy of a court order authorizing issuance of a restricted license as provided in subsection E of § 18.2-271.1, he shall proceed as provided in the order of the court. For the purposes of this subsection, an offense in violation of a valid local ordinance, or law of any other jurisdiction, which ordinance or law is substantially similar to any provision of Virginia law herein shall be considered an offense in violation of such provision of Virginia law. Additionally, in no event shall the Commissioner reinstate the driver's license of any person convicted of a violation of § 18.2-266, or of a substantially similar valid local ordinance or law of another jurisdiction, until receipt of notification that such person has successfully completed an alcohol safety action program if such person was required by court order to do so unless the requirement for completion of the program has been waived by the court for good cause shown. A conviction includes a finding of not innocent in the case of a juvenile.

B. The Commissioner shall forthwith revoke and not thereafter reissue the driver's license of any person after receiving a record of the conviction of any person (i) convicted of a violation of § 18.2-36.1 or 18.2-51.4 or a felony violation of § 18.2-266 or (ii) convicted of three offenses arising out of separate incidents or occurrences within a period of 10 years in violation of the provisions of subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 or 18.2-266, or a substantially similar ordinance or law of any other jurisdiction, or any combination of three such offenses. A conviction includes a finding of not innocent in the case of a juvenile.

C. Any person who has had his driver's license revoked in accordance with subsection B of this section may petition the circuit court of his residence, or, if a nonresident of Virginia, any circuit court:

1. For restoration of his privilege to drive a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth after the expiration of five years from the date of his last conviction. On such petition, and for good cause shown, the court may, in its discretion, restore to the person the privilege to drive a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth on condition that such person install an ignition interlock system in accordance with § 18.2-270.1 on all motor vehicles, as defined in § 46.2-100, owned by or registered to him, in whole or in part, for a period of at least six months, and upon whatever other conditions the court may prescribe, subject to the provisions of law relating to issuance of driver's licenses, if the court is satisfied from the evidence presented that: (i) at the time of his previous convictions, the petitioner was addicted to or psychologically dependent on the use of alcohol or other drugs; (ii) at the time of the hearing on the petition, he is no longer addicted to or psychologically dependent on the use of alcohol or other drugs; and (iii) the defendant does not constitute a threat to the safety and welfare of himself or others with regard to the driving of a motor vehicle. However, prior to acting on the petition, the court shall order that an evaluation of the person, to include an assessment of his degree of alcohol abuse and the appropriate treatment therefor, if any, be conducted by a Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program and recommendations therefrom be submitted to the court, and the court shall give the recommendations such weight as the court deems appropriate. The court may, in lieu of restoring the person's privilege to drive, authorize the issuance of a restricted license for a period not to exceed five years in accordance with the provisions of § 18.2-270.1 and subsection E of § 18.2-271.1. The court shall notify the Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program which shall during the term of the restricted license monitor the person's compliance with the terms of the restrictions imposed by the court. Any violation of the restrictions shall be reported to the court, and the court may then modify the restrictions or revoke the license.

2. For a restricted license to authorize such person to drive a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth in the course of his employment and to drive a motor vehicle to and from his home to the place of his employment after the expiration of three years from the date of his last conviction. The court may order that a restricted license for such purposes be issued in accordance with the procedures of subsection E of § 18.2-271.1, if the court is satisfied from the evidence presented that (i) at the time of the previous convictions, the petitioner was addicted to or psychologically dependent on the use of alcohol or other drugs; (ii) at the time of the hearing on the petition, he is no longer addicted to or psychologically dependent on the use of alcohol or such other drugs; and (iii) the defendant does not constitute a threat to the safety and welfare of himself and others with regard to the driving of a motor vehicle. The court shall prohibit the person to whom a restricted license is issued from operating a motor vehicle that is not equipped with a functioning, certified ignition interlock system during all or any part of the term for which the restricted license is issued, in accordance with the provisions set forth in § 18.2-270.1. However, prior to acting on the petition, the court shall order that an evaluation of the person, to include an assessment of his degree of alcohol abuse and the appropriate treatment therefor, if any, be conducted by a Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program and recommendations therefrom be submitted to the court, and the court shall give the recommendations such weight as the court deems appropriate. The Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program shall during the term of the restricted license monitor the person's compliance with the terms of the restrictions imposed by the court. Any violation of the restrictions shall be reported to the court, and the court may then modify the restrictions or revoke the license.

The ignition interlock system installation requirement under subdivisions 1 and 2 of this subsection need only be satisfied once as to any single revocation under subsection B of this section for any person seeking restoration under subdivision 1 following the granting of a restricted license under subdivision 1 or 2.

D. Any person convicted of driving a motor vehicle or any self-propelled machinery or equipment (i) while his license is revoked pursuant to subsection A or B or (ii) in violation of the terms of a restricted license issued pursuant to subsection C shall, provided such revocation was based on at least one conviction for an offense committed after July 1, 1999, be punished as follows:

1. If such driving does not of itself endanger the life, limb, or property of another, such person shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor punishable by a mandatory minimum term of confinement in jail of 10 days except in cases wherein such operation is necessitated in situations of apparent extreme emergency that require such operation to save life or limb, the sentence, or any part thereof, may be suspended.

2. a. If such driving (i) of itself endangers the life, limb, or property of another or (ii) takes place while such person is in violation of §§ 18.2-36.1, 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266, subsection A of § 46.2-341.24, or a substantially similar law or ordinance of another jurisdiction, irrespective of whether the driving of itself endangers the life, limb or property of another and the person has been previously convicted of a violation of §§ 18.2-36.1, 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266, subsection A of § 46.2-341.24, or a substantially similar local ordinance, or law of another jurisdiction, such person shall be guilty of a felony punishable by confinement in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than five years, one year of which shall be a mandatory minimum term of confinement or, in the discretion of the jury or the court trying the case without a jury, by mandatory minimum confinement in jail for a period of 12 months and no portion of such sentence shall be suspended or run concurrently with any other sentence.

b. However, in cases wherein such operation is necessitated in situations of apparent extreme emergency that require such operation to save life or limb, the sentence, or any part thereof, may be suspended.

3. If any such offense of driving is a second or subsequent violation, such person shall be punished as provided in subdivision 2 of this subsection, irrespective of whether the offense, of itself, endangers the life, limb, or property of another.

E. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivisions 2 and 3 of subsection D, following conviction and prior to imposition of sentence with the consent of the defendant, the court may order the defendant to be evaluated for and to participate in the community corrections alternative program pursuant to § 19.2-316.4.

F. Any period of driver's license revocation imposed pursuant to this section shall not begin to expire until the person convicted has surrendered his license to the court or to the Department of Motor Vehicles.

G. Nothing in this section shall prohibit a person from operating any farm tractor on the highways when it is necessary to move the tractor from one tract of land used for agricultural purposes to another such tract of land when the distance between the tracts is no more than five miles.

H. Any person who operates a motor vehicle or any self-propelled machinery or equipment (i) while his license is revoked pursuant to subsection A or B, or (ii) in violation of the terms of a restricted license issued pursuant to subsection C, where the provisions of subsection D do not apply, shall be guilty of a violation of § 18.2-272.

Code 1950, § 46-417; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-421; 1960, c. 364; 1964, c. 194; 1968, c. 561; 1976, cc. 359, 612, 691; 1983, c. 504; 1984, cc. 658, 673, 780; 1987, c. 409; 1989, cc. 705, 727; 1990, c. 949; 1994, c. 573; 1995, c. 486; 1997, cc. 691, 706; 1999, cc. 945, 987; 2000, cc. 243, 956, 958, 959, 980, 982, 985; 2001, c. 739; 2004, cc. 461, 937, 951; 2013, cc. 415, 655; 2016, c. 230; 2019, c. 618.

§ 46.2-391.01. Administrative enforcement of ignition interlock requirements.

If the court, as a condition of license restoration or as a condition of a restricted license under subsection C or D of § 18.2-271.1 or § 46.2-391, or when required by § 18.2-270.1, fails to prohibit an offender from operating a motor vehicle that is not equipped with a functioning, certified ignition interlock system, the Commissioner shall enforce the requirements relating to installation of such systems in accordance with the provisions of § 18.2-270.1.

2001, c. 739; 2002, c. 811; 2014, c. 707; 2015, c. 729.

§ 46.2-391.1. Suspension of registration certificates and plates upon suspension or revocation of driver's license.

Whenever the Commissioner, under the authority of law of the Commonwealth, suspends or revokes the driver's license of any person upon receiving record of that person's conviction, the Commissioner shall also suspend all of the registration certificates and license plates issued for any motor vehicles registered solely in the name of such person and shall not issue any registration certificate or license plate for any other vehicle that such person seeks to register solely in his name. The Commissioner shall not suspend such registration certificates or license plates in the event that such person has previously given or gives and thereafter maintains proof of his financial responsibility in the future, in the manner specified in this chapter, with respect to each and every motor vehicle owned and registered by such person. In this event it shall be lawful for said vehicle or vehicles to be operated during this period of suspension by any duly licensed driver when so authorized by the owner.

1992, c. 109; 1994, cc. 841, 945; 2020, cc. 964, 965.

§ 46.2-391.2. Administrative suspension of license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle.

A. If a breath test is taken pursuant to § 18.2-268.2 or any similar ordinance or § 46.2-341.26:2 and (i) the results show a blood alcohol content of 0.08 percent or more by weight by volume or 0.08 grams or more per 210 liters of breath, or (ii) the results, for persons under 21 years of age, show a blood alcohol concentration of 0.02 percent or more by weight by volume or 0.02 grams or more per 210 liters of breath or (iii) the person refuses to submit to the breath or blood test in violation of § 18.2-268.3 or any similar ordinance or § 46.2-341.26:3, and upon issuance of a petition or summons, or upon issuance of a warrant by the magistrate, for a violation of § 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266, or 18.2-266.1, or any similar ordinance, or § 46.2-341.24 or upon the issuance of a warrant or summons by the magistrate or by the arresting officer at a medical facility for a violation of § 18.2-268.3, or any similar ordinance, or § 46.2-341.26:3, the person's license shall be suspended immediately or in the case of (a) an unlicensed person, (b) a person whose license is otherwise suspended or revoked, or (c) a person whose driver's license is from a jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth, such person's privilege to operate a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth shall be suspended immediately. The period of suspension of the person's license or privilege to drive shall be seven days, unless the petition, summons or warrant issued charges the person with a second or subsequent offense. If the person is charged with a second offense the suspension shall be for 60 days. If not already expired, the period of suspension shall expire on the day and time of trial of the offense charged on the petition, summons or warrant, except that it shall not so expire during the first seven days of the suspension. If the person is charged with a third or subsequent offense, the suspension shall be until the day and time of trial of the offense charged on the petition, summons or warrant.

A law-enforcement officer, acting on behalf of the Commonwealth, shall serve a notice of suspension personally on the arrested person. When notice is served, the arresting officer shall promptly take possession of any driver's license held by the person and issued by the Commonwealth and shall promptly deliver it to the magistrate. Any driver's license taken into possession under this section shall be forwarded promptly by the magistrate to the clerk of the general district court or, as appropriate, the court with jurisdiction over juveniles of the jurisdiction in which the arrest was made together with any petition, summons or warrant, the results of the breath test, if any, and the report required by subsection B. A copy of the notice of suspension shall be forwarded forthwith to both (1) the general district court or, as appropriate, the court with jurisdiction over juveniles of the jurisdiction in which the arrest was made and (2) the Commissioner. Transmission of this information may be made by electronic means.

The clerk shall promptly return the suspended license to the person at the expiration of the suspension. Whenever a suspended license is to be returned under this section or § 46.2-391.4, the person may elect to have the license returned in person at the clerk's office or by mail to the address on the person's license or to such other address as he may request.

B. Promptly after arrest and service of the notice of suspension, the arresting officer shall forward to the magistrate a sworn report of the arrest that shall include (i) information which adequately identifies the person arrested and (ii) a statement setting forth the arresting officer's grounds for belief that the person violated § 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266, or 18.2-266.1, or a similar ordinance, or § 46.2-341.24 or refused to submit to a breath or blood test in violation of § 18.2-268.3 or a similar ordinance or § 46.2-341.26:3. The report required by this subsection shall be submitted on forms supplied by the Supreme Court.

C. Any person whose license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle has been suspended under subsection A may, during the period of the suspension, request the general district court or, as appropriate, the court with jurisdiction over juveniles of the jurisdiction in which the arrest was made to review that suspension. The court shall review the suspension within the same time period as the court hears an appeal from an order denying bail or fixing terms of bail or terms of recognizance, giving this matter precedence over all other matters on its docket. If the person proves to the court by a preponderance of the evidence that the arresting officer did not have probable cause for the arrest, that the magistrate did not have probable cause to issue the warrant, or that there was not probable cause for issuance of the petition, the court shall rescind the suspension, or that portion of it that exceeds seven days if there was not probable cause to charge a second offense or 60 days if there was not probable cause to charge a third or subsequent offense, and the clerk of the court shall forthwith, or at the expiration of the reduced suspension time, (i) return the suspended license, if any, to the person unless the license has been otherwise suspended or revoked, (ii) deliver to the person a notice that the suspension under § 46.2-391.2 has been rescinded or reduced, and (iii) forward to the Commissioner a copy of the notice that the suspension under § 46.2-391.2 has been rescinded or reduced. Otherwise, the court shall affirm the suspension. If the person requesting the review fails to appear without just cause, his right to review shall be waived.

The court's findings are without prejudice to the person contesting the suspension or to any other potential party as to any proceedings, civil or criminal, and shall not be evidence in any proceedings, civil or criminal.

D. If a person whose license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle is suspended under subsection A is convicted under § 18.2-36.1, 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266, or 18.2-266.1 or subdivision A 1 or B 1 of § 18.2-268.3, or any similar ordinance, or § 46.2-341.24 during the suspension imposed by subsection A, and if the court decides to issue the person a restricted permit under subsection E of § 18.2-271.1 or subsection E of § 18.2-268.3, such restricted permit shall not be issued to the person before the expiration of the first seven days of the suspension imposed under subsection A.

1994, cc. 359, 363; 1996, cc. 865, 1007; 1997, c. 691; 2001, c. 779; 2003, c. 605; 2004, cc. 937, 960; 2005, cc. 757, 840; 2014, c. 707; 2017, c. 623; 2020, c. 341.

§ 46.2-391.3. Content of notice of suspension.

A notice of suspension issued pursuant to § 46.2-391.2 shall clearly specify (i) the reason and statutory grounds for the suspension, (ii) the effective date and duration of the suspension, (iii) the right of the offender to request a review of that suspension by the appropriate district court of the jurisdiction in which the arrest was made, and (iv) the procedures for requesting such a review.

1994, cc. 359, 363.

§ 46.2-391.4. When suspension to be rescinded.

Notwithstanding any other provision of § 46.2-391.2, a subsequent dismissal or acquittal of all the charges under § 18.2-36.1, 18.2-51.4, 18.2-266, or 18.2-268.3, or any similar ordinances, or § 46.2-341.24 or 46.2-341.26:3 for the same offense for which a person's driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle was suspended under § 46.2-391.2 shall result in the immediate rescission of the suspension. In any such case, the clerk of the court shall forthwith (i) return the suspended license, if any, to the person unless the license has been otherwise suspended or revoked; (ii) deliver to the person a notice that the suspension under § 46.2-391.2 has been rescinded; and (iii) forward to the Commissioner a copy of the notice that the suspension under § 46.2-391.2 has been rescinded.

1994, cc. 359, 363; 1997, c. 691; 2005, cc. 757, 840; 2017, c. 623.

§ 46.2-391.5. Preparation and distribution of forms.

The Supreme Court shall develop policies and regulations pertaining to the notice of suspension under subsection A of § 46.2-391.2 and the notice that the suspension has been rescinded under subsection C of § 46.2-391.2 and § 46.2-391.4, and shall furnish appropriate forms to all law-enforcement officers and district courts, respectively.

1994, cc. 359, 363.

§ 46.2-392. Suspension of license or issuance of a restricted license on conviction of reckless or aggressive driving; probationary conditions required; generally.

In addition to the penalties for reckless driving prescribed in § 46.2-868 and the penalties for aggressive driving prescribed in § 46.2-868.1, the court may suspend the driver's license issued to a person convicted of reckless driving or aggressive driving for a period of not less than 10 days nor more than six months and the court shall require the convicted person to surrender his license so suspended to the court where it will be disposed of in accordance with § 46.2-398.

Additionally, any person convicted of a reckless driving offense which the court has reason to believe is alcohol-related or drug-related may be required as a condition of probation or otherwise to enter into and successfully complete an alcohol safety action program. If the court suspends a person's driver's license for reckless driving and requires the person to enter into and successfully complete an alcohol safety action program, the Commissioner shall not reinstate the driver's license of the person until receipt of certification that the person has enrolled in an alcohol safety action program.

If a person so convicted has not obtained the license required by this chapter, or is a nonresident, the court may direct in the judgment of conviction that he shall not, for a period of not less than 10 days or more than six months as may be prescribed in the judgment, drive any motor vehicle in the Commonwealth. The court or the clerk of court shall transmit the license to the Commissioner along with the report of the conviction required to be sent to the Department.

The court may, in its discretion and for good cause shown, provide that such person be issued a restricted permit to operate a motor vehicle during the period of suspension for any of the purposes set forth in subsection E of § 18.2-271.1. The court shall order the surrender of such person's license to operate a motor vehicle to be disposed of in accordance with the provisions of § 46.2-398 and shall forward to the Commissioner a copy of its order entered pursuant to this subsection, which shall specifically enumerate the restrictions imposed and contain such information regarding the person to whom such a permit is issued as is reasonably necessary to identify such person. The court shall also provide a copy of its order to the person who may operate a motor vehicle on the order until receipt from the Commissioner of a restricted license. A copy of such order and, after receipt thereof, the restricted license shall be carried at all times while operating a motor vehicle. Any person who operates a motor vehicle in violation of any restrictions imposed pursuant to this section shall be punished as provided in subsection C of § 46.2-301. No restricted license issued pursuant to this section shall permit any person to operate a commercial motor vehicle as defined in the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.).

Code 1950, § 46-210; 1950, p. 691; 1952, Ex. Sess., c. 16; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-422; 1981, c. 237; 1989, c. 727; 1996, c. 615; 2000, c. 342; 2001, cc. 645, 779; 2004, c. 361; 2007, c. 432.

§ 46.2-393. Suspension of license on conviction of certain reckless offenses; restricted licenses.

A. When any person is convicted of reckless driving as provided in §§ 46.2-853 through 46.2-864, in addition to any penalties provided by law, the driver's license of the person may be suspended by the court for a period of not less than 60 days nor more than six months. In case of conviction the court shall order the surrender of the license to the court where it shall be disposed of in accordance with the provisions of § 46.2-398. If the person so convicted has not obtained a license required by this chapter or is a nonresident, the court shall direct in the judgment of conviction that the person shall not drive any motor vehicle in the Commonwealth for a period of not less than 60 days nor more than six months.

B. The court may, in its discretion and for good cause shown, provide that such person be issued a restricted permit to operate a motor vehicle during the period of suspension for any of the purposes set forth in subsection E of § 18.2-271.1. The court shall forward to the Commissioner a copy of its order entered pursuant to this section, which shall specifically enumerate the restrictions imposed and contain such information regarding the person to whom such a permit is issued as is reasonably necessary to identify such person. The court shall also provide a copy of its order to the person who may operate a motor vehicle on the order until receipt from the Commissioner of a restricted license. A copy of such order and, after receipt thereof, the restricted license shall be carried at all times while operating a motor vehicle. Any person who operates a motor vehicle in violation of any restrictions imposed pursuant to this section shall be punished as provided in subsection C of § 46.2-301. No restricted license issued pursuant to this section shall permit any person to operate a commercial motor vehicle as defined in the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.).

Code 1950, § 46-209.1; 1954, c. 401; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-423; 1960, c. 200; 1966, c. 694; 1974, c. 453; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 2004, c. 115; 2005, c. 152.

§ 46.2-394. Revocation of license for fourth conviction of certain offenses.

If any person is convicted four times of a violation of §§ 46.2-865, 46.2-894, or § 46.2-895, or any substantially similar ordinance or law of any other jurisdiction, the court shall revoke his driver's license for five years.

1962, c. 424, § 46.1-423.2; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 1997, c. 691; 2000, cc. 956, 982.

§ 46.2-395. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2020, cc. 964 and 965, cl. 2.

§ 46.2-396. Suspension of license for reckless driving resulting in death of any person.

When any person is convicted of reckless driving as provided for in §§ 46.2-853 through 46.2-864 and the reckless driving was the cause of the death of any person, then in addition to any other penalties provided by law, the driver's license of the person may be suspended by the court for no more than twelve months. In case of conviction the court may order the surrender of the license to the court where it shall be disposed of in accordance with the provisions of § 46.2-398. If the person so convicted has not obtained a license required by this chapter or is a nonresident, the court may direct in the judgment of conviction that the person shall not drive any motor vehicle in the Commonwealth for a period not to exceed twelve months. The fact of the suspension shall not be admissible as evidence in any related civil proceeding.

1976, c. 320, § 46.1-423.4; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-396.1. Conviction of serious driving offense.

Upon the conviction of a traffic offense that causes the death of any person and which (i) the Commissioner has designated a serious traffic offense, a relatively serious traffic offense, or a traffic offense of a less serious nature under § 46.2-492 or (ii) constitutes any criminal offense in this title, the court may suspend the driver's license of the person convicted for not more than twelve months, in addition to any other penalties provided by law and may order the surrender of his license to the court to be disposed of in accordance with § 46.2-398. In those cases where the court determines it is appropriate, the court may provide that any individual whose license is suspended pursuant to this section be issued a restricted license to operate a motor vehicle for any of the purposes set forth in subsection E of § 18.2-271.1 during the term of suspension. If the convicted driver does not have a driver's license, as defined in § 46.2-100, or is a nonresident, the court may order the driver not to drive any motor vehicle in the Commonwealth for not more than twelve months.

2002, c. 849.

§ 46.2-397. Suspension of license for certain violations while transporting explosives, inflammable gas or liquid.

When the driver of any motor vehicle is convicted of any violation of §§ 46.2-816, 46.2-820 through 46.2-823, 46.2-825, 46.2-826 or §§ 46.2-852 through 46.2-864, or of any of the applicable speed limits prescribed in §§ 46.2-870 through 46.2-878 and the violation was committed while driving a motor vehicle, tractor truck, trailer, or semitrailer, transporting explosives or any inflammable gas or liquid, in addition to any penalty imposed, the court may suspend the driver's license of the convicted person for a period of ninety days from the date of conviction.

Code 1950, § 46-197.2; 1954, c. 377; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-424; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-398. Disposition of surrendered licenses on revocation or suspension.

In any case in which the accused is convicted of an offense, on the conviction of which the law requires or permits revocation or suspension of the driver's license of the person so convicted, the court shall order the surrender of such license, which shall remain in the custody of the court during the period of revocation or suspension if the period does not exceed 30 days.

If the revocation or suspension period exceeds 30 days, and the conviction was obtained in a court not of record, the license shall remain in the custody of that court (i) until the time allowed by law for an appeal to the circuit court has elapsed, when it shall be forwarded to the Commissioner, or (ii) until an appeal to the circuit court is noted, at which time it shall be returned to the accused.

If the revocation or suspension period exceeds 30 days, and the conviction was obtained in the circuit court, the circuit court shall forward the license to the Commissioner forthwith upon the conviction.

For any revocation or suspension of a privilege to drive in Virginia of a person who does not have a Virginia driver's license but who does have a valid driver's license from another jurisdiction, the court shall not order the physical surrender of such license.

Code 1950, § 46-195.1; 1952, c. 66; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-425; 1973, c. 164; 1977, c. 585; 1982, c. 673; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 2005, c. 943; 2011, c. 271.

§ 46.2-398.1. Issuance of restricted driver's privilege to out-of-state licensees.

When the operator of any motor vehicle who is not licensed to drive in Virginia, but who has a valid driver's license from another jurisdiction, is convicted in Virginia of any violation for which license suspension and issuance of a restricted license to a Virginia driver is authorized, the court may issue him a restricted driving privilege in Virginia upon the same conditions as if the person held a valid Virginia license. The court order, and any writing or communication setting forth the person's restricted privilege, shall include clear language indicating that the person is not a licensed Virginia driver.

2010, c. 493.

§ 46.2-399. Revocation of license for improper use or failure to pay certain taxes.

The Department shall revoke a driver's license whenever the person to whom the license has been issued makes or permits to be made an unlawful use of it or permits the use of it by a person not entitled to it or fails or refuses to pay within the time prescribed by law, any lawful taxes due the Commonwealth imposed under Chapter 27 of Title 58.1.

Code 1950, § 46-379; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-426; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-400. Suspension of license of person not competent to drive; restoration of license; duty of clerk of the court.

A. The Commissioner, on receipt of notice from a court, shall suspend the license of any person who has been legally adjudged to be incapacitated in accordance with Article 1 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.) of Chapter 20 of Title 64.2. No driver's license shall be issued to any applicant who has previously been adjudged incapacitated and not competent to drive unless, at the time of such application, (i) the applicant has been adjudged restored to capacity by judicial decree or has a court order restoring or retaining the privilege to drive and (ii) the Department is satisfied that the applicant is competent to drive a motor vehicle with safety to persons and property pursuant to § 46.2-322 or 46.2-325. The clerk of the court in which the adjudication is made shall send a certified copy or abstract of such adjudication to the Commissioner.

B. The Commissioner shall not suspend the license or prior privilege to drive of any person legally adjudged to be incapacitated in accordance with Article 1 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.) of Chapter 20 of Title 64.2, where the court order specifically permits such person to retain his driver's license or the privilege to drive or to apply for such license. In such case, the clerk of the court in which the adjudication is made shall not send a copy of the order to the Commissioner. However, a court may order any person adjudicated legally incapacitated to submit to an examination pursuant to § 46.2-322 or 46.2-325. In such case, the clerk of the court shall forward a copy of the order requiring an examination to the Department. Upon completion of the examination, the Department shall take whatever action may be appropriate and may (i) suspend the license or privilege to drive a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth, (ii) permit the examinee to retain his license or privilege to drive a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth, or (iii) issue a license subject to the restrictions authorized by § 46.2-329.

C. Upon receipt of notice that a person has been discharged from a facility operated or licensed by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services and is, in the opinion of the authorities of the facility, not competent because of mental illness, intellectual disability, alcoholism, or drug addiction to drive a motor vehicle with safety to persons or property, the Commissioner shall forthwith suspend his license; however he shall not suspend the license if the person has been adjudged competent by judicial order or decree. The Commissioner shall require any person whose license has been suspended pursuant to this subsection to submit to an examination pursuant to § 46.2-322 or 46.2-325.

In any case in which the person's license has been suspended prior to his discharge, it shall not be returned to him unless the Commissioner is satisfied, after an examination pursuant to § 46.2-322 or 46.2-325, that the person is competent to drive a motor vehicle with safety to persons and property.

The facility operated or licensed by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services shall send the necessary information to the Commissioner to initiate the examination process pursuant to § 46.2-322 or 46.2-325.

D. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Department reserves the right to examine any licensed driver, any person applying for a driver's license or renewal thereof, or any person whose license has been suspended or revoked to determine his fitness to drive a motor vehicle pursuant to § 46.2-322 or 46.2-325.

Code 1950, § 46-418; 1950, p. 949; 1954, c. 213; 1958, cc. 154, 541, § 46.1-427; 1964, c. 230; 1987, c. 413; 1988, c. 78; 1989, c. 727; 1997, c. 921; 2009, cc. 813, 840; 2012, cc. 476, 507; 2017, c. 156.

§ 46.2-401. Reports to Commissioner of discharge of individuals from state facilities.

Whenever practicable, at least 10 days prior to the time when any individual is to be discharged from any facility operated or licensed by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, if the mental condition of the individual is, because of mental illness, intellectual disability, alcoholism, or drug addiction, in the judgment of the director or chief medical officer of the facility such as to prevent him from being competent to drive a motor vehicle with safety to persons and property, the director or chief medical officer shall forthwith report to the Commissioner, in sufficient detail for accurate identification, the date of discharge of the individual, together with a statement concerning his ability to drive a motor vehicle.

Code 1950, § 46-419; 1954, c. 293; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-429; 1964, c. 230; 1987, c. 413; 1989, c. 727; 2009, cc. 813, 840; 2012, cc. 476, 507.

§ 46.2-402. When Commissioner may suspend or revoke license for not more than one year after hearing.

A. The Commissioner may, after due hearing, after giving not less than five days' written notice by registered letter to the most recent address of the driver on file at the Department, suspend or revoke for not more than one year and not thereafter reissue during the period of suspension or revocation the Virginia driver's license issued to any person whenever it is satisfactorily proved at the hearing conducted by the Commissioner or other personnel of the Department designated by him, that the licensee under charges:

1. Has, by reckless or unlawful operation of a motor vehicle, caused or contributed to an accident resulting in death or injury to any other person or in serious property damage,

2. Is incompetent to drive a motor vehicle,

3. Suffers from mental or physical infirmities or disabilities rendering it unsafe for him to drive a motor vehicle on the highways,

4. Is habitually a reckless or negligent driver of a motor vehicle, or

5. Has committed a serious violation of the motor vehicle laws of this Commonwealth.

B. The Commissioner, in determining the propriety of suspending or revoking a license as provided in this section, may take into consideration facts and conditions antedating the issuance of the current license.

Code 1950, § 46-420; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-430; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 1996, cc. 943, 994.

§ 46.2-403. Contents of notice of hearing.

A. The notice of a hearing when mailed to any person, as provided in § 46.2-402 shall contain:

1. A specific statement of the alleged offense or offenses or other grounds for suspension or revocation of the license, including the date, time and place thereof when applicable;

2. The date, time and place of the hearing;

3. The names and addresses of all known witnesses whose testimony is proposed to be taken at the hearing;

4. As to any record of conviction of any offense which is to be offered as evidence, the date of the conviction and the court in which the same was had.

B. If these requirements are complied with it shall be sufficient regardless of whether the licensee appeared and regardless of whether the notice was ever received.

Code 1950, § 46-421; 1952, c. 544; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-431; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-404. Where and before whom hearing held.

The hearing shall be in the county or city where the licensee resides or in the county or city in which the licensee works or, with the consent of the licensee, in any other county or city to which the county or city of his residence is contiguous. The hearing shall be before the Commissioner or any of the personnel of the Department designated by him.

Code 1950, § 46-422; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-432; 1978, c. 563; 1980, c. 10; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-405. How hearings to be conducted.

A. In any such hearing all relevant and material evidence shall be received, except that: (i) the rules relating to privileged communications and privileged topics shall be observed; (ii) hearsay evidence shall be received only according to the rules of evidence prevailing in courts of record; and (iii) secondary evidence of the contents of a document shall be received only if the original is not readily available.

B. All reports of inspectors and subordinates of the Department and other records and documents in the possession of the Department bearing on the case subject to the provisions of subsection A of this section shall be introduced at the hearing. Any certified copy of any conviction forwarded to the Commissioner under the provisions of § 46.2-383, shall be prima facie evidence of the conviction, and may be introduced in evidence.

C. Subject to the provisions of subsection A of this section, every party shall have the right to cross-examine adverse witnesses and any inspector or subordinate of the Department whose report is in evidence, and to submit rebuttal evidence.

D. The decision shall be based only on evidence received at the hearing and matters of which a court of record could take judicial notice.

Code 1950, § 46-422.1; 1952, c. 544; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-433; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-406. Appointment and authority of hearing officers.

The Commissioner may appoint one or more persons to conduct the hearings provided for in this title. The hearing officers are hereby authorized to administer oaths, take acknowledgments and affidavits, take testimony and depositions, and perform other duties which are incidental to conducting the hearings.

1958, c. 541, § 46.1-434; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-407. Form and contents of decision; copies.

Any decision or order of the Commissioner to be valid must be reduced to writing and contain the explicit findings of fact and conclusions of law upon which the decision or order of the Commissioner is based. Certified copies of the decision or order shall be delivered to any party affected by it.

Code 1950, § 46-422.2; 1952, c. 544; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-435; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-408. When Commissioner may suspend or revoke license for no more than five years.

On any reasonable ground appearing in the records of the Department, the Commissioner may, when he deems it necessary for the safety of the public on the highways in the Commonwealth and after notice as provided in § 46.2-403 and hearing as provided in §§ 46.2-404, 46.2-405, 46.2-406 and 46.2-407 suspend or revoke for no more than five years, and not reissue during the period of suspension or revocation, the driver's license of any person who is a violator of any of the provisions of this title punishable as felonies, misdemeanors, or traffic infractions and he may suspend or revoke for a like period, and not reissue during the period of suspension or revocation, any or all of his registration cards and license plates for any motor vehicle.

Code 1950, § 46-423; 1952, c. 544; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-436; 1974, c. 453; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-409. Certain abstracts of conviction to be prima facie evidence of conviction.

In any administrative hearing conducted by the Commissioner or his designee pursuant to this article, an abstract showing a conviction of the violation of any of the provisions of this title, submitted as provided by § 46.2-383 by the court in which the conviction was had, shall be prima facie evidence that the person named in the abstract was duly convicted of the violation, and the burden shall be on any person challenging the propriety of the conviction to show that the conviction was improper.

1966, c. 183, § 46.1-436.1; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-410. Appeals from order suspending or revoking license or registration.

Any person aggrieved by an order or act of the Commissioner requiring suspension or revocation of a license or registration under the provisions of this chapter is entitled to judicial review in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). No appeal shall lie in any case in which the suspension or revocation of the license or registration was mandatory except to determine the identity of the person concerned when the question of identity is in dispute.

From the final decision of the circuit court, either the person who petitioned the court for an appeal or the Commissioner shall have an appeal as of right to the Court of Appeals.

Code 1950, § 46-424; 1952, c. 544; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-437; 1960, c. 511; 1984, cc. 673, 703; 1986, c. 615; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-410.1. Judicial review of revocation or suspension by Commissioner.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-410, when the Commissioner orders a revocation or suspension of a person's driver's license under the provisions of this chapter, the person so aggrieved may, in cases of manifest injustice, within 60 days of receipt of notice of the suspension or revocation, petition the circuit court of the jurisdiction wherein he resides for a hearing to review the Commissioner's order. Manifest injustice is defined as those instances where the Commissioner's order was the result of an error or was issued without authority or jurisdiction. The person shall provide notice of his petition to the attorney for the Commonwealth of that jurisdiction.

B. At the hearing on the petition, if the court finds that the Commissioner's order is manifestly unjust the court may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, order the Commissioner to modify the order or issue the person a restricted license in accordance with the provisions of § 18.2-271.1. For any action under this section, no appeal shall lie from the determination of the circuit court.

C. This section shall not apply to any disqualification of eligibility to operate a commercial motor vehicle imposed by the Commissioner pursuant to Article 6.1 (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.).

2001, cc. 739, 749; 2002, c. 811; 2020, cc. 740, 741.

§ 46.2-410.2. License suspension or revocation by Commissioner; offenses under the laws of other jurisdictions.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Commissioner shall not administratively revoke or suspend the driver's license of any person on the basis of receiving a record of such person's conviction for any offense under the laws of another jurisdiction that would otherwise require the Commissioner to revoke or suspend such person's driver's license unless such offense is substantially similar to an offense under the laws of the Commonwealth or a county, city, or town ordinance. Whenever the Commissioner is required to determine whether the law of another jurisdiction is substantially similar to the laws of the Commonwealth, or a county, city, or town ordinance, such determination shall be based only on the text of the other jurisdiction's law without reference to the particular circumstances of any conviction under such other jurisdiction's laws. However, if the Commissioner cannot reasonably determine from the text of the other jurisdiction's law whether such law is substantially similar to the laws of the Commonwealth, or a county, city, or town ordinance, the Commissioner may, if available, review a certified copy of the final order of the person's conviction in order to make such determination.

2017, c. 776.

§ 46.2-411. Reinstatement of suspended or revoked license or other privilege to operate or register a motor vehicle; proof of financial responsibility; reinstatement fee.

A. The Commissioner may refuse, after a hearing if demanded, to issue to any person whose license has been suspended or revoked any new or renewal license, or to register any motor vehicle in the name of the person, whenever he deems or in case of a hearing finds it necessary for the safety of the public on the highways in the Commonwealth.

B. Before granting or restoring a license or registration to any person whose driver's license or other privilege to drive motor vehicles or privilege to register a motor vehicle has been revoked or suspended pursuant to § 46.2-389, 46.2-391, 46.2-391.1, or 46.2-417, the Commissioner shall require proof of financial responsibility in the future as provided in Article 15 (§ 46.2-435 et seq.), but no person shall be licensed who may not be licensed under the provisions of §§ 46.2-389 through 46.2-431.

C. Whenever the driver's license or registration cards, license plates and decals, or other privilege to drive or to register motor vehicles of any resident or nonresident person is suspended or revoked by the Commissioner or by a district court or circuit court pursuant to the provisions of Title 18.2 or this title, or any valid local ordinance, the order of suspension or revocation shall remain in effect and the driver's license, registration cards, license plates and decals, or other privilege to drive or register motor vehicles shall not be reinstated and no new driver's license, registration cards, license plates and decals, or other privilege to drive or register motor vehicles shall be issued or granted unless such person, in addition to complying with all other provisions of law, pays to the Commissioner a reinstatement fee of $30. The reinstatement fee shall be increased by $30 whenever such suspension or revocation results from conviction of involuntary manslaughter in violation of § 18.2-36.1; conviction of maiming resulting from driving while intoxicated in violation of § 18.2-51.4; conviction of driving while intoxicated in violation of § 18.2-266 or 46.2-341.24; conviction of driving after illegally consuming alcohol in violation of § 18.2-266.1 or failure to comply with court imposed conditions pursuant to subsection D of § 18.2-271.1; unreasonable refusal to submit to drug or alcohol testing in violation of § 18.2-268.2; conviction of driving while a license, permit or privilege to drive was suspended or revoked in violation of § 46.2-301 or 46.2-341.21; disqualification pursuant to § 46.2-341.20; violation of driver's license probation pursuant to § 46.2-499; failure to attend a driver improvement clinic pursuant to § 46.2-503 or interventions pursuant to former § 46.2-351.1; conviction of eluding police in violation of § 46.2-817; conviction of hit and run in violation of § 46.2-894; conviction of reckless driving in violation of Article 7 (§ 46.2-852 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of Title 46.2 or a conviction, finding or adjudication under any similar local ordinance, federal law or law of any other state. Five dollars of the additional amount shall be retained by the Department as provided in this section and $25 shall be transferred to the Commonwealth Neurotrauma Initiative Trust Fund established pursuant to Article 12 (§ 51.5-178 et seq.) of Chapter 14 of Title 51.5. When three years have elapsed from the termination date of the order of suspension or revocation and the person has complied with all other provisions of law, the Commissioner may relieve him of paying the reinstatement fee.

D. No reinstatement fee shall be required when the suspension or revocation of license results from the person's suffering from mental or physical infirmities or disabilities from natural causes not related to the use of self-administered intoxicants or drugs. No reinstatement fee shall be collected from any person whose license is suspended by a court of competent jurisdiction for any reason, other than a cause for mandatory suspension as provided in this title, provided the court ordering the suspension is not required by § 46.2-398 to forward the license to the Department during the suspended period.

E. Except as otherwise provided in this section and § 18.2-271.1, reinstatement fees collected under the provisions of this section shall be paid by the Commissioner into the state treasury and shall be set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department.

F. Before granting or restoring a license or registration to any person whose driver's license or other privilege to drive motor vehicles or privilege to register a motor vehicle has been revoked or suspended, the Commissioner shall collect from such person, in addition to all other fees provided for in this section, an additional fee of $40. The Commissioner shall pay all fees collected pursuant to this subsection into the Trauma Center Fund, created pursuant to § 18.2-270.01, for the purpose of defraying the costs of providing emergency medical care to victims of automobile accidents attributable to alcohol or drug use.

G. Whenever any person is required to pay a reinstatement fee pursuant to subsection C or pursuant to subsection E of § 18.2-271.1 and such person has more than one suspension or revocation on his record for which reinstatement is required, then such person shall be required to pay one reinstatement fee, the amount of which shall equal the full reinstatement fee attributable to the one of his revocations or suspensions that would trigger the highest reinstatement fee, plus an additional $5 fee for administrative costs associated with compliance for each additional suspension or revocation. Fees collected pursuant to this subsection shall be set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department.

Code 1950, § 46-425; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-438; 1973, c. 396; 1980, c. 29; 1982, c. 671; 1984, c. 780; 1987, c. 696; 1988, c. 860; 1989, c. 727; 1992, c. 109; 1998, c. 703; 1999, cc. 945, 987; 2002, c. 60; 2005, c. 886; 2011, cc. 54, 71; 2012, cc. 803, 835; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 463.

§ 46.2-411.1. Reinstatement of driver's license suspended or revoked for a conviction of driving while intoxicated.

A. Before restoring a driver's license to any person (i) whose license to drive a motor vehicle has been suspended or revoked as a result of a conviction for driving while intoxicated in violation of § 18.2-266, or of any substantially similar valid local ordinance or law of another jurisdiction, or of subsection A of § 46.2-341.24 and (ii) who has been required by a court order to successfully complete an alcohol safety action program pursuant to § 18.2-271.1 because of that conviction, the Commissioner shall require written confirmation that the person has successfully completed such program unless the requirement for completion of the program has been waived by the court for good cause shown.

B. Any person who drives a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth after the period of license suspension has expired and after all requirements for reinstatement have been satisfied except for successful completion of such program shall be guilty of a violation of § 46.2-300.

2000, cc. 959, 985; 2001, cc. 133, 160.

§ 46.2-412. Time suspension or revocation.

Every suspension or revocation shall remain in effect and the Commissioner shall not issue any new or renewal license or register in his name any motor vehicle, until permitted under the provisions of this chapter. When three years shall have elapsed from the date of the termination of the revocation provided by § 46.2-389 or § 46.2-391, or in the case of a suspension pursuant to the provisions of § 46.2-417, when three years has elapsed from the date of satisfaction of the judgment or judgments, the person may be relieved of giving proof of his financial responsibility in the future, provided he is not required to furnish or maintain proof of financial responsibility under any other provision of this chapter. The requirement of this section for giving and maintaining proof of financial responsibility shall not, however, apply in the case of a person whose license has been suspended under § 46.2-400.

Code 1950, § 46-426; 1958, cc. 154, 541, § 46.1-439; 1966, c. 377; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-413. Effect of reversal of conviction.

Reversal on appeal of any conviction because of which conviction any license or registration has been suspended or revoked pursuant to the provisions of this chapter shall entitle the holder to the restoration of his license or registration forthwith without proof of financial responsibility.

Code 1950, § 46-427; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-440; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-414. Commencement of periods for suspension or revocation of licenses, registration cards, or license plates.

Wherever it is provided in this title that the driver's license, registration cards, or license plates of any person be suspended or revoked for a period of time on conviction of certain offenses, or after a hearing before the Commissioner as provided by law, the period shall be counted from the date the conviction becomes final or after the order of the Commissioner, as a result of the hearing, becomes final. However, the provisions of this section shall not apply in any case where the person whose license is subject to suspension or revocation gives a false name or otherwise conceals his identity.

Code 1950, § 46-427.1; 1954, c. 222; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-441; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 2005, c. 565.

§ 46.2-415. United States magistrates and judges of district courts authorized to revoke or suspend driver's license under certain conditions.

When any person is found guilty of a violation of any traffic regulation by a United States magistrate or a judge of a district court of the United States, which violation occurred on a federal reservation, and, for which, if the violation had occurred on the highways in the Commonwealth, revocation or suspension of the person's driver's license would be mandatory or discretionary with a court of the Commonwealth, the magistrate or judge is authorized to revoke or suspend the person's driver's license, provided it is forwarded to the Commissioner as is provided by law as to courts of the Commonwealth.

1966, c. 591, § 46.1-441.1; 1976, c. 62; 1984, c. 780; 1985, c. 90; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-416. Notice of suspension or revocation of license.

A. Whenever it is provided in this title that a driver's license may or shall be suspended or revoked either by the Commissioner or by a court, notice of the suspension or revocation or any certified copy of the decision or order of the Commissioner may be sent by the Department by certified mail to the driver at the most recent address of the driver on file at the Department. If the certificate of the Commissioner or someone designated by him for that purpose shows that the notice or copy has been so sent or provided, it shall be deemed prima facie evidence that the notice or copy has been sent and delivered or otherwise provided to the driver for all purposes involving the application of the provisions of this title. In the discretion of the Commissioner, service may be made as provided in § 8.01-296, which service on the driver shall be made by delivery in writing to the driver in person in accordance with subdivision 1 of § 8.01-296 by a sheriff or deputy sheriff in the county or city in which the address is located, who shall, as directed by the Commissioner, take possession of any suspended or revoked license, registration card, or set of license plates or decals and return them to the office of the Commissioner. No such service shall be made if, prior to service, the driver has complied with the requirement which caused the issuance of the decision or order. In any such case, return shall be made to the Commissioner.

B. In lieu of making a direct payment to sheriffs as a fee for delivery of the Department's processes, the Commissioner shall effect a transfer of funds, on a monthly basis, to the Compensation Board to be used to provide additional support to sheriffs' departments. The amount of funds so transferred shall be as provided in the general appropriation act.

C. The Department may contract with the United States Postal Service or an authorized agent to use the National Change of Address System for the purpose of obtaining current address information for a person whose name appears in customer records maintained by the Department. If the Department receives information from the National Change of Address System indicating that a person whose name appears in a Department record has submitted a permanent change of address to the Postal Service, the Department may then update its records with the mailing address obtained from the National Change of Address System.

1968, c. 144, § 46.1-441.2; 1980, c. 704; 1981, c. 619; 1984, c. 780; 1985, c. 231; 1989, cc. 439, 727; 1993, c. 24; 1994, c. 345; 1996, cc. 943, 994; 2001, c. 414; 2010, cc. 25, 55; 2012, c. 615; 2020, cc. 964, 965.

§ 46.2-416.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2020, cc. 740 and 741 cl. 2.

Article 13. Suspension of Licenses for Unsatisfied Judgments and After Certain Accidents

§ 46.2-417. Suspension for failure to satisfy motor vehicle accident judgment; exceptions; insurance in liquidated company; insurer obligated to pay judgment.

A. Upon the application of any judgment creditor, the Commissioner shall suspend the driver's license and all of the registration certificates and license plates of any person who has failed for 30 days to satisfy any judgment (i) in an amount and on a cause of action as hereinafter stated in this subsection or (ii) in an amount and on a cause of action pursuant to § 15.2-1716 or 15.2-1716.1, immediately upon receiving an authenticated judgment order or abstract thereof in an action for damages in a motor vehicle accident or pursuant to § 15.2-1716 or 15.2-1716.1, if the order or abstract is received by the Commissioner within 10 years of the date of judgment or if the judgment has been revived. However, if judgment is marked satisfied on the court records on or before the Commissioner's issuance of suspension, the order of suspension shall be invalid.

B. The Commissioner shall not, however, suspend the license of an owner or driver if the insurance carried by him was in a company which was authorized to transact business in this Commonwealth and which subsequent to an accident involving the owner or driver and prior to settlement of the claim therefor went into liquidation, so that the owner or driver is thereby unable to satisfy the judgment arising out of the accident.

C. The Commissioner shall not suspend the driver's license or driving privilege or any registration certificate, license plates, or decals under clause (i) of subsection A or § 46.2-418, if the Commissioner finds that an insurer authorized to do business in the Commonwealth was obligated to pay the judgment upon which suspension is based, or that a policy of the insurer covers the person subject to the suspension, if the insurer's obligation or the limits of the policy are in an amount sufficient to meet the minimum amounts required by § 46.2-472, even though the insurer has not paid the judgment for any reason. A finding by the Commissioner that an insurer is obligated to pay a judgment, or that a policy of an insurer covers the person, shall not be binding upon the insurer and shall have no legal effect whatever except for the purpose of administering this article. Whenever in any judicial proceeding it is determined by any final judgment, decree, or order that an insurer is not obligated to pay the judgment, the Commissioner, notwithstanding any contrary finding made by him, forthwith shall suspend the driver's license or driving privilege, or any registration card, license plates or decals of any person against whom the judgment was rendered, as provided in subsection A.

D. Any suspensions timely requested by any judgment creditor under subsection A and issued by the Commissioner shall not extend (i) beyond 10 years from the date of judgment for any civil judgment obtained in a general district court, unless the judgment creditor notifies the Commissioner that an extension has been granted as provided in subdivision B 4 of § 16.1-69.55 or (ii) beyond 20 years from the date of judgment for any civil judgment obtained in a circuit court, unless the judgment creditor notifies the Commissioner that an extension has been granted as provided in § 8.01-251. The expiration of such suspension shall not relieve the judgment debtor of complying with the requirements of proof of financial responsibility pursuant to subsection B of § 46.2-411 and the reinstatement fees pursuant to subsections C and F of § 46.2-411 after the judgment debtor becomes eligible for restoration of his driving privileges.

Code 1950, § 46-430; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-442; 1973, c. 394; 1974, cc. 49, 360; 1984, c. 780; 1988, c. 860; 1989, c. 727; 1992, c. 109; 2004, c. 998; 2013, c. 598.

§ 46.2-418. Nonpayment of judgments of Virginia and other states.

The Commissioner shall take action as required in § 46.2-417 on receiving proper evidence that the person has failed for a period of thirty days to satisfy any judgment, in amount and on a cause of action as stated in §§ 46.2-364 and 46.2-417, rendered by a court of competent jurisdiction of the Commonwealth, any other state of the United States, the United States, Canada or its provinces.

Code 1950, § 46-430; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-443; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-419. (Effective until January 1, 2022) When judgment satisfied.

A. Every judgment for damages in any motor vehicle accident referred to in this chapter shall, for the purpose of this chapter, be satisfied:

1. When paid in full or when $25,000 has been credited upon any judgment or judgments rendered in excess of that amount because of bodily injury to or death of one person as the result of any one accident;

2. When, subject to the limit of $25,000 because of bodily injury to or death of one person, the judgment has been paid in full or when the sum of $50,000 has been credited upon any judgment or judgments rendered in excess of that amount because of bodily injury to or death of two or more persons as the result of any one accident;

3. When the judgment has been paid in full or when $20,000 has been credited upon any judgment or judgments rendered in excess of that amount because of injury to or destruction of property of others as a result of any one accident; or

4. When the judgment has been discharged in bankruptcy.

B. Payments made in settlement of any claims because of bodily injury, death or property damage arising from a motor vehicle accident shall be credited in reduction of the amount provided in this section.

Code 1950, § 46-431; 1954, c. 378; 1958, cc. 501, 541, § 46.1-444; 1968, c. 685; 1970, c. 272; 1972, cc. 47, 433; 1975, c. 382; 1978, c. 550; 1989, cc. 621, 727.

§ 46.2-419. (Effective January 1, 2022) When judgment satisfied.

A. For all policies effective on or after January 1, 2022, but prior to January 1, 2025, every judgment for damages in any motor vehicle accident referred to in this chapter shall, for the purpose of this chapter, be satisfied:

1. When paid in full or when $30,000 has been credited upon any judgment or judgments rendered in excess of that amount because of bodily injury to or death of one person as the result of any one accident;

2. When, subject to the limit of $30,000 because of bodily injury to or death of one person, the judgment has been paid in full or when the sum of $60,000 has been credited upon any judgment or judgments rendered in excess of that amount because of bodily injury to or death of two or more persons as the result of any one accident;

3. When the judgment has been paid in full or when $20,000 has been credited upon any judgment or judgments rendered in excess of that amount because of injury to or destruction of property of others as a result of any one accident; or

4. When the judgment has been discharged in bankruptcy.

B. For all policies effective on or after January 1, 2025, every judgment for damages in any motor vehicle accident referred to in this chapter shall, for the purposes of this chapter, be satisfied:

1. When paid in full or when $50,000 has been credited upon any judgment or judgments rendered in excess of that amount because of bodily injury to or death of one person as the result of any one accident;

2. When, subject to the limit of $50,000 because of bodily injury to or death of one person, the judgment has been paid in full or when the sum of $100,000 has been credited upon any judgment or judgments rendered in excess of that amount because of bodily injury to or death of two or more persons as the result of any one accident;

3. When the judgment has been paid in full or when $25,000 has been credited upon any judgment or judgments rendered in excess of that amount because of injury to or destruction of property of others as a result of any one accident; or

4. When the judgment has been discharged in bankruptcy.

C. Payments made in settlement of any claims because of bodily injury, death or property damage arising from a motor vehicle accident shall be credited in reduction of the amount provided in this section.

Code 1950, § 46-431; 1954, c. 378; 1958, cc. 501, 541, § 46.1-444; 1968, c. 685; 1970, c. 272; 1972, cc. 47, 433; 1975, c. 382; 1978, c. 550; 1989, cc. 621, 727; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 273.

§ 46.2-420. Order for payment of judgment in installments.

A judgment debtor, on five days' notice to the judgment creditor, may apply to the court in which the judgment was obtained for the privilege of paying it in installments. The court, without prejudice to other legal remedies which the judgment creditor may have, may so order, fixing the amounts and times of payment of the installments.

Code 1950, § 46-432; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-445; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-421. Effect of order for such payment and proof of financial responsibility.

The Commissioner shall not suspend a license or registration of a motor vehicle and shall restore any license or registration suspended following nonpayment of a judgment, if the judgment debtor obtains an order from the court in which the judgment was rendered permitting payment of the judgment in installments and if the judgment debtor gives proof of his financial responsibility in the future as provided in this chapter.

Code 1950, § 46-433; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-446; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-422. Suspension on failure to pay installments.

If the judgment debtor fails to pay any installment as permitted by the order of the court, then on notice of default, the Commissioner shall forthwith suspend the driver's license, registration cards, and license plates of the judgment debtor until the judgment is satisfied as provided in this chapter. The judgment debtor may apply, after due notice to the judgment creditor, to the court which allowed installment payment of the judgment, within thirty days after the default, for resumption of the privilege of paying the judgment in installments, if past-due installments are first paid.

Code 1950, § 46-434; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-447; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-423. Creditor's consent to license notwithstanding default in payment.

If the judgment creditor consents in writing, in whatever form the Commissioner prescribes, that the judgment debtor be allowed a driver's license and motor vehicle registration, the Commissioner may allow the same, notwithstanding default in the payment of the judgment or any installment thereof, for six months from the date of consent and thereafter until it is revoked in writing, if the judgment debtor furnishes proof of his financial responsibility in the future as provided in this chapter.

Code 1950, § 46-435; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-448; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-424. Duty of insurance carrier after notice of accident; report of omissions by insurers to State Corporation Commission; investigation and assessment for omissions.

On receipt of the certificate of insurance, the insurance carrier or surety company named in the certificate of insurance shall determine whether the policy or bond was applicable to liability, if any, as to the named insured. Thereupon and not later than thirty days following receipt of the certificate of insurance, the insurance company or surety company shall cause to be filed with the Commissioner a written notice if the policy or bond was not applicable to liability, if any, as to the named insured resulting from the accident. The Commissioner shall prescribe the manner in which the written notice shall be made.

When the insurance company or surety company notifies the Commissioner that the policy or bond named in the certificate of insurance was not applicable to liability resulting from the accident, the Department shall determine, under § 46.2-708, whether suspension of the driver's license, registration cards, and license plates issued to the owner of the motor vehicle involved in the accident is required.

If the records of the Department reasonably indicate that any insurance carrier or surety company does not cause to be filed the notice herein required, the Commissioner shall report every such omission to the State Corporation Commission.

The State Corporation Commission shall investigate every such report of omission. If the Commission finds that any insurance carrier or surety company licensed to transact business in the Commonwealth, has failed, without good reason, to cause to be filed the notice required hereunder, the State Corporation Commission may assess the carrier or company fifty dollars for each omission.

Code 1950, § 46-438; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-451; 1972, c. 442; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-425. Driver or owner having no license issued by Department.

In case a driver or owner has no driver's license issued by the Department or no motor vehicle registered in his name in the Commonwealth, he shall not be allowed a driver's license or motor vehicle registration until he has complied with this chapter to the same extent as would be necessary if he had held a driver's license or a motor vehicle registration at the time of the accident in which he was involved or at the time of the commission of the offense resulting in a conviction as is mentioned in §§ 46.2-389 and 46.2-391.

Code 1950, § 46-439; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-452; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-426. Custody and application of cash or securities deposited; limitation of actions; assignment.

Cash or securities furnished in compliance with the requirements of this chapter shall be placed by the Commissioner in the custody of the State Treasurer and shall be applicable only to the payment of any judgment against the depositor for damages arising out of the accident in question in an action at law in a court in the Commonwealth begun not later than one year after the date of the accident. The cash or securities may be assigned by the depositor for the benefit of the person or persons damaged or injured in the accident as the result of which the cash or securities were filed or deposited without the damaged or injured person being required to institute legal proceedings. The Commissioner shall accept the assignment if, in his opinion, the rights of any other person or persons shall not be prejudiced thereby.

Code 1950, § 46-441; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-454; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-427. When suspensions to remain effective; relief from furnishing proof of financial responsibility; prohibition against registration in name of another person.

The suspension required by the provisions of § 46.2-417 shall continue except as otherwise provided by §§ 46.2-421 and 46.2-423 until the person satisfies the judgment or judgments as prescribed in § 46.2-419 and gives proof of his financial responsibility in the future. However, the judgment debtor whose driving privileges, registration certificates, and license plates have been so suspended may petition the court that entered the judgment for reinstatement of his driving privileges, registration certificates, and license plates and the court may order reinstatement if the judgment has not been satisfied, provided the judgment debtor proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the judgment debtor (i) is unable, after examination of the records of the Department and the court reflecting that suspension and the exercise of due diligence, to locate the person to whom payment is due or, if the person to whom payment is due is dead, the judgment debtor is unable to identify either who are his heirs and assignees, or where they are located, and (ii) has paid into the court an amount equal to the judgment, court costs, and all interest that has accrued up to the date payment was made to the court. Any payment made to the court under this section shall be held for one year and, if unclaimed by the judgment creditor during that period, shall be transmitted by the court to the State Treasurer or his designee to be disposed of pursuant to the Virginia Disposition of Unclaimed Property Act (§ 55.1-2500 et seq.).

Upon receipt of such an order, the Commissioner shall reinstate the driving privileges, registration certificates, and license plates of the judgment debtor, provided the judgment debtor has given proof of his financial responsibility in the future and satisfied all other reinstatement requirements as provided in this chapter.

The motor vehicle involved in the accident on which the suspension under § 46.2-417 is based shall not be registered in the name of any other person when the Commissioner has reasonable grounds to believe that the registration of the vehicle will have the effect of defeating the purpose of the chapter and no other motor vehicle shall be registered, and no driver's license or learner's permit shall be issued in the name of the person suspended, except as prescribed in § 46.2-437 until the suspension is terminated.

This section shall not relieve any person from giving or maintaining proof of his financial responsibility when he is required so to do for some reason rather than having been involved in a motor vehicle accident.

Code 1950, §§ 46-446, 46-447, 46-477.1; 1950, p. 639; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-459; 1972, c. 638; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727; 2003, c. 316; 2013, c. 598.

§ 46.2-428. Commonwealth responsible for deposits.

The Commonwealth shall be responsible for the safekeeping of all bonds, cash, and securities deposited with the State Treasurer under the provisions of this chapter, and if the deposit or any part of the deposit is lost, destroyed, or misappropriated the Commonwealth shall make good the loss to any person entitled thereto.

Code 1950, § 46-448; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-460; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-429. Release of deposits only upon consent of Commissioner.

Bonds, cash, or securities deposited with the State Treasurer pursuant to this chapter shall only be released by the State Treasurer upon consent of the Commissioner given in conformity with this chapter.

Code 1950, § 46-449; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-461; 1989, c. 727.

Article 14. Suspension of Licenses of Nonresidents or for Accidents in Other States

§ 46.2-430. Power over nonresidents.

Whenever by the laws of the Commonwealth the Commissioner may suspend or revoke: (i) the license of a resident driver, or (ii) the registration cards and license plates of a resident owner, he may:

1. Suspend or revoke the privilege of operating a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth by a nonresident driver, and

2. Suspend the privilege of driving a vehicle owned by a nonresident regardless of whether the vehicle is registered in the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 46-450; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-462; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-431. Chapter applies to nonresidents.

Every provision of this chapter applies to any person who is not a resident of the Commonwealth under the same circumstances as it would apply to a resident. No nonresident may drive any motor vehicle in the Commonwealth and no motor vehicle owned by him may be driven in the Commonwealth, unless the nonresident has complied with the requirements of this chapter with respect to giving proof of financial responsibility in the future.

Code 1950, § 46-451; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-463; 1972, c. 638; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-432. Failure of nonresident to report accident.

The failure of a nonresident to report an accident as required in this title shall constitute sufficient ground for suspension or revocation of his privileges of driving a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth and of driving within the Commonwealth of any motor vehicle owned by him.

Code 1950, § 46-452; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-464; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-433. Notification of officers in nonresident's home state.

On conviction of a nonresident or in case any unsatisfied judgment results in suspension of a nonresident's driving privileges in the Commonwealth and the prohibition of driving within the Commonwealth of any motor vehicle, or on suspension of a nonresident's driving privileges in the Commonwealth pursuant to any other provision of this chapter, the Commissioner shall transmit a certified copy of the record of the conviction or the unsatisfied judgment, or any other action pursuant to this chapter resulting in suspension of a nonresident's driving privileges of any motor vehicle owned by such nonresident, to the motor vehicle commissioner or officer performing the functions of a commissioner in the state of the United States, or possession under the exclusive control of the United States, Mexico or its states, or Canada or its provinces in which the nonresident resides.

Code 1950, § 46-453; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-465; 1989, c. 727; 2005, c. 513.

§ 46.2-434. Conviction of or judgment against resident in another jurisdiction.

The Commissioner shall suspend or revoke the license and registration certificate and plates of any resident of the Commonwealth upon receiving notice of his conviction, in a court of competent jurisdiction of the Commonwealth, any other state of the United States, the United States, Canada or its provinces or any territorial subdivision of such state or country, of an offense therein which, if committed in the Commonwealth, would be grounds for the suspension or revocation of the license granted to him or registration of any motor vehicle registered in his name. No suspension or revocation under this subsection shall continue for a longer period than it would have, had the offense been committed in the Commonwealth, provided the person gives proof of his financial responsibility in the future for the period provided in § 46.2-412.

The Commissioner shall take like action upon receipt of notice that a resident of the Commonwealth has failed, for a period of thirty days, to satisfy any final judgment in amount and upon a cause of action as stated herein, rendered against him in a court of competent jurisdiction of any other state of the United States, the United States, Canada or its provinces, or any territorial subdivision of such state or country.

Code 1950, § 46-454; 1950, p. 888; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-466; 1988, c. 860; 1989, c. 727; 1992, c. 109; 1997, c. 486.

Article 15. Proof of Financial Responsibility

§ 46.2-435. Proof of financial responsibility to be furnished for each vehicle.

Proof of financial responsibility in the amounts required by this chapter shall be furnished for each motor vehicle registered by the person required to furnish such proof.

Code 1950, § 46-455; 1954, c. 378; 1958, cc. 501, 541, § 46.1-467; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-436. Methods of proving financial responsibility.

Proof of financial responsibility when required under this chapter may be given by proof that:

1. A policy or policies of motor vehicle liability insurance have been obtained and are in full force;

2. A bond has been duly executed;

3. A deposit has been made of money or securities; or

4. A self-insurance certificate has been filed, all as provided in this chapter.

Code 1950, § 46-456; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-468; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-437. Proof of financial responsibility by owner in lieu of driver.

When the Commissioner finds that any person required to give proof of financial responsibility under this title is or later becomes a driver, however designated, or a member of the immediate family or household, in the employ or home of an owner of a motor vehicle, the Commissioner shall accept proof of financial responsibility given by the owner in lieu of proof of financial responsibility by such person to permit him to operate a motor vehicle for which the owner has given proof of financial responsibility as provided in this chapter. The Commissioner shall designate the restrictions imposed by this section on the face of the person's driver's license.

Code 1950, § 46-457; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-469; 1972, c. 638; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-438. Proof by owner of vehicles operated under permit or certificate of State Corporation Commission or Department of Motor Vehicles.

If the owner of a motor vehicle is one whose vehicles are operated under a permit or a certificate of convenience and necessity issued by the State Corporation Commission or the Department, proof by the owner on behalf of another as provided by this chapter may be made if there is filed with the Commissioner satisfactory evidence that the owner has complied with the law with respect to his liability for damage caused by the operation of his vehicles by providing the required insurance or other security or has qualified as a self-insurer as described in § 46.2-368.

Code 1950, § 46-458; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-470; 1989, c. 727; 1997, c. 283.

§ 46.2-439. Certificate of insurance carrier.

Proof of financial responsibility, when requested, shall be made by filing with the Commissioner the written certificate of any insurance carrier authorized to do business in the Commonwealth, certifying that there is in effect a motor vehicle liability policy for the benefit of the person required to furnish proof of financial responsibility. This certificate shall give its effective date and the effective date of the policy.

Code 1950, § 46-459; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-471; 1972, c. 380; 1976, c. 143; 1988, c. 860; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-440. Certificate for nonresident may be by carrier not qualified in Commonwealth.

A nonresident owner of a vehicle not registered in Virginia may give proof of financial responsibility by filing with the Commissioner a written certificate or certificates of an insurance carrier not authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth but authorized to transact business in any other state, any territory or possession of the United States and under its exclusive control, Canada or its provinces, or the territorial subdivisions of such states or countries, in which any motor vehicle described in the certificate and all replacement vehicles of similar classification are registered or, if the nonresident does not own a motor vehicle, then in the like jurisdiction in which the insured resides and otherwise conforming to the provisions of this chapter. The Commissioner shall accept the same if the insurance carrier, in addition to having complied with all other provisions of this chapter as requisite, shall:

1. Execute a power of attorney authorizing the Commissioner to accept service on its behalf of notice or process in any action arising out of a motor vehicle accident in the Commonwealth;

2. Duly adopt a resolution, which shall be binding upon it, declaring that its policies are to be deemed to be modified to comply with the law of the Commonwealth and the terms of this chapter relating to the terms of motor vehicle liability policies issued herein;

3. Agree to accept as final and binding the judgment of any court of competent jurisdiction in the Commonwealth from which judgment no appeal is or can be taken, duly rendered in any action arising out of a motor vehicle accident;

4. Deposit with the State Treasurer cash or securities as are mentioned in § 46.2-453 or the surety bond of a company authorized to do business in Virginia equal in value to $60,000 for each insurance policy filed as proof of financial responsibility.

Code 1950, § 46-460; 1954, c. 378; 1958, cc. 501, 541, § 46.1-472; 1968, c. 685; 1972, c. 433; 1975, c. 382; 1976, c. 143; 1978, c. 220; 1989, cc. 621, 727; 1993, c. 164; 1995, c. 121.

§ 46.2-441. Nonresident may file proof of future financial responsibility of insurance company or other state-authorized entity providing insurance.

Notwithstanding the requirement of §§ 46.2-439 and 46.2-440, a nonresident required to file proof of future financial responsibility under this chapter may file proof of future financial responsibility of an insurance company or other state-authorized entity providing insurance and authorized or licensed to do business in the nonresident's state of residence as long as such proof of future financial responsibility is in the amounts equal to those required by § 46.2-472.

Code 1950, § 46-461; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-473; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 121.

§ 46.2-442. Default of foreign insurance carrier.

If any insurance carrier not authorized to do business in the Commonwealth which is qualified to furnish proof of financial responsibility defaults in any of its undertakings or agreements, the Commissioner shall not thereafter accept any certificate of that carrier so long as the default continues and shall revoke licenses previously granted on the basis of its policies unless the default is immediately repaired.

Code 1950, § 46-462; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-474; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-443. Chapter not applicable to certain policies of insurance.

This chapter does not apply to:

1. Policies of automobile insurance against liability which may now or hereafter be required by any other law of the Commonwealth and such policies if endorsed to the requirements of this chapter shall be accepted as proof of financial responsibility when required under this chapter; or

2. Policies insuring solely the insured named in the policy against liability resulting from the maintenance, use, or operation by persons in the insured's employ or in his behalf of motor vehicles not owned by the insured.

Code 1950, § 46-463; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-475; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-444. Surety requirements of bond.

The bond mentioned in subdivision 2 of § 46.2-436 shall be duly executed by the person giving proof and by a surety company duly authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth or by the person giving proof and by one or more individual sureties owning real estate within the Commonwealth and having an equity therein in at least the amount of the bond and the real estate shall be scheduled in the bond. But the Commissioner may not accept any real estate bond unless it is first approved by the circuit court of the jurisdiction wherein the real estate is located.

Code 1950, § 46-465; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-476; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-445. How bond to be conditioned.

The Commissioner shall not accept any bond unless it is conditioned for payments in amounts and under the same circumstances as would be required in a motor vehicle liability policy furnished by the person giving proof.

Code 1950, § 46-466; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-477; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-446. Notice to Commissioner prerequisite to cancellation of bond; cancellation not to affect rights arising prior thereto.

No bond shall be cancelled unless twenty days' prior written notice of cancellation is given the Commissioner, but cancellation of the bond shall not prevent recovery thereon with respect to any right or cause of action arising prior to the date of cancellation.

Code 1950, § 46-467; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-478; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-447. Bond to constitute lien on real estate of surety.

A bond with individual sureties shall constitute a lien in favor of the Commonwealth on the real estate of any individual surety. The lien shall exist in favor of any holder of any final judgment against the principal on account of damage to property or injury to or death of any person or persons resulting from the ownership, maintenance, use, or operation of his, or any other, motor vehicle, upon the recording of the bond in the office of the clerk of the court where deeds are admitted to record of the city or county where the real estate is located.

Code 1950, § 46-468; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-479; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-448. Notice of cancellation; record; fees.

Notice of cancellation is to be signed by the Commissioner or by someone designated by him and the seal of the Department placed thereon. Notwithstanding any other provision of law the clerk shall record the notice in the books kept for the recording of deeds and shall index the same in the indices thereto for grantors and grantees, under the respective names of the individual sureties in the column for grantors, and the Commonwealth of Virginia in the column for grantees, for which he shall receive two dollars and fifty cents to be paid by the principal in full payment of all services in connection with the recordation and release of the bond. The clerk shall place on the notice a statement showing the time of recording and the book and page of recording and return the notice to the Commissioner.

Code 1950, § 46-469; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-480; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-449. Cancellation of bond with individual sureties; certificates of cancellation.

When a bond with individual sureties filed with the Commissioner is no longer required under this chapter, the Commissioner shall, on request, cancel it as to liability for damage to property or injury to or death of any person or persons thereafter caused and when a bond has been cancelled by the Commissioner or otherwise he shall, on request, furnish a certificate of the cancellation signed by him or by someone designated by him and bearing the seal of the Department. The certificate, notwithstanding any other provision of law, may be recorded in the office of the clerk of the court in which the bond was admitted to record.

Code 1950, § 46-470; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-481; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-450. Order discharging lien of bond.

On satisfactory proof that the bond filed with the Commissioner as provided for in this chapter has been cancelled and that there are no claims or judgments against the principal in the bond on account of damage to property or injury to or death of any person or persons resulting from the ownership, maintenance, use, or operation of a motor vehicle of the principal caused while the bond was in effect, the court in which the bond was admitted to record may enter an order discharging the lien of the bond on the real estate of the sureties thereon, upon their petition and at their proper cost.

Code 1950, § 46-471; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-482; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-451. Action or suit on bond.

If a final judgment rendered against the principal on the bond filed with the Commissioner as provided in this chapter is not satisfied within fifteen days after its rendition, the judgment creditor may, for his own use and benefit and at his sole expense, bring an action on the bond in the name of the Commonwealth against the company or persons executing the bond.

Code 1950, § 46-472; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-483; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-452. Parties to suit on bond with individual sureties.

When the sureties on the bond filed with the Commissioner as provided in this chapter are individuals the judgment creditor may proceed against any or all parties to the bond at law for a judgment or in equity for a decree and foreclosure of the lien on the real estate of the sureties. The proceeding whether at law or in equity may be against one, all, or any intermediate number of the parties to the bond and when less than all are joined other or others may be impleaded in the same proceeding and after final judgment or decree other proceedings may be instituted until full satisfaction is obtained.

Code 1950, § 46-473; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-484; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-453. Proof of financial responsibility by delivering cash or securities.

A person may give proof of financial responsibility by delivering to the Commissioner cash or securities equal to the sum of the liability coverage required for bodily injury or death of two or more persons in any one accident and injury to or destruction of property of others in any one accident as prescribed by § 46.2-472. Securities so deposited shall be such as public bodies may invest in according to § 2.2-4500.

Code 1950, § 46-474; 1954, c. 378; 1958, cc. 501, 541, § 46.1-485; 1968, c. 685; 1978, c. 220; 1980, c. 484; 1986, c. 16; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-454. Moneys or securities to be deposited with State Treasurer subject to execution.

All moneys or securities delivered to the Commissioner pursuant to this chapter shall be placed by him in the custody of the State Treasurer and shall be subject to execution to satisfy any judgment within the limits on amounts required by this chapter for motor vehicle liability insurance policies. The State Treasurer shall certify the value of such moneys or securities to the Commissioner as soon as practicable after their delivery to him.

Code 1950, § 46-475; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-486; 1986, c. 16; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-455. Assessment for expense of holding deposits.

For the purpose of defraying the expense of the safekeeping and handling of the cash or securities deposited with him under the provisions of this title, in December of each year the State Treasurer shall levy against each person having cash or securities deposited with him an assessment of not more than one-tenth of one percent of the cash or of the par value of the securities deposited to his account, and shall collect the assessment in January of each year. These funds shall be deposited to the general fund of the state treasury. If any assessment is not paid by January 31 of each year, the State Treasurer shall so notify the Commissioner in writing, attaching thereto a dated copy of the original assessment.

1986, c. 16, § 46.1-486.1; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-456. Additional security if fund impaired by any legal process, or otherwise.

Whenever the moneys or securities are subjected to attachment, garnishment, execution, or other legal process or are otherwise depleted or threatened with depletion or impairment in amount or value the depositor must immediately furnish additional moneys or securities, free from lien, claim, or threat of impairment, in sufficient amount or value fully to comply with the requirements of this chapter.

The Treasurer shall notify the Commissioner promptly of any depletion, impairment, or decrease or of any legal threat of depletion, impairment, or decrease in the value of the securities or in the moneys on deposit with him under the provisions of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 46-476; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-487; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-457. Substitution of new proof; cancellation or return of old.

The Commissioner may cancel any bond or return any certificate of insurance and on the substitution and acceptance by him of other adequate proof of financial responsibility pursuant to this chapter, and on his direction to such effect the State Treasurer shall return any money or securities on deposit with him to the person entitled to it.

Code 1950, § 46-477; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-488; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-458. Interpleader to determine rights in deposits; other proceedings.

The Commissioner and the State Treasurer, or either, may proceed in equity by bill of interpleader for the determination of any dispute as to ownership of or rights in any deposit held by the State Treasurer pursuant to this chapter and may have recourse to any other appropriate proceeding for determination of any question that arises as to their rights or liabilities or as to the rights or liabilities of the Commonwealth under this chapter.

Code 1950, § 46-478; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-489; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-459. When other proof of financial responsibility required; suspension of license pending furnishing of proof required.

Whenever any proof of financial responsibility filed by any person under this chapter no longer fulfills the purpose for which required, the Commissioner shall require other proof of financial responsibility as required by this chapter and shall suspend the person's driver's license, registration cards and license plates pending the furnishing of proof as required.

Nonpayment of the assessment provided for in § 46.2-455 shall also be reason for suspension of the driver's license, registration cards and license plates of a person offering cash or securities as proof of financial responsibility under this chapter. The suspension shall be promptly initiated by the Commissioner on receipt of written notice of nonpayment of the assessment from the State Treasurer and shall take effect ten days from the date of a written notice sent by the Commissioner to the person by first-class mail, the notice to notify the person of the forthcoming suspension if payment is not received within the ten-day period.

Code 1950, § 46-479; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-490; 1984, c. 780; 1986, c. 16; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-460. When Commissioner to consent to cancellation of bond or policy, or return of money or securities.

The Commissioner, on request and subject to the provisions of § 46.2-461, shall consent to the cancellation of any bond or insurance policy or to the return to the person entitled thereto of any money or securities deposited pursuant to this chapter as proof of financial responsibility or he shall not require proof of financial responsibility in the event:

1. Of the death of the person on whose behalf the proof was filed;

2. Of his permanent incapacity to operate a motor vehicle; or

3. That the person who has given proof of financial responsibility surrenders his driver's license, and all of his registration cards, and license plates to the Commissioner.

Code 1950, § 46-480; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-491; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-461. When Commissioner not to release proof of financial responsibility; affidavit of nonexistence of facts.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-460 the Commissioner shall not release the proof in the event:

1. Any action for damages upon a liability included in this chapter is then pending;

2. Any judgment on any liability is then outstanding and unsatisfied; or

3. The Commissioner has received notice that the person involved has within the period of twelve months immediately preceding been involved as a driver in any motor vehicle accident.

B. An affidavit of the applicant of the nonexistence of these facts shall be sufficient evidence thereof in the absence of evidence in the records of the Department tending to indicate the contrary.

Code 1950, § 46-481; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-492; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-462. New license or registration to person to whom proof surrendered.

Whenever any person to whom proof has been surrendered as provided in § 46.2-460 applies for a driver's license or the registration of a motor vehicle, the application shall be refused unless the applicant reestablishes proof as required by this chapter.

Code 1950, § 46-482; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-493; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-463. Penalty for forging evidence of financial responsibility.

Any person who forges or without authority signs any evidence of ability to respond in damages or knowingly attempts to employ or use any evidence of ability to respond in damages, as required by the Commissioner in the administration of this chapter shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 46-485; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-496; 1989, c. 727.

Article 16. Assignment of Insurance Risks

§ 46.2-464. Application for assignment of risk to insurance carrier.

Every person who has been unable to obtain a motor vehicle liability policy shall have the right to apply to the State Corporation Commission to have his risk assigned to an insurance carrier licensed to write and writing motor vehicle liability insurance in the Commonwealth and the insurance carrier, whether a stock or mutual company, reciprocal, or interinsurance exchange, or other type or form of insurance organization, as provided in this article shall issue a motor vehicle liability policy which will meet at least the minimum requirements for establishing financial responsibility as provided in this chapter, and in addition shall provide, at the option of the insured, reasonable motor vehicle physical damage and medical payments coverages, (both as defined in § 38.2-124) in the same policy.

Every person who has otherwise obtained a motor vehicle liability insurance policy, or who has been afforded motor vehicle liability insurance under the provisions of § 38.2-2015, but who was not afforded motor vehicle medical payments insurance or motor vehicle physical damage insurance in the same policy, or who was not afforded such coverages under the provisions of that section, shall have the right to apply to the Commission to have his risk assigned to an insurance carrier, as provided above, licensed to write and writing either or both coverages, and the insurance carrier shall issue a policy providing the coverage or coverages applied for.

Code 1950, § 46-486; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-497; 1972, c. 842; 1974, c. 88; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-465. Optional coverage for persons occupying insured motor vehicle and for named insured and his family.

Once an assigned risk policy has been issued to an insured, every insurer licensed in the Commonwealth issuing or delivering any policy or contract of bodily injury liability insurance, or of property damage liability insurance, covering liability arising from the ownership, maintenance, or use of any motor vehicle shall provide on request of the insured, on payment of premium established by law for the coverage (i) to the named insured and, while resident of the named insured's household, the spouse and relatives of the named insured while occupying a motor vehicle or if struck by a motor vehicle while not occupying a motor vehicle; and (ii) to persons occupying the insured motor vehicle, the following health care and disability benefit for each accident:

1. Medical and chiropractic payments (accident insurance as defined in Article 2, § 38.2-101 et seq. of Chapter 1 of Title 38.2) coverages incurred within two years after the date of the accident, up to $2,000 per person;

2. If the person is usually engaged in a remunerative occupation, an amount equal to the loss of income incurred within one year after the date of the accident resulting from injuries received in the accident up to $100 per week during the period from the first work day lost as a result of the accident up to the date on which the person is able to return to his usual occupation and for a period not to exceed fifty-two weeks or any part thereof; and

3. The insured has the option of purchasing either or both of the coverages set forth in subdivisions 1 and 2 of this section.

1972, c. 859, § 46.1-497.1; 1973, c. 294; 1977, c. 112; 1982, c. 450; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-466. Regulations for assignment, rate classifications, and schedules.

The Commission may make reasonable regulations for the assignment of risks to insurance carriers.

It shall establish rate classifications, rating schedules, rates, and regulations to be used by insurance carriers issuing assigned risk, policies of motor vehicle liability, physical damage, and medical payments insurance in accordance with this chapter as appear to it to be proper.

In the establishment of rate classifications, rating schedules, rates, and regulations, it shall be guided by the principles and practices which have been established under its statutory authority to regulate motor vehicle liability, physical damage, and medical payments insurance rates and it may act in conformity with its statutory discretionary authority in such matters.

Code 1950, § 46-487; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-498; 1972, c. 842; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-467. Action within power of Commission.

The Commission may, in its discretion, after reviewing all information pertaining to the applicant or policyholder available from its records, the records of the Department or from other sources:

1. Refuse to assign an application;

2. Approve the rejection of an application by an insurance carrier;

3. Approve the cancellation of a policy of motor vehicle liability, physical damage, and medical payments insurance by an insurance carrier; or

4. Refuse to approve the renewal or the reassignment of an expiring policy.

Code 1950, § 46-488; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-499; 1972, c. 842; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-468. Information filed with Commission by insurance carrier confidential.

Any information filed with the Commission by an insurance carrier in connection with an assigned risk shall be confidential and solely for the information of the Commission and its staff and shall not be disclosed to any person, including an applicant, policyholder, and any other insurance carrier.

Code 1950, § 46-489; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-500; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-469. Commission not required to disclose reasons for action; liability of Commission for act or omission.

A. The Commission shall not be required to disclose to any person, including the applicant or policyholder, its reasons for:

1. Refusing to assign an application;

2. Approving the rejection of an application by an insurance carrier;

3. Approving the cancellation of a policy of motor vehicle liability, physical damage, and medical payments insurance by an insurance carrier; or

4. Refusing to approve the renewal or the reassignment of an expiring policy.

B. The Commission or anyone acting for it shall not be held liable for any act or omission in connection with the administration of the duties imposed upon it by the provisions of this chapter, except upon proof of actual malfeasance.

Code 1950, § 46-490; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-501; 1972, c. 842; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-470. Assignment of risks for nonresidents.

The provisions of this chapter relevant to assignment of risks shall be available to nonresidents who are unable to obtain a policy of motor vehicle liability, physical damage, and medical payments insurance with respect only to motor vehicles registered and used in the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 46-491; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-502; 1972, c. 842; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-471. Assignment of risks for certain carriers.

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 46.2-366, the provisions of this chapter relating to assignment of risks shall be available to carriers by motor vehicle who are required by law to carry public liability and property damage insurance for the protection of the public.

Code 1950, § 46-491.1; 1954, c. 345; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-503; 1989, c. 727.

Article 17. Motor Vehicle Liability Insurance Policies

§ 46.2-472. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Coverage of owner's policy.

Every motor vehicle owner's policy shall:

1. Designate by explicit description or by appropriate reference, all motor vehicles with respect to which coverage is intended to be granted.

2. Insure as insured the person named and any other person using or responsible for the use of the motor vehicle or motor vehicles with the permission of the named insured.

3. Insure the insured or other person against loss from any liability imposed by law for damages, including damages for care and loss of services, because of bodily injury to or death of any person, and injury to or destruction of property caused by accident and arising out of the ownership, use, or operation of such motor vehicle or motor vehicles within the Commonwealth, any other state in the United States, or Canada, subject to a limit exclusive of interest and costs, with respect to each motor vehicle, of $25,000 because of bodily injury to or death of one person in any one accident and, subject to the limit for one person, to a limit of $50,000 because of bodily injury to or death of two or more persons in any one accident, and to a limit of $20,000 because of injury to or destruction of property of others in any one accident.

Code 1950, § 46-492; 1954, c. 378; 1958, cc. 501, 541, § 46.1-504; 1968, c. 685; 1972, c. 433; 1975, c. 382; 1978, c. 550; 1989, cc. 621, 727.

§ 46.2-472. (Effective January 1, 2022) Coverage of owner's policy.

A. For all policies effective on or after January 1, 2022, but prior to January 1, 2025, every motor vehicle owner's policy shall:

1. Designate by explicit description or by appropriate reference, all motor vehicles with respect to which coverage is intended to be granted.

2. Insure as insured the person named and any other person using or responsible for the use of the motor vehicle or motor vehicles with the permission of the named insured.

3. Insure the insured or other person against loss from any liability imposed by law for damages, including damages for care and loss of services, because of bodily injury to or death of any person, and injury to or destruction of property caused by accident and arising out of the ownership, use, or operation of such motor vehicle or motor vehicles within the Commonwealth, any other state in the United States, or Canada, subject to a limit exclusive of interest and costs, with respect to each motor vehicle, of $30,000 because of bodily injury to or death of one person in any one accident and, subject to the limit for one person, to a limit of $60,000 because of bodily injury to or death of two or more persons in any one accident, and to a limit of $20,000 because of injury to or destruction of property of others in any one accident.

B. For all policies effective on or after January 1, 2025, every motor vehicle owner's policy shall:

1. Designate, by explicit description or appropriate reference, all motor vehicles with respect to which coverage is intended to be granted.

2. Insure as insured the person named and any other person using or responsible for the use of the motor vehicle or vehicles with the permission of the named insured.

3. Insure the insured or other person against loss from any liability imposed by law for damages, including damages for care and loss of services, because of bodily injury to or death of any person, and injury to or destruction of property caused by an accident and arising out of the ownership, use, or operation of such motor vehicle or vehicles within the Commonwealth, any other state in the United States, or Canada, subject to a limit exclusive of interest and costs, with respect to each motor vehicle, of $50,000 because of bodily injury to or death of one person in any one accident and, subject to the limit for one person, to a limit of $100,000 because of bodily injury to or death of two or more persons in any one accident, and to a limit of $25,000 because of injury to or destruction of property of others in any one accident.

Code 1950, § 46-492; 1954, c. 378; 1958, cc. 501, 541, § 46.1-504; 1968, c. 685; 1972, c. 433; 1975, c. 382; 1978, c. 550; 1989, cc. 621, 727; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 273.

§ 46.2-473. Coverage of driver's policy.

Every driver's policy shall insure the person named therein as insured against loss from the liability imposed upon him by law for damages, including damages for care and loss of services, because of bodily injury to or death of any person, and injury to or destruction of property arising out of the use by him of any motor vehicle not owned by him, within the territorial limits and subject to the limits of liability set forth with respect to a motor vehicle owner's policy.

Code 1950, § 46-493; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-505; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-474. Policy must contain certain agreement; additional coverage.

Every policy of insurance subject to the provisions of this chapter:

1. Shall contain an agreement that the insurance is provided in accordance with the coverage defined in this chapter as respects bodily injury, death, property damage, and destruction and that it is subject to all the provisions of this chapter and of the laws of the Commonwealth relating to this kind of insurance; and

2. May grant any lawful coverage in excess of or in addition to the coverage herein specified and this excess or additional coverage shall not be subject to the provisions of this chapter but shall be subject to other applicable laws of the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 46-494; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-506; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-475. Policy must comply with law.

No policy required under this chapter shall be issued or delivered in the Commonwealth unless it complies with §§ 38.2-2218 through 38.2-2225, with all other applicable and not inconsistent laws of the Commonwealth, and with the terms and conditions of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 46-495; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-507; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-476. Liability covered by workers' compensation law.

Policies issued under this chapter shall not insure any liability of the employer on account of bodily injury to, or death of, an employee of the insured for which benefits are payable under any workers' compensation law.

Code 1950, § 46-496; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-508; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-477. When chapter applicable to policy.

This chapter shall not apply to any policy of insurance except as to liability thereunder incurred after certification thereof as proof of financial responsibility.

Code 1950, § 46-496.1; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-509; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-478. Several policies together meeting requirements of chapter.

Several policies of one or more insurance carriers which together meet the requirements of this chapter shall be deemed a motor vehicle liability policy within the meaning of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 46-497; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-510; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-479. Provisions to which every policy shall be subject but need not contain.

Every policy shall be subject to the following provisions which need not be contained therein:

1. The liability of any insurance carrier to the insured under a policy becomes absolute when loss or damage covered by the policy occurs and the satisfaction by the insured of a judgment for the loss or damage shall not be a condition precedent to the right or duty of the carrier to make payment on account of the loss or damage;

2. No policy shall be cancelled or annulled, as respects any loss or damage, by any agreement between the carrier and the insured after the insured has become responsible for the loss or damage and any attempted cancellation or annulment shall be void;

3. If the death of the insured occurs after the insured has become liable, during the policy period, for loss or damage covered by the policy, the policy shall not be terminated by the death with respect to the liability and the insurance carrier shall be liable hereunder as though death had not occurred;

4. On the recovery of a judgment against any person for loss or damage, if the person or the decedent he represents was at the accrual of the cause of action insured against the liability under the policy, the judgment creditor shall be entitled to have the insurance money applied to the satisfaction of the judgment;

5. If the death, insolvency, or bankruptcy of the insured occurs within the policy period, the policy during the unexpired portion of the period shall cover the legal representatives of the insured; and

6. No statement made by the insured or on his behalf and no violation of the terms of the policy shall operate to defeat or avoid the policy so as to bar recovery within the limits provided in this chapter.

Code 1950, § 46-498; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-511; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-480. Reimbursement of carrier and proration of insurance.

Any policy may provide:

1. That the insured, or any other person covered by the policy, shall reimburse the insurance carrier for payments made on account of any accident, claim, or suit involving a breach of the terms, provisions, or conditions of the policy; or

2. For proration of the insurance with other applicable valid and collectible insurance.

Code 1950, § 46-499; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-512; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-481. Binder or endorsement in lieu of policy.

Insurance carriers authorized to issue policies as provided in this chapter may, pending the issuance of the policy, execute an agreement to be known as a binder, which shall not be valid beyond sixty days from the date it becomes effective, or may, in lieu of a policy, issue an endorsement to an existing policy, each of which shall be construed to provide indemnity or protection in like manner and to the same extent as a formal policy. The provisions of this chapter apply to these binders and endorsements.

Code 1950, § 46-500; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-513; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-482. Notification of cancellation or termination of certified policy.

When any insurance policy certified under this chapter is cancelled or terminated, the insurer shall report the fact to the Commissioner within fifteen days after the cancellation on a form prescribed by the Commissioner.

1976, c. 259, § 46.1-513.2; 1989, c. 727.

Article 18. Driver License Compact

§ 46.2-483. Compact enacted into law; terms.

The Driver License Compact is hereby enacted into law and entered into with all other jurisdictions legally joining therein in the form substantially as follows:

THE DRIVER LICENSE COMPACT

Article I

Findings and Declaration of Policy

(a) The party states find that:

(1) The safety of their streets and highways is materially affected by the degree of compliance with state and local ordinances relating to the operation of motor vehicles.

(2) Violation of such a law or ordinance is evidence that the violator engages in conduct which is likely to endanger the safety of persons and property.

(3) The continuance in force of a license to drive is predicated upon compliance with laws and ordinances relating to the operation of motor vehicles, in whichever jurisdiction the vehicle is operated.

(b) It is the policy of each of the party states to:

(1) Promote compliance with the laws, ordinances, and administrative rules and regulations relating to the operation of motor vehicles by their operators in each of the jurisdictions where such operators drive motor vehicles.

(2) Make the reciprocal recognition of licenses to drive and eligibility therefor more just and equitable by considering the overall compliance with motor vehicle laws, ordinances and administrative rules and regulations as a condition precedent to the continuance or issuance of any license by reason of which the licensee is authorized or permitted to operate a motor vehicle in any of the party states.

Article II

Definitions

As used in this compact:

(a) "State" means a state, territory or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(b) "Home state" means the state which has issued and has the power to suspend or revoke the use of the license or permit to operate a motor vehicle.

(c) "Conviction" means a conviction of any offense related to the use or operation of a motor vehicle which is prohibited by state law, municipal ordinance or administrative rule or regulation, or a forfeiture of bail, bond, or other security deposited to secure appearance by a person charged with having committed any such offense, and which conviction or forfeiture is required to be reported to the licensing authority.

Article III

Reports of Conviction

The licensing authority of a party state shall report each conviction of a person from another party state occurring within its jurisdiction to the licensing authority of the home state of the licensee. Such report shall clearly identify the person convicted; describe the violation specifying the section of the statute, code or ordinance violated; identify the court in which action was taken; indicate whether a plea of guilty or not guilty was entered, or the conviction was a result of the forfeiture of bail, bond or other security; and shall include any special findings made in connection therewith.

Article IV

Effect of Conviction

(a) The licensing authority in the home state, for the purposes of suspension, revocation or limitation of the license to operate a motor vehicle, shall give the same effect to the conduct reported, pursuant to Article III of this compact, as it would if such conduct had occurred in the home state, in the case of convictions for:

(1) Manslaughter or negligent homicide resulting from the operation of a motor vehicle;

(2) Driving a motor vehicle while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or a narcotic drug, or under the influence of any other drug to a degree which renders the driver incapable of safely driving a motor vehicle;

(3) Any felony in the commission of which a motor vehicle is used;

(4) Failure to stop and render aid in the event of a motor vehicle accident resulting in the death or personal injury of another.

(b) As to other convictions, reported pursuant to Article III, the licensing authority in the home state shall give such effect to the conduct as is provided by the laws of the home state.

(c) If the laws of a party state do not provide for offenses or violations denominated or described in precisely the words employed in subdivision (a) of this article, such party state shall construe the denominations and descriptions appearing in subdivision (a) hereof as being applicable to and identifying those offenses or violations of a substantially similar nature and the laws of such party state shall contain such provisions as may be necessary to ensure that full force and effect is given to this article.

Article V

Applications for New Licenses

Upon application for a license to drive, the licensing authority in a party state shall ascertain whether the applicant has ever held, or is the holder of a license to drive issued by any other party state. The licensing authority in the state where application is made shall not issue a license to drive to the applicant if:

(1) The applicant has held such a license, but the same has been suspended by reason, in whole or in part, of a violation and if such suspension period has not terminated.

(2) The applicant has held such a license, but the same has been revoked by reason, in whole or in part, of a violation and if such revocation has not terminated, except that after the expiration of one year from the date the license was revoked, such person may make application for a new license if permitted by law. The licensing authority may refuse to issue a license to any such applicant if, after investigation, the licensing authority determines that it will not be safe to grant to such person the privilege of driving a motor vehicle on the public highways.

(3) The applicant is the holder of a license to drive issued by another party state and currently in force unless the applicant surrenders such license.

Article VI

Applicability of Other Laws

Except as expressly required by provisions of this compact, nothing contained herein shall be construed to affect the right of any party state to apply any of its other laws relating to licenses to drive to any person or circumstance, nor to invalidate or prevent any driver license agreement or other cooperative arrangement between a party state and a nonparty state.

Article VII

Compact Administrator and Interchange of Information

(a) The head of the licensing authority of each party state shall be the administrator of this compact for his state. The administrators, acting jointly, shall have the power to formulate all necessary and proper procedures for the exchange of information under this compact.

(b) The administrator of each party state shall furnish to the administrator of each other party state any information or documents reasonably necessary to facilitate the administration of this compact.

Article VIII

Entry Into Force and Withdrawal

(a) This compact shall enter into force and become effective as to any state when it has enacted the same into law.

(b) Any party state may withdraw from this compact by enacting a statute repealing the same, but no such withdrawal shall take effect until six months after the executive head of the withdrawing state has given notice of the withdrawal to the executive heads of all other party states. No withdrawal shall affect the validity or applicability by the licensing authorities of states remaining party to the compact of any report of conviction occurring prior to the withdrawal.

Article IX

Construction and Severability

This compact shall be liberally construed so as to effectuate the purposes thereof. The provisions of this compact shall be severable and if any phrase, clause, sentence or provision of this compact is declared to be contrary to the constitution of any party state or of the United States or the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of this compact and the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby. If this compact shall be held contrary to the constitution of any state party thereto, the compact shall remain in full force and effect as to the remaining states and in full force and effect as to the state affected as to all severable matters.

1968, c. 166, § 46.1-167.8; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-484. Department of Motor Vehicles to be "licensing authority" within meaning of compact; duties of Department.

As used in the compact, the term "licensing authority" with reference to this Commonwealth shall mean the Department of Motor Vehicles. The Department shall furnish to the appropriate authorities of any other party state any information or documents reasonably necessary to facilitate the administration of Articles III, IV, and V of the compact.

1968, c. 166, § 46.1-167.9; 1989, c. 727 .

§ 46.2-485. Compensation and expenses of compact administrator.

The compact administrator provided for in Article VII of the compact shall not be entitled to any additional compensation on account of his service as such administrator, but shall be entitled to expenses incurred in connection with his duties and responsibilities as such administrator, in the same manner as for expenses incurred in connection with any other duties or responsibilities of his office or employment.

1968, c. 166, § 46.1-167.10; 1989, c. 727 .

§ 46.2-486. Governor to be "executive head" within meaning of compact.

As used in the compact, with reference to the Commonwealth, the term "executive head" shall mean the Governor.

1968, c. 166, § 46.1-167.11; 1989, c. 727 .

§ 46.2-487. Statutes and ordinances deemed to cover offenses specified in subdivision (a) of Article IV of compact.

For the purposes of complying with subdivisions (a) and (c) of Article IV of the compact, the following sections of the Code of Virginia and county, city, or town ordinances substantially paralleling such sections shall be deemed to cover the offenses of subdivision (a) of Article IV: With respect to subdivision (2), §§ 18.2-266 and 46.2-341.24 A; with respect to subdivision (4), §§ 46.2-894 through 46.2-899 subject to the limitation that the accident resulted in the death or personal injury of another; with respect to subdivisions (1) and (3), the Department shall determine which offenses are covered in the same manner as under § 46.2-389.

1968, c. 166, § 46.1-167.12; 1989, c. 727; 1994, c. 255.

§ 46.2-488. Question to be included in application for driver's license; surrender of license issued by another party state.

For the purpose of enforcing subdivision (3) of Article V of this compact, the Department shall include as part of the form for application for a driver's license under § 46.2-323 a question whether the applicant is currently licensed in another state and shall, if the applicant is so licensed, require the surrender of such license prior to the granting of such application in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

1968, c. 166, § 46.1-167.13; 1984, c. 780; 1989, c. 727 .

Article 19. Driver Improvement Program

§ 46.2-489. Regulations; appeals.

The Commissioner may, subject to the provisions of § 46.2-203, promulgate regulations which he deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this article.

Any person receiving an order of the Commissioner to suspend or revoke his driver's license or licensing privilege or to require attendance at a driver improvement clinic or placing him on probation may, within thirty days from the date of the order, file a petition of appeal in accordance with § 46.2-410.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.2; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 672.

§ 46.2-490. Establishment of driver improvement clinic program; application fees.

A. The Commissioner shall, in his discretion, contract with such entities as the Commissioner deems fit, including private or governmental entities, to develop curricula for a statewide driver improvement clinic program. Such program shall include instruction concerning but not limited to (i) alcohol and drug abuse, (ii) aggressive driving, (iii) distracted driving, (iv) motorcycle awareness, and (v) work zone safety. The driver improvement clinic program shall be established for the purpose of instructing persons identified by the Department and the court system as problem drivers in need of driver improvement education and training and for those drivers interested in improved driving safety. The clinics shall be composed of uniform education and training programs designed for the rehabilitation of problem drivers, and for the purpose of creating a lasting and corrective influence on their driving performance. The clinics shall operate in localities based on their geographical location so as to be reasonably accessible to persons attending these clinics.

B. All businesses, organizations, governmental entities or individuals that want to provide driver improvement clinic instruction as a driver improvement clinic or instructor in the Commonwealth using approved curricula shall apply to the Department to be licensed to do so, based on criteria established by the Department. A nonrefundable annual license application fee of $100 shall be paid to the Department by all such businesses, organizations, governmental entities or individuals. A nonrefundable annual license fee of $25 shall also be paid for each additional clinic location operated by a clinic. A nonrefundable annual license fee of $50 shall be paid to the Department by a person applying for a clinic instructor license. However, neither the annual license fee for each additional clinic location nor the annual license fee for a clinic instructor license shall be required of or collected from the Virginia Association of Volunteer Rescue Squads or its members in connection with clinics that are provided for emergency vehicle operation training. All such application fees collected by the Department shall be paid by the Commissioner into the state treasury and shall be set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.3; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 672; 2002, c. 177; 2004, c. 622; 2007, c. 180.

§ 46.2-490.1. Section 46.2-391.1 not applicable.

The provisions of § 46.2-391.1 shall not apply to any person whose license or other privilege to operate a motor vehicle is suspended or revoked in accordance with the provisions of this article.

1992, c. 109.

§ 46.2-490.2. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, c. 622.

§ 46.2-490.3. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Computer-based clinic provider," means any clinic licensed by the Department to conduct driver improvement clinics via the Internet or other electronic means approved by the Department.

"Driver improvement clinic" or "clinic" means an individual, partnership or corporation, institution of higher education, or government entity licensed by the Department as prescribed by this chapter for the purpose of instructing persons identified by the Department and the court system as problem drivers; in need of driver improvement education and training; and for drivers interested in improving their own knowledge of highway safety.

"Instructor" means any person, whether acting for himself as operator of a driver training clinic or for such clinic for compensation, who is licensed by the Department as prescribed by this chapter and who teaches, conducts classes, gives demonstrations, or supervises persons undergoing mandatory or voluntary driver improvement training.

2004, c. 622.

§ 46.2-490.4. Action on applications; hearing on denial.

The Commissioner shall act on any application for a clinic or instructor license under this chapter within 30 days after receipt by either granting or denying the application. Any applicant denied a clinic or instructor license shall, on his written request, made within 30 days, be given a hearing at a time and place determined by the Commissioner or his designee. All hearings under this section shall be public and shall be held promptly. The applicant may be represented by counsel. Any applicant denied a license may not apply again for a license for 30 days from the date of denial of the application or outcome of the hearing.

2004, c. 622.

§ 46.2-490.5. Suspension, revocation, cancellation or refusal to renew clinic license or instructor license; imposition of monetary penalties.

A. Except as otherwise provided in this section, no license issued under this chapter shall be suspended, revoked, or cancelled or renewal thereof denied, and no monetary penalty shall be imposed pursuant to § 46.2-490.6, unless the licensee has been furnished a written copy of the complaint against him and the grounds upon which the action is taken and has been offered an opportunity for an administrative hearing to show cause why such action should not be taken.

B. The order suspending, revoking, canceling, or denying renewal of a license, or imposing a monetary penalty, except as otherwise provided in subsection D of this section, shall not become effective until the licensee has had 30 days after notice of the opportunity for a hearing to make a written request for such a hearing. If no hearing has been requested within such 30-day period, the order shall become effective and no hearing shall thereafter be held. Except as provided in subsection D of this section, a timely request for a hearing shall automatically stay operation of the order until after the hearing.

C. Notice of an order suspending, revoking, canceling or denying renewal of a license, or imposing a monetary penalty and advising the licensee of the opportunity for a hearing shall be mailed to the licensee by registered mail to the clinic address as shown in the Department's records and shall be considered served when mailed.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection B of this section, if the Commissioner makes a finding, after conducting a preliminary investigation, that the conduct of a licensee (i) is in violation of this chapter, regulations adopted pursuant to this chapter, or criteria established by the Department pursuant to this chapter, and (ii) such violation constitutes a danger to public safety, the Commissioner may issue an order suspending, revoking, or denying renewal of the instructor's license, the clinic's license, or both, as deemed appropriate by the Commissioner. Orders suspending, revoking, or denying renewal of such license pursuant to this subsection shall be effective immediately. Notice of the suspension, revocation or denial shall be in writing and mailed in accordance with subsection C of this section. Upon receipt of a request for a hearing appealing the suspension, the licensee shall be afforded the opportunity for a hearing as soon as practicable, but no longer than 30 days of receipt of the hearing request. The suspension shall remain in effect pending the outcome of the hearing.

2004, c. 622.

§ 46.2-490.6. Civil penalties.

In addition to any other sanctions or remedies available to the Commissioner under this chapter, the Commissioner may assess a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000 for any violation of any provision of this chapter, any regulation promulgated thereunder, or any criteria established by the Department pursuant to this chapter. The penalty may be sued for and recovered in the name of the Commonwealth.

2004, c. 622.

§ 46.2-490.7. Acts of owners, operators, officers, directors, partners, and instructors.

If a licensee is a partnership or corporation, it shall be sufficient cause for the denial, suspension, or revocation of a clinic license if any, owner, operator, officer, director, or trustee of the partnership or corporation, or any member in the case of a partnership, has committed any act or omitted any duty which would be cause for refusing, suspending, or revoking a license issued to him as an individual under this chapter. Each licensee shall be responsible for the acts of any of his instructors while acting as his agent, if the clinic approved of those acts or had knowledge of those acts or other similar acts and after such knowledge retained the benefit, proceeds, profits, or advantages accruing from those acts or otherwise ratified those acts.

2004, c. 622.

§ 46.2-490.8. Grounds for denying, suspending, or revoking licenses of clinics and clinic instructors.

A clinic or instructor license may be denied, suspended, or revoked on any one or more of the following grounds:

1. Material misstatement or omission in an application for a driver improvement clinic license or a driver improvement clinic instructor license;

2. Failure to comply subsequent to receipt of a written warning from the Department for any willful failure to comply with any provision of this chapter or any regulation promulgated by the Commissioner under this chapter; or any criteria established by the Department pursuant to this chapter;

3. Defrauding any student in a driver improvement clinic, or any other person in the conduct of a driver improvement clinic's business;

4. Employment of fraudulent devices, methods or practices in connection with compliance with the requirements under the statutes of the Commonwealth;

5. Having used deceptive acts or practices;

6. Knowingly advertising by any means any assertion, representation, or statement of fact which is untrue, misleading, or deceptive in any particular relating to the conduct of a clinic;

7. Having been convicted of any fraudulent act in connection with a driver improvement clinic or driver training school, or any consumer-related fraud;

8. Having been convicted of any criminal act involving the operation of a driver improvement clinic or driver training school;

9. Having been convicted of a felony;

10. Failing or refusing to pay civil penalties imposed by the Department pursuant to § 46.2-490.6.

2004, c. 622.

§ 46.2-490.9. Unlawful acts; prosecution; proceedings in equity.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to engage in any of the following acts:

1. Operate as a driver improvement clinic or as an instructor without holding a valid license as required by statute or regulation;

2. Make use of any designation provided by statute or regulation to denote a standard of professional or occupational competence without being duly licensed;

3. Perform any act or function that is restricted by statute or regulation to persons holding a driver improvement clinic or instructor license, without being duly licensed;

4. Materially misrepresenting facts in an application for a license;

5. Willfully refusing to furnish the Department information or records required or requested pursuant to statute, regulation, or criteria established by the Department pursuant to § 46.2-490.

B. In addition to the provisions of subsection A of this section, the Department may institute proceedings in equity to enjoin any person from engaging in any unlawful act enumerated in this section. Such proceedings shall be brought in the name of the Commonwealth in the circuit court of the city or county in which the unlawful act occurred or in which the defendant resides.

C. Any person who willfully engages in any unlawful act enumerated in this section shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

2004, c. 622.

§ 46.2-490.10. Changes in form of ownership or name.

Any change in the form of ownership or the addition or deletion of a partner shall require a new application and license. The addition or deletion of a clinic site or change in the name of a clinic shall require immediate notification to the Department and the Department may endorse the change on the license as appropriate. The change of an officer or director of a corporation shall be made at the time of license renewal.

2004, c. 622.

§ 46.2-490.11. Reports, records of licensed computer-based clinic providers.

A. The Department is hereby authorized to require annual, periodical, or special reports from computer-based clinic providers the Department has authorized to conduct clinics; to prescribe the manner and form in which such reports shall be made; and to require from such computer-based clinic providers specific answers to all questions upon which the Department may deem information to be necessary. Such reports shall be under oath whenever the Department so requires. The Department may also require any computer-based clinic provider to file with it a true copy of each or any contract, agreement, or arrangement between such licensees and any person in relation to the provisions of this chapter.

B. The Department may, in its discretion, prescribe (i) the forms of any and all accounts, records, and memoranda to be kept by licensed computer-based clinic providers and (ii) the length of time such accounts, records, and memoranda shall be preserved.

2004, c. 622.

§ 46.2-491. Persons included within scope of article.

This article shall apply to (i) every resident of the Commonwealth, regardless of whether he possesses a driver's license issued by the Department and (ii) every nonresident to whom the Department has issued a driver's license.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.5; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 672.

§ 46.2-492. Uniform Demerit Point System.

A. The Commissioner shall assign point values to those convictions, or findings of not innocent in the case of a juvenile, which are required to be reported to the Department in accordance with § 46.2-383 for traffic offenses committed in violation of the laws of the Commonwealth or any county, city, or town ordinance paralleling and substantially conforming to state law, provided that no conviction, or finding of not innocent in the case of a juvenile for any offense, relating to registration, insurance, or equipment shall be included except as otherwise provided by this title.

B. The Commissioner shall assign point values to those convictions received from any other state of the United States, the United States, Canada or its provinces, or any territorial subdivision of any of them, of an offense therein, which if committed in this Commonwealth, would be required to be reported to the Department by § 46.2-383.

C. No point assignment shall be made for any conviction which results from a vehicle having been parked or stopped, in order for the driver to sleep or rest, on the shoulder or other portion of a highway not ordinarily used for vehicular traffic. The court shall make a separate finding on this issue and note such finding on the conviction record.

D. The Uniform Demerit Point System standard for rating convictions of traffic offenses shall be based on the severity of the offense and the potential hazardous exposure to other users of the highways and streets. The Commissioner shall designate the point values assigned to convictions, or findings of not innocent in the case of a juvenile, on a graduated scale not to exceed six demerit points for any single conviction. The Commissioner shall develop point system assignments as follows:

1. Serious traffic offenses such as driving while intoxicated in violation of § 18.2-266, persons under age twenty-one driving after illegally consuming alcohol in violation of § 18.2-266.1, reckless driving in violation of § 46.2-852, speeding twenty or more miles per hour above the posted speed limit, racing in violation of § 46.2-865, and other serious traffic offenses as the Commissioner may designate, shall be assigned six demerit points.

2. Relatively serious traffic offenses such as failure to yield the right-of-way in violation of §§ 46.2-820 through 46.2-823, speeding between ten and nineteen miles per hour above the posted speed limit, following too closely in violation of § 46.2-816, failure to stop when entering a highway in violation of § 46.2-863, aggressive driving in violation of § 46.2-868.1 and other relatively serious traffic offenses as the Commissioner may designate, shall be assigned four demerit points.

3. Traffic offenses of a less serious nature such as improper driving in violation of § 46.2-869, speeding between one and nine miles per hour above the posted speed limit, improper passing in violation of § 46.2-838, failure to obey a highway sign in violation of § 46.2-830 and other offenses of a less serious nature as the Commissioner may designate, shall be assigned three demerit points.

E. When a person is convicted of two or more traffic offenses committed on a single occasion, he shall be assessed points for one offense only and if the offenses involved have different point values, he shall be assessed points for the offense having the greater point value.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.6; 1976, c. 86; 1989, c. 727; 1992, c. 856; 1998, c. 430; 2002, cc. 752, 782.

§ 46.2-493. Demerit points valid for two years.

Demerit points, assigned to any conviction, or finding of not innocent in the case of a juvenile, shall be valid for a period of two years from the date the offense was committed. Demerit points used prior to the termination of the two-year period as the basis for suspension, revocation, probation, or other action which extends beyond the two-year period shall remain valid until the suspension, revocation, probationary period, or other action has terminated.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.7; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-494. Safe driving point credit.

Every resident or nonresident person holding a valid Virginia driver's license whose driving record does not contain any suspension, revocation, conviction, or finding of not innocent in the case of a juvenile, of a traffic violation, during any calendar year shall be awarded one safe driving point. One safe driving point shall be awarded for each calendar year of safe driving, but no person shall be permitted to accumulate more than five safe driving points. The Commissioner shall apply these points to offset an equivalent number of demerit points, if any, to the chronologically earliest offense conviction, or finding of not innocent in the case of a juvenile, for which demerit points have been assigned and are valid. If subsequent to awarding a safe driving point to any person, the Department receives a conviction, or finding of not innocent in the case of a juvenile, for an offense which occurred during the period for which a safe driving point was awarded for and which requires the Department to assess demerit points, the safe driving point shall be invalidated.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.8; 1978, c. 44; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-495. Advisory letters.

Whenever the driving record of any person who is eighteen years old or older shows an accumulation of at least eight demerit points based on convictions for traffic offenses committed within a period of twelve consecutive months, or at least twelve demerit points based on convictions for traffic offenses committed within a period of twenty-four consecutive months, respectively, the Commissioner may mail, by first-class mail, to the last known address of the person an advisory letter listing his convictions and the demerit points assigned thereto, including his safe driving points, if any, and furnish any other information deemed appropriate and applicable to the rehabilitation of the person, for the purpose of preventing subsequent traffic offenses.

The Department's failure to mail, or the citizen's nonreceipt of the advisory letter shall not be grounds for waiving any other provision of this article.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.9; 1984, c. 673; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 672; 1998, cc. 124, 792.

§ 46.2-496. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1995, c. 672.

§ 46.2-498. Driver improvement clinics; voluntary attendance.

A. Whenever the driving record of any person who is eighteen years old or older shows an accumulation of at least twelve demerit points based on convictions for traffic offenses committed within a period of twelve consecutive months, or at least eighteen demerit points based on convictions for traffic offenses committed within a period of twenty-four consecutive months, respectively, the Commissioner shall direct the person to attend a driver improvement clinic.

B. Except for those persons whose licenses are subject to the restrictions of § 46.2-334.01, whenever the driving record of a person under the age of eighteen years shows an accumulation of (i) at least nine points based on convictions for traffic offenses committed within a period of twelve consecutive months or (ii) at least twelve points based on convictions for traffic offenses committed within a period of twenty-four consecutive months, the Commissioner shall direct the person to attend a driver improvement clinic and such person shall be subject to probation pursuant to § 46.2-499.

C. Except as provided for in subsection D of this section and in §§ 46.2-334.01 and 46.2-505, every person who attends a driver improvement clinic conducted by the Department or those businesses, organizations, governmental entities or individuals certified by the Department to provide driver improvement clinic instruction and who satisfactorily completes the clinic shall have five demerit points subtracted from his total accumulation of demerit points, except in those instances where a person has not accumulated five demerit points, in which case a reduction in demerit points and/or the award of safe driving points will be made. No person shall be allowed to accumulate more than five safe driving points.

Safe driving points shall be awarded or reductions in premium charges, as set forth in § 38.2-2217, shall be received for the completion of a driver improvement clinic only once within a period of two years from the date a person satisfactorily completes the clinic. Persons shall be eligible to voluntarily attend a driver improvement clinic again for either safe driving points or a reduction in premium charges, whichever was not awarded or received previously, one year from the date of satisfactory completion of a driver improvement clinic in which safe driving points or a reduction in premium charges was received or awarded.

D. Any resident or nonresident person holding a valid license to drive a motor vehicle in Virginia, whether or not he has accumulated demerit points, may apply to any business, organization, governmental entity or individual certified by the Department to provide driver improvement clinic instruction for permission to attend a driver improvement clinic on a voluntary basis. Such businesses, organizations, governmental entities or individuals may, when seating space is available, schedule the person to attend a driver improvement clinic.

Persons who voluntarily attend and satisfactorily complete a driver improvement clinic shall be eligible (i) to have five demerit points subtracted from their total accumulation of demerit points, except in those instances where a person has not accumulated five demerit points, in which case a reduction in demerit points and/or the award of safe driving points will be made, or (ii) to receive a reduction in premium charges as set forth under § 38.2-2217, either of which, but not both, shall be awarded or received no more than once in a two-year period, as set forth in subsection C of this section. Such persons shall inform the business, organization or individual providing instruction if they are attending to be awarded safe driving points or to receive a reduction in premium charges as set forth under § 38.2-2217.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.12; 1982, c. 671; 1984, c. 673; 1989, c. 727; 1995, cc. 226, 672; 1996, cc. 307, 1035; 1998, cc. 124, 792.

§ 46.2-499. Driver's license probation.

A. The Commissioner shall place on probation for a period of six months any person who has been directed to attend a driver improvement clinic pursuant to the provisions of § 46.2-498. In addition, the Commissioner shall place any person on probation for a period of six months on receiving a record of a conviction of such person of any offense for which demerit points are assessed and the offense was committed within any driver control period imposed pursuant to § 46.2-500. Whenever a person who has been placed on probation is convicted, or found not innocent in the case of a juvenile, of any offense for which demerit points are assessed, and the offense was committed during the probation period, the Commissioner shall suspend the person's license for a period of ninety days when six demerit points are assigned, for a period of sixty days when four demerit points are assigned, and for a period of forty-five days when three demerit points are assigned. In addition, the Commissioner shall again place the person on probation for a period of six months, effective on termination of the suspension imposed pursuant to this section.

B. Upon request, the Commissioner shall grant a restricted license during the first period of suspension imposed pursuant to subsection A of this section provided the person is otherwise eligible to be licensed. Any person whose driver's license is suspended for a second or subsequent time under subsection A of this section shall be eligible to receive a restricted driver's license only if the violation occurred within a probation period that was immediately preceded by a control period. A restricted license may be issued for any of the purposes set forth in subsection E of § 18.2-271.1. Written verifications of the person's employment, continuing education or medically necessary travel shall also be required and made available to the Commissioner. Whenever a person who has been granted a restricted license pursuant to this subsection is convicted, or found not innocent in the case of a juvenile, of any offense for which demerit points are assessed, and the offense was committed during the restricted license period, the Commissioner shall suspend the person's license using the same demerit point criteria and suspension periods set forth in subsection A of this section. No restricted license issued pursuant to this subsection shall permit any person to operate a commercial motor vehicle as defined in the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.).

C. Whenever the Department receives notice from the court that restricted license privileges have been granted to a person who has an existing restricted license issued pursuant to subsection B of this section, the existing restricted license shall be cancelled, and the Commissioner shall suspend the person's license for the period of time remaining on the original order of suspension. No court-granted restricted license shall be issued until the end of the suspension period imposed by the Commissioner.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.13; 1978, c. 221; 1984, c. 673; 1989, c. 727; 1994, c. 849; 1995, c. 672; 1996, cc. 943, 994; 2001, cc. 645, 779.

§ 46.2-500. Driver control period.

Whenever an individual is placed on probation pursuant to §§ 46.2-498, 46.2-499 or § 46.2-506, the Commissioner shall also place the person on driver control status for a period of eighteen months following the termination of the probationary period. If the individual commits any violation during the driver control period for which points are assessed, the Commissioner shall again place the individual on probation for a period of six months and on driver control status for an additional period of eighteen months following the probationary period.

1984, c. 673, § 46.1-514.13:1; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 672.

§ 46.2-501. Notice to attend driver improvement clinic.

A. Any notice to attend a driver improvement clinic shall contain:

1. Information on how to schedule a driver improvement clinic.

2. The purpose of the driver improvement clinic, including the consequences of not attending the clinic program.

3. An explanation of the terms of the probationary licensing period.

4. A requirement stating that the clinic must be satisfactorily completed within ninety days from the date of the notice. The Commissioner may for good cause shown, and provided the person provides the Commissioner with satisfactory evidence documenting the need and soonest date of return, extend the time limit otherwise provided for attending such a clinic when the person directed to attend a driver improvement clinic is (i) attending an institution of higher education outside Virginia, and attendance is to coincide with a break in the school year of such institution of higher education, provided that jurisdiction does not offer an approved driver improvement clinic or (ii) in the military or is a military dependent and is stationed outside the United States or outside the Commonwealth in a jurisdiction that does not offer an approved driver improvement clinic.

B. The notice directing any person to attend a driver improvement clinic shall be forwarded by certified mail to the last known address of the person, as shown on the records of the Department.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.14; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 672; 2002, c. 385.

§ 46.2-502. Clinic fees.

A. The Department and all businesses, organizations, governmental entities or individuals certified by the Department to provide driver improvement clinic instruction may charge a fee not to exceed $100, which shall include the processing fee set forth in subsection B of this section, to persons notified by the Department to attend a driver improvement clinic. No person shall be permitted to attend a driver improvement clinic unless the person first pays the required attendance fee to the business, organization, governmental entity or individual providing the driver improvement clinic instruction.

B. All businesses, organizations, governmental entities or individuals certified by the Department to provide driver improvement clinic instruction shall collect for the Department a processing fee of $10 from each person attending a driver improvement clinic taught by such businesses, organizations, governmental entities or individuals. Such processing fee payments shall accompany the clinic rosters submitted to the Department by such businesses, organizations, governmental entities or individuals. No such processing fee, however, shall be required or collected from members of volunteer emergency medical services agencies and volunteer fire departments who attend such clinics in order to successfully complete training for emergency vehicle operation. All fees collected by the Department under this subsection shall be paid by the Commissioner into the state treasury and shall be set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.15; 1984, c. 673; 1987, c. 696; 1989, c. 727; 1992, c. 459; 1995, c. 672; 1996, c. 171; 1998, c. 437; 2013, c. 326; 2015, cc. 502, 503.

§ 46.2-503. Suspension of privilege to operate a motor vehicle for failure to attend clinics.

The Commissioner shall suspend the privilege to operate a motor vehicle of any person who fails to satisfactorily complete a driver improvement clinic. This suspension shall remain in effect until such person satisfactorily completes the driver improvement clinic. This section shall not be applicable to persons attending clinics on a voluntary basis.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.16; 1984, c. 673; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 672.

§ 46.2-504. Form and contents of order of probation, suspension or revocation; service.

Whenever the Commissioner issues a probation, suspension or revocation order in accordance with any provision of this chapter, the order shall provide the addressee with a minimum of ten days' notice and shall be served as provided in § 46.2-416.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.17; 1980, c. 704; 1984, c. 673; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-505. Court may direct defendant to attend driver improvement clinic.

A. Any circuit or general district court or juvenile court of the Commonwealth, or any federal court, charged with the duty of hearing traffic cases for offenses committed in violation of any law of the Commonwealth, or any valid local ordinance, or any federal law regulating the movement or operation of a motor vehicle, may require any person found guilty, or in the case of a juvenile found not innocent, of a violation of any state law, local ordinance, or federal law, to attend a driver improvement clinic or a mature driver motor vehicle crash prevention course as provided for in § 38.2-2217. The attendance requirement may be in lieu of or in addition to the penalties prescribed by § 46.2-113, the ordinance, or federal law. The court shall determine if a person is to receive safe driving points upon satisfactory completion of a driver improvement clinic conducted by the Department or by any business, organization, governmental entity or individual certified by the Department to provide driver improvement clinic instruction. In the absence of such notification, no safe driving points shall be awarded by the Department.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, no court shall, as a result of a person's attendance at a driver improvement clinic or a mature driver motor vehicle crash prevention course, reduce, dismiss, or defer the conviction of a person charged with any offense committed while operating a commercial motor vehicle as defined in the Virginia Commercial Driver's License Act (§ 46.2-341.1 et seq.) or any holder of a commercial driver's license charged with any offense committed while operating a noncommercial motor vehicle.

C. Persons required by the court to attend a driver improvement clinic or a mature driver motor vehicle crash prevention course shall notify the court if the driver improvement clinic or mature driver motor vehicle crash prevention course has or has not been attended and satisfactorily completed, in compliance with the court order. Failure of the person to attend and satisfactorily complete a driver improvement clinic or mature driver motor vehicle crash prevention course, in compliance with the court order, may be punished as contempt of such court.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.18; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 672; 2002, c. 724; 2008, c. 190; 2014, c. 282.

§ 46.2-506. Formal hearings; suspension for excessive point accumulation.

A. Whenever the operating record of any person shows a continued disregard of the motor vehicle laws subsequent to being placed on probation, he may be charged as a reckless or negligent driver of a motor vehicle, and cited for a formal hearing in accordance with the provisions of §§ 46.2-402 through 46.2-408. If the hearing results in the suspension of a person's driving privilege, the person shall be placed on probation at the end of the suspension period in accordance with the provisions of § 46.2-499.

B. Whenever the operating record of any person shows an accumulation of at least eighteen demerit points based on convictions, or findings of not innocent in the case of a juvenile, for traffic violations committed within any twelve consecutive months, or at least twenty-four demerit points based on convictions, or findings of not innocent in the case of a juvenile, for traffic violations committed within any twenty-four consecutive months, respectively, the Commissioner shall suspend the person's license or licenses for a period of ninety days and thereafter until he attends and satisfactorily completes a driver improvement clinic. At the end of this suspension period, the person shall be placed on probation in accordance with the provisions of § 46.2-499.

1974, c. 453, § 46.1-514.19; 1984, c. 673; 1989, c. 727; 1995, c. 672.

Chapter 6. Titling and Registration of Motor Vehicles.

Article 1. Titling and Registration, Generally

§ 46.2-600. Owner to secure registration and certificate of title or certificate of ownership.

Except as otherwise provided, for the purposes of this chapter, a moped shall be deemed a motor vehicle.

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter every person who owns a motor vehicle, trailer or semitrailer, or his authorized attorney-in-fact, shall, before it is operated on any highway in the Commonwealth, register with the Department and obtain from the Department the registration card and certificate of title for the vehicle. Individuals applying for registration shall provide the Department with the residence address of the owner of the vehicle being registered. A business applying for registration shall provide the Department with the street address of the owner or lessee of the vehicle being registered.

At the option of the applicant for registration, the address shown on the title and registration card may be either a post office box or the business or residence address of the applicant.

Unless he has previously applied for registration and a certificate of title or he is exempted under §§ 46.2-619, 46.2-626.1, 46.2-631, and 46.2-1206, every person residing in the Commonwealth who owns a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, or his duly authorized attorney-in-fact, shall, within 30 days of the purchase or transfer, apply to the Department for a certificate of ownership.

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to require titling or registration in the Commonwealth of any farm tractor or special construction and forestry equipment, as defined in § 46.2-100.

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section, provided such vehicle is registered and titled elsewhere in the United States, nothing in this chapter shall be construed to require titling or registration in the Commonwealth of any vehicle located in the Commonwealth if that vehicle is registered to a non-Virginia resident active duty military service member, activated reserve or national guard member, mobilized reserve or national guard member living in the Commonwealth, or person who is serving a full-time church service or proselyting mission of not more than 36 months and who is not gainfully employed.

Code 1950, § 46-42; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-41; 1972, c. 301; 1978, c. 402; 1980, c. 469; 1986, c. 228; 1988, c. 363; 1989, c. 727; 2003, c. 297; 2007, c. 934; 2010, c. 135; 2013, cc. 244, 367, 783; 2016, c. 428.

§ 46.2-600.1. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Indication of special communication needs.

A. As used in this section, "disability that can impair communication" means a condition with symptoms that can impair the ability of a person with such condition to receive, send, process, or comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal, or graphic symbol systems, including autism spectrum disorders as defined in § 38.2-3418.17 and hearing loss.

B. The Department shall include on the application for registration of a motor vehicle an option for the vehicle owner to, if applicable, voluntarily indicate that he or a person who will regularly occupy his vehicle has a disability that can impair communication. On any application on which the applicant indicates that a person who will regularly occupy his vehicle has such a disability, the Department may require the applicant to certify that he has the consent of the regular occupant of the vehicle to release information pursuant to subsection D.

C. Any vehicle owner with a driver's license indicator authorized pursuant to subsection K of § 46.2-342 or special identification card indicator authorized pursuant to subsection L of § 46.2-345 or whose vehicle is regularly occupied by an individual with such an indicator shall be eligible for the registration indicator. Vehicle owners with a driver's license indicator or special identification card indicator and vehicle owners whose vehicle is regularly occupied by an individual with a driver's license indicator or special identification card indicator may apply to the Department for a registration indicator in a manner prescribed by the Commissioner.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A of § 46.2-208, the Department shall provide information regarding vehicle registrants who have indicated, pursuant to subsection B or C, that they or individuals who will regularly occupy their vehicles have a disability that can impair communication with employees and agents of criminal justice agencies as defined in § 9.1-101. The Department shall confirm the presence or absence of a registration indicator indicating that the registrant or a person regularly occupying the vehicle of a registrant has a disability that can impair communication, but it shall not provide information about the type of health condition or disability that the registrant or a person regularly occupying the vehicle of a registrant has.

E. Any vehicle owner who has a registration indicator indicating that the registrant or a person regularly occupying the vehicle of a registrant has a disability that can impair communication may have such indicator removed by requesting such removal, in writing, to the Department.

2020, c. 786; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 358, 359, 421.

§ 46.2-600.1. (Effective January 1, 2022) Indication of special communication needs.

A. As used in this section, "disability that can impair communication" means a condition with symptoms that can impair the ability of a person with such condition to receive, send, process, or comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal, or graphic symbol systems, including autism spectrum disorders as defined in § 38.2-3418.17 and hearing loss.

B. The Department shall include on the application for registration of a motor vehicle an option for the vehicle owner to, if applicable, voluntarily indicate that he or a person who will regularly occupy his vehicle has a disability that can impair communication. On any application on which the applicant indicates that a person who will regularly occupy his vehicle has such a disability, the Department may require the applicant to certify that he has the consent of the regular occupant of the vehicle to release information pursuant to subsection D.

C. Any vehicle owner with a driver's license indicator authorized pursuant to subsection K of § 46.2-342; special identification card indicator authorized pursuant to subsection L of § 46.2-345 or subsection H of § 46.2-345.2; or identification privilege card indicator authorized pursuant to subsection I of § 46.2-345.3 or whose vehicle is regularly occupied by an individual with such an indicator shall be eligible for the registration indicator. A vehicle owner with such an indicator on his credential and a vehicle owner whose vehicle is regularly occupied by an individual with a driver's license indicator or special identification card indicator may apply to the Department for a registration indicator in a manner prescribed by the Commissioner.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A of § 46.2-208, the Department shall provide information regarding vehicle registrants who have indicated, pursuant to subsection B or C, that they or individuals who will regularly occupy their vehicles have a disability that can impair communication with employees and agents of criminal justice agencies as defined in § 9.1-101. The Department shall confirm the presence or absence of a registration indicator indicating that the registrant or a person regularly occupying the vehicle of a registrant has a disability that can impair communication, but it shall not provide information about the type of health condition or disability that the registrant or a person regularly occupying the vehicle of a registrant has.

E. Any vehicle owner who has a registration indicator indicating that the registrant or a person regularly occupying the vehicle of a registrant has a disability that can impair communication may have such indicator removed by requesting such removal, in writing, to the Department.

2020, c. 786; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 358, 359, 421, 544.

§ 46.2-601. Appointment of Commissioner agent for service of process.

Each nonresident owner of a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer applying for the registration thereof in the Commonwealth shall file with the application a duly executed instrument, constituting the Commissioner and his successors in office his attorney on whom all lawful process against and notice to the owner may be served in any action or legal proceeding brought as the result of the operation or use of any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer registered by or for him, in the Commonwealth; and therein shall agree that any process against or notice to the owner shall have the same effect as if served on the owner within the Commonwealth. The service of the process or notice shall be made by leaving a copy of it in the office of the Commissioner with a service fee of three dollars to be taxed as a part of the costs of the suit. The Commissioner shall forthwith notify the owner of the service by letter.

Code 1950, § 46-125; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-139; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-602. Titling and registration of foreign market vehicles.

A. The Department shall not issue a permanent certificate of title or registration for a foreign market vehicle until the applicant submits proof that the vehicle complies with federal safety requirements.

B. The Department shall accept as proof that a foreign market vehicle complies with federal safety requirements documents from either the United States Department of Transportation or the United States Customs Service stating that the vehicle conforms or has been brought into conformity with federal safety requirements.

C. The certificate of title of any foreign market vehicle titled under this section shall contain an appropriate notation that the owner has submitted proof that it complies with federal safety requirements.

D. Any foreign market vehicle previously titled in the Commonwealth shall be titled and registered without further proof of compliance with federal safety requirements. If, however, proof of compliance is not submitted to the Department, the certificate of title shall contain an appropriate notation that the owner of the foreign market vehicle has not submitted proof that the vehicle complies with federal safety requirements.

E. No foreign market vehicle manufactured 25 or more years ago shall be subject to this section.

F. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, the Department shall issue a nonnegotiable title for a foreign market vehicle on submission of a complete application for a title including all necessary documents of ownership. A negotiable title will be issued on proof of compliance as provided in subsection A or for foreign market vehicles manufactured 25 or more years ago. The Department shall show on the face of any title issued under this section any negotiable security interests in the motor vehicle as provided in §§ 46.2-636 through 46.2-643.

G. The Department shall not transfer the title to a foreign market vehicle if ownership of the vehicle is evidenced by a nonnegotiable title, unless the nonnegotiable title owner is deceased. If the nonnegotiable title owner is deceased, a new, nonnegotiable title may be issued to the legatee or distributee in accordance with §§ 46.2-633 and 46.2-634.

H. A nonnegotiable title may be issued for the purpose of recording a lien. A negotiable certificate of title shall be issued on proof of compliance with all regulations prescribed in this section.

I. Notwithstanding other provisions of this section, the Department shall issue, on application, a temporary, nonrenewable 180-day registration to a foreign market vehicle upon:

1. Proof that the vehicle has been brought into compliance with all federal safety requirements and that the applicant is merely waiting for documentary releases from the Federal Department of Transportation;

2. Proof of satisfactory passage of a Virginia safety inspection; and

3. Submission of a complete application for a title, including all necessary documents of ownership.

J. The Department shall withhold delivery of the certificate of title during the 180-day period of conditional registration and shall not issue the permanent title until the requirements of subsection A of this section have been met.

K. Upon application, the Department shall issue a temporary one-trip permit for the purpose of transporting a foreign market vehicle from the port of entry to the applicant's home or to a conversion facility. The one-trip permit shall be issued in accordance with § 46.2-651.

1986, c. 613, § 46.1-41.2; 1989, c. 727; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 137.

§ 46.2-602.1. Titling and registration of replica vehicles.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the model year of vehicles constructed or assembled by multiple manufacturers or assemblers shall be the model year of which the vehicle is a replica. No vehicle titled under this section shall be driven more than 5,000 miles per year as shown by the vehicle's odometer. No vehicle titled under this section shall be automatically eligible for antique motor vehicle license plates provided for in § 46.2-730.

Any vehicle registered under this section shall be subject to vehicle safety inspections as provided for in Article 21 (§ 46.2-1157 et seq.) of Chapter 10 and emissions inspections as provided for in Article 22 (§ 46.2-1176 et seq.) of Chapter 10. Such vehicles shall meet such safety and emission requirements as established for the model year of which the vehicle is a replica.

The Department shall assign each such vehicle a new vehicle identification number, line-make, and model year, if required.

2007, cc. 325, 393.

§ 46.2-602.2. Titling and registration of company vehicles of automotive manufacturers.

For the purpose of this section:

"Automotive manufacturer" means the entire worldwide affiliated group as defined in § 58.1-3700.1, as of July 31, 2007, if at least one member of the worldwide affiliated group is an automotive manufacturer, as classified under the 2007 North American Industry Classification System Codes 3361, 3362, and 3363 in effect as of December 31, 2007.

"Company vehicles" means the following vehicles owned or operated by an automotive manufacturer having its headquarters in Virginia:

1. Vehicles used for sales or service training, advertising, public relations, quality control, and emissions or other testing and/or evaluation purposes;

2. Vehicles used for headquarters-related purposes, including but not necessarily limited to use by visiting executives or employees;

3. Vehicles provided for use by eligible headquarters employees or their eligible family members in compliance with established corporate policies as may from time to time be in effect, but not more than four vehicles may be leased for the benefit of any eligible headquarters employee at any one time; and

4. All other vehicles deemed by the automotive manufacturer to serve a headquarters function, but excluding any vehicles provided for use by eligible headquarters employees or their eligible family members in compliance with established corporate policies.

"Family members" means the spouse of an employee, and the children and parents of an employee or an employee's spouse.

"Headquarters" means a facility at which company employees are physically employed and at which the majority of the company's financial, personnel, legal, or planning functions are handled either on a regional or national basis.

Each automotive manufacturer having its headquarters in the Commonwealth shall be issued a motor vehicle dealer license or equivalent permit by the Commissioner. Such license or permit shall authorize the automotive manufacturer to dispose of company vehicles using a manufacturer's certificate of origin, but if disposed of within the Commonwealth of Virginia, such vehicles may only be transferred to a new motor vehicle dealer holding a franchise for the automotive manufacturer's line-make, provided each vehicle is transferred with a designation indicating that it is not a new motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-1500. The automotive manufacturer and its affiliates may sell used motor vehicles directly to its lessees.

An automotive manufacturer having its headquarters in the Commonwealth may obtain a title for any company vehicle, but issuance of any such title shall be exempt from all fees except for the fee for issuance of a certificate of title as provided in § 46.2-627.

All company vehicles used as provided in this section may be driven using license plates issued and affixed as provided in Article 5 (§ 46.2-1545.1 et seq.) of Chapter 15. All such vehicles shall be classified as merchants' capital and subject to merchants' capital tax pursuant to Article 3 (§ 58.1-3509 et seq.) of Chapter 35 of Title 58.1.

2008, cc. 304, 753; 2015, c. 615.

§ 46.2-602.3. Titling and registration of converted electric vehicles.

A. Upon receipt of an application and such evidence of ownership as required by the Commissioner pursuant to § 46.2-625, the Department shall issue a certificate of title for a converted electric vehicle. The first certificate of title issued for a converted electric vehicle shall be an original certificate of title, regardless of the submission of a Virginia certificate of title issued for the vehicle prior to conversion.

B. 1. No converted electric vehicle shall be registered or operated on the highways of the Commonwealth until the owner submits to the Department a certification by a certified Virginia safety inspector that the conversion to electric propulsion is complete and proof that the vehicle has passed a Virginia safety inspection subsequent to the certification. Such certification shall be on a form approved by the Commissioner and the Superintendent and shall state that the inspector has verified that (i) the internal combustion engine has been removed; (ii) the fuel tank has been removed and not replaced; (iii) a traction battery pack has been installed that is distinct from the vehicle's original auxiliary battery system; and (iv) an electric motor has been installed to drive the wheels of the vehicle. The safety inspector may charge a fee not to exceed $40 to complete a certification pursuant to this subsection, but no such charge shall be mandatory. Any fee charged for such certification shall be in addition to any fee imposed pursuant to § 46.2-1167 for the completion of a Virginia safety inspection.

2. The completion of the certification required by this section shall not impose any liability on the safety inspector for the quality of the conversion process; however, nothing in this section shall be construed so as to relieve the safety inspector of any liability that may be imposed pursuant to Article 21 (§ 46.2-1157 et seq.) of Chapter 10 or under any regulation promulgated pursuant to § 46.2-1165, relating to the safety inspection of the converted electric vehicle.

3. The submission of a certification pursuant to this section shall be sufficient documentation to exempt the converted electric vehicle for which it is submitted from the emissions inspection program required by Article 22 (§ 46.2-1176 et seq.) of Chapter 10.

4. When necessary and upon application, the Department shall issue temporary trip permits in accordance with § 46.2-651 for the purpose of transporting the converted electric vehicle to and from an official Virginia safety inspection station.

C. The provisions of this section need only be satisfied once for each converted electric vehicle.

2012, c. 177; 2013, c. 216.

§ 46.2-602.4. Titling and registration of off-road motorcycle converted to on-road use.

A. For the purpose of this section:

"Converter" means a person who, through the act of conversion, alters an off-road motorcycle for on-road use on the highways by the addition, substitution, or removal of motor vehicle equipment, creating a motor vehicle to which Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards for new motorcycles will become applicable at the time of the conversion. A converter shall be considered a manufacturer responsible under 49 U.S.C. § 30112 for compliance of the motorcycle with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and the certification of compliance required by those standards.

"Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards" means the standards prescribed by 49 C.F.R. Part 571.

"Manufacturer" means a person manufacturing or assembling motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment.

"Motor vehicle equipment" means (i) any system, part, or component of a motor vehicle as originally manufactured or (ii) any similar part or component manufactured or sold for replacement or improvement of a system, part, or component, or as an accessory or addition to a motor vehicle.

"Off-road motorcycle converted to on-road use" means every off-road motorcycle that has been converted for use on the public highways with the addition of such necessary equipment to meet all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards for new motorcycles for the year in which it is converted.

B. Each converter shall certify in accordance with the requirements of subsection E that the off-road motorcycle converted to on-road use meets all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards for new motorcycles for the year in which it is converted. If the converter is unavailable or unknown, the owner shall certify that the converter is unavailable or unknown and that he assumes responsibility for all duties and corresponding liabilities under the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Act. If a converter or owner fails or refuses to provide the required certification, the vehicle shall remain an off-road motorcycle.

C. Each converter, or owner if the converter is unavailable or unknown, shall permanently affix to each vehicle a label containing the following: (i) the name of manufacturer, (ii) the month and year of manufacture, (iii) the gross vehicle weight rating, (iv) the gross axle weight rating, (v) certification that the vehicle conforms to all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards in effect on the date of manufacture in the year in which it is converted, (vi) the vehicle identification number, and (vii) the motorcycle vehicle classification. Such label shall meet the requirements set forth in 49 C.F.R. § 567.4.

D. Upon receipt of an application and such evidence of ownership as required by the Commissioner pursuant to § 46.2-625, the Department shall issue a certificate of title for an off-road motorcycle converted to on-road use. The first certificate of title issued for an off-road motorcycle converted to on-road use shall be an original certificate of title, regardless of the submission of a Virginia certificate of title issued for the off-road motorcycle prior to conversion.

E. No off-road motorcycle converted to on-road use shall be registered or operated on the highways of the Commonwealth until the owner submits to the Department, upon a form approved and furnished by the Department, (i) certification that the motor vehicle has passed the motor vehicle safety inspection subsequent to the conversion; (ii) certification from the converter, or owner if the converter is unavailable or unknown, that the motor vehicle meets all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; and (iii) certification that the motor vehicle has been labeled in accordance with subsection C.

F. When necessary and upon application, the Department shall issue temporary trip permits in accordance with § 46.2-651 for the purpose of transporting the off-road motorcycle converted to on-road use to and from an official motor vehicle safety inspection station.

G. Notwithstanding §§ 46.2-105 and 46.2-605, any certification required by this section found to be knowingly given falsely is punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor.

2015, c. 259.

§ 46.2-603. Issuance of certificate of title and registration card.

A. The Department, on receiving an application for a certificate of title for a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, shall issue to the owner a certificate of title and a registration card as separate documents.

B. Subject to all applicable federal laws, the Department may refrain from issuing a certificate of title in paper form and, instead, shall create only the electronic record of such title to be retained by the Department in its existing electronic title record system with a notation that no certificate of title has been printed on paper. The owner of a vehicle will be deemed to have obtained and the Department will be deemed to have issued a certificate of title when such title record has been created electronically as provided in this subsection. An owner or lienholder listed on a title record so created may at any time request and the Department shall provide a paper certificate of title for the vehicle. Except as provided in § 46.2-603.1, all transfers of vehicle ownership shall require a paper certificate of title in accordance with, and subject to, all applicable federal laws.

Code 1950, § 46-68; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-68; 1989, c. 727; 2005, c. 305; 2012, c. 650.

§ 46.2-603.1. Electronic titling program.

The Department may establish an electronic titling program for any "new motor vehicle" as that term is defined in § 46.2-1500. Participants in the electronic titling program shall submit electronic applications for original motor vehicle titles in a form and format prescribed by the Department. Participants must provide all documentation or information required by the Department to process the electronic title application, including an electronic manufacturer's certificate of origin and any information required by the Department in accordance with § 46.2-623. The records of a nationally recognized motor vehicle title database shall be searched prior to transfer of vehicle ownership. Participants shall collect from the purchaser of the new motor vehicle any fee charged for the search of the nationally recognized motor vehicle title database. Upon receipt of a completed electronic application, the Department shall refrain from issuing a certificate of title in paper form and, instead, shall create only the electronic record of such title to be retained by the Department in its existing electronic title record system with a notation that no certificate of title has been printed on paper. The owner of a motor vehicle will be deemed to have obtained and the Department will be deemed to have issued a certificate of title when such title record has been created electronically as provided in this section. An owner listed on a title record so created may at any time request and the Department shall provide a paper certificate of title for the vehicle.

2012, c. 650.

§ 46.2-604. Contents of registration card and certificate; vehicle color data; notation of certain disabled owners.

The registration card and the certificate of title shall each contain the date issued, the registration number assigned to the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, the name and address of the owner, a description of the registered motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, and other statement of facts as may be determined by the Department. Every applicant for registration or renewal of registration shall indicate on his application the color that best describes the predominant color of the vehicle. In so doing, the applicant shall select a color from a list of standard, primary colors, developed by the Commissioner. Such color information shall be maintained in the Department's records and made available to law-enforcement agencies for their official use and may, in the discretion of the Commissioner, be indicated on the registration card and the certificate of title.

Whenever disabled parking license plates are issued under § 46.2-731 to the parent or legal guardian of a person with a disability that limits or impairs his ability to walk or that creates a concern for his safety while walking, the registration card for such vehicle shall so note.

Whenever (i) disabled parking license plates are issued under § 46.2-731 or DV disabled parking license plates are issued under subsection B of § 46.2-739 and (ii) the vehicle for which such license plates are issued is registered in the name of more than one owner, the registration card for such vehicle shall include a notation indicating which owner or owners of the vehicle is a "person with a disability that limits or impairs his ability to walk" as defined in § 46.2-1240. However, no vehicle owned and used by an organization for the transportation of disabled persons shall be subject to the notation requirement imposed by this paragraph.

The registration card shall contain forms for providing notice to the Department of a transfer of the ownership of the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer. Whenever a Virginia-registered motor vehicle is sold or its ownership otherwise transferred, the seller or transferor shall notify the Department of the sale or transfer by completing the appropriate portion of the registration card. Section 46.2-113 shall not apply to failures to provide such notification.

The certificate of title shall contain a statement of the owner's title and of all liens or encumbrances on the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer described in the certificate and whether possession is held by the owner under a lease, contract, or conditional sale or other like agreement. The certificate of title shall also contain forms of assignment of title or interest and warranty of title with space for notation of liens and encumbrances on the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer at the time of a transfer.

Code 1950, § 46-79; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-79; 1988, c. 363; 1989, c. 727; 1990, c. 79; 1998, cc. 285, 302; 2000, c. 667; 2004, c. 692.

§ 46.2-605. Altering or forging certificate of title, salvage/nonrepairable certificate, or registration card; penalty.

Any person who (i) with fraudulent intent alters any certificate of title, salvage/nonrepairable certificate, or registration card issued by the Department or by any other state, (ii) with fraudulent intent, makes a false statement on any application for a certificate of title, salvage/nonrepairable certificate, or registration card issued by the Department or any other state, (iii) forges or counterfeits any certificate of title, salvage/nonrepairable certificate, or registration card purporting to have been issued by the Department under the provisions of this title or by any other state under a similar law or laws or, with fraudulent intent, alters or falsifies, or forges any assignment of title, or salvage/nonrepairable certificate, (iv) holds or uses any certificate, registration card, or assignment, knowing the same to have been altered, forged, or falsified, shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony.

It shall be unlawful for any person to conspire with any other person to violate the provisions of this section.

Code 1950, § 46-12; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-85; 1986, c. 490; 1989, c. 727; 1996, cc. 591, 917.

§ 46.2-606. Notice of change of address.

A. Whenever any person who has applied for or obtained the registration or title to a vehicle moves from the address shown in his application, registration card or certificate of title, he shall notify the Department of his change of address within 30 days.

B. The Department may contract with the United States Postal Service or an authorized agent to use the National Change of Address System for the purpose of obtaining current address information for a person whose name appears in customer records maintained by the Department. If the Department receives information from the National Change of Address System indicating that a person whose name appears in a Department record has submitted a permanent change of address to the Postal Service, the Department may then update its records with the mailing address obtained from the National Change of Address System.

C. Anyone failing to comply with this section may be charged a fee of $5, to be used to cover the Department's expenses. Notwithstanding the foregoing provision of this subsection, no fee shall be imposed on any person whose address is obtained from the National Change of Address System.

1974, c. 347, § 46.1-52.1; 1989, c. 727; 1996, cc. 943, 994; 2010, cc. 25, 55.

§ 46.2-607. Duplicates for lost or mutilated indicia of titling and registration.

If any license plate, decal, registration card, or certificate of title is lost, mutilated, or has become illegible, the person who is entitled to the certificate shall immediately apply for and obtain a replacement after furnishing information of the fact satisfactory to the Department and after payment of the required fees.

A person who has twice obtained a replacement set of license plates or decals shall not be entitled to obtain another set of license plates or decals during the license period for which the original set of plates was issued unless the Commissioner finds that the replacement license plates or decals have been lost or mutilated without the fault of the person entitled to them.

Code 1950, § 46-53; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-55; 1968, c. 334; 1972, c. 609; 1982, c. 671; 1986, c. 165; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-608. When application for registration or certificate of title rejected.

The Department may reject an application for the registration of a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer or certificate of title when:

1. The applicant for registration is not entitled to it under the provisions of this title or Title 43;

2. The applicant has neglected or refused to furnish the Department with the information required on the appropriate official form or other information required by the Department;

3. The required fees have not been paid;

4. The vehicle is not equipped with equipment required by this title or the vehicle is equipped with equipment prohibited by this title;

5. The applicant, if not a resident of the Commonwealth, has not filed with the Commissioner a power of attorney appointing him the applicant's authorized agent or attorney-in-fact upon whom process or notice may be served as required in § 46.2-601;

6. There is reason to believe that the application or accompanying documents have been altered or contain any false statement;

7. The vehicle is a commercial motor vehicle and is being operated by a motor carrier that has been prohibited to operate by a federal agency;

8. The vehicle is a commercial motor vehicle and the vehicle has been assigned for safety to a motor carrier that has been prohibited from operating by a federal agency or a motor carrier whose business is operated, managed, or otherwise controlled or affiliated with a person who is ineligible for registration, including the owner or a relative, family member, corporate officer, or shareholder; or

9. The vehicle is a commercial motor vehicle and the applicant has applied on behalf of or for the benefit of the real party in interest who has been issued a federal out of service order or if the applicant's business is operated, managed, or otherwise controlled or affiliated with a person who is ineligible for registration, including the applicant or an entity, relative, family member, corporate officer, or shareholder.

For purposes of this section, the terms "commercial motor vehicle" and "motor carrier" shall be as defined in § 52-8.4.

Code 1950, § 46-54; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-56; 1968, c. 605; 1986, c. 490; 1989, c. 727; 2011, c. 61.

§ 46.2-609. When registration may be suspended or revoked.

A. The Department may revoke the registration of a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer and may revoke the registration card, license plates, or decals whenever the person to whom the registration card, license plates, or decals have been issued makes or permits to be made an unlawful use of any of them or permits their use by a person not entitled to them, or fails or refuses to pay, within the time prescribed by law, any fuel taxes or other taxes or fees required to be collected or authorized to be collected by the Department regardless of whether the fee applies to that particular vehicle.

B. The Department may suspend or revoke the registration card, license plates, or decals issued to a commercial motor vehicle if the motor carrier responsible for safety of the vehicle has been prohibited from operating by a federal agency. For purposes of this subsection, the terms "commercial motor vehicle" and "motor carrier" shall be as defined in § 52-8.4.

Code 1950, § 46-57; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-59; 1962, c. 368; 1972, c. 609; 1974, c. 171; 1989, c. 727; 2011, c. 61.

§ 46.2-610. Suspension of registration on theft or embezzlement of vehicle; notices.

Whenever the owner of any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer which is stolen or embezzled notifies the Department directly or through law-enforcement authorities of the theft or embezzlement, the Department shall immediately suspend the registration of that motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer until such time as it shall be notified that the owner has recovered his motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer. In the event of an embezzlement the owner shall obtain a warrant for the arrest of the person charged with the embezzlement before the Department shall suspend the registration. Any such suspension shall be effective only for the current registration period in which the notice was given. If during that period the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer is not recovered, a new notice may be given with like effect during the ensuing period. Every owner who has given a notice of theft or embezzlement shall immediately notify the Department of the recovery of his motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer.

Code 1950, § 46-4; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-60; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-611. Appeal.

From any action by the Department under this title suspending or revoking, rescinding or cancelling the registration of any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer or suspending, revoking, cancelling, or repossessing any registration card, license plates, or decals or denying an application for transfer of title, an appeal shall lie in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

Code 1950, § 46-60; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-61; 1972, c. 609; 1979, c. 478; 1986, c. 615; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-612. Failure to surrender revoked certificate of title, registration card, license plates or decals; other offenses relating to registration, licensing, and certificates of title; penalties.

A. It shall be unlawful for the owner of any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, for which license plates, decals, or registration cards have been revoked pursuant to this article, to fail or refuse to surrender to the Department, on demand, a certificate of title if it is incorrect in any material particular. Violation of this subsection shall constitute a Class 2 misdemeanor.

B. No person shall:

1. Display or cause or permit to be displayed any registration card, certificate of title, or license plate or decal that he knows is fictitious or that he knows has been canceled, revoked, suspended, or altered; or display or cause or permit to be displayed on any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer any license plate or decal that he knows is currently issued for another vehicle. Violation of this subdivision shall constitute a Class 2 misdemeanor.

2. Fail or refuse to surrender to the Department or the Department of State Police, on demand, any certificate of title, registration card, or license plate or decal that has been suspended, canceled, or revoked. Violation of this subdivision shall constitute a Class 2 misdemeanor.

3. Use a false name or address in any application for the registration of any motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, for a certificate of title, or for any renewal or duplicate certificate or knowingly make a false statement of a material fact, knowingly conceal a material fact, or otherwise commit a fraud in any registration application. Violation of this subdivision shall constitute a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 46-61; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-62; 1962, c. 302; 1972, c. 609; 1989, c. 727; 2019, cc. 71, 79.

§ 46.2-613. Infractions relating to registration, licensing, and certificates of title; penalties.

A. No person shall:

1. Operate, park, or permit the operation or parking of a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer owned, leased, or otherwise controlled by him on a highway unless (i) it is registered, (ii) a certificate of title therefor has been issued, and (iii) it has displayed on it the license plate or plates and decal or decals, if any, assigned to it by the Department for the current registration period, subject to the exemptions mentioned in Article 5 (§ 46.2-655 et seq.) and Article 6 (§ 46.2-662 et seq.). The provisions of this subdivision shall apply to the registration, licensing, and titling of mopeds on or after July 1, 2014.

2. Possess or use any registration card, license plate, or decal to which he is not entitled or knowingly permit the use of any registration card, license plate, or decal by anyone not entitled to it.

3. Willfully and intentionally violate the limitations imposed under §§ 46.2-665, 46.2-666, and 46.2-670 while operating an unregistered vehicle pursuant to the agricultural and horticultural exemptions allowed under those sections. A first violation of this subdivision shall constitute a traffic infraction punishable by a fine of not more than $250, and a second or subsequent violation of this subdivision shall constitute a traffic infraction punishable by a fine of $250.

B. For any summons issued for a violation of this section, the court may, in its discretion, dismiss the summons, where proof of compliance with this section is provided to the court on or before the court date.

Code 1950, § 46-63; 1950, p. 251; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-64; 1960, c. 79; 1972, c. 609; 1974, c. 400; 1975, c. 124; 1979, c. 620; 1989, c. 727; 1997, c. 283; 1999, c. 212; 2002, c. 93; 2006, cc. 444, 472; 2013, c. 783; 2017, cc. 204, 670; 2018, c. 425; 2019, cc. 71, 79.

§ 46.2-613.1. Civil penalty for violation of license, registration, and tax requirements and vehicle size limitations.

A. A civil penalty of $250 and a processing fee of $20 shall be levied against any person who while at a permanent weighing station:

1. Operates or permits the operation of a truck or tractor truck with a gross weight greater than 7,500 pounds, a trailer, or a semitrailer owned, leased, or otherwise controlled by him on any highway in the Commonwealth unless (i) it is registered, (ii) a certificate of title therefor has been issued, and (iii) it has displayed on it the license plate or plates and decal or decals required by this title.

2. Operates or causes to be operated on any highway in the Commonwealth any motor vehicle that is not in compliance with the Unified Carrier Registration System authorized under 49 U.S.C. § 14504a, enacted pursuant to the Unified Carrier Registration Act of 2005, and the federal regulations promulgated thereunder.

3. Operates or permits the operation of any truck or tractor truck for which the fee for registration is prescribed by § 46.2-697 on any highway in the Commonwealth (i) without first having paid the registration fee hereinabove prescribed or (ii) if at the time of operation the gross weight of the vehicle or of the combination of vehicles of which it is a part is in excess of the gross weight on the basis of which it is registered. In any case where a pickup truck is used in combination with another vehicle, the civil penalty and processing fee shall be assessed only if the combined gross weight exceeds the combined gross weight on the basis of which each vehicle is registered.

4. (i) Fails to declare a motor vehicle to be operated for hire when required by § 46.2-2121.1 or obtain a proper registration card or other evidence of registration as required by this chapter; (ii) operates or causes to be operated on any highway in the Commonwealth any motor vehicle that does not carry the proper registration and identification required by this title, display an identification marker issued for the vehicle by the Department in the manner prescribed by the Department, or display any other identifying information required by this title; or (iii) operates or causes to be operated on any highway in the Commonwealth any motor vehicle requiring registration cards or identification markers from the Department after such registration cards or identification markers have been revoked, canceled, or suspended.

5. (i) Fails to obtain a proper registration card, identification marker, or other evidence of registration required by Chapter 27 (§ 58.1-2700 et seq.) of Title 58.1 or the terms and provisions of the International Fuel Tax Agreement, as amended by the International Fuel Tax Association, Inc.; (ii) operates or causes to be operated on any highway in the Commonwealth any motor vehicle that does not carry the proper registration and identification marker required by Chapter 27 (§ 58.1-2700 et seq.) of Title 58.1 or the terms and provisions of the International Fuel Tax Agreement, as amended by the International Fuel Tax Association, Inc., or any motor vehicle that does not display an identification marker or other identifying information as prescribed by the Department or required by Title 58.1 or the terms of the International Fuel Tax Agreement, as amended by the International Fuel Tax Association, Inc.; or (iii) operates or causes to be operated on any highway in the Commonwealth any motor vehicle requiring registration cards or identification markers from the Department after such registration cards or identification markers have been revoked, canceled, or suspended.

6. Operates or causes to be operated on any highway in the Commonwealth any truck or tractor truck or combination of vehicles exceeding the size limitations of Articles 14 (§ 46.2-1101 et seq.), 15 (§ 46.2-1105 et seq.), 16 (§ 46.2-1112 et seq.), and 18 (§ 46.2-1139 et seq.) of Chapter 10.

B. Upon collection by the Department, civil penalties levied pursuant to subdivisions A 1 and A 3 through 5 shall be paid into the Commonwealth Transportation Fund, but civil penalties levied pursuant to subdivisions A 2 and 6 and all processing fees levied pursuant to this section shall be paid into the state treasury and shall be set aside as a special fund to meet the expenses of the Department of Motor Vehicles.

C. The penalties and fees specified in this section shall be in addition to any other penalty, fee, tax, or liability that may be imposed by law.

2011, cc. 62, 73; 2012, cc. 22, 111; 2017, cc. 790, 815.

§ 46.2-613.2. Service of process in civil penalty cases for violation of license, registration, and tax requirements and vehicle size limitations.

Any person, whether resident or nonresident, who permits the operation of a motor vehicle in the Commonwealth by his agent or employee shall be deemed to have appointed the operator of such motor vehicle his statutory agent for the purpose of service of process in any proceeding against such person growing out of any violation under § 46.2-613.1. Acceptance by a nonresident of the rights and privileges conferred by Article 5 (§ 46.2-655 et seq.) of Chapter 6 shall have the same effect under this section as operation of such motor vehicle by such nonresident, his agent, or his employee.

2011, cc. 62, 73.

§ 46.2-613.3. Special processing provisions for civil penalties levied for violation of license, registration, and tax requirements and vehicle size limitations.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all civil penalties levied pursuant to § 46.2-613.1 shall be processed in the following manner:

1. The size and weight compliance agent charging the violation shall serve a citation on the operator of the vehicle. The citation shall be directed to the owner, operator, or other person responsible for the violation as determined by the size and weight compliance agent. Service of the citation on the vehicle operator shall constitute service of process upon the owner, operator, or other person charged with the violation as provided in § 46.2-613.5.

2. The size and weight compliance agent charging the violation shall cause the citation to be delivered or sent by first-class mail to the Department within 24 hours after it is served.

3. The owner, operator, or other person charged with the violation shall, within 21 days after the citation is served upon the vehicle operator, either make full payment to the Department of the civil penalty and processing fee as stated on the citation or deliver to the Department a written notice of his election to contest the charges in court.

4. Failure of the owner, operator, or other person charged with the violation to timely deliver to the Department either payment in full of the uncontested civil penalty and processing fee or a notice of contest of the violation shall cause the Department to issue an administrative order of assessment against such person. A copy of the order shall be sent by first-class mail to the person charged with the violation. Any such administrative order shall have the same effect as a judgment entered by a general district court.

5. Upon timely receipt of a notice of contest of a violation under § 46.2-613.1, the Department shall:

a. Forward the citation to the general district court named in the citation; and

b. Send by first-class mail to the person charged with the violation and to the size and weight compliance agent who issued the citation confirmation that the citation has been forwarded to the court for trial.

6. Notices and pleadings may be served by first-class mail to the address shown on the citation as the address of the person charged with the weight violation or, if none is shown, to the address of record for the person to whom the vehicle is registered.

7. An alleged violation that is contested shall be tried as a civil case. The attorney for the Commonwealth shall represent the interests of the Commonwealth. The disposition of the case shall be recorded in an appropriate order, a copy of which shall be sent to the Department in lieu of any record that may be otherwise required by § 46.2-383. If judgment is for the Commonwealth, payment shall be made to the Department.

8. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, any and all citations and notices required by this section to be provided to the person charged with a violation or received from the person charged with a violation, with the exclusion of the citation as set out in subdivision 1, may be served or provided in an electronic manner if the Department and the person charged with the violation have agreed to utilize electronic notification.

2011, cc. 62, 73.

§ 46.2-613.4. Special seizure provisions for unpaid fees and penalties.

Any size and weight compliance agent authorized to serve process under the provisions of this chapter may hold a vehicle without an attachment summons or court order, but only for such time as is reasonably necessary to promptly petition for an attachment summons to attach the vehicle.

After finding reasonable cause for the issuance of an attachment summons, the judicial officer conducting the hearing shall inform the operator of the vehicle of his option to either pay the previously assessed fees and penalties due the Commonwealth or contest the charge through the attachment proceeding. If the operator chooses to make payment, he shall do so to the judicial officer, who shall transmit the citation along with the fees and penalties to the Department for distribution in accordance with subsection B of § 46.2-613.1.

The Commonwealth shall not be required to post bond in order to attach a vehicle pursuant to this section. The size and weight compliance agent authorized to hold the vehicle pending a hearing on the attachment petition shall also be empowered to execute the attachment summons if issued. Any bond for the retention of the vehicle or for release of the attachment shall be given in accordance with § 8.01-553 except that the bond shall be taken by a judicial officer. The judicial officer shall return the bond to the clerk of the appropriate court in place of the officer serving the attachment as otherwise provided in § 8.01-554.

In the event the fees and penalties are not paid in full, or no bond is given by, or for the person responsible for paying the fees and penalties, the vehicle shall be stored in a secure place, as may be designated by the owner or operator of the vehicle. If no place is designated, the officer or size and weight compliance agent executing the attachment summons shall designate the place of storage. The owner or operator shall be afforded the right of unloading and removing the cargo from the vehicle. The risk and cost of the storage shall be borne by the owner or operator of the vehicle.

Whenever an attachment summons is issued for unpaid fees and penalties the court shall forward to the Department both a copy of the order disposing of the case and the citation prepared by the size and weight compliance agent but not served.

Upon notification of the judgment or administrative order entered for such unpaid fees and penalties and notification of the failure of such person to satisfy the judgment or order, the Department, the Department of State Police, or any law-enforcement officer or size and weight compliance agent shall thereafter deny the offending person the right to operate a motor vehicle or vehicles on any highway of the Commonwealth until the judgment or order has been satisfied and a reinstatement fee of $50 has been paid to the Department. Reinstatement fees collected under the provisions of this section shall be paid by the Commissioner into the state treasury and shall be set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department.

When informed that the right to operate the motor vehicle has been denied, the driver shall drive the motor vehicle to a nearby location off the public highways and not move it or permit it to be moved until such judgment or order has been satisfied. Failure by the driver to comply with this provision shall constitute a Class 4 misdemeanor.

All costs incurred by the Commonwealth and all judgments, if any, against the Commonwealth due to action taken pursuant to this section shall be paid from the fund into which the civil penalties levied pursuant to § 46.2-613.1 are paid.

Officers of the Department of State Police and all other law-enforcement officers are vested with the same powers with respect to the enforcement of this chapter as they have with respect to the enforcement of the criminal laws of the Commonwealth.

2011, cc. 62, 73; 2012, cc. 22, 111.

§ 46.2-613.5. Procedures for issuing and serving process in civil penalty cases.

Any size and weight compliance agent authorized to enforce the provisions of § 46.2-613.1 may issue a citation for a violation of such provisions. Such size and weight compliance agent may also serve an attachment summons issued by a judge or magistrate in connection with a violation of § 46.2-613.1.

Service of any such citation shall be made upon the driver of the motor vehicle involved in the violation. Such service on the driver shall have the same legal force and validity as if served within the Commonwealth personally upon the owner, operator, or other person charged with the violation, whether such owner, operator, or other person charged is a resident or nonresident.

2011, cc. 62, 73.

§ 46.2-614. Right to recover damages not affected.

Nothing contained in this chapter shall affect the right of any person injured in his person or property by the negligent operation of any motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer, or locomotive to sue and recover damages.

Code 1950, § 46-67; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-67; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-615. Registration effective after death of owner.

Upon the death of an owner of a registered motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, its registration shall continue in force as a valid registration until (i) the end of the registration period for which the license plates or decals are issued or (ii) the ownership of the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer is transferred before the end of the registration period by the executor or administrator of the estate of the deceased owner or by a legatee or distributee of the estate, as provided in § 46.2-632 or 46.2-633, (iii) its ownership is transferred to a new owner before the end of the registration period by the survivor of its two joint owners, or (iv) its ownership is transferred pursuant to § 46.2-633.2.

Code 1950, § 46-92; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-96; 1968, c. 187; 1972, c. 609; 1989, c. 727; 2013, c. 318.

Article 2. Titling Vehicles

§ 46.2-616. Acquiring vehicle from vendor who does not have certificate of title.

Except as otherwise provided in this title, no person shall purchase, trade, exchange, or barter for a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer in the Commonwealth, knowing or having reason to believe that its seller has not secured a certificate of title, or knowing or having reason to believe that its seller does not legally have in his possession a certificate of title to the vehicle issued to its owner. Except as otherwise provided in this title, for the purposes of this article, off-road motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles shall be deemed motor vehicles.

Code 1950, § 46-7; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-5; 1978, c. 605; 1989, c. 727; 2006, c. 896.

§ 46.2-617. Sale of vehicle without certificate of title.

Except as provided in §§ 46.2-644.03 and 58.1-3942, any person who sells, trades, exchanges, or barters a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer in the Commonwealth without first having secured a certificate of title for it or without legally having in his possession a certificate of title for the vehicle issued to its owner, except as otherwise provided in this title, shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 46-7; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-88; 1968, c. 605; 1978, c. 605; 1988, c. 363; 1989, c. 727; 2009, c. 664; 2012, c. 623.

§ 46.2-618. When unlawful to have in possession certificate of title issued to another; remedy of purchaser against persons in possession of title of vehicle purchased from dealer.

A. It shall constitute a Class 1 misdemeanor for any person in the Commonwealth to possess a certificate of title issued by the Commissioner to a person other than the holder thereof, unless the certificate of title has been assigned to the holder as provided in this title. This section, however, shall apply neither to secured parties who legally hold certificates of title as provided in this title nor to the spouse of the person to whom the certificate of title was issued.

B. When a purchaser of a motor vehicle is unable to obtain the title for such vehicle because the motor vehicle dealer who sold the vehicle to the purchaser is no longer engaged in business in the Commonwealth as a dealer as defined in § 46.2-1500 and the purchaser must petition a court of competent jurisdiction to direct that a person other than the dealer holding the title to release the title to the purchaser, the Court may order the title be released to the buyer if the court finds that the purchaser has a right to the title superior to that of the person holding the title under the laws of the Commonwealth. The court may also, upon finding that the person holding the title must release it, award reasonable attorney fees, expenses, and costs incurred by the purchaser in making the petition to the court.

Code 1950, § 46-81; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-80; 1966, c. 558; 1972, c. 208; 1982, c. 205; 1989, c. 727; 2012, c. 119; 2015, c. 615.

§ 46.2-619. New indicia of title; procedure as to leased vehicles.

When the Department receives a certificate of title properly assigned and acknowledged, accompanied by an application for registration, it shall register the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer described in the application and shall issue to the person entitled to it by reason of the transfer a new registration card, license plate, or plates and certificate of title in the manner and form and for the fees provided in this chapter for original registration. For leased vehicles, such application shall include (i) if the lessee is an individual, the name and residence street address of the lessee and the name of the locality in which the leased vehicle will be principally garaged or parked and (ii) if the lessee is a business, the name of the business, its street address, and the name of the locality in which the leased vehicle will be principally garaged or parked. The Department shall also make this information available to the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing officer of the locality in which the leased vehicle is to be principally garaged or parked. Nothing in this section shall permit the registration of all-terrain vehicles or off-road motorcycles titled pursuant to this title.

Code 1950, § 46-87; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-91; 1989, c. 727; 1996, c. 761; 2006, c. 896; 2012, c. 135.

§ 46.2-620. Period of validity of certificate of title.

Every certificate of title issued under this chapter shall be valid for the life of the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer so long as the owner to whom it is issued shall retain legal title or right of possession of or to the vehicle. Such certificates need not be renewed except on a transfer of title or interest of the owner.

Code 1950, § 46-83; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-86; 1989, c. 727; 2002, c. 93.

§ 46.2-621. Application for certificate of title.

The owner of a vehicle, or his duly authorized attorney-in-fact, shall apply for a certificate of title in the name of the owner on appropriate forms prescribed and furnished by the Commissioner. Officers and employees of the Department are vested with the authority to administer oaths and take acknowledgments and affidavits incidental to the administration and enforcement of this section and all other laws relating to the operation of motor vehicles, the collection and refunding of taxes levied on motor fuels and sales and use tax, for which services they shall receive no compensation.

Code 1950, § 46-49; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-51; 1972, cc. 301, 378; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-621.1. Correcting errors in titling.

If the owner of a vehicle or his duly authorized attorney-in-fact make a sufficient showing by providing an affidavit stating that the vehicle identification information provided on the application for certificate of title, the certificate of origin, manufacturer's statement of origin, or title, as the case may be, forwarded to the Commissioner by any means generally allowed, was incorrect, the Commissioner may take all actions necessary to correct the error.

2005, c. 283.

§ 46.2-622. Issuance of certificate of title in names of joint owners.

When the Department receives an application for a certificate of title for a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, to be issued in the names of two natural persons, jointly with right of survivorship, the Department shall issue to its owners a certificate of title accordingly. Any certificate issued in the name of two persons may contain an expression such as "or the survivor of them," which shall be deemed sufficient to create joint ownership during the lives of the two owners, and individual ownership in the survivor. A certificate issued in the names of two persons, with their names separated only by "or," shall create joint ownership during the lives of the owners, and individual ownership in the survivor of them.

Nothing herein shall (i) prohibit the issuance of a certificate of title in the names of two or more persons as owners in common which shall be sufficient evidence of ownership of undivided interests in the vehicle; (ii) grant immunity from enforcement of any liability of any person owning the vehicle, as one of two joint owners, to the extent of his interest in the vehicle, during the lives of its owners; (iii) permit the issuance of a certificate of title in the names of two persons as tenants by the entireties; or (iv) be used by one of the joint owners as a defense to the secured party's enforcement of a security interest in the vehicle that was granted by one or both of the joint owners of the vehicle on the same date or prior to the issuance of the certificate of title.

1968, c. 188, § 46.1-68.1; 1983, c. 586; 1989, c. 727; 2002, c. 432.

§ 46.2-623. Statements in application.

A. Every application for a certificate of title shall contain (i) a statement of the applicant's title and of all liens or encumbrances on the vehicle and the names and addresses of all persons having any interest in the vehicle and the nature of every interest in the vehicle; (ii) the Social Security number, if any, of the owner and, if the application is in the name of an employer for a business vehicle, the employer's identification number assigned by the United States Internal Revenue Service; and (iii) a brief description of the vehicle to be titled or registered, including the name of the maker, the vehicle identification or serial number and, when titling or registering a new vehicle, the date of sale by the manufacturer or dealer to the person first operating the vehicle.

B. The lessor of a qualifying vehicle, as defined in § 58.1-3523, shall send a report to the Department for each such qualifying vehicle containing (i) the name and address of the lessee as it appears in the lease contract; (ii) the social security number of the lessee; and (iii) the registration number of the vehicle as described under Article 1 (§ 46.2-600 et seq.) of Chapter 6.

C. Such lessor shall send a monthly report to the Department, by the fifteenth day of the month or such later day as may be prescribed in the guidelines promulgated under § 58.1-3532, listing any changes, additions or deletions to the information provided under subsection B as of the last day of the preceding month.

D. The application for title or registration shall contain such additional information as may be required by the Department.

E. The Department may require that an applicant present proof reasonably acceptable to the Department of the accuracy of information provided on the application, including proof of identity, and may refuse to issue a certificate of title until such proof has been provided.

Code 1950, § 46-50; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-52; 1972, c. 230; 1989, c. 727; 1998, Sp. Sess. I, c. 2; 2005, c. 305; 2006, c. 896; 2008, c. 171; 2012, c. 650.

§ 46.2-624. Information required on vehicles damaged by water.

A. When a vehicle has been damaged by water to such an extent that the insurance company insuring it has paid a claim of $3,500 or more because of this water damage, the insurance company shall report the payment of such claim to the Department.

B. Upon receipt of information from an insurance company pursuant to subsection A, the Commissioner shall issue a new certificate of title and place an appropriate indicator upon such certificate in order to convey that information to the new owner of the motor vehicle.

1966, c. 550, § 46.1-64.1; 1989, c. 727; 2011, cc. 652, 678; 2019, c. 72.

§ 46.2-625. Specially constructed, reconstructed, replica, converted electric, or foreign vehicles.

If a vehicle for which the registration or a certificate of title is applied is (i) a specially constructed, reconstructed, replica, converted electric, or foreign vehicle or (ii) off-road motorcycle converted to on-road use, the fact shall be stated in the application and, in the case of any foreign vehicle registered outside the Commonwealth, the owner shall present to the Department the certificate of title and registration card or other evidence of registration as he may have. The Commissioner may require such other evidence of ownership as he may deem advisable and promulgate regulations establishing what additional evidence of ownership, if any, shall be required for titling and registration of (i) specially constructed, reconstructed, replica, converted electric, or foreign vehicles or (ii) off-road motorcycles converted to on-road use. All titles and registrations for specially constructed, reconstructed, replica, and converted electric vehicles and off-road motorcycles converted to on-road use shall be branded with the words "specially constructed," "reconstructed," "replica," "converted electric," or "off-road motorcycle converted to on-road use," as appropriate. Titles for vehicles that are both converted electric vehicles and reconstructed vehicles shall be branded with the words "reconstructed" and "converted electric."

Code 1950, § 46-51; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-53; 1970, c. 632; 1989, c. 727; 2007, cc. 325, 393; 2012, c. 177; 2015, c. 259.

§ 46.2-626. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1996, cc. 591 and 917.

§ 46.2-626.1. Motorcycle purchased by manufacturer for parts; documentation required for sale of parts.

For the purposes of this section, "certificate of origin," "line-make," "manufacturer," and "new motorcycle" have the meanings ascribed to them in § 46.2-1500.

A licensed motorcycle manufacturer shall not be required to obtain a certificate of title for a new motorcycle of a different line-make purchased by the manufacturer for the purpose of obtaining parts used in the production of another new motorcycle or an autocycle, provided such manufacturer obtains a salvage dealer license in accordance with § 46.2-1601. The manufacturer shall not be required to obtain a nonrepairable certificate for the purchased motorcycle, as required by § 46.2-1603.1, but shall stamp the words "Va. Code § 46.2-626.1: DISASSEMBLED FOR PARTS" in a minimum font size of 14 point across the face of the original manufacturer's certificate of origin. The certificate of origin shall be forwarded to the Department, which shall make a record of the disassembly of the motorcycle. The manufacturer shall retain a photocopy of the stamped certificate of origin for its records.

Any parts remaining from the purchased motorcycle and sold as parts by the manufacturer shall be accompanied by documentation of how such parts were obtained. Documentation accompanying the frame of the purchased motorcycle shall include a photocopy of the stamped manufacturer's certificate of origin and certification from the manufacturer that the original certificate of origin has been forwarded to the Department.

2013, cc. 244, 367; 2014, cc. 53, 256; 2015, c. 615.

§ 46.2-627. Fee for certificate of title; use in special fund.

The fee to be paid to the Department for the issuance of each original certificate of title shall be ten dollars. The fee to record a supplemental lien and issue a new title shall be six dollars. All fees collected under the provisions of this section shall be paid into the state treasury and set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department.

Code 1950, § 46-78; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-78; 1962, c. 368; 1964, c. 218; 1974, c. 454; 1982, c. 671; 1986, c. 553; 1987, c. 696; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-628. How certificate of title transferred.

The owner of a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer registered under this chapter, when transferring or assigning his title or interest thereto, shall fully and correctly endorse the assignment and warranty of title on the certificate of title of the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer to its purchaser, with a statement of all security interests on it, and shall deliver the certificate to the purchaser or transferee at the time of delivering the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer. Any owner who willfully fails fully and correctly to endorse the assignment and warranty of title shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 46-84; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-87; 1966, c. 558; 1972, c. 378; 1988, c. 363; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-629. Odometer reading to be reported on certificate of title, application, or power of attorney.

A. Every owner or transferor of any motor vehicle, including a dealer, shall, at the time of transfer of ownership of any motor vehicle by him, record on the certificate of title, if one is currently issued on the vehicle in the Commonwealth, and on any application for certificate of title the reading on the odometer or similar device plus any known additional distance traveled not shown by the odometer or similar device of the motor vehicle at the time of transfer. If, however, a transferor gives his power of attorney to a dealer or other person for the purpose of assigning the transferor's interest in a motor vehicle, the transferor shall conspicuously record on the power of attorney the reading on the odometer or similar device at the time of the assignment. The owner or transferor of a motor vehicle may electronically provide, in a form and format prescribed by the Commissioner, the reading on the odometer or similar device at the time of transfer if a paper certificate of title was not issued by the Department in accordance with § 46.2-603.1 and electronic provision of odometer readings is permitted under the Federal Odometer Act (49 U.S.C. § 32701 et seq.) or any federal regulations promulgated thereunder.

B. The Department shall not issue to any transferee any new certificate of title to a motor vehicle unless subsection A has been complied with.

C. It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly to record an incorrect odometer or similar device reading plus any known additional distance not shown by the odometer or similar device on any certificate of title or application for a title, or on any power of attorney as described in subsection A.

D. Notwithstanding other provisions of this section, an owner or transferor, including a dealer, of any of the following types of motor vehicles need not disclose the vehicle's odometer reading:

1. Vehicles having gross vehicle weight ratings of more than 16,000 pounds;

2. Vehicles manufactured in or before the 2010 model year that are transferred at least 10 years after January 1 of the calendar year corresponding to its designated model year and were previously exempt from recording an odometer reading on the certificate of title in another state, provided that the Department shall brand the titles of all such vehicles to indicate this exemption; and

3. Vehicles manufactured in or after the 2011 model year that are transferred at least 20 years after January 1 of the calendar year corresponding to its designated model year and were previously exempt from recording an odometer reading on the certificate of title in another state, provided that the Department shall brand the titles of all such vehicles to indicate this exemption.

E. Violation of this section shall constitute a Class 1 misdemeanor.

F. The provisions of subsections A and B shall not apply to transfers under § 46.2-633.

G. This section shall not apply to transfers or application for certificates of title of all-terrain vehicles, mopeds, or off-road motorcycles as defined in § 46.2-100.

1972, c. 851, § 46.1-89.1; 1978, c. 294; 1986, c. 490; 1989, c. 727; 2004, c. 724; 2006, c. 896; 2007, c. 225; 2012, c. 650; 2013, c. 783; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 431.

§ 46.2-630. Transfer and application for certificate of title forwarded to Department.

The transferee shall write his name and address in ink on the certificate of title and, except as provided in §§ 46.2-619 and 46.2-631, shall within thirty days forward the certificate to the Department with an application for the registration of the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer and for a certificate of title.

Code 1950, § 46-85; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-89; 1988, c. 363; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-631. When transferred certificate of title need not be forwarded.

When the transferee of a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer is a dealer who holds it for resale and operates it only for sales purposes under a dealer's license plate, the transferee shall not be required to register it nor forward the certificate of title to the Department, as provided in § 46.2-630, but the transferee, on transferring his title or interest to another person, shall notify the Department of the transfer and shall endorse and acknowledge an assignment and warranty of title on the certificate and deliver it to the person to whom the transfer is made.

Code 1950, § 46-86; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-90; 1988, c. 363; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-632. Transfer when certificate of title lost.

A. Whenever the applicant for the registration of a motor vehicle, manufactured home, trailer, or semitrailer or a new certificate of title is unable to present a certificate of title because the certificate has been lost or unlawfully detained by one in possession of it or whenever the certificate of title is otherwise not available, the Department may receive the application and investigate the circumstances of the case and may require the filing of affidavits or other information. When the Department is satisfied that the applicant is entitled to the title, it may register the motor vehicle, manufactured home, trailer, or semitrailer and issue a new registration card, license plate, or plates and certificate of title to the person entitled to it.

B. Whenever the insurance company or its agent makes application for a certificate of title to a vehicle that is not a salvage vehicle as defined in § 46.2-1600 and is unable to present a certificate of title, the Department may receive the application along with an affidavit indicating that the vehicle was acquired as the result of the claims process and describing the efforts made by the insurance company or its agent to obtain the certificate of title from the previous owner. When the Department is satisfied that the applicant is entitled to the title, it may issue a certificate of title to the person entitled to it. The Commissioner may charge a fee of $25 for the expense of processing an application under this subsection that is accompanied by an affidavit. Such fee shall be in addition to any other fees and taxes required. All fees collected under the provisions of this subsection shall be paid into the state treasury and set aside as a special fund to be used to meet the expenses of the Department.

Code 1950, § 46-88; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-92; 1989, c. 727; 2009, c. 171; 2014, c. 624.

§ 46.2-633. Transfer of title by operation of law.

A. Except as otherwise provided in § 46.2-615 in the event of the transfer by operation of law of the title or interest of an owner in and to a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer registered under the provisions of this chapter to anyone as legatee or distributee or as surviving joint owner or by an order in bankruptcy or insolvency, execution sale, sales as provided for in § 46.2-644.03, repossession on default in the performing of the terms of a lease or executory sales contract or of any written agreement ratified or incorporated in a decree or order of a court of record, or otherwise than by the voluntary act of the person whose title or interest is so transferred, the transferee or his legal representative shall apply to the Department for a certificate of title, giving the name and address of the person entitled to it, and accompany his application with the registration card and certificate of title previously issued for the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, if available, together with whatever instruments or documents of authority, or certified copies of them, are required by law to evidence or effect a transfer of title or interest in or to chattels in the case. The Department shall cancel the registration of the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer and issue a new certificate of title to the person entitled to it.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, if a title is presented from a state other than the Commonwealth, the Department shall, upon presentation of the title and a form prescribed by the Commissioner attesting to the lawful repossession of the vehicle and the intent to offer the vehicle for sale in the Commonwealth, issue a new certificate of title to the person entitled to it and request the state in which the vehicle is titled to cancel the title. Nothing in this subsection, however, shall be construed to require the presentation of a title from a state other than the Commonwealth if the vehicle is not required to be titled by the laws of that other state.

Code 1950, § 46-89; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-93; 1964, c. 142; 1968, cc. 187, 605; 1970, c. 287; 1989, c. 727; 2005, cc. 766, 849; 2008, Sp. Sess. II, c. 7; 2009, c. 664.

§ 46.2-633.1. Sale in Virginia of vehicle repossessed in another state.

Any motor vehicle dealer who purchases a vehicle titled in another state and that was repossessed may sell that vehicle in Virginia without obtaining a Virginia title for the vehicle from Virginia or the state in which the vehicle is titled, provided the motor vehicle dealer has an affidavit of repossession or similar document showing the lawful repossession, which affidavit or document would be sufficient to allow the sale of the repossessed vehicle in the state where it is titled without titling the vehicle in the name of the seller.

2009, cc. 185, 691.

§ 46.2-633.2. Transfer of title on death.

A. A motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer may include in the certificate of title a designation of a beneficiary to whom the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer shall be transferred after the death of the owner.

B. A motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer owned by one person may be titled with a designated beneficiary by applying to the Department for a certificate of title on which is stated the name of the sole owner followed by "transfer on death" or "TOD" and the name of the beneficiary.

C. A motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer owned by more than one person may be titled with a designated beneficiary by applying to the Department for a certificate of title on which is stated the names of the owners followed by "transfer on death" or "TOD" and the name of the beneficiary. Such application shall be signed by all owners of the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer. Such transfer to the designated beneficiary shall occur upon the death of the last surviving owner. Nothing herein shall limit the rights of any surviving owner as provided in this section.

D. A certificate of title with a designated beneficiary shall not be issued if (i) any owner is not a natural person or (ii) the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer is encumbered by a lien or security interest.

E. During the lifetime of the owner:

1. The beneficiary shall have no interest in the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer and the signature or consent of the beneficiary shall not be required for any transaction; and

2. The certificate of title with the designated beneficiary shall not be issued by the Department or shall be canceled if:

a. The owner files an application for a certificate of title under subsection B or C to remove or change the beneficiary;

b. The owner sells the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer and delivers the certificate of title to another person; or

c. An application for the recording of a lien or security interest has been filed with the Department for the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer prior to the death of the owner or filed within the time limits in § 46.2-639.

F. Except as provided in this section, the designated beneficiary shall not be changed or revoked by will or any other instrument, by a change in circumstances, or in any other manner.

G. A certificate of title with a designated beneficiary shall not be required to be supported by consideration and need not be delivered to the beneficiary to be effective.

H. Upon the death of the owner and application by the beneficiary, the Department shall issue a new certificate of title in accordance with § 46.2-600 for the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer to the beneficiary. The beneficiary must apply for a certificate of title upon submitting proof of the death of the owner and such other documents and information as the Department may reasonably require. If the beneficiary does not survive the owner or does not apply for a certificate of title within 120 days of the death of the owner, the beneficiary or his estate shall have no right to obtain title to the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer under this section. Upon transfer of title to the beneficiary, the Department shall cancel the registration of the deceased owner.

I. Any transfer pursuant to this section shall be subject to any lien or security interest authorized under § 46.2-644, 46.2-644.01, or 46.2-644.02.

J. Any transfer pursuant to this section is not testamentary and shall not be subject to the provisions of Title 64.2.

2013, c. 318; 2020, c. 974.

§ 46.2-634. Transfer of title when no qualification on estate.

If the holder of a certificate of title is dead and there has been no qualification on his estate, a transfer may be made by a legatee or distributee if there is presented to the Department a statement made by a legatee or distributee to the effect that there has not been and there is not expected to be a qualification on the estate and that the decedent's debts have been paid or that the proceeds from the sale of the motor vehicle will be applied against his debts. The statement shall contain the name, residence at the time of death, date of death, and the names of any other persons having an interest in the motor vehicle which is sought to be transferred and, if these persons are of legal age, they shall signify in writing their consent to the transfer of the title.

Code 1950, § 46-90; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-94; 1964, c. 574; 1972, c. 211; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-635. Surrender of certificates for vehicles to be demolished; securing new title certificates.

Every person disposing of a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer which is to be demolished shall make an assignment of title to the transferee as provided in § 46.2-628. The assigned certificate of title, when available, however, shall be delivered to the Department, accompanied by a form provided by the Commissioner, stating that the vehicle is to be demolished. On receipt of this form and the assigned title, the Commissioner shall forward to the transferee a receipt for them.

If the person, in lieu of demolishing the vehicle, sells, transfers, or operates the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, he shall first secure a certificate of title from the Department. Before issuing the new certificate of title, the Department shall inspect, or have inspected, the reconstructed vehicle.

If a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer obtained for use or resale, is subsequently demolished, the owner shall immediately surrender its certificate of title to the Department.

1968, c. 156, § 46.1-98.1; 1978, c. 605; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-636. Certificate to show security interests.

When the Department receives an application for a certificate of title to a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer showing security interests on the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, the certificate of title issued by the Department to the owner of the vehicle shall show all security interests disclosed by the application. All security interests shown on the certificate of title shall be shown in the order of their priority according to the information contained in the application.

Code 1950, § 46-69; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-69; 1966, c. 558; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-636.1. Security interests in farm tractors and special construction and forestry equipment.

A financing statement, as defined in § 8.9A-102, must be filed to perfect all security interests in farm tractors and special construction and forestry equipment, as defined in § 46.2-100. No other provisions of this chapter pertaining to security interests shall apply to these motor vehicles.

2010, c. 135.

§ 46.2-637. Security interests subsequently created.

Security interests, other than those in inventory held for sale, in motor vehicles, trailers, or semitrailers created by the voluntary act of the owner after the original issue of a certificate of title to the owner must be shown on the certificate of title. In such cases, the owner shall file an application with the Department on a form furnished for that purpose, setting forth the security interests and whatever additional information the Department may deem necessary. If satisfied that it is proper for the security interest to be recorded, when the certificate of title covering the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, is surrendered, the Department shall issue a new certificate of title, showing security interests in the order of their priority according to the date of the filing of the application. For the purpose of recording a subsequent security interest, the Commissioner may require any secured party to deliver to him the certificate of title. The new certificate shall be sent or delivered to the secured party from whom the prior certificate was obtained. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a security interest in a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer which is inventory held for sale shall be perfected only as provided in §§ 8.9A-301 through 8.9A-527.

Code 1950, § 46-70; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-70; 1966, c. 558; 1989, c. 727; 2006, c. 896.

§ 46.2-638. Certificate as notice of security interest.

A certificate of title, when issued by the Department showing a security interest, shall be adequate notice to the Commonwealth, creditors, and purchasers that a security interest in the motor vehicle exists and the recording or filing of such creation or reservation of a security interest in the county or city wherein the purchaser or debtor resides or elsewhere is not necessary and shall not be required. Motor vehicles, trailers or semitrailers, other than those which are inventory held for sale, registered or for which a certificate of title shall have been issued under this title shall not be subjected to, but shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 8.9A-301 through 8.9A-527 and § 55.1-407, nor shall recordation or filing of such security interest, except a security interest in inventory held for sale, in any other place for any other purpose, be required or have any effect.

Code 1950, § 46-71; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-71; 1966, c. 558; 1989, c. 727; 2006, c. 896; 2010, c. 135.

§ 46.2-639. Security interest may be filed within thirty days after purchase.

If application for the registration or recordation of a security interest to be placed on a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer is filed with the Department, it shall be deemed perfected as of the date of filing, and, if the date of filing is within thirty days from the date of an applicant's purchase of the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, it shall be as valid as to all persons, including the Commonwealth, as if that registration had been accomplished on the day the security interest was acquired.

Code 1950, § 46-72; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-72; 1966, c. 558; 1972, cc. 300, 408; 1989, c. 727; 2000, c. 71.

§ 46.2-640. Priority of security interests shown on certificates of title.

The security interests, except security interests in motor vehicles, trailers and semitrailers which are inventory held for sale and are perfected under §§ 8.9A-401 through 8.9A-527, shown upon such certificates of title issued by the Department pursuant to applications for same shall have priority over any other liens or security interests against such motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, however created and recorded. The foregoing provisions of this section shall not apply to liens for taxes as provided in § 58.1-3942, liens of keepers of garages to the extent given by § 46.2-644.01 and liens of mechanics for repairs to the extent given by § 46.2-644.02 if the requirements therefor exist, provided the garage keeper or mechanic furnishes the holder of any recorded lien who may request it with an itemized sworn statement of the storage charges, work done, and materials supplied for which the lien is claimed.

Code 1950, § 46-73; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-73; 1966, c. 558; 1977, c. 382; 1983, c. 397; 1984, c. 396; 1989, c. 727; 1999, c. 299; 2009, c. 664.

§ 46.2-640.1. Vehicle leases that are not sales or security interests.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in the case of motor vehicles, trailers or semi-trailers, a transaction does not create a sale or security interest merely because it provides that the rental price is permitted or required to be adjusted under the agreement either upward or downward by reference to the amount realized upon sale or other disposition of the motor vehicle or trailer.

1991, c. 536.

§ 46.2-641. Who to hold certificate of title subject to security interest.

The certificate of title of a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer shall be delivered to the person holding the security interest having first priority on the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer and retained by him until the entire amount of his security interest is fully paid by the owner. When the security interest is fully paid, the certificate of title shall be delivered to the secured party next in order of priority or, if none, then to the owner.

Code 1950, § 46-74; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-74; 1966, c. 558; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-642. Release of security interest shown on certificate of title.

When an owner secures the release of any security interest on a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer shown on its certificate of title, he may exhibit the documents evidencing the release, signed by the person or persons making the release, and the certificate of title to the Department. However, when it is impossible to secure the release from the secured party, the owner may exhibit to the Department whatever evidence may be available showing that the debt secured has been satisfied, together with a statement by the owner under oath that the debt has been paid. The Department, when satisfied as to the genuineness and regularity of the release, shall issue to the owner either a new certificate of title or an endorsement or rider showing the release of the security interest, which the Department shall attach to the outstanding certificate of title.

Code 1950, § 46-75; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-75; 1966, c. 558; 1972, c. 249; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-643. Surrender of certificate of title required when security interest paid.

It shall constitute a Class 3 misdemeanor for a secured party who holds a certificate of title as provided in this title to refuse or fail to mark satisfied and surrender it to the person legally entitled thereto within ten days after his security interest is satisfied.

Code 1950, § 46-76; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-76; 1966, c. 558; 1978, c. 605; 1989, c. 727.

§ 46.2-644. Levy of execution.

A levy made by virtue of an execution, fieri facias, or other court order, on a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer for which a certificate of title has been issued by the Department, shall constitute a lien, subsequent to security interests previously recorded by the Department and subsequent to security interests in inventory held for sale and perfected as otherwise permitted by law, when the officer making the levy reports to the Department on forms provided by the Department, that the levy has been made and that the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer levied on has been seized by him. If the lien is thereafter satisfied or should the motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer thus levied on and seized thereafter be released by the officer, he shall immediately report that fact to the Department. Any owner who, after the levy and seizure by an officer and before the officer reports the levy and seizure to the Department, shall fraudulently assign or transfer his title to or interest in a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer or cause its certificate of title to be assigned or transferred or cause a security interest to be shown on its certificate of title shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 46-77; 1958, c. 541, § 46.1-77; 1966, c. 558; 1972, c. 408; 1989, c. 727.

Article 2.1. All-Terrain Vehicle and Off-Road Motorcycle Certificates of Title

§ 46.2-644.1. Titling of all-terrain vehicles and off-road motorcycles.

A. Every owner, except a dealer licensed under § 46.2-1508, of any all-terrain vehicle or off-road motorcycle powered by a gasoline or diesel engine displacing more than 50 cubic centimeters and purchased as new on or after July 1, 2006, shall apply to the Department for a certificate of title in the name of the owner before the all-terrain vehicle or off-road motorcycle is operated anywhere in the Commonwealth.

B. Any owner of an all-terrain vehicle or off-road motorcycle not required to be titled under this section and not titled elsewhere may apply to the Department for a certificate of title. The Department shall issue the certificate upon reasonable evidence of ownership, such as a buyer's order or other document satisfactory to the Department.

C. Except as otherwise provided in this title, all-terrain vehicles and off-road motorcycles shall comply with the titling requirements of motor vehicles pursuant to Article 2 (§ 46.2-616 et seq.).

2006, c. 896; 2015, c. 615.

Article 2. Titling Vehicles

§ 46.2-644.01. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Lien of keeper of garage.

A. Every keeper of a garage and every person keeping any vehicles shall have a lien upon such vehicles for the amount that may be due him for the towing, storage, recovery, and care thereof, until such amount is paid.

B. In the case of any vehicle subject to a chattel mortgage, security agreement, deed of trust, or other instrument securing money, the keeper of the garage shall have a lien thereon for his reasonable charges for storage under this section not to exceed $500 and for alteration and repair under § 46.2-644.02 not to exceed $1,000. However, in the case of a storage lien, to obtain the priority for an amount in excess of $300, the person asserting the lien shall make a reasonable attempt to notify any secured party of record at the Department of Motor Vehicles by telephonic means and shall give written notice by certified mail, return receipt requested, to any secured party of record at the Department of Motor Vehicles within seven business days of taking possession of the vehicle. If the secured party does not, within seven business days of receipt of the notice, take or refuse redelivery to it or its designee, the lienor shall be entitled to priority for the full amount of storage charges, not to exceed $500. Notwithstanding a redelivery, the vehicle shall be subject to subsection D.

In the case of any vehicle not subject to a chattel mortgage, security agreement, deed of trust, or other instrument securing money, the keeper of the garage shall have a lien thereon for his reasonable charges for storage under this section and for alteration and repair under § 46.2-644.02 not to exceed the value of the vehicle as determined by the provisions of § 8.01-419.1.

C. In addition, any person furnishing services involving the towing and recovery of a vehicle shall have a lien for all normal costs incident thereto, if the person asserting the lien gives written notice within seven days of receipt of the vehicle by certified mail, return receipt requested, to all secured parties of record at the Department of Motor Vehicles.

D. In addition, any keeper shall be entitled to a lien against any proceeds remaining after the satisfaction of all prior security interests or liens and may retain possession of such property until such charges are paid.

E. Any lien created under this section shall not extend to any personal property that is not attached to or considered to be necessary for the proper operation of any motor vehicle, and it shall be the duty of any keeper of such personal property to return it to the owner if the owner claims the items prior to auction.

F. For the purposes of this section, in the case of a truck or combination of vehicles, the owner, or in the case of a rented or leased vehicle, the lessee of the truck or tractor truck, shall be liable for the costs of the towing, recovery, and storage of the cargo and of any trailer or semitrailer in the combination. Nothing in this subsection, however, shall bar the owner of the truck or tractor truck from subsequently seeking to recover from the owner of any trailer, semitrailer, or cargo all or any portion of these towing, recovery, and storage costs.

2009, c. 664; 2016, c. 397; 2019, c. 561.

§ 46.2-644.01. (Effective January 1, 2022) Lien of keeper of vehicles.

A. For purposes of this section, "keeper of vehicles" means a garage keeper; a person keeping any vehicles, including a self-storage facility; and a tow truck driver or towing and recovery operator furnishing services involving the towing and recovery of vehicles.

B. Every keeper of vehicles shall have a lien upon such vehicles for the amount that may be due him for the towing, storage, recovery, and care thereof, until such amount is paid.

Such lien shall be in addition to any lien under § 46.2-644.02. Any garage keeper to whom a vehicle has been delivered pursuant to § 46.2-1209, 46.2-1213, or 46.2-1215 shall, within 30 days from the date of delivery, have a lien upon such vehicle pursuant to this section, provided that action has not been taken pursuant to such sections for the sale of the vehicle.

C. In the case of any vehicle for which the title shows an existing lien, the keeper of vehicles shall have a lien upon the vehicle for his reasonable charges for storage under this section not to exceed $500; however, the keeper of vehicles shall also be entitled to a lien against any proceeds remaining after the satisfaction of all prior security interests or liens. In addition, any tow truck driver or towing and recovery operator shall have a lien for all normal costs incident to any towing and recovery services furnished for the vehicle.

In the case of any vehicle not subject to an existing lien on the title, the keeper of vehicles shall have a lien thereon for his reasonable charges for storage under this section, alone or in combination with a lien under § 46.2-644.02 not to exceed the value of the vehicle as determined by the provisions of § 8.01-419.1.

D. The keeper of vehicles, or the authorized agents of such, shall ascertain from the Department whether the certificate of title for the vehicle shows a lien in accordance with the provisions of § 46.2-644.03 within seven business days of taking possession of the vehicle. The owner or lienholder shall have 10 business days from the date of the notice sent by the Department pursuant to § 46.2-644.03 to reclaim the vehicle. The terms for such reclamation shall be the payment of the amount due to the keeper of the vehicles or other amount as agreed by the parties. If the vehicle remains unclaimed, the keeper of the vehicles may enforce the lien under the provisions of § 46.2-644.03 or relinquish the lien under the provisions of § 46.2-644.04.

For purposes of this subsection, the date of possession for a garage keeper to whom a vehicle has been delivered pursuant to § 46.2-1209, 46.2-1213, or 46.2-1215 shall be the date such lien attaches, and the date of possession for a self-storage facility shall be the date on which the facility owner learns that a leased space subject to default contains a motor vehicle.

E. Any lien created under this section shall not extend to any personal property that is not attached to or considered to be necessary for the proper operation of any motor vehicle, and it shall be the duty of any keeper of vehicles to permit the owner to access the vehicle in order to recover his personal property, provided the owner claims and retrieves the items at least two business days prior to the auction date. The keeper of vehicles may dispose of any unclaimed personal property.

F. For the purposes of this section, in the case of a truck or combination of vehicles, the owner, or in the case of a rented or leased vehicle, the lessee of the truck or tractor truck, shall be liable for the costs of the towing, recovery, and storage of the cargo and of any trailer or semitrailer in the combination. Nothing in this subsection, however, shall bar the owner of the truck or tractor truck from subsequently seeking to recover from the owner of any trailer, semitrailer, or cargo all or any portion of these towing, recovery, and storage costs.

2009, c. 664; 2016, c. 397; 2019, c. 561; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 374.

Article 2.1. All-Terrain Vehicle and Off-Road Motorcycle Certificates of Title

§ 46.2-644.2. Department's records; fees; exemption.

The Department shall maintain a record of any certificate of title it issued under this article. Fees to be paid to the Department for issuance of such certificates of title shall be the same as those imposed for the titling of motor vehicles pursuant to § 46.2-627.

Any all-terrain vehicle or off-road motorcycle purchased and used by a nonprofit volunteer emergency medical services agency shall be exempt from fees imposed under this section.

2006, c. 896; 2015, cc. 502, 503.

Article 2. Titling Vehicles

§ 46.2-644.02. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Lien of mechanic for repairs.

Every mechanic who shall alter or repair any article of personal property at the request of the owner of such property shall have a lien thereon for his just and reasonable charges therefor and may retain possession of such property until such charges are paid.

Every mechanic who shall make necessary alterations or repairs on any article of personal property which from its character requires the making of ordinary repairs thereto as a reasonable incident to its reasonable and customary use, at the request of any person legally in possession thereof under a reservation of title contract, chattel mortgage, deed of trust, or other instrument securing money, the person so in possession having authority to use such property, shall have a lien thereon for his just and reasonable charges therefor to the extent of $1,000 or, if the property is a motor vehicle and is not subject to a chattel mortgage, security agreement, deed of trust, or other instrument securing money, an amount not to exceed the value of the vehicle as determined by the provisions of § 8.01-419.1. In addition, such mechanic shall be entitled to a lien against the proceeds, if any, remaining after the satisfaction of all prior security interests or liens and may retain possession of such property until such charges are paid. In any action to enforce the lien hereby given all persons having an interest in the property sought to be subjected shall be made parties defendant.

If the owner of the property held by the mechanic shall desire to obtain possession thereof, he shall make the mechanic defendant in proceeding in the county or municipal court to recover the property.

The owner may give a bond payable to the court, in a penalty of the amount equal to the lien claimed by the mechanic and court costs, with security to be approved by the clerk, and conditioned for the performance of the final judgment of the court on the trial of the proceeding, and with a further condition to the effect that, if upon the hearing, the judgment of the court be that the lien of the mechanic on such property, or any part thereof, be enforced, judgment may thereupon be entered against the obligors on such bond for the amount due the mechanic and court costs, if assessed against the owner, without further or other proceedings against them thereon. Upon giving of the bond, the property shall be delivered to the owner.

2009, c. 664; 2016, c. 397; 2019, c. 561.

§ 46.2-644.02. (Effective January 1, 2022) Lien of mechanic for repairs.

A. Every mechanic who shall alter or repair any vehicle at the request of the owner or authorized person in possession of such vehicle shall have a lien thereon for his just and reasonable charges therefor and may retain possession of such property until such charges are paid. Such lien shall be in addition to any lien under § 46.2-644.01.

B. No lien under this section shall exceed $1,000 for any vehicle for which the title shows an existing lien. However, the mechanic shall be entitled to a lien against the proceeds, if any, remaining after the satisfaction of all prior security interests or liens.

For any vehicle not subject to an existing lien on the title, no lien under this section, alone or in combination with a lien under § 46.2-644.01, shall exceed the value of the vehicle as determined by the provisions of § 8.01-419.1.

C. The mechanic or his authorized agent shall ascertain from the Department whether the certificate of title for the vehicle shows a lien thereon in accordance with the provisions of § 46.2-644.03 within seven business days after the due date of an invoice for the amount due for the alteration or repair. The mechanic may then enforce his lien under the provisions of § 46.2-644.03 after such invoice goes unpaid for 10 days after it is due or relinquish his lien under the provisions of § 46.2-644.04.

D. If the owner of the vehicle held by the mechanic shall desire to obtain possession thereof, he shall make the mechanic defendant in proceeding in the county or municipal court to recover the vehicle.

The owner may give a bond payable to the court, in a penalty of the amount equal to the lien claimed by the mechanic and court costs, with security to be approved by the clerk, and conditioned for the performance of the final judgment of